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64 species

Synonyms

Stenomys Thomas, 1910

Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. "True rats" are members of the genus Rattus, the most important of which to humans are the black rat, Rattus rattus, and the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus. Many members of other rodent genera and families are also referred to as rats, and share many characteristics with true rats. Rats are typically distinguished from mice by their size. Generally, when someone discovers a large muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, the name includes the term mouse. The muroid family is broad and complex, and the common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. Scientifically, the terms are not confined to members of the Rattus and Mus genera, for example, the pack rat and cotton mouse.

Contents

1 Species
Species
and description 2 Rat
Rat
tails 3 As pets 4 As subjects for scientific research

4.1 General intelligence 4.2 Social intelligence

5 As food 6 Working rats 7 For odor detection 8 In the spread of disease 9 As pests 10 As invasive species 11 Rat-free areas 12 Taxonomy of Rattus

12.1 Species 12.2 Phylogeny

13 In culture

13.1 Asian cultures 13.2 European cultures

13.2.1 Terminology

13.3 Fiction

13.3.1 The Pied Piper

14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Species
Species
and description

A rat by a riverbank

A rat in a city street

The best-known rat species are the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). The group is generally known as the Old World rats or true rats, and originated in Asia. Rats are bigger than most Old World
Old World
mice, which are their relatives, but seldom weigh over 500 grams (1.1 lb) in the wild.[1] The term "rat" is also used in the names of other small mammals which are not true rats. Examples include the North American
North American
pack rats, a number of species loosely called kangaroo rats, and others. Rats such as the bandicoot rat ( Bandicota
Bandicota
bengalensis) are murine rodents related to true rats, but are not members of the genus Rattus. Male rats are called bucks, unmated females are called does, pregnant or parent females are called dams, and infants are called kittens or pups. A group of rats is referred to as a mischief.[2] The common species are opportunistic survivors and often live with and near humans; therefore, they are known as commensals. They may cause substantial food losses, especially in developing countries.[3] However, the widely distributed and problematic commensal species of rats are a minority in this diverse genus. Many species of rats are island endemics and some have become endangered due to habitat loss or competition with the brown, black or Polynesian rat.[4] Wild rodents, including rats, can carry many different zoonotic pathogens, such as Leptospira, Toxoplasma gondii, and Campylobacter.[5] The Black Death
Black Death
is traditionally believed to have been caused by the micro-organism Yersinia pestis, carried by the tropical rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) which preyed on black rats living in European cities during the epidemic outbreaks of the Middle Ages; these rats were used as transport hosts. Another zoonotic disease linked to the rat is the foot-and-mouth disease.[6]

A rat in a suburb of Vancouver

The average lifespan of any given rat depends on which species is being discussed, but many only live about a year due to predation.[7] The black and brown rats diverged from other Old World
Old World
rats during the beginning of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in the forests of Asia.[8] Rat
Rat
tails The characteristic long tail of most rodents is a feature that has been extensively studied in various rat species models, which subsequently suggest three primary functions of this structure: thermoregulation, minor proprioception, and a nocifensive-mediated degloving response. Rodent
Rodent
tails—particularly in rat models—have been implicated with a thermoregulation function that follows from its anatomical construction. This particular tail morphology is evident across the family Muridae
Muridae
(in contrast to the bushier tails of the squirrel family, Sciuridae). The tail is hairless and thin-skinned, but highly vascularized, thus allowing for efficient counter-current heat exchange with the environment. The high muscular and connective tissue densities of the tail, along with ample muscle attachment sites along its plentiful caudal vertebrae facilitate specific proprioceptive senses to help orient the rodent in a three dimensional environment. Lastly, murids have evolved a unique defense mechanism termed "degloving" which allows for escape from predation through the loss of the outermost integument layer on the tail. However, this mechanism is associated with multiple pathologies that have been the subject of investigation.

Coronal Cross Section of Histological Layers in Murid Tail

Murid Tail Microscopy Cross Section

Murid Tail Dissection (Lateral View)

Rattus rattus
Rattus rattus
(Murid) Tail Dissected

Multiple studies have explored the thermoregulatory capacity of rodent tails by subjecting test organisms to varying levels of physical activity and quantifying heat conduction via the animals' tails. One study demonstrated a significant disparity in heat dissipation from a rat's tail relative to its abdomen.[9] This observation was attributed to the higher proportion of vascularity in the tail, as well as its higher surface area to volume ratio, which directly relates to heat's ability to dissipate via the skin. These findings were confirmed in a separate study analyzing the relationships of heat storage and mechanical efficiency in rodents that exercise in warm environments. In this study, the tail was a focal point in measuring heat accumulation and modulation. On the other hand, the tail's ability to function as a proprioceptive sensor/modulator has also been investigated. As aforementioned, the tail demonstrates a high degree of muscularization and subsequent innervation that ostensibly collaborate in orienting the organism.[10] Specifically, this is accomplished by coordinated flexion and extension of tail muscles to produce slight shifts in the organism's center of mass, orientation, etc., which ultimately assists it with achieving a state of proprioceptive balance in its environment. Further mechanobiological investigations of the constituent tendons in the tail of the rat have identified multiple factors that influence how the organism navigates its environment with this structure. A particular example is that of a study in which the morphology of these tendons is explicated in detail.[11] Namely, cell viability tests of tendons of the rat's tail demonstrate a higher proportion of living fibroblasts that produce the collagen for these fibers. As in humans, these tendons contain a high density of golgi tendon organs that help the animal assess stretching of muscle in situ and adjust accordingly by relaying the information to higher cortical areas associated with balance, proprioception, and movement. The characteristic tail of Murids also displays a unique defense mechanism known as "degloving" in which the outer layer of the integument can be detached in order to facilitate the animal's escape from a predator. This evolutionary selective pressure has persisted despite a multitude of pathologies that can manifest upon shedding part of the tail and exposing more interior elements to the environment.[12] Paramount among these are bacterial and viral infection, as the high density of vascular tissue within the tail becomes exposed upon avulsion or similar injury to the structure. The degloving response is a nocifensive response, meaning that it occurs when the animal is subjected to acute pain, such as when a predator snatches the organism by the tail. As pets

Main article: Fancy rat

A domesticated rat

Specially bred rats have been kept as pets at least since the late 19th century. Pet rats are typically variants of the species brown rat, but black rats and giant pouched rats are also known to be kept. Pet rats behave differently from their wild counterparts depending on how many generations they have been kept as pets.[13] Pet rats do not pose any more of a health risk than pets such as cats or dogs.[14] Tamed rats are generally friendly and can be taught to perform selected behaviors. As subjects for scientific research

Main article: Laboratory rat

A laboratory rat strain, known as a Zucker rat, bred to be genetically prone to diabetes, a metabolic disorder also found among humans.

In vivo Aortic arch
Aortic arch
of species Rattus rattus
Rattus rattus
with all lung lobes removed from the thoracic cavity

In 1895, Clark University
Clark University
in Worcester, Massachusetts
Worcester, Massachusetts
(United States) established a population of domestic albino brown rats to study the effects of diet and for other physiological studies. Over the years, rats have been used in many experimental studies, which have added to our understanding of genetics, diseases, the effects of drugs, and other topics that have provided a great benefit for the health and well-being of humankind. The aortic arches of the rat are among the most commonly studied in murine models due to marked anatomical homology to the human cardiovascular system.[15] Both rat and human aortic arches exhibit subsequent branching of the brachiocephalic trunk, left common cartoid artery and left subclavian artery, as well as geometrically similar, non-planar curvature in the aortic branches.[15] Aortic arches studied in rats exhibit abnormalities similar to those of humans, including altered pulmonary arteries and double or absent aortic arches.[16] Despite existing anatomical analogy in the inthrathoracic position of the heart itself, the murine model of the heart and its structures remains a valuable tool for studies of human cardiovascular conditions.[17] Laboratory rats have also proved valuable in psychological studies of learning and other mental processes (Barnett, 2002), as well as to understand group behavior and overcrowding (with the work of John B. Calhoun on behavioral sink). A 2007 study found rats to possess metacognition, a mental ability previously only documented in humans and some primates.[18][19] Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways. They are calmer and less likely to bite; they can tolerate greater crowding; they breed earlier and produce more offspring; and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller (Barnett 2002). Brown rats are often used as model organisms for scientific research. Since the publication of the rat genome sequence,[20] and other advances, such as the creation of a rat SNP chip, and the production of knockout rats, the laboratory rat has become a useful genetic tool, although not as popular as mice. When it comes to conducting tests related to intelligence, learning, and drug abuse, rats are a popular choice due to their high intelligence, ingenuity, aggressiveness, and adaptability. Their psychology, in many ways, seems to be similar to humans. Entirely new breeds or "lines" of brown rats, such as the Wistar rat, have been bred for use in laboratories. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus
Rattus norvegicus
has been sequenced.[21] General intelligence

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Because of evident displays of their ability to learn,[22] rats were investigated early to see whether they exhibit general intelligence, as expressed by the definition of a g factor and observed in larger, more complex animals.[citation needed] Early studies ca. 1930 found evidence both for and against such a g factor in rat.[23][24] Quoting Galsworthy, with regard to the affirmative 1935 Thorndike work:[25]

Robert Thorndike, for example, provided strong evidence for g in rats by the use of a variety of tests such as mazes, problem-solving tasks, and simple avoidance conditioning... Performances tended to correlate across tasks, with stronger associations found between mazes and problem-solving than with simple avoidance tasks. Thorndike... also reviewed a dozen earlier studies which also suggested that the highest correlations are found between more complex problem-solving tasks. However, it should be noted that there were other contemporary studies that found split or near zero-order correlation matrices for other populations of rats across cognitive batteries...[25]

However, some more contemporary work has not supported the earlier affirmative view.[26] Throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, series of articles have appeared attempting to address the question of general intelligence in this species, through measurements of tasks performed by rats and mice, e.g., with statistical evaluation by factor analysis, and seeking to correlate general intelligence and brain size (as is done with humans and primates),[medical citation needed][27] where the general conclusion was in the affirmative.[need quotation to verify][improper synthesis?][citation needed] Social intelligence

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A 2011 controlled study found that rats are actively prosocial.[28] They demonstrate apparent altruistic behaviour to other rats in experiments, including freeing them from cages: when presented with readily available chocolate chips, test subjects would first free the caged rat, and then share the food. All female rats in the study displayed this behaviour, while 30% of the males did not.[29][30] As food

It has been suggested that this article be split into a new article titled Rat
Rat
meat. (Discuss) (October 2017)

Rat meat
Rat meat
dishes in Yangshuo, Guangxi, China

Rat meat
Rat meat
is a food that, while taboo[31][32] in some cultures, is a dietary staple in others. Taboos include fears of disease or religious prohibition, but in many places, the high number of rats has led to their incorporation into the local diets. In some cultures, rats are or have been limited as an acceptable form of food to a particular social or economic class. In the Mishmi culture of India, rats are essential to the traditional diet, as Mishmi women may eat no meat except fish, pork, wild birds and rats.[33] Conversely, the Musahar community in north India has commercialised rat farming as an exotic delicacy.[34] In the traditional cultures of the Hawaiians and the Polynesians, rat was an everyday food for commoners. When feasting, the Polynesian people of Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
could eat rat meat, but the king was not allowed to, due to the islanders' belief in his "state of sacredness" called tapu.[35] In studying precontact archaeological sites in Hawaii, archaeologists have found the concentration of the remains of rats associated with commoner households accounted for three times the animal remains associated with elite households. The rat bones found in all sites are fragmented, burned and covered in carbonized material, indicating the rats were eaten as food. The greater occurrence of rat remains associated with commoner households may indicate the elites of precontact Hawaii
Hawaii
did not consume them as a matter of status or taste.[36] France has several regions where people consume rat. A recipe for grilled rats, Bordeaux-style, calls for the use of alcoholic rats who live in wine cellars. These rats are skinned and eviscerated, brushed with a thick sauce of olive oil and crushed shallots, and grilled over a fire of broken wine barrels.[37][38][39][40][41] Rat
Rat
stew is consumed in American cuisine in the state of West Virginia.[42][43] In France and Victorian Britain rich people ate rat pie.[44] During food rationing due to World War II, British biologists ate laboratory rat, creamed.[45] Rat meat
Rat meat
is eaten in Vietnamese cuisine.[46][47][48][49][50][51] Rat-on-a-stick
Rat-on-a-stick
is a roasted rat dish consumed in Vietnam and Thailand.[52][53] Flesh of rat is eaten in Taiwan.[54][55] Bandicoot rats are an important food source among some peoples in Southeast Asia, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated rat meat makes up half the locally produced meat consumed in Ghana, where cane rats are farmed and hunted for their meat. African slaves in the American South were known to hunt wood rats (among other animals) to supplement their food rations,[56] and Aborigines along the coast in southern Queensland, Australia, regularly included rats in their diet.[57] Ricefield rats (Rattus argentiventer) have traditionally been used as food in rice-producing regions such as Valencia, as immortalized by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
in his novel Cañas y barro. Along with eel and local beans known as garrafons, rata de marjal (marsh rat) is one of the main ingredients in traditional paella (later replaced by rabbit, chicken and seafood).[58] Ricefield rats are also consumed in the Philippines, the Isaan
Isaan
region of Thailand, and Cambodia. In late 2008, Reuters reported the price of rat meat had quadrupled in Cambodia, creating a hardship for the poor who could no longer afford it. Elsewhere in the world, rat meat is considered diseased and unclean, socially unacceptable, or there are strong religious proscriptions against it. Islam and Kashrut
Kashrut
traditions prohibit it, while both the Shipibo people
Shipibo people
of Peru and Sirionó people of Bolivia have cultural taboos against the eating of rats.[59][60] Rats are a common food item for snakes, both in the wild, and as pets. Adult rat snakes and ball pythons, for example, are fed a diet of mostly rats in captivity. Rats are readily available (live or frozen) to individual snake owners, as well as to pet shops and reptile zoos, from many suppliers. In Britain, the government prohibited the feeding of any live mammal to another animal in 2007.[citation needed] The rule says the animal must be dead before it is given to the animal to eat. The rule was put into place mainly because of the pressure of the RSPCA
RSPCA
and people who said the feeding of live animals was cruel. Working rats Main article: Working rat Rats have been used as working animals. Tasks for working rats include the sniffing of gunpowder residue, demining, acting and animal-assisted therapy. For odor detection Rats have a keen sense of smell and are easy to train. These characteristics have been employed, for example, by the Belgian non-governmental organization APOPO, which trains rats (specifically African giant pouched rats) to detect landmines and diagnose tuberculosis through smell.[22] In the spread of disease Rats can serve as zoonotic vectors for certain pathogens and thus spread disease, such as bubonic plague, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, and Hantavirus
Hantavirus
infection.[61] As pests

Rodent
Rodent
Bait Station, Chennai, India

Rats have long been considered deadly pests. Once considered a modern myth, the rat flood in India has now been verified. Indeed, every fifty years, armies of bamboo rats descend upon rural areas and devour everything in their path.[62] Rats have long been held up as the chief villain in the spread of the Bubonic Plague,[63] however recent studies show that they alone could not account for the rapid spread of the disease through Europe in the Middle Ages.[64] Still, the Center for Disease
Disease
Control does list nearly a dozen diseases[65] directly linked to rats. Most urban areas battle rat infestations. Rats in New York City are famous for their size and prevalence. The urban legend that the rat population in Manhattan equals that of its human population (a myth definitively refuted by Robert Sullivan in his book "Rats") speaks volumes about New Yorkers' awareness of the presence, and on occasion boldness and cleverness, of the rodents.[66] New York has specific regulations for getting rid of rats—multi-family residences and commercial businesses must use a specially trained and licensed exterminator.[67] Rats have the ability to swim up sewer pipes into toilets.[68][69] Rat
Rat
infestations occur around pipes, behind walls and near garbage cans. In the United States, cities tend to be breeding grounds for rat infestations and according to a 2015 study by the American Housing Survey (AHS) found that 18% of the homes in Philadelphia found evidence of rodents. This was followed by Boston, New York City, and then Washington DC
Washington DC
as the cities with the largest rat and mouse problems.[70] As invasive species When introduced into locations where rats previously did not exist they can cause an enormous amount of environmental degradation. Rattus rattus, the black rat, is considered to be one of the world's worst invasive species.[71] Also known as the ship rat, it has been carried worldwide as a stowaway on sea-going vessels for millennia and has usually accompanied men to any new area visited or settled by human beings by sea. The similar but less aggressive species Rattus norvegicus, the brown rat or wharf rat, has also been carried worldwide by ships in recent centuries. The ship or wharf rat has contributed to the extinction of many species of wildlife including birds, small mammals, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants, especially on islands. True rats are omnivorous and capable of eating a wide range of plant and animal foods. True rats have a very high birth rate. When introduced to a new area, they quickly reproduce to take advantage of the new food supply. In particular, they prey on the eggs and young of forest birds, which on isolated islands often have no other predators and thus have no fear of predators.[72] Some experts believe that rats are to blame for between 40 percent and 60 percent of all seabird and reptile extinctions, with 90 percent of those occurring on islands. Thus man has indirectly caused the extinction of many species by accidentally introducing rats to new areas.[73] Rat-free areas Rats are found in nearly all areas of Earth which are inhabited by human beings. The only rat-free continent is Antarctica, which is too cold for rat survival outdoors, and its lack of human habitation does not provide buildings to shelter them from the weather. However, rats have been introduced to many of the islands near Antarctica, and because of their destructive effect on native flora and fauna, efforts to eradicate them are ongoing. In particular, Bird Island (just off rat-infested South Georgia Island), where breeding seabirds could be badly affected if rats were introduced, is subject to special measures and regularly monitored for rat invasions.[74] As part of island restoration some islands' rat populations have been eradicated to protect or restore the ecology. Hawadax Island, Alaska was declared rat free after 229 years and Campbell Island, New Zealand after almost 200 years. Breaksea Island in New Zealand was declared rat free in 1988 after an eradication campaign based on a successful trial on the smaller Hawea Island nearby. In January 2015 an international " Rat
Rat
Team" set sail from the Falkland Islands for the British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands on board a ship carrying three helicopters and 100 tons of rat poison with the objective of "reclaiming the island for its seabirds". Rats have wiped out more than 90% of the seabirds on South Georgia, and the sponsors hope that once the rats are gone, it will regain its former status as home to the greatest concentration of seabirds in the world. The South Georgia Heritage Trust, which organized the mission describes it as "five times larger than any other rodent eradication attempted worldwide".[75] That would be true if it were not for the rat control program in Alberta
Alberta
(see below). The Canadian province of Alberta
Alberta
(population 4.25 million) is notable for being the largest inhabited area on Earth which is free of true rats due to very aggressive government rat control policies. It has large numbers of native pack rats, also called bushy-tailed wood rats, but they are forest-dwelling vegetarians which are much less destructive than true rats.[76] Alberta
Alberta
was settled relatively late in North American
North American
history and only became a province in 1905. Black rats cannot survive in its climate at all, and brown rats must live near people and in their structures to survive the winters. There are numerous predators in Canada's vast natural areas which will eat non-native rats, so it took until 1950 for invading rats to make their way over land from Eastern Canada.[77] Immediately upon their arrival at the eastern border with Saskatchewan, the Alberta
Alberta
government implemented an extremely aggressive rat control program to stop them from advancing further. A systematic detection and eradication system was used throughout a control zone about 600 kilometres (400 mi) long and 30 kilometres (20 mi) wide along the eastern border to eliminate rat infestations before the rats could spread further into the province. Shotguns, bulldozers, high explosives, poison gas, and incendiaries were used to destroy rats. Numerous farm buildings were destroyed in the process. Initially, tons of arsenic trioxide were spread around thousands of farm yards to poison rats, but soon after the program commenced the rodenticide and medical drug warfarin was introduced, which is much safer for people and more effective at killing rats than arsenic.[78] Forceful government control measures, strong public support and enthusiastic citizen participation continue to keep rat infestations to a minimum.[79] The effectiveness has been aided by a similar but newer program in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
which prevents rats from even reaching the Alberta
Alberta
border. Alberta
Alberta
still employs an armed rat patrol to control rats along Alberta's borders. About ten single rats are found and killed per year, and occasionally a large localized infestation has to be dug out with heavy machinery, but the number of permanent rat infestations is zero.[80] Taxonomy of Rattus The genus Rattus is a member of the giant subfamily Murinae. Several other murine genera are sometimes considered part of Rattus: Lenothrix, Anonymomys, Sundamys, Kadarsanomys, Diplothrix, Margaretamys, Lenomys, Komodomys, Palawanomys, Bunomys, Nesoromys, Stenomys, Taeromys, Paruromys, Abditomys, Tryphomys, Limnomys, Tarsomys, Bullimus, Apomys, Millardia, Srilankamys, Niviventer, Maxomys, Leopoldamys, Berylmys, Mastomys, Myomys, Praomys, Hylomyscus, Heimyscus, Stochomys, Dephomys, and Aethomys. The genus Rattus proper contains 64 extant species. A subgeneric breakdown of the species has been proposed, but does not include all species. Species Genus Rattus – Typical rats

incertae sedis

Annandale's rat
Annandale's rat
(Rattus annandalei) – Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore Enggano rat
Enggano rat
(Rattus enganus) – Indonesia Philippine forest rat
Philippine forest rat
(Rattus everetti) – the Philippines Polynesian rat
Polynesian rat
(Rattus exulans) – Fiji
Fiji
and most Polynesian islands, New Zealand, Easter Island, and Hawaii Hainald's rat
Hainald's rat
(Rattus hainaldi) – Indonesia Hoogerwerf's rat
Hoogerwerf's rat
(Rattus hoogerwerfi) – Indonesia Korinch's rat
Korinch's rat
(Rattus korinchi) – Indonesia † Maclear's rat
Maclear's rat
(Rattus macleari) – Christmas Island Nillu rat
Nillu rat
(Rattus montanus) – Sri Lanka Molaccan prehensile-tailed rat
Molaccan prehensile-tailed rat
(Rattus morotaiensis) – Indonesia † Bulldog rat
Bulldog rat
(Rattus nativitatis) – Christmas Island Kerala rat
Kerala rat
(Rattus ranjiniae) – India New Ireland forest rat (Rattus sanila) Andaman rat
Andaman rat
(Rattus stoicus) – Andaman Islands Timor rat
Timor rat
(Rattus timorensis) – Timor

R. norvegicus group

Himalayan field rat
Himalayan field rat
(Rattus nitidus) – Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Palau, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam Brown rat
Brown rat
or Norway rat
Norway rat
(Rattus norvegicus) – worldwide except Antarctica Turkestan rat
Turkestan rat
(Rattus pyctoris; obs. Rattus turkestanicus) – Afghanistan, China, India, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, and Pakistan

R. rattus group

Sunburned rat
Sunburned rat
(Rattus adustus) – Enggano Island, Indonesia Sikkim rat
Sikkim rat
(Rattus andamanensis) – Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam Ricefield rat
Ricefield rat
(Rattus argentiventer) – Southeast Asia Summit rat
Summit rat
(Rattus baluensis) – Malaysia Aceh rat
Aceh rat
(Rattus blangorum) Nonsense rat
Nonsense rat
(Rattus burrus) – India Hoffmann's rat
Hoffmann's rat
(Rattus hoffmanni) – Indonesia Koopman's rat
Koopman's rat
(Rattus koopmani) – Indonesia Lesser ricefield rat
Lesser ricefield rat
(Rattus losea) – China, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam Mentawai rat
Mentawai rat
(Rattus lugens) – Indonesia Mindoro black rat
Mindoro black rat
(Rattus mindorensis) – the Philippines Little soft-furred rat
Little soft-furred rat
(Rattus mollicomulus) – Indonesia Osgood's rat
Osgood's rat
(Rattus osgoodi) – Vietnam Palm rat
Palm rat
(Rattus palmarum) – India Black rat
Black rat
(Rattus rattus) – worldwide except Antarctica Sahyadris forest rat
Sahyadris forest rat
(Rattus satarae) Simalur rat
Simalur rat
(Rattus simalurensis) – Indonesia Tanezumi rat
Tanezumi rat
(Rattus tanezumi) – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam Tawitawi forest rat
Tawitawi forest rat
(Rattus tawitawiensis) – the Philippines Malayan field rat
Malayan field rat
(Rattus tiomanicus) – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand

R. xanthurus group

Bonthain rat
Bonthain rat
(Rattus bontanus; obs. Rattus foramineus) – Indonesia Opossum rat
Opossum rat
(Rattus marmosurus) – Indonesia Peleng rat
Peleng rat
(Rattus pelurus) – Indonesia Southeastern xanthurus rat
Southeastern xanthurus rat
(Rattus salocco]) – Indonesia Yellow-tailed rat
Yellow-tailed rat
(Rattus xanthurus) – Indonesia

R. leucopus group (New Guinean group)

Vogelkop mountain rat
Vogelkop mountain rat
(Rattus arfakiensis) Western New Guinea mountain rat
Western New Guinea mountain rat
(Rattus arrogans) Sula rat
Sula rat
(Rattus elaphinus) – Indonesia Spiny Ceram rat
Spiny Ceram rat
(Rattus feliceus) – Indonesia Giluwe rat
Giluwe rat
(Rattus giluwensis) – Papua New Guinea Japen rat
Japen rat
(Rattus jobiensis) – Indonesia Cape York rat
Cape York rat
(Rattus leucopus) – Australia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea Eastern rat
Eastern rat
(Rattus mordax) – Papua New Guinea Moss-forest rat
Moss-forest rat
(Rattus niobe) – Papua New Guinea, Indonesia New Guinean rat
New Guinean rat
(Rattus novaeguineae) – Papua New Guinea Arianus's rat
Arianus's rat
(Rattus omichlodes) Pocock’s highland rat
Pocock’s highland rat
(Rattus pococki) Large New Guinea spiny rat
Large New Guinea spiny rat
(Rattus praetor) – Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands Glacier rat
Glacier rat
(Rattus richardsoni) – Indonesia Stein's rat
Stein's rat
(Rattus steini) – Indonesia and Papua New Guinea Van Deusen's rat
Van Deusen's rat
(Rattus vandeuseni) – Papua New Guinea Slender rat
Slender rat
(Rattus verecundus) – Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

R. fuscipes group (Australian group)

Dusky rat
Dusky rat
(Rattus colletti) – Australia Bush rat
Bush rat
(Rattus fuscipes) – Australia Australian swamp rat
Australian swamp rat
(Rattus lutreolus) – Australia Dusky field rat
Dusky field rat
(Rattus sordidus) – Australia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea Pale field rat
Pale field rat
(Rattus tunneyi) – Australia Long-haired rat
Long-haired rat
(Rattus villosissimus) – Australia

Phylogeny The following phylogeny of selected Rattus species is from Pagès, et al. (2010).[81]

Berylmys
Berylmys
bowersi

Berylmys
Berylmys
berdmorei

Bandicota
Bandicota
savilei

Bandicota
Bandicota
indica

Rattus 

Rattus nitidus

Rattus norvegicus

Rattus exulans

Rattus andamanensis

Rattus argentiventer

Rattus tiomanicus

Rattus losea

Rattus sp.

Rattus tanezumi

Rattus rattus

In culture Ancient Romans
Ancient Romans
did not generally differentiate between rats and mice, instead referring to the former as mus maximus (big mouse) and the latter as mus minimus (little mouse).[citation needed] On the Isle of Man, there is a taboo against the word "rat".[82]

Chinese zodiac
Chinese zodiac
pendant with 5 rats climbing ruyi, bat at top of pendant

Asian cultures Main article: Rat
Rat
(zodiac) The rat (sometimes referred to as a mouse) is the first of the twelve animals of the Chinese zodiac. People born in this year are expected to possess qualities associated with rats, including creativity, intelligence, honesty, generosity, ambition, a quick temper and wastefulness. People born in a year of the rat are said to get along well with "monkeys" and "dragons", and to get along poorly with "horses".

The indigenous rats are allowed to run freely throughout the Karni Mata Temple.

In Indian tradition, rats are seen as the vehicle of Ganesha, and a rat's statue is always found in a temple of Ganesh. In the northwestern Indian city of Deshnoke, the rats at the Karni Mata Temple are held to be destined for reincarnation as Sadhus ( Hindu
Hindu
holy men). The attending priests feed milk and grain to the rats, of which the pilgrims also partake. European cultures European associations with the rat are generally negative. For instance, "Rats!" is used as a substitute for various vulgar interjections in the English language. These associations do not draw, per se, from any biological or behavioral trait of the rat, but possibly from the association of rats (and fleas) with the 14th-century medieval plague called the Black Death. Rats are seen as vicious, unclean, parasitic animals that steal food and spread disease. However, some people in European cultures keep rats as pets and conversely find them to be tame, clean, intelligent, and playful. Rats are often used in scientific experiments; animal rights activists allege the treatment of rats in this context is cruel. The term "lab rat" is used, typically in a self-effacing manner, to describe a person whose job function requires them to spend a majority of their work time engaged in bench-level research (such as postgraduate students in the sciences). Terminology Rats are frequently blamed for damaging food supplies and other goods, or spreading disease. Their reputation has carried into common parlance: in the English language, "rat" is often an insult or is generally used to signify an unscrupulous character; it is also used, as the term nark, to mean an individual who works as a police informant or who has turned state's evidence. Writer/director Preston Sturges created the humorous alias "Ratskywatsky" for a soldier who seduced, impregnated, and abandoned the heroine of his 1944 film, The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. It is a term (noun and verb) in criminal slang for an informant – "to rat on someone" is to betray them by informing the authorities of a crime or misdeed they committed. Describing a person as "rat-like" usually implies he or she is unattractive and suspicious. Among trade unions, the word "rat" is also a term for nonunion employers or breakers of union contracts, and this is why unions use inflatable rats.[83] Fiction See also: Fancy rat
Fancy rat
§ Fiction

Imperial Japan
Imperial Japan
was depicted as a rat in a World War II
World War II
United States Navy propaganda poster.

Depictions of rats in fiction are historically inaccurate and negative. The most common falsehood is the squeaking almost always heard in otherwise realistic portrayals (i.e. nonanthropomorphic). While the recordings may be of actual squeaking rats, the noise is uncommon – they may do so only if distressed, hurt, or annoyed. Normal vocalizations are very high-pitched, well outside the range of human hearing. Rats are also often cast in vicious and aggressive roles when in fact, their shyness helps keep them undiscovered for so long in an infested home. The actual portrayals of rats vary from negative to positive with a majority in the negative and ambiguous.[84] The rat plays a villain in several mouse societies; from Brian Jacques's Redwall
Redwall
and Robin Jarvis's The Deptford Mice, to the roles of Disney's Professor Ratigan and Kate DiCamillo's Roscuro and Botticelli. They have often been used as a mechanism in horror; being the titular evil in stories like The Rats or H.P. Lovecraft's The Rats in the Walls [84] and in films like Willard and Ben. Another terrifying use of rats is as a method of torture, for instance in Room 101
Room 101
in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four or The Pit and the Pendulum
The Pit and the Pendulum
by Edgar Allan Poe. Selfish helpfulness —those willing to help for a price— has also been attributed to fictional rats.[84] Templeton, from E. B. White's Charlotte's Web, repeatedly reminds the other characters that he is only involved because it means more food for him, and the cellar-rat of John Masefield's The Midnight Folk requires bribery to be of any assistance. By contrast, the rats appearing in the Doctor Dolittle
Doctor Dolittle
books tend to be highly positive and likeable characters, many of whom tell their remarkable life stories in the Mouse
Mouse
and Rat
Rat
Club established by the animal-loving doctor. Some fictional works use rats as the main characters. Notable examples include the society created by O'Brien's Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH, and others include Doctor Rat, and Rizzo the Rat
Rizzo the Rat
from The Muppets. Pixar's 2007 animated film Ratatouille is about a rat described by Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
as "earnest... lovable, determined, [and] gifted" who lives with a Parisian garbage-boy-turned-chef.[85] Mon oncle d'Amérique
Mon oncle d'Amérique
("My American Uncle"), a 1980 French film, illustrates Henri Laborit's theories on evolutionary psychology and human behaviors by using short sequences in the storyline showing lab rat experiments. In Harry Turtledove's science fiction novel Homeward Bound, humans unintentionally introduce rats to the ecology at the home world of an alien race which previously invaded Earth and introduced some of its own fauna into its environment. And A. Bertram Chandler
A. Bertram Chandler
pitted his space-bound protagonist, Commodore Grimes, against giant, intelligent rats who took over several stellar systems and enslaved their human inhabitants. "The Stainless Steel Rat" is nickname of the (human) protagonist of a series of humorous science fiction novels written by Harry Harrison. The Pied Piper Main article: Pied Piper of Hamelin One of the oldest and most historic stories about rats is "The Pied Piper of Hamelin", in which a rat-catcher leads away an infestation with enchanted music. The piper is later refused payment, so he in turn leads away the town's children. This tale, traced to Germany around the late 13th century, has inspired adaptations in film, theatre, literature, and even opera. The subject of much research, some theories have intertwined the tale with events related to the Black Plague, in which black rats played an important role. Fictional works based on the tale that focus heavily on the rat aspect include Pratchett's The Amazing Maurice and his Educated Rodents, and Belgian graphic novel Le Bal du Rat
Rat
Mort (The Ball of the Dead Rat). See also

List of fictional rodents Oriental rat flea Rat-baiting Laboratory rat Working rat Fancy rat

References

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Further reading

Barnett, S. Anthony (2002) The Story of Rats: Their Impact on Us, and Our Impact on Them, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 202 pages, ISBN 1-86508-519-7. Hendrickson, R. (1983) More Cunning than Man: A Complete History of the Rat
Rat
and its Role in Civilization, Kensington Books. ISBN 1-57566-393-7. Jahn, G. C., P. Cox, S. Mak, and N. Chhorn (1999) "Farmer participatory research on rat management in Cambodia", In G. Singleton, L. Hinds, H. Leirs and Zhibin Zhang [Eds.] Ecologically-based rodent management ACIAR, Canberra. Ch. 17, pp. 358–371. ISBN 1-86320-262-5. Leung, LKP; Cox, Peter G.; Jahn, G. C.; Nugent, Robert (2002). "Evaluating rodent management with Cambodian rice farmers". Cambodian Journal of Agriculture. 5: 21–26.  Matthews, I. (1898). Full Revelations of a Professional Rat-Catcher, after 25 Years’ Experience. 1st ed. Manchester: Friendly Societies Printing Co. ISBN 1-905124-64-3. Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 1993. "Family Muridae" in D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. " Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference", Smithsonian
Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C. pp. 501–755. Nowak, R. M. (1999) Walker's Mammals
Mammals
of the World Vol. 2. Johns Hopkins University Press, London. Sullivan, Robert (2004). Rats: A Year with New York's Most Unwanted Inhabitants. Granta Books, London. Sullivan, Robert (2005). Rats: Observations on the History and Habitat of the City's Most Unwanted Inhabitants. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 1-58234-477-9.

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rats

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rats.

High-Resolution Images of the Rat
Rat
Brain National Bio Resource Project for the Rat
Rat
in Japan Rat
Rat
Behaviour and Biology Rat
Rat
Genome Database Texts on Wikisource:

"Rat". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Rat". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Rat". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 

v t e

Extant species of subfamily Murinae
Murinae
(Rattus)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordate Class: Mammalia Superorder: Euarchontoglires Order: Rodentia Family: Muridae

Abditomys

Luzon broad-toothed rat
Luzon broad-toothed rat
(A. latidens)

Bandicota (Bandicoot rats)

Lesser bandicoot rat
Lesser bandicoot rat
(B. bengalensis) Greater bandicoot rat
Greater bandicoot rat
(B. indica) Savile's bandicoot rat
Savile's bandicoot rat
(B. savilei)

Berylmys (White-toothed rats)

Small white-toothed rat
Small white-toothed rat
(B. berdmorei) Bower's white-toothed rat
Bower's white-toothed rat
(B. bowersi) Kenneth's white-toothed rat
Kenneth's white-toothed rat
(B. mackenziei) Manipur white-toothed rat
Manipur white-toothed rat
(B. manipulus)

Bullimus

Bagobo rat
Bagobo rat
(B. bagobus) Camiguin forest rat
Camiguin forest rat
(B. gamay) Lagre Luzon forest rat (B. luzonicus)

Bunomys

Andrew's hill rat
Andrew's hill rat
(B. andrewsi) Yellow-haired hill rat
Yellow-haired hill rat
(B. chrysocomus) Heavenly hill rat
Heavenly hill rat
(B. coelestis) Fraternal hill rat
Fraternal hill rat
(B. fratrorum) Heinrich's hill rat
Heinrich's hill rat
(B. heinrichi) Inland hill rat
Inland hill rat
(B. penitus) Long-headed hill rat
Long-headed hill rat
(B. prolatus)

Diplothrix

Ryukyu long-tailed giant rat
Ryukyu long-tailed giant rat
(D. legatus)

Kadarsanomys

Sody's tree rat
Sody's tree rat
(K. sodyi)

Komodomys

Komodo rat
Komodo rat
(K. rintjanus)

Limnomys

Gray-bellied mountain rat
Gray-bellied mountain rat
(L. bryophilus) Mindanao mountain rat
Mindanao mountain rat
(L. sibuanus)

Nesokia

Bunn's short-tailed bandicoot rat
Bunn's short-tailed bandicoot rat
(N. bunnii) Short-tailed bandicoot rat
Short-tailed bandicoot rat
(N. indica)

Nesoromys

Ceram rat
Ceram rat
(N. ceramicus)

Palawanomys

Palawan soft-furred mountain rat
Palawan soft-furred mountain rat
(P. furvus)

Papagomys

Flores giant rat
Flores giant rat
(P. armandvillei)

Paruromys

Sulawesi giant rat
Sulawesi giant rat
(P. dominator)

Paulamys

Flores long-nosed rat
Flores long-nosed rat
(P. naso)

Rattus (Typical rats)

Annandale's rat
Annandale's rat
(R. annandalei) Enggano rat
Enggano rat
(R. enganus) Philippine forest rat
Philippine forest rat
(R. everetti) Polynesian rat
Polynesian rat
(R. exulans) Hainald's rat
Hainald's rat
(R. hainaldi) Hoogerwerf's rat
Hoogerwerf's rat
(R. hoogerwerfi) Korinch's rat
Korinch's rat
(R. korinchi) Nillu rat
Nillu rat
(R. montanus) Molaccan prehensile-tailed rat
Molaccan prehensile-tailed rat
(R. morotaiensis) Kerala rat
Kerala rat
(R. ranjiniae) New Ireland forest rat (R. sanila) Andaman rat
Andaman rat
(R. stoicus) Timor rat
Timor rat
(R. timorensis)

R. norvegicus group: Himalayan field rat
Himalayan field rat
(R. nitidus) Brown rat
Brown rat
(R. norvegicus) Turkestan rat
Turkestan rat
(R. pyctoris)

R. rattus group: Sunburned rat
Sunburned rat
(R. adustus) Sikkim rat
Sikkim rat
(R. andamanensis) Ricefield rat
Ricefield rat
(R. argentiventer) Summit rat
Summit rat
(R. baluensis) Aceh rat
Aceh rat
(R. blangorum) Nonsense rat
Nonsense rat
(R. burrus) Hoffmann's rat
Hoffmann's rat
(R. hoffmanni) Koopman's rat
Koopman's rat
(R. koopmani) Lesser ricefield rat
Lesser ricefield rat
(R. losea) Mentawai rat
Mentawai rat
(R. lugens) Mindoro black rat
Mindoro black rat
(R. mindorensis) Little soft-furred rat
Little soft-furred rat
(R. mollicomulus) Osgood's rat
Osgood's rat
(R. osgoodi) Palm rat
Palm rat
(R. palmarum) Black rat
Black rat
(R. rattus) Sahyadris forest rat
Sahyadris forest rat
(R. satarae) Simalur rat
Simalur rat
(R. simalurensis) Tanezumi rat
Tanezumi rat
(R. tanezumi) Tawitawi forest rat
Tawitawi forest rat
(R. tawitawiensis) Malayan field rat
Malayan field rat
(R. tiomanicus)

R. xanthurus group: Bonthain rat
Bonthain rat
(R. bontanus) Opossum rat
Opossum rat
(R. marmosurus) Peleng rat
Peleng rat
(R. pelurus) R. salocco Yellow-tailed rat
Yellow-tailed rat
(R. xanthurus)

R. leucopus group: Arfak rat (R. arfakiensis) Western New Guinea mountain rat
Western New Guinea mountain rat
(R. arrogans) Sula rat
Sula rat
(R. elaphinus) Spiny Ceram rat
Spiny Ceram rat
(R. feliceus) Giluwe rat
Giluwe rat
(R. giluwensis) Japen rat
Japen rat
(R. jobiensis) Cape York rat
Cape York rat
(R. leucopus) Eastern rat
Eastern rat
(R. mordax) Moss-forest rat
Moss-forest rat
(R. niobe) New Guinean rat
New Guinean rat
(R. novaeguineae) Arianus's rat
Arianus's rat
(R. omichlodes) Pocock's highland rat
Pocock's highland rat
(R. pococki) Spiny rat (R. praetor) Glacier rat
Glacier rat
(R. richardsoni) Stein's rat
Stein's rat
(R. steini) Van Deusen's rat
Van Deusen's rat
(R. vandeuseni) Slender rat
Slender rat
(R. verecundus)

R. fuscipes group: Dusky rat
Dusky rat
(R. collettia) Bush rat
Bush rat
(R. fuscipes) Australian swamp rat
Australian swamp rat
(R. lutreolus) Dusky field rat
Dusky field rat
(R. sordidus) Pale field rat
Pale field rat
(R. tunneyi) Rattus villosissimus
Rattus villosissimus
(R. villosissimus)

Sundamys (Giant Sunda rats)

Mountain giant Sunda rat
Mountain giant Sunda rat
(S. infraluteus) Bartels's rat
Bartels's rat
(S. maxi) Müller's giant Sunda rat
Müller's giant Sunda rat
(S. muelleri)

Taeromys

Salokko rat
Salokko rat
(T. arcuatus) Lovely-haired rat
Lovely-haired rat
(T. callitrichus) Celebes rat
Celebes rat
(T. celebensis) Sulawesi montane rat
Sulawesi montane rat
(T. hamatus) Small-eared rat
Small-eared rat
(T. microbullatus) Sulawesi forest rat
Sulawesi forest rat
(T. punicans) Tondano rat
Tondano rat
(T. taerae)

Tarsomys

Long-footed rat
Long-footed rat
(T. apoensis) Spiny long-footed rat
Spiny long-footed rat
(T. echinatus)

Tryphomys

Luzon short-nosed rat
Luzon short-nosed rat
(T. adustus)

See also Aethomys–Chrotomys Colomys–Golunda Hadromys–Maxomys Melasmothrix–Mus Oenomys–Pithecheir Pogonomys–Pseudomys Stenocephalomys–Xeromys Otomys Others

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q36396 ADW: Rattus EoL: 42343 EPPO: 1RATTG Fauna Europaea: 305698 Fossilworks: 41923 GBIF: 2439223 iNaturalist: 44540 ITIS: 180361 MSW: 13001727 NCBI: 1

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