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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids,[4] a comet and the Sun. Satellites are used for many purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit. A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit. Usually, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a submarine or a mobile maritime platform, or aboard a plane (see air launch to orbit). Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite
Satellite
subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early conceptions 1.2 Artificial satellites

2 Space Surveillance Network 3 Non-military satellite services

3.1 Fixed satellite services 3.2 Mobile satellite systems 3.3 Scientific research satellites (commercial and noncommercial)

4 Types 5 Orbit
Orbit
types

5.1 Centric classifications 5.2 Altitude classifications 5.3 Inclination
Inclination
classifications 5.4 Eccentricity classifications 5.5 Synchronous classifications 5.6 Special
Special
classifications 5.7 Pseudo-orbit classifications

6 Satellite
Satellite
subsystems

6.1 Spacecraft
Spacecraft
bus or service module

6.1.1 Structural subsystem 6.1.2 Telemetry
Telemetry
subsystem 6.1.3 Power subsystem 6.1.4 Thermal control subsystem 6.1.5 Attitude and orbit control subsystem

6.2 Communication payload

7 End of life 8 Launch-capable countries

8.1 Attempted first launches 8.2 Other notes 8.3 Launch capable private entities

9 First satellites of countries

9.1 Attempted first satellites 9.2 Planned first satellites

10 Attacks on satellites

10.1 Jamming

11 Satellite
Satellite
services 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Early conceptions[edit] "Newton's cannonball", presented as a "thought experiment" in A Treatise of the System of the World, by Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
was the first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite. The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon.[5][6] The idea surfaced again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Fortune
The Begum's Fortune
(1879).

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
(1857–1935) published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices (in Russian: Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами), which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, and that a multi-stage rocket fuelled by liquid propellants could achieve this. In 1928, Herman Potočnik
Herman Potočnik
(1892–1929) published his sole book, The Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket
Rocket
Motor (German: Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-Motor). He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments.

Animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium Earth orbit.

In a 1945 Wireless World
Wireless World
article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke
(1917–2008) described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.[7] He suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet. The US military studied the idea of what was referred to as the "earth satellite vehicle" when Secretary of Defense James Forrestal
James Forrestal
made a public announcement on 29 December 1948, that his office was coordinating that project between the various services.[8] Artificial satellites[edit]

Sputnik 1: The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.

The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev
Sergei Korolev
as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race
Space Race
between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States. Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
in the United States
United States
and ignited the so-called Space Race
Space Race
within the Cold War. Sputnik 2
Sputnik 2
was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika.[9] In May, 1946, Project RAND
Project RAND
had released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century."[10] The United States
United States
had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States
United States
Navy. The United States
United States
Air Force's Project RAND
Project RAND
eventually released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program."[11] In February 1954 Project RAND
Project RAND
released "Scientific Uses for a Satellite
Satellite
Vehicle," written by R.R. Carhart.[12] This expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with "The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite," by H.K. Kallmann and W.W. Kellogg.[13] In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year (1957–58), the White House
White House
announced on 29 July 1955 that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957. Following pressure by the American Rocket
Rocket
Society, the National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Army and Navy were working on Project Orbiter, two competing programs: the army's which involved using a Jupiter
Jupiter
C rocket, and the civilian/Navy Vanguard Rocket, to launch a satellite. At first, they failed: initial preference was given to the Vanguard program, whose first attempt at orbiting a satellite resulted in the explosion of the launch vehicle on national television. But finally, three months after Sputnik 2, the project succeeded; Explorer 1
Explorer 1
became the United States' first artificial satellite on 31 January 1958.[14] In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the Air Force used resources of the United States
United States
Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-orbiting satellites.[15] Early satellites were constructed as "one-off" designs. With growth in geosynchronous (GEO) satellite communication, multiple satellites began to be built on single model platforms called satellite buses. The first standardized satellite bus design was the HS-333 GEO commsat, launched in 1972. Currently the largest artificial satellite ever is the International Space Station.

1U CubeSat
CubeSat
ESTCube-1, developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu, carries out a tether deployment experiment in low Earth orbit.

Space Surveillance Network[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Space Surveillance Network The United States Space Surveillance Network
United States Space Surveillance Network
(SSN), a division of the United States
United States
Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
opened the Space Age
Space Age
with the launch of Sputnik I. Since then, the SSN has tracked more than 26,000 objects. The SSN currently tracks more than 8,000 man-made orbiting objects. The rest have re-entered Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated, or survived re-entry and impacted the Earth. The SSN tracks objects that are 10 centimeters in diameter or larger; those now orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing several tons to pieces of spent rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds. About seven percent are operational satellites (i.e. ~560 satellites), the rest are space debris.[16] The United States Strategic Command
United States Strategic Command
is primarily interested in the active satellites, but also tracks space debris which upon reentry might otherwise be mistaken for incoming missiles. Non-military satellite services[edit] There are three basic categories of non-military satellite services:[17] Fixed satellite services[edit] Fixed satellite services handle hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmission tasks across all countries and continents between certain points on the Earth's surface. Mobile satellite systems[edit] Mobile satellite systems help connect remote regions, vehicles, ships, people and aircraft to other parts of the world and/or other mobile or stationary communications units, in addition to serving as navigation systems. Scientific research satellites (commercial and noncommercial)[edit] Scientific research satellites provide meteorological information, land survey data (e.g. remote sensing), Amateur (HAM) Radio, and other different scientific research applications such as earth science, marine science, and atmospheric research. Types[edit]

Astronomical satellites are satellites used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. Biosatellites are satellites designed to carry living organisms, generally for scientific experimentation. Communications satellites are satellites stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites typically use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or Low Earth orbits. Earth observation satellites are satellites intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.) Navigational satellites are satellites which use radio time signals transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. The relatively clear line of sight between the satellites and receivers on the ground, combined with ever-improving electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to measure location to accuracies on the order of a few meters in real time. "Killer Satellites" are satellites that are designed to destroy enemy warheads, satellites, and other space assets. Crewed spacecraft (spaceships) are large satellites able to put humans into (and beyond) an orbit, and return them to Earth. Spacecraft including spaceplanes of reusable systems have major propulsion or landing facilities. They can be used as transport to and from the orbital stations. Miniaturized satellites
Miniaturized satellites
are satellites of unusually low masses and small sizes.[18] New classifications are used to categorize these satellites: minisatellite (500–100 kg), microsatellite (below 100 kg), nanosatellite (below 10 kg).[citation needed] Reconnaissance satellites are Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite
or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. Very little is known about the full power of these satellites, as governments who operate them usually keep information pertaining to their reconnaissance satellites classified. Recovery satellites are satellites that provide a recovery of reconnaissance, biological, space-production and other payloads from orbit to Earth.

International Space Station

Space stations are artificial orbital structures that are designed for human beings to live on in outer space. A space station is distinguished from other crewed spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years. Tether satellites are satellites which are connected to another satellite by a thin cable called a tether. Weather satellites are primarily used to monitor Earth's weather and climate.[19]

Orbit
Orbit
types[edit] Main article: List of orbits

Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS).

The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit. By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 1,459[20] artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, inclination and eccentricity. The commonly used altitude classifications of geocentric orbit are Low Earth orbit (LEO), Medium Earth orbit
Medium Earth orbit
(MEO) and High Earth orbit (HEO). Low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
is any orbit below 2,000 km. Medium Earth orbit is any orbit between 2,000 and 35,786 km. High Earth orbit
High Earth orbit
is any orbit higher than 35,786 km. Centric classifications[edit]

Geocentric orbit: An orbit around the planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. Currently there are approximately 1,459[20] artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Heliocentric orbit: An orbit around the Sun. In our Solar System, all planets, comets, and asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris. Moons by contrast are not in a heliocentric orbit but rather orbit their parent planet. Areocentric orbit: An orbit around the planet Mars, such as by moons or artificial satellites.

The general structure of a satellite is that it is connected to the earth stations that are present on the ground and connected through terrestrial links. Altitude classifications[edit]

Low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
(LEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 180 km - 2,000 km (1,200 mi) Medium Earth orbit
Medium Earth orbit
(MEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 2,000 km (1,200 mi) - 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Also known as an intermediate circular orbit. Geosynchronous orbit
Geosynchronous orbit
(GEO): Geocentric circular orbit with an altitude of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi). The period of the orbit equals one sidereal day, coinciding with the rotation period of the Earth. The speed is approximately 3,000 metres per second (9,800 ft/s). High Earth orbit
High Earth orbit
(HEO): Geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km (22,236 mi).

Orbital Altitudes of several significant satellites of earth.

Inclination
Inclination
classifications[edit]

Inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not zero degrees.

Polar orbit: An orbit that passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet on each revolution. Therefore, it has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees. Polar sun synchronous orbit: A nearly polar orbit that passes the equator at the same local time on every pass. Useful for image taking satellites because shadows will be nearly the same on every pass.

Eccentricity classifications[edit]

Circular orbit: An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle.

Hohmann transfer orbit: An orbit that moves a spacecraft from one approximately circular orbit, usually the orbit of a planet, to another, using two engine impulses. The perihelion of the transfer orbit is at the same distance from the Sun
Sun
as the radius of one planet's orbit, and the aphelion is at the other. The two rocket burns change the spacecraft's path from one circular orbit to the transfer orbit, and later to the other circular orbit. This maneuver was named after Walter Hohmann.

Elliptic orbit: An orbit with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 whose orbit traces the path of an ellipse.

Geosynchronous
Geosynchronous
transfer orbit: An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
(LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geosynchronous orbit. Geostationary transfer orbit: An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
(LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geostationary orbit. Molniya orbit: A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63.4° and orbital period of half of a sidereal day (roughly 12 hours). Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet (specifically Russia
Russia
and the United States). Tundra orbit: A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63.4° and orbital period of one sidereal day (roughly 24 hours). Such a satellite spends most of its time over a single designated area of the planet.

Synchronous classifications[edit]

Synchronous orbit: An orbit where the satellite has an orbital period equal to the average rotational period (earth's is: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.091 seconds) of the body being orbited and in the same direction of rotation as that body. To a ground observer such a satellite would trace an analemma (figure 8) in the sky. Semi-synchronous orbit (SSO): An orbit with an altitude of approximately 20,200 km (12,600 mi) and an orbital period equal to one-half of the average rotational period (Earth's is approximately 12 hours) of the body being orbited Geosynchronous orbit
Geosynchronous orbit
(GSO): Orbits with an altitude of approximately 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Such a satellite would trace an analemma (figure 8) in the sky.

Geostationary orbit
Geostationary orbit
(GEO): A geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of zero. To an observer on the ground this satellite would appear as a fixed point in the sky.[21]

Clarke orbit: Another name for a geostationary orbit. Named after scientist and writer Arthur C. Clarke.

Supersynchronous orbit: A disposal / storage orbit above GSO/GEO. Satellites will drift west. Also a synonym for Disposal orbit. Subsynchronous orbit: A drift orbit close to but below GSO/GEO. Satellites will drift east. Graveyard orbit: An orbit a few hundred kilometers above geosynchronous that satellites are moved into at the end of their operation.

Disposal orbit: A synonym for graveyard orbit. Junk orbit: A synonym for disposal orbit.

Areosynchronous orbit: A synchronous orbit around the planet Mars
Mars
with an orbital period equal in length to Mars' sidereal day, 24.6229 hours. Areostationary orbit (ASO): A circular areosynchronous orbit on the equatorial plane and about 17000 km (10557 miles) above the surface. To an observer on the ground this satellite would appear as a fixed point in the sky. Heliosynchronous orbit: A heliocentric orbit about the Sun
Sun
where the satellite's orbital period matches the Sun's period of rotation. These orbits occur at a radius of 24,360 Gm (0.1628 AU) around the Sun, a little less than half of the orbital radius of Mercury.

Special
Special
classifications[edit]

Sun-synchronous orbit: An orbit which combines altitude and inclination in such a way that the satellite passes over any given point of the planets' surface at the same local solar time. Such an orbit can place a satellite in constant sunlight and is useful for imaging, spy, and weather satellites. Moon
Moon
orbit: The orbital characteristics of Earth's Moon. Average altitude of 384,403 kilometers (238,857 mi), elliptical–inclined orbit.

Pseudo-orbit classifications[edit]

Horseshoe orbit: An orbit that appears to a ground observer to be orbiting a certain planet but is actually in co-orbit with the planet. See asteroids 3753 (Cruithne) and 2002 AA29. Exo-orbit: A maneuver where a spacecraft approaches the height of orbit but lacks the velocity to sustain it.

Suborbital spaceflight: A synonym for exo-orbit.

Lunar transfer orbit
Lunar transfer orbit
(LTO) Prograde orbit: An orbit with an inclination of less than 90°. Or rather, an orbit that is in the same direction as the rotation of the primary. Retrograde orbit: An orbit with an inclination of more than 90°. Or rather, an orbit counter to the direction of rotation of the planet. Apart from those in sun-synchronous orbit, few satellites are launched into retrograde orbit because the quantity of fuel required to launch them is much greater than for a prograde orbit. This is because when the rocket starts out on the ground, it already has an eastward component of velocity equal to the rotational velocity of the planet at its launch latitude. Halo orbit
Halo orbit
and Lissajous orbit: Orbits "around" Lagrangian points.

Satellite
Satellite
subsystems[edit] The satellite's functional versatility is imbedded within its technical components and its operations characteristics. Looking at the "anatomy" of a typical satellite, one discovers two modules.[17] Note that some novel architectural concepts such as Fractionated spacecraft somewhat upset this taxonomy. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
bus or service module[edit] The bus module consists of the following subsystems: Structural subsystem[edit] The structural subsystem provides the mechanical base structure with adequate stiffness to withstand stress and vibrations experienced during launch, maintain structural integrity and stability while on station in orbit, and shields the satellite from extreme temperature changes and micro-meteorite damage. Telemetry
Telemetry
subsystem[edit] The telemetry subsystem (aka Command and Data Handling, C&DH) monitors the on-board equipment operations, transmits equipment operation data to the earth control station, and receives the earth control station's commands to perform equipment operation adjustments. Power subsystem[edit] The power subsystem consists of solar panels to convert solar energy into electrical power, regulation and distribution functions, and batteries that store power and supply the satellite when it passes into the Earth's shadow. Nuclear power sources (Radioisotope thermoelectric generator) have also been used in several successful satellite programs including the Nimbus program
Nimbus program
(1964–1978).[22] Thermal control subsystem[edit] Main article: Spacecraft
Spacecraft
thermal control The thermal control subsystem helps protect electronic equipment from extreme temperatures due to intense sunlight or the lack of sun exposure on different sides of the satellite's body (e.g. optical solar reflector) Attitude and orbit control subsystem[edit] Main articles: Attitude control
Attitude control
and Spacecraft
Spacecraft
propulsion The attitude and orbit control subsystem consists of sensors to measure vehicle orientation, control laws embedded in the flight software, and actuators (reaction wheels, thrusters). These apply the torques and forces needed to re-orient the vehicle to a desired attitude, keep the satellite in the correct orbital position, and keep antennas pointed in the right directions. Communication payload[edit] The second major module is the communication payload, which is made up of transponders. A transponder is capable of :

Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth satellite transmission stations (antennas). Amplifying received radio signals Sorting the input signals and directing the output signals through input/output signal multiplexers to the proper downlink antennas for retransmission to earth satellite receiving stations (antennas).

End of life[edit] When satellites reach the end of their mission (this normally occurs within 3 or 4 years after launch), satellite operators have the option of de-orbiting the satellite, leaving the satellite in its current orbit or moving the satellite to a graveyard orbit. Historically, due to budgetary constraints at the beginning of satellite missions, satellites were rarely designed to be de-orbited. One example of this practice is the satellite Vanguard 1. Launched in 1958, Vanguard 1, the 4th manmade satellite put in Geocentric orbit, was still in orbit as of March 2015[update], as well as the upper stage of its launch rocket.[23][24] Instead of being de-orbited, most satellites are either left in their current orbit or moved to a graveyard orbit.[25] As of 2002, the FCC requires all geostationary satellites to commit to moving to a graveyard orbit at the end of their operational life prior to launch.[26] In cases of uncontrolled de-orbiting, the major variable is the solar flux, and the minor variables the components and form factors of the satellite itself, and the gravitational perturbations generated by the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
(as well as those exercised by large mountain ranges, whether above or below sea level). The nominal breakup altitude due to aerodynamic forces and temperatures is 78 km, with a range between 72 and 84 km. Solar panels, however, are destroyed before any other component at altitudes between 90 and 95 km.[27] Launch-capable countries[edit] Main article: Timeline of first orbital launches by nationality This list includes countries with an independent capability to place satellites in orbit, including production of the necessary launch vehicle. Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites but are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services. This list does not consider those numerous countries, but only lists those capable of launching satellites indigenously, and the date this capability was first demonstrated. The list includes the European Space Agency, a multi-national state organization, but does not include private consortiums.

First launch by country

Order Country Date of first launch Rocket Satellite(s)

1  Soviet Union 4 October 1957 Sputnik-PS Sputnik 1

2  United States 1 February 1958 Juno I Explorer 1

3  France 26 November 1965 Diamant-A Astérix

4  Japan 11 February 1970 Lambda-4S Ohsumi

5  China 24 April 1970 Long March 1 Dong Fang Hong I

6  United Kingdom 28 October 1971 Black Arrow Prospero

7  India 18 July 1980 SLV Rohini D1

8  Israel 19 September 1988 Shavit Ofeq
Ofeq
1

- [1]  Russia 21 January 1992 Soyuz-U Kosmos 2175

- [1]  Ukraine 13 July 1992 Tsyklon-3 Strela

9  Iran 2 February 2009 Safir-1 Omid

10  North Korea 12 December 2012 Unha-3 Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
Unit 2

11  New Zealand 21 January 2018 Electron Dove Pioneer, Lemur-2
Lemur-2
(x2), Humanity Star

Attempted first launches[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)

The United States
United States
tried in 1957 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1958. Japan
Japan
tried four times in 1966–1969 to launch a satellite with its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1970. China
China
tried in 1969 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1970. India, after launching its first national satellite using a foreign launcher in 1975, tried in 1979 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before succeeding in 1980. Iraq
Iraq
have claimed an orbital launch of a warhead in 1989, but this claim was later disproved.[31] Brazil, after launching its first national satellite using a foreign launcher in 1985, tried to launch a satellite using its own VLS 1 launcher three times in 1997, 1999, and 2003, but all attempts were unsuccessful. North Korea
North Korea
claimed a launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2
satellites in 1998 and 2009, but U.S., Russian and other officials and weapons experts later reported that the rockets failed to send a satellite into orbit, if that was the goal. The United States, Japan
Japan
and South Korea
South Korea
believe this was actually a ballistic missile test, which was a claim also made after North Korea's 1998 satellite launch, and later rejected.[by whom?] The first (April 2012) launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
was unsuccessful, a fact publicly recognized by the DPRK. However, the December 2012 launch of the "second version" of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
was successful, putting the DPRK's first confirmed satellite into orbit. South Korea
South Korea
(Korea Aerospace Research Institute), after launching their first national satellite by foreign launcher in 1992, unsuccessfully tried to launch its own launcher, the KSLV (Naro)-1, (created with the assistance of Russia) in 2009 and 2010 until success was achieved in 2013 by Naro-3. The First European multi-national state organization ELDO tried to make the orbital launches at Europa I and Europa II rockets in 1968–1970 and 1971 but stopped operation after failures.

Other notes[edit]

^ Russia
Russia
and the Ukraine
Ukraine
were parts of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and thus inherited their launch capability without the need to develop it indigenously. Through the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
they are also on the number one position in this list of accomplishments. France, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine
Ukraine
launched their first satellites by own launchers from foreign spaceports. Some countries such as South Africa, Spain, Italy,[citation needed] Germany, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Egypt
Egypt
and private companies such as OTRAG, have developed their own launchers, but have not had a successful launch. Only twelve, countries from the list below (USSR, USA, France, Japan, China, UK, India, Russia, Ukraine, Israel, Iran
Iran
and North Korea) and one regional organization (the European Space Agency, ESA) have independently launched satellites on their own indigenously developed launch vehicles. Several other countries, including Brazil, Argentina, Pakistan, Romania, Taiwan, Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia, Turkey
Turkey
and Switzerland
Switzerland
are at various stages of development of their own small-scale launcher capabilities.

Launch capable private entities[edit]

Private firm Orbital Sciences Corporation, with launches since 1982, continues very successful launches of its Minotaur, Pegasus, Taurus and Antares rocket programs. On 28 September 2008, late comer and private aerospace firm SpaceX successfully launched its Falcon 1 rocket into orbit. This marked the first time that a privately built liquid-fueled booster was able to reach orbit.[32] The rocket carried a prism shaped 1.5 m (5 ft) long payload mass simulator that was set into orbit. The dummy satellite, known as Ratsat, will remain in orbit for between five and ten years before burning up in the atmosphere.[32]

A few other private companies are capable of sub-orbital launches. First satellites of countries[edit] Main article: Timeline of first satellites by country

First satellites of countries including those launched indigenously or with the help of others[33]

Country Year of first launch First satellite Payloads in orbit as of April 2016[34][needs update]

 Soviet Union ( Russia) 1957 (1992) Sputnik 1 (Kosmos 2175) 1457

 United States 1958 Explorer 1 1252

 United Kingdom 1962 Ariel 1 0040

 Canada 1962 Alouette 1 0043

 Italy 1964 San Marco 1 0022

 France 1965 Astérix 0060

 Australia 1967 WRESAT 0014

 Germany 1969 Azur 0049

 Japan 1970 Ohsumi 0153

 China 1970 Dong Fang Hong I 0210

 Netherlands 1974 ANS 0005

 Spain 1974 Intasat 0009

 India 1975 Aryabhata 00173

 Indonesia 1976 Palapa A1 0013

 Czechoslovakia 1978 Magion 1 0005

 Bulgaria 1981 Intercosmos Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1300 0001

 Saudi Arabia 1985 Arabsat-1A 0012

 Brazil 1985 Brasilsat-A1 0015

 Mexico 1985 Morelos 1 0009

 Sweden 1986 Viking 0011

 Israel 1988 Ofeq
Ofeq
1 00011

 Luxembourg 1988 Astra 1A 005

 Argentina 1990 Lusat[35] 009

 Hong Kong 1990 AsiaSat 1 0009

 Pakistan 1990 Badr-1 0003

 South Korea 1992 Kitsat A 0011

 Portugal 1993 PoSAT-1 0001

 Thailand 1993 Thaicom 1 0007

 Turkey 1994 Turksat 1B 0008

 Czech Republic 1995 Magion 4 0005

 Ukraine 1995 Sich-1 0006

 Malaysia 1996 MEASAT 0006

 Norway 1997 Thor 2 9

 Philippines 1997 Mabuhay 1 0002

 Egypt 1998 Nilesat 101 0004

 Chile 1998 FASat-Bravo 0002

 Singapore 1998 ST-1[36][37] 0003

 Taiwan 1999 ROCSAT-1 0008

 Denmark 1999 Ørsted 0004

 South Africa 1999 SUNSAT 0002

 United Arab Emirates 2000 Thuraya
Thuraya
1 0006

 Morocco 2001 Maroc-Tubsat 0001

 Tonga[38] 2002 Esiafi 1 (former Comstar D4) 1

 Algeria 2002 Alsat 1 0001

 Greece 2003 Hellas Sat 2 0002

 Cyprus 2003 Hellas Sat 2 0002

 Nigeria 2003 Nigeriasat 1 0004

 Iran 2005 Sina-1 0001

 Kazakhstan 2006 KazSat 1 0002

 Colombia 2007 Libertad 1 0001

 Mauritius 2007 Rascom-QAF 1 0002

 Vietnam 2008 Vinasat-1 0003

 Venezuela 2008 Venesat-1 0002

  Switzerland 2009 SwissCube-1[39] 0002

 Isle of Man 2011 ViaSat-1 0001

 Poland[40] 2012 PW-Sat 00002

 Hungary 2012 MaSat-1 0001

 Romania 2012 Goliat[41] 0001

 Belarus 2012 BKA (BelKA-2)[42] 2

 North Korea 2012 Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3
Unit 2 1

 Azerbaijan 2013 Azerspace[43] 1

 Austria 2013 TUGSAT-1/UniBRITE[44][45] 2

 Bermuda[46] 2013 Bermudasat 1 (former EchoStar VI) 1

 Ecuador 2013 NEE-01 Pegaso 1

 Estonia 2013 ESTCube-1 1

 Jersey 2013 O3b-1, -2, -3, -4 4

 Qatar 2013 Es'hailSat1 1

 Peru 2013 PUCPSAT-1[47] 1

 Bolivia 2013 TKSat-1 1

 Lithuania 2014 LituanicaSAT-1
LituanicaSAT-1
and LitSat-1 2

 Belgium 2014 QB50P1 and QB50P2 2

 Uruguay 2014 Antelsat 1

 Iraq 2014 Tigrisat[48] 1

 Turkmenistan 2015 TurkmenAlem52E/MonacoSAT 1

 Laos 2015 Laosat-1 1

 Finland 2017 Aalto-2 1

 Bangladesh 2017 BRAC Onnesha 1

 Ghana 2017 GhanaSat-1[49] 1

 Mongolia 2017 Mazaalai 1

 Latvia 2017 Venta-1 1

 Slovakia 2017 skCUBE 1

Asgardia 2017 Asgardia-1 1

 Angola 2017 AngoSat 1 1

 New Zealand 2018 Humanity Star 1

  orbital launch and satellite operation   satellite operation, launched by foreign supplier   satellite in development   orbital launch project at advanced stage or indigenous ballistic missiles deployed

While Canada
Canada
was the third country to build a satellite which was launched into space,[50] it was launched aboard an American rocket from an American spaceport. The same goes for Australia, who launched first satellite involved a donated U.S. Redstone rocket and American support staff as well as a joint launch facility with the United Kingdom.[51] The first Italian satellite San Marco 1
San Marco 1
launched on 15 December 1964 on a U.S. Scout rocket
Scout rocket
from Wallops Island
Wallops Island
(Virginia, United States) with an Italian launch team trained by NASA.[52] By similar occasions, almost all further first national satellites was launched by foreign rockets. Attempted first satellites[edit]

  United States
United States
tried unsuccessfully to launch its first satellite in 1957; they were successful in 1958.   China
China
tried unsuccessfully to launch its first satellite in 1969; they were successful in 1970.   Iraq
Iraq
under Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
fulfilled in 1989 an unconfirmed launch of warhead on orbit by developed Iraqi vehicle that intended to put later the 75 kg first national satellite Al-Ta’ir, also developed.[53][54]   Chile
Chile
tried unsuccessfully in 1995 to launch its first satellite FASat-Alfa by foreign rocket; in 1998 they were successful.†   North Korea
North Korea
has tried in 1998, 2009, 2012 to launch satellites, first successful launch on 12 December 2012.[55]   Libya
Libya
since 1996 developed its own national Libsat satellite project with the goal of providing telecommunication and remote sensing services[56] that was postponed after the fall of Gaddafi.   Belarus
Belarus
tried unsuccessfully in 2006 to launch its first satellite BelKA by foreign rocket.†

†-note: Both Chile
Chile
and Belarus
Belarus
used Russian companies as principal contractors to build their satellites, they used Russian-Ukrainian manufactured rockets and launched either from Russia
Russia
or Kazakhstan.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Planned first satellites[edit]

  Afghanistan
Afghanistan
announced in April 2012 that it is planning to launch its first communications satellite to the orbital slot it has been awarded. The satellite Afghansat 1 was expected to be obtained by a Eutelsat
Eutelsat
commercial company in 2014.[57][58]   Armenia
Armenia
in 2012 founded Armcosmos company[59] and announced an intention to have the first telecommunication satellite ArmSat. The investments estimates as $250 million and country selecting the contractor for building within 4 years the satellite amongst Russia, China
China
and Canada[60][61][62]  Cambodia's Royal Group plans to purchase for $250–350 million and launch in the beginning of 2013 the telecommunication satellite.[63]  Cayman Islands's Global IP Cayman private company plans to launch GiSAT-1 geostationary communications satellite in 2018.   Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
ordered at November 2012 in China
China
(Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC)) the first telecommunication satellite CongoSat-1 which will be built on DFH-4 satellite bus platform and will be launched in China
China
till the end of 2015.[64]   Croatia
Croatia
has a goal to construct a satellite by 2013–2014. Launch into Earth orbit would be done by a foreign provider.[65]  Ethiopian Space Science Society[66] planning the QB50-family research CubeSat
CubeSat
ET-SAT by help of Belgian Von Karman Institute till 2015[67] and the small (20–25 kg) Earth observation and remote sensing satellite Ethosat 1 by help of Finnish Space Technology and Science Group till 2019.[68]  Ireland's team of Dublin Institute of Technology
Dublin Institute of Technology
intends to launch the first Irish satellite within European University program CubeSat
CubeSat
QB50.[69]  Jordan's first satellite to be the private amateur pocketqube SunewnewSat.[70][71][72]  Kenyan University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi
has plans to create the microsatellite KenyaSat by help of UK's University of Surrey.[73]  Moldova's first remote sensing satellite plans to start in 2013 by Space centre at national Technical University.[74]   Myanmar
Myanmar
plans to purchase for $200 million the own telecommunication satellite.[75]     Nepal
Nepal
stated that planning to launch of own telecommunication satellite before 2015 by help of India
India
or China.[76][77][78]   Nicaragua
Nicaragua
ordered for $254 million at November 2013 in China
China
the first telecommunication satellite Nicasat-1 (to be built at DFH-4 satellite bus platform by CAST and CGWIC), that planning to launch in China
China
at 2016.[79]   Paraguay
Paraguay
under new Aaepa airspace agency plans first Eart observation satellite.[80][81]  Serbia's first satellite Tesla-1 was designed, developed and assembled by nongovermental organisations in 2009 but still remains unlaunched.  Slovenia's Earth observation microsatellite for the Slovenian Centre of Excellence for Space Sciences and Technologies (Space-SI) now under development for $2 million since 2010 by University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies – Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS – SFL) and planned to launch in 2015–2016.[82][83]   Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
has a goal to construct two satellites beside of rent the national SupremeSAT
SupremeSAT
payload in Chinese satellites. Sri Lankan Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Regulatory Commission has signed an agreement with Surrey Satellite
Satellite
Technology Ltd to get relevant help and resources. Launch into Earth orbit would be done by a foreign provider.[84][85]  Syrian Space Research Center developing CubeSat-like small first national satellite since 2008.[86]   Tunisia
Tunisia
is developing its first satellite, ERPSat01. Consisting of a CubeSat
CubeSat
of 1 kg mass, it will be developed by the Sfax School of Engineering. ERPSat satellite is planned to be launched into orbit in 2013.[87]  Uzbekistan's State Space Research Agency (UzbekCosmos) announced in 2001 about intention of launch in 2002 first remote sensing satellite.[88] Later in 2004 was stated that two satellites (remote sensing and telecommunication) will be built by Russia
Russia
for $60–70 million each[89]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Attacks on satellites[edit] Further information: Anti-satellite weapon In recent times[timeframe?], satellites have been hacked by militant organizations to broadcast propaganda and to pilfer classified information from military communication networks.[90][91] For testing purposes, satellites in low earth orbit have been destroyed by ballistic missiles launched from earth. Russia, the United States
United States
and China
China
have demonstrated the ability to eliminate satellites.[92] In 2007 the Chinese military shot down an aging weather satellite,[92] followed by the US Navy
US Navy
shooting down a defunct spy satellite in February 2008.[93] Jamming[edit] See also: Radio jamming Due to the low received signal strength of satellite transmissions, they are prone to jamming by land-based transmitters. Such jamming is limited to the geographical area within the transmitter's range. GPS satellites are potential targets for jamming,[94][95] but satellite phone and television signals have also been subjected to jamming.[96][97] Also, it is very easy to transmit a carrier radio signal to a geostationary satellite and thus interfere with the legitimate uses of the satellite's transponder. It is common for Earth stations to transmit at the wrong time or on the wrong frequency in commercial satellite space, and dual-illuminate the transponder, rendering the frequency unusable. Satellite
Satellite
operators now have sophisticated monitoring that enables them to pinpoint the source of any carrier and manage the transponder space effectively.[citation needed] Satellite
Satellite
services[edit]

Satellite
Satellite
crop monitoring Satellite
Satellite
Internet access Satellite
Satellite
navigation Satellite
Satellite
phone Satellite
Satellite
radio Satellite
Satellite
television

See also[edit]

Spaceflight
Spaceflight
portal

2009 satellite collision Atmospheric satellite Fractionated spacecraft Imagery intelligence International Designator List of communications satellite firsts List of Earth observation satellites List of passive satellites Satellite
Satellite
Catalog Number Satellite
Satellite
formation flying Satellite
Satellite
watching Space exploration Space probe Spaceport
Spaceport
(including list of spaceports) Satellites on stamps USA-193
USA-193
(2008 American anti-satellite missile test)

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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