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Pornography
Pornography
(often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.[1] Pornography
Pornography
may be presented in a variety of media, including books, magazines, postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, phone calls, writing, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors or porn stars, who perform in pornographic films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in a porn film may also be called a model. Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual nature immoral, addictive, and noxious, labeling them pornographic, and attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity and other laws, with varying degrees of success. Such works have also often been subject to censorship and other legal restraints to publication, display, or possession, leading in many cases to their loss. Such grounds, and even the definition of pornography, have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts.[2] Social attitudes towards the discussion and presentation of sexuality have become more tolerant in Western countries, and legal definitions of obscenity have become more limited, notably beginning in 1969 with Blue Movie
Blue Movie
by Andy Warhol, the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States, and the subsequent Golden Age of Porn
Golden Age of Porn
(1969-1984),[3][4][5] leading to an industry for the production and consumption of pornography in the latter half of the 20th century. The introduction of home video and the Internet
Internet
saw a boom in the worldwide porn industry that generates billions of dollars annually. Commercialized pornography accounts for over US$2.5 billion in the United States
United States
alone,[6] including the production of various media and associated products and services. The general porn industry is between $10-$12 billion in the U.S.[7] In 2006 world pornography revenue was 97 billion dollars.[8] Child porn is a $3 billion industry.[9] This industry employs thousands of performers along with support and production staff. It is also followed by dedicated industry publications and trade groups as well as the mainstream press, private organizations (watchdog groups), government agencies, and political organizations.[10] More recently, sites such as Pornhub, RedTube, and YouPorn, in addition to much pirated porn posted by individuals, have served as repositories for home-made or semi-professional pornography, made available free by its creators (who could be called exhibitionists). They present a significant challenge to the commercial pornographic film industry. Irrespective of the legal or social view of pornography, it has been used in a number of contexts. It is used, for example, at fertility clinics to stimulate sperm donors. Some couples use pornography at times for variety and to create a sexual interest or as part of foreplay. There is also some evidence that pornography can be used to treat voyeurism.[11][12]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Classification

3.1 Subgenres

4 Commercialism

4.1 Economics

4.1.1 Non-commercial pornography

4.2 Technology

4.2.1 Advancement 4.2.2 Computer-generated images and manipulations 4.2.3 3D pornography

4.3 Production and distribution by region

5 Study and analysis

5.1 Effects 5.2 Statistics

6 Legal status

6.1 What is not pornography 6.2 Copyright
Copyright
status

7 Views on pornography

7.1 Feminist
Feminist
views 7.2 Religious views

8 See also

8.1 Government and legislation 8.2 Lists

9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 Advocacy 10.2 Opposition 10.3 Neutral or mixed

11 External links

Etymology The word pornography was coined from the ancient Greek words πόρνη (pornē "prostitute" and πορνεία porneia "prostitution"[13]), and γράφειν (graphein "to write or to record", derived meaning "illustration", as in "graph"), and the suffix -ία (-ia, meaning "state of", "property of", or "place of"), thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution". No date is known for the first use of the word in Greek; the earliest attested, most related word one could find in Greek, is πορνογράφος, pornographos, i.e. "someone writing about harlots", in the Deipnosophists
Deipnosophists
of Athenaeus.[14][15] The Modern Greek word pornographia (πορνογραφία) is a reborrowing of the French pornographie.[16] "Pornographie" was in use in the French language during the 1800s. The word did not enter the English language as the familiar word until 1857[17] or as a French import in New Orleans
New Orleans
in 1842.[18] The word was originally introduced by classical scholars as "a bookish, and therefore nonoffensive, term for writing about prostitutes",[19] but its meaning was quickly expanded to include all forms of "objectionable or obscene material in art and literature".[19] As early as 1864, Webster's Dictionary
Webster's Dictionary
defined the word bluntly as "a licentious painting".[19] Pornography
Pornography
is often abbreviated to porn or porno in informal language. History

Scene from the Turin Erotic Papyrus
Turin Erotic Papyrus
showing a scruffy, balding man engaging a beautiful young woman in sexual intercourse[20][21]

Further information: History of erotic depictions Depictions of a sexual nature have existed since prehistoric times, as seen in the Venus figurines
Venus figurines
and rock art.[22] A vast number of artifacts have been discovered from ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
depicting explicit heterosexual sex.[23][24] Glyptic art from the Sumerian Early Dynastic Period frequently shows scenes of frontal sex in the missionary position.[23] In Mesopotamian votive plagues from the early second millennium BC, the man is usually shown entering the woman from behind while she bends over, drinking beer through a straw.[23] Middle Assyrian lead votive figurines often represent the man standing and penetrating the woman as she rests on top of an altar.[23] Scholars have traditionally interpreted all these depictions as scenes of ritual sex,[23] but they are more likely to be associated with the cult of Inanna, the goddess of sex and prostitution.[23] Many sexually explicit images were found in the temple of Inanna
Inanna
at Assur,[23] which also contained models of male and female sexual organs.[23] Depictions of sexual intercourse were not part of the general repertory of ancient Egyptian formal art,[21] but rudimentary sketches of heterosexual intercourse have been found on pottery fragments and in graffiti.[21] The final two thirds of the Turin Erotic Papyrus (Papyrus 55001), an Egyptian papyrus scroll discovered at Deir el-Medina,[25][21] consist of a series of twelve vignettes showing men and women in various sexual positions.[25] The scroll was probably painted in the Ramesside period (1292-1075 BC)[25] and its high artistic quality indicates that was produced for a wealthy audience.[25] No other similar scrolls have yet been discovered.[21]

Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum

When large-scale excavations of Pompeii
Pompeii
were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper-class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples
Naples
and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children, and the working classes.[26] Fanny Hill
Fanny Hill
(1748) is considered "the first original English prose pornography, and the first pornography to use the form of the novel."[27] It is an erotic novel by John Cleland first published in England
England
as Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure.[28][29] It is one of the most prosecuted and banned books in history.[30] The authors were charged with "corrupting the King's subjects." The world's first law criminalizing pornography was the English Obscene Publications Act 1857
Obscene Publications Act 1857
enacted at the urging of the Society for the Suppression of Vice.[31] The Act, which applied to the United Kingdom and Ireland, made the sale of obscene material a statutory offence, giving the courts power to seize and destroy offending material. The American equivalent was the Comstock Act
Comstock Act
of 1873[32][33] which made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail. The English Act did not apply to Scotland, where the common law continued to apply. However, neither the English nor the United States
United States
Act defined what constituted "obscene", leaving this for the courts to determine. Before the English Act, the publication of obscene material was treated as a common law misdemeanour[34] and effectively prosecuting authors and publishers was difficult even in cases where the material was clearly intended as pornography. Although nineteenth-century legislation eventually outlawed the publication, retail, and trafficking of certain writings and images regarded as pornographic and would order the destruction of shop and warehouse stock meant for sale, the private possession of and viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until the twentieth century.[35] Historians have explored the role of pornography in social history and the history of morality.[36] The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Although they were suppressed, depictions of erotic imagery were common throughout history.[37] Pornographic film
Pornographic film
production commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture in 1895. Two of the earliest pioneers were Eugène Pirou
Eugène Pirou
and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner directed the earliest surviving pornographic film for Pirou under the trade name "Léar". The 1896 film Le Coucher de la Mariée
Le Coucher de la Mariée
showed Louise Willy performing a striptease. Pirou's film inspired a genre of risqué French films showing women disrobing and other filmmakers realised profits could be made from such films.[38][39] Sexually explicit films opened producers and distributors to prosecution. Those that were made were produced illicitly by amateurs starting in the 1920s, primarily in France and the United States. Processing the film was risky as was their distribution. Distribution was strictly private.[40][41] In 1969, Denmark became the first country to abolish censorship, thereby decriminalizing pornography, which led to an explosion in investment and of commercially produced pornography. However, it continued to be banned in other countries, and had to be smuggled in, where it was sold "under the counter" or (sometimes) shown in "members only" cinema clubs.[40] Nonetheless, and also in 1969, Blue Movie
Blue Movie
by Andy Warhol, was the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States.[3][4][5] The film was a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn and, according to Warhol, a major influence in the making of Last Tango in Paris, an internationally controversial erotic drama film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue Movie was made.[4] Data suggests an increase in pornography viewing over the past few decades, and this has been attributed to the growth of Internet pornography since widespread public access to the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
in the late 1990s.[42] Through the 2010s, many pornographic production companies and top pornographic websites[43] – such as PornHub, RedTube
RedTube
and YouPorn
YouPorn
– were acquired by MindGeek, which has been described as "a monopoly".[44] The scholarly study of pornography, notably in cultural studies, is limited, perhaps due to the controversy about the topic in feminism. The first peer-reviewed academic journal about the study of pornography, Porn Studies, was published in 2014.[45] Classification Pornography
Pornography
is often distinguished from erotica, which consists of the portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on feelings and emotions, while pornography involves the depiction of acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions.[46][47][1] Pornography
Pornography
is generally classified as either softcore or hardcore. A pornographic work is characterized as hardcore if it has any hardcore content, no matter how small. Both forms of pornography generally contain nudity. Softcore pornography
Softcore pornography
generally contains nudity or partial nudity in sexually suggestive situations, but without explicit sexual activity, sexual penetration or "extreme" fetishism,[48] while hardcore pornography may contain graphic sexual activity and visible penetration,[49] including unsimulated sex scenes. Subgenres Main article: List of pornographic subgenres Pornography
Pornography
encompasses a wide variety of genres. Pornography featuring heterosexual acts composes the bulk of pornography and is "centred and invisible", marking the industry as heteronormative. However, a substantial portion of pornography is not normative, featuring more nonconventional forms of scenarios and sexual activity such as "'fat' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by women, queer porn, BDSM, and body modification."[50] Pornography
Pornography
can be classified according to the physical characteristics of the participants, fetish, sexual orientation, etc., as well as the types of sexual activity featured. Reality and voyeur pornography, animated videos, and legally prohibited acts also influence the classification of pornography. Pornography
Pornography
may fall into more than one genre. The genres of pornography are based on the type of activity featured and the category of participants, for example:

Alt porn Amateur pornography Bondage pornography Ethnic pornography Fetish pornography Group sex Reality pornography Sexual-orientation-based pornography

Straight porn (unless otherwise stated this is assumed in this article) Gay pornography Lesbian pornography Bisexual pornography

Commercialism Economics Main article: Sex
Sex
industry Revenues of the adult industry in the United States
United States
are difficult to determine. In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of hardcore pornography in the United States
United States
was no more than $10 million.[51] In 1998, Forrester Research
Forrester Research
published a report on the online "adult content" industry estimating $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. As an unsourced aside, the Forrester study speculated on an industry-wide aggregate figure of $8–10 billion, which was repeated out of context in many news stories,[52] after being published in Eric Schlosser's book on the American black market.[53] Studies in 2001 put the total (including video, pay-per-view, Internet and magazines) between $2.6 billion and $3.9 billion.[6] As of 2014[update], the porn industry was believed to bring in more than $13 billion on a yearly basis in the United States.[54] CNBC
CNBC
has estimated that pornography was a $13 billion industry in the USA, with $3,075 being spent on porn every second and a new porn video being produced every 39 minutes.[55] A significant amount of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley, which has been a pioneering region for producing adult films since the 1970s, and has since become home for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of pornography. The pornography industry has been considered influential in deciding format wars in media, including being a factor in the VHS
VHS
vs. Betamax format war (the videotape format war)[56][57] and in the Blu-ray
Blu-ray
vs. HD DVD
HD DVD
format war (the high-def format war).[56][57][58] Non-commercial pornography In addition to the porn industry, there is a large amount of non-commercial pornography. This should be distinguished from commercial pornography falsely marketed as featuring "amateurs". Technology Advancement Pornographers have taken advantage of each technological advance in the production and distribution of pornography. They have used lithographs, the printing press, and photography. Pornography
Pornography
is considered a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion), to satellite TV, other forms of video, and the Internet. With the invention of tiny cameras and wireless equipments voyeur pornography is gaining ground.[59][60] Mobile cameras are used to capture pornographic photos or videos, and forwarded as MMS, a practice known as sexting. Computer-generated images and manipulations Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering. Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game.[61] 3D pornography Due to the popularity of 3D blockbusters in theaters such as Avatar and How to Train Your Dragon, companies are now looking to shoot pornographic films in 3D. The first case of this occurred in Hong Kong, when a group of filmmakers filmed 3D Sex
Sex
and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy released in April 2011.[62][63] Production and distribution by region Main article: Pornography
Pornography
by region The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy. In the United States, the sex film industry is centered in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. In Europe, Budapest
Budapest
is regarded as the industry center.[64][65][66] Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution, of adult material is of great concern to the industry,[67] the subject of litigation, and formalized anti-piracy efforts.[68][69] Study and analysis Effects Main article: Effects of pornography See also: Pornography
Pornography
addiction Research concerning the effects of pornography is concerned with multiple outcomes.[70] Such research includes potential influences on rape, domestic violence, sexual dysfunction, difficulties with sexual relationships, and child sexual abuse.[71] While some literature reviews suggest that pornographic images and films can be addictive, insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions.[72][73][74][75] Several studies conclude the liberalization of porn in society may be associated with decreased rape and sexual violence rates, while others suggest no effect, or are inconclusive.[76][77][78][79][80][81][82] Statistics More than 70% of male internet users from 18 to 34 visit a pornographic site in a typical month.[83] A 2009 study published in the Journal of Economic Perspectives found that Utah
Utah
was the largest consumer of paid internet pornography per capita in the United States.[84] Legal status Further information: Pornography by region
Pornography by region
and Laws regarding child pornography

Sex
Sex
and the law

Social issues

Age of consent Antisexualism Censorship Circumcision Deviant sexual intercourse Ethics Homophobia Intersex Miscegenation
Miscegenation
(interracial relations) Norms Objectification Pornography Public morality Red-light district Reproductive rights Same-sex marriage Survival sex

Specific offences (Varies by jurisdiction)

Adultery Bestiality Buggery Child grooming Child pornography Child prostitution Criminal transmission of HIV Female genital mutilation Fornication Incest Pimping Prostitution

forced

Public indecency Rape

statutory marital

Seduction Sexting Sexual abuse

child

Sexual assault Sexual harassment Slavery Sodomy UK Section 63 (2008) Violence Voyeurism

Sex
Sex
offender registration

Sex
Sex
offender registry Sex
Sex
offender registries in the United States

Portals

Sexuality Criminal justice Law

v t e

World map of pornography (18+) laws    Pornography
Pornography
legal    Pornography
Pornography
legal, but under some restrictions    Pornography
Pornography
illegal   Data unavailable

The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of child pornography is illegal in almost all countries, and some countries have restrictions on pornography depicting violence (see, for example, rape pornography) or animal pornography, or both.

Pornographic
Pornographic
entertainment on display in a sex shop window, where there is usually a minimum age to go into pornographic stores

Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to sex shops, mail-order, and television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered practically irrelevant by widely available Internet
Internet
pornography. A failed US law would have made these same restrictions apply to the internet. In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order, either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United States Postal Service. There are recurring urban legends of snuff movies, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have not found any such works. Some people, including pornography producer Larry Flynt
Larry Flynt
and the writer Salman Rushdie,[85] have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography. The UK government has criminalized possession of what it terms "extreme pornography" following the highly publicized murder of Jane Longhurst. Child pornography
Child pornography
is illegal in most countries, with a person most commonly being a child until the age of 18 (though the age varies). In those countries, any film or photo with a child subject in a sexual act is considered pornography and illegal. Pornography
Pornography
can infringe into basic human rights of those involved, especially when consent was not obtained. For example, revenge porn is a phenomenon where disgruntled sexual partners release images or video footage of intimate sexual activity, usually on the internet.[86] In many countries there has been a demand to make such activities specifically illegal carrying higher punishments than mere breach of privacy or image rights, or circulation of prurient material.[87][88] As a result, some jurisdictions have enacted specific laws against "revenge porn".[89] What is not pornography In the U.S., a July 2014 criminal case decision in Massachusetts, Commonwealth v. Rex, 469 Mass. 36 (2014),[90] made a legal determination of what was not to be considered "pornography" and in this particular case "child pornography".[91] It was determined that photographs of naked children that were from sources such as National Geographic magazine, a sociology textbook, and a nudist catalog were not considered pornography in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
even while in the possession of a convicted and (at the time) incarcerated sex offender.[91] Copyright
Copyright
status In the United States, some courts have applied US copyright protection to pornographic materials.[92][93] Although the first US copyright law specifically did not cover obscene materials, the provision was removed subsequently.[when?] Most pornographic works are theoretically work for hire meaning pornographic models do not receive statutory royalties for their performances. Of particular difficulty is the changing community attitudes of what is considered obscene, meaning that works could slip into and out of copyright protection based upon the prevailing standards of decency. This was not an issue with the copyright law up until 1972 when copyright protection required registration. The law was changed to make copyright protection automatic, and for the life of the author.[citation needed] Some courts have held that copyright protection effectively applies to works, whether they are obscene or not,[94] but not all courts have ruled the same way.[95] The copyright protection rights of pornography in the United States
United States
has again been challenged as late as February 2012.[92][96] Views on pornography Main article: Opposition to pornography

A caricature on "the great epidemic of pornography, 19th-century French illustration"

Views and opinions of pornography come in a variety of forms and from a diversity of demographics and societal groups. Opposition of the subject generally, though not exclusively,[97] comes from three main sources: law, feminism and religion. Feminist
Feminist
views Main article: Feminist
Feminist
views of pornography Many feminists, including Andrea Dworkin
Andrea Dworkin
and Catharine MacKinnon, argue that all pornography is demeaning to women or that it contributes to violence against women, both in its production and in its consumption. The production of pornography, they argue, entails the physical, psychological, or economic coercion of the women who perform in it, and where they argue that the abuse and exploitation of women is rampant; in its consumption, they charge that pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment.[98][99][100] They charge that pornography presents a severely distorted image of sexual relations, and reinforces sex myths; that it always shows women as readily available and desiring to engage in sex at any time, with any man, on men's terms, always responding positively to any advances men make.[101] They argue that because pornography often shows women enjoying and desiring to be violently attacked by men, saying "no" when they actually want sex, fighting back but then ending up enjoying the act – this can affect the public understanding of legal issues such as consent to sexual relations.[102] In contrast to these objections, other feminist scholars argue that the lesbian feminist movement in the 1980s was good for women in the porn industry.[103] As more women entered the developmental side of the industry, this allowed women to gear porn more towards women because they knew what women wanted, both for actresses and the audience.[103] This is believed to be a good thing because for such a long time, the porn industry has been directed by men for men.[103] This also sparked the arrival of making lesbian porn for lesbians instead of men.[103] Furthermore, many feminists argue that the advent of VCR and consumer video allowed for the possibility of feminist pornography.[104] Consumer video made it possible for the distribution and consumption of video pornography to locate women as legitimate consumers of pornography. Tristan Taormino says that feminist porn is "all about creating a fair working environment and empowering everyone involved."[105] Feminist
Feminist
porn directors are interested in challenging representations of men and women, as well as providing sexually-empowering imagery that features many kinds of bodies.[106] In a 1995 essay for The New Yorker, writer Susan Faludi
Susan Faludi
argued that porn was one of the few industries where women enjoy a power advantage in the workplace. "'Actresses have the power,' Alec Metro, one of the men in line, ruefully noted of the X-rated industry. A former firefighter who claimed to have lost a bid for a job to affirmative action, Metro was already divining that porn might not be the ideal career choice for escaping the forces of what he called 'reverse discrimination.' Female performers can often dictate which male actors they will and will not work with. 'They make more money than us.' Porn – at least, porn produced for a heterosexual audience – is one of the few contemporary occupations where the pay gap operates in women's favor; the average actress makes fifty to a hundred per cent more money than her male counterpart. But then she is the object of desire; he is merely her appendage, the object of the object."[107] Harry Brod offered a Marxist feminist
Marxist feminist
view, "I [Brod] would argue that sex seems overrated [to men is] because men look to sex for fulfillment of nonsexual emotional needs, a quest doomed to failure. Part of the reason for this failure is the priority of quantity over quality of sex which comes with sexuality's commodification."[108] Religious views Main article: Religious views on pornography Religious organizations have been important in bringing about political action against pornography.[109] In the United States, religious beliefs affect the formation of political beliefs that concern pornography.[110] See also

Pornography
Pornography
portal

Adult Film Database Adult movie theater Adult video arcade Ban This Filth Cartoon pornography Convent pornography Erotic literature Erotic photography Feminist
Feminist
views on pornography Hentai Holocaust pornography Incest pornography Lesbianism in erotica Lolicon Mormon pornography Pregnancy in art Queer pornography Sex
Sex
and nudity in video games Sex
Sex
in advertising Sex-positive feminism Sex
Sex
worker Shotacon Shunga Snuff film Teen pornography Transsexual pornography Pornographic film
Pornographic film
actor Vagina and vulva in art Women's erotica

Government and legislation

Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance Meese Report, 1986 U.S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography President's Commission on Obscenity
Obscenity
and Pornography, 1969, United States Stanley v. Georgia, U.S. Supreme Court case that established a right to pornography Williams Committee, 1979 U.K. Committee on Obscenity
Obscenity
and Film Censorship

Lists

List of authors of erotic works List of pornographic book publishers List of pornographic film studios List of pornographic magazines Lists of pornographic actors List of pornographic subgenres

References

^ a b What Distinguishes Erotica
Erotica
from Pornography? - Leon F Seltzer, Psychology Today, 6 April 2011 ^ H. Mongomery Hyde (1964), A History of Pornography: 1–26. ^ a b Canby, Vincent (July 22, 1969). "Movie Review - Blue Movie (1968) Screen: Andy Warhol's 'Blue Movie'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2015.  ^ a b c Comenas, Gary (2005). " Blue Movie
Blue Movie
(1968)". WarholStars.org. Retrieved December 29, 2015.  ^ a b Canby, Vincent (August 10, 1969). "Warhol's Red Hot and 'Blue' Movie. D1. Print. (behind paywall)". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2015.  ^ a b Ackman, Dan (25 May 2001). "How Big Is Porn?". Forbes. Archived from the original on 9 June 2001. Retrieved 8 November 2007. $2.6 billion to $3.9 billion. Sources: Adams Media Research, Forrester Research, Veronis Suhler Communications Industry Report, IVD  ^ "Things Are Looking Up in America's Porn Industry - NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ cite web url=http://internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/internet-pornography-statistics.html title=Archived copy accessdate=2010-05-27 deadurl=yes archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111013032720/http://internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/internet-pornography-statistics.html archivedate=2011-10-13 df= [Last accessed on 2010 Nov 12] [Ref list] ^ http://www.toptenreviews.com/2-6-04.html ^ Staff. "The Truth About California's Adult Entertainment Industry White Paper 1999". Adult Video
Video
News. Retrieved 28 April 2014.  ^ Rincover, Arnold (January 13, 1990). "Can Pornography
Pornography
Be Used as Treatment for Voyeurism?". Toronto Star. p. H2.  ^ Jackson, B (1969). "A case of voyeurism treated by counterconditioning". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 7 (1): 133–4. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(69)90058-8. PMID 5767619.  ^ List of Greek words starting with πορν- (porn-) on Perseus. ^ πορνογράφος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. ^ Athenaeus. "Book 13.567b". The Deipnosophists
Deipnosophists
(in Greek).  At the Perseus Project. ^ "πορνογραφία". Dictionary of Modern Greek, Institute of Manolis Triantafyllidis, 1998. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2011-04-21. ^ history of the word pornography podictionary – for word lovers – dictionary etymology, trivia & history. podictionary (2009-03-13). Retrieved 2011-04-21. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. ^ a b c Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (2010). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 767–768. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.  ^ Schmidt, Robert A.; Voss, Barbara L. (2000). Archaeologies of Sexuality. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Psychology Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-415-22366-9.  ^ a b c d e Robins, Gay (1993). Women in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-674-95469-6.  ^ Richard Rudgley (2000). "Venus Figurines: Sex
Sex
Objects or Symbols?". The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age. Simon and Schuster. pp. 184–200. ISBN 978-0-684-86270-5. Retrieved 28 September 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. pp. 150–152. ISBN 0-7141-1705-6.  ^ Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Daily Life. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. p. 137. ISBN 978-0313294976.  ^ a b c d O'Connor, David (September–October 2001). "Eros in Egypt". Archaeology Odyssey.  ^ Pornography: A Secret History of Civilisation, World of Wonder, Channel 4 Television Corporation, UK, 1999. Part 1. ^ Foxon, D. F. Libertine Literature
Literature
in England, 1660–1745, 1965, p. 45. ^ Wagner, "Introduction", in Cleland, Fanny Hill, 1985, p. 7. ^ Lane, Obscene Profits: The Entrepreneurs of Pornography
Pornography
in the Cyber Age, 2000, p. 11. ^ Browne, The Guide to United States
United States
Popular Culture, 2001, p. 273, ISBN 0-87972-821-3; Sutherland, Offensive Literature: Decensorship in Britain, 1960–1982, 1983, p. 32, ISBN 0-389-20354-8. ^ Miriam A. Drake (2003). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Abs-Dec. CRC Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-8247-2077-3. Retrieved 16 July. 2017 ^ The Comstock Act
Comstock Act
17 Stat. 598 ^ Eskridge, William N. (2002). Gaylaw: challenging the apartheid of the closet. Harvard University Press. p. 392.  ^ From the precedent set by R. v. Curl (1729) following the publication of Venus in the Cloister. ^ H. Montgomery Hyde A History of Pornography. (1969) London, Heinemann; p. 14. ^ Judith Ann Giesberg, Sex
Sex
and the Civil War: Soldiers, Pornography, and the Making of American Morality (U of North Carolina Press, 2017). ^ Beck, Marianna (May 2003). "The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections". Libido, The Journal of Sex
Sex
and Sensibility. Retrieved 22 August 2006.  ^ Bottomore, Stephen (1996). "Léar (Albert Kirchner)". Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2006. (Stephen Herbert and Luke McKernan, eds.)  ^ Bottomore, Stephen (1996). "Eugène Pirou". Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2006. (Stephen Herbert and Luke McKernan, eds.)  ^ a b Chris Rodley, Dev Varma, Kate Williams III (Directors); Marilyn Milgrom, Grant Romer, Rolf Borowczak, Bob Guccione, Dean Kuipers (Cast) (7 March 2006). Pornography: The Secret History of Civilization (DVD). Port Washington, NY: Koch Vision. ISBN 1-4172-2885-7. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2006.  ^ Corliss, Richard (29 March 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic". Time. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2006.  ^ Jacobs, Tom (August 28, 2015). " Pornography
Pornography
Consumption on the Rise". Pacific Standard. The Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media and Public Policy. Retrieved November 30, 2015.  ^ "Bulk Alexa rank checker". BulkSeoTools.com Bulk Alexa Rank Checker. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.  ^ Auerbach, David (23 October 2014). "Vampire Porn". Slate. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.  ^ Dugdale, John (2 May 2013). "Porn studies is the new discipline for academics". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2013.  ^ William J. Gehrke (10 December 1996). " Erotica
Erotica
is Not Pornography". The Tech.  ^ "h2g2 – What is Erotic and What is Pornographic?". BBC. 29 March 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ Martin Amis
Martin Amis
(17 March 2001). "A rough trade". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 February 2012.  ^ "P20th Century Nudes in Art". The Art History Archive. Retrieved 29 February 2012.  ^ Mulholland, Monique (March 2011). "WHEN PORNO MEETS HETERO". Australian Feminist
Feminist
Studies. Taylor & Francis. 26 (67): 119–135. doi:10.1080/08164649.2011.546332. The pornographic genre is immense, and includes an enormous variety of styles catering to an equally vast range of tastes and fetishes. Certainly, mainstream heteroporn makes up the main bulk of the genre, and is most easily accessible. As stated above, this style of porn includes highly formulaic displays of paired or group sex, enacted by bodies exhibiting a conventional gendered aesthetic, moving through various sexual positions and penetrations. Nonetheless, some forms of porn are more normative than others, and indeed not all forms of heteroporn are normative, such as ' rimming ', girl on boy strap-on anal sex, and hard-core BDSM. Pornography
Pornography
also includes an endless array of different kinds of fetish, ' fat ' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by women, queer porn, BDSM and body modification. The list of non- mainstream porn is endless and displays bodies, gender scenarios and sexual activity differently to heteronormative formulations of mainstream heteroporn.  ^ President's Commission on Obscenity
Obscenity
and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity
Obscenity
and Pornography
Pornography
1970, Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. ^ Richard, Emmanuelle (23 May 2002). "The Naked Untruth". Alternet. Archived from the original on 28 September 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2006.  ^ Schlosser, Eric (8 May 2003). Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-33466-7.  Schlosser's book repeats the $10 billion figure without additional evidence ^ Szymanski, Dawn M.; Stewart-Richardson, Destin N. (January 2014). "Psychological, relational, and sexual correlates of pornography use on young adult heterosexual men in romantic relationships". The Journal of Men's Studies. Sage. 22 (1): 64–82. doi:10.3149/jms.2201.64.  ^ Josh Lipton. "Coming Soon: XXX In 3D". Minyanville. Retrieved 9 October 2015.  ^ a b Mearian, Lucas (2 May 2006). "Porn industry may be decider in Blu-ray, HD-DVD battle". MacWorld. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2007.  Ron Wagner, Director of IT at a California porn studio: "If you look at the VHS
VHS
vs. Beta standards, you see the much higher-quality standard dying because of [the porn industry's support of VHS] ... The mass volume of tapes in the porn market at the time went out on VHS." ^ a b Lynch, Martin (17 January 2007). " Blu-ray
Blu-ray
loves porn after all". The Inquirer. Incisive Media Investments. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. By many accounts VHS would not have won its titanic struggle against Sony's Betamax
Betamax
video tape format if it had not been for porn. This might be over-stating its importance but it was an important factor. ... There is no way that Sony can ignore the boost that porn can give the Blu-ray format.  ^ Gardiner, Bryan (22 January 2007). "Porn Industry May Decide DVD Format War". FOXNews.com – Technology News. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. As was expected, the 2007 Consumer Electronics Show
Consumer Electronics Show
saw even more posturing and politics between the Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc and HD DVD
HD DVD
camps, with each side announcing a new set of alliances and predicting that the end of the war was imminent.  ^ Staff. "Magnet Media Holds Porn/Tech Event in NYC This Tuesday:". Adult Video
Video
News. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Staff. "How Porn Drives Mainstream Internet
Internet
Technology Adoption Tuesday, Mar 11, 12:30 pm @ Rose Auditorium". Garys Guide. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ " Playboy
Playboy
undressed video game women – Aug. 25, 2004". CNN. 25 August 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2006.  ^ " Hong Kong
Hong Kong
filmmakers shoot 'first' 3D porn film". Yahoo. 8 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ " Hong Kong
Hong Kong
filmmakers shoot 'first' 3D porn film". Asian Sex Gazette. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010.  ^ “Strange and wonderful” Budapest
Budapest
— Where the living is increasingly pleasant...and still very cheap Archived 2010-02-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Escapeartist.com (1989-09-11). Retrieved 2011-04-21. ^ Sex
Sex
trade moguls thrive by the Blue Danube – World, News. The Independent (1996-07-21). Retrieved 2011-04-21. ^ The Art and Politics of Netporn » Abstract. Networkcultures.org. Retrieved 2011-04-21. ^ Hymes, Tom. "Adult Tube Sites Now Spamming Through Google News". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.  ^ Kernes, Mark. "Nightline Takes a Look at Porn Piracy, and Targets MindGeek". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.  ^ Staff. "Takedown Piracy Celebrates Fifth Anniversary". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.  ^ Segal, David (28 March 2014). "Does porn hurt children?". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ "Is porn harmful?". BBC. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.  ^ Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N (2015-09-22). "Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science". Neuropsychopharmacology. 41 (1): 385–386. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.300. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 4677151 . PMID 26657963.  ^ Kraus, Shane W.; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N. (2016-02-19). "Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?". Addiction. In press: 2097–2106. doi:10.1111/add.13297. PMC 4990495 . PMID 26893127.  ^ Kühn, S; Gallinat, J (2016). "Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality". International review of neurobiology. 129: 67–83. doi:10.1016/bs.irn.2016.04.002. PMID 27503448.  ^ Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly; Laier, Christian; Wölfling, Klaus; Potenza, Marc N. "Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 71: 252–266. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.033. PMID 27590829.  ^ Kutchinsky, Berl (1992), "Pornography, sex crime and public policy", in Gerull, Sally-Anne; Halstead, Boronia, Sex
Sex
industry and public policy: proceedings of a conference held 6-8 May 1991, Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Criminology, pp. 41–55, archived from the original on October 7, 2015  ISBN 9780642182913 Pdf. ^ Kutchinsky, Berl (Summer 1973). "The effect of easy availability of pornography on the incidence of sex crimes: the Danish experience". Journal of Social Issues. Wiley for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. 29 (3): 163–181. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1973.tb00094.x.  ^ Diamond, Milton (September–October 2009). "Pornography, public acceptance and sex related crime: A review". International Journal of Law
Law
and Psychiatry. Elsevier. 32 (5): 304–314. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.06.004.  ^ Slade, Joseph (2001). Pornography
Pornography
and sexual representation: a reference guide, volume 3. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313275685.  ^ Kutchinsky, Berl (1970). Studies on pornography and sex crimes in Denmark. New social science monographs. United States: Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, eksp. OCLC 155896.  Online. Archived 2007-10-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kendall, Todd D. (January 19–20, 2007). Pornography, rape, and the internet (doc). Fourth bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet
Internet
Industries. Toulouse, France. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  Pdf. ^ D'Amato, Anthony (June 23, 2006). "Porn up, rape down". Northwestern Public Law
Law
(Research Paper No. 913013). Social Science Research Network. doi:10.2139/ssrn.913013. SSRN 913013 .  ^ Statistics on Pornography, Sexual Addiction and Online Perpetrators and their Effects on Children, Pastors and Churches. Safefamilies.org. Retrieved 2011-04-21. ^ Edelman, Benjamin. "Red Light States: Who Buys Online Adult Entertainment?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 23, Number 1 (Winter 2009), pages 209–220. ^ Baxter, Sarah; Brooks, Richard (8 August 2004). "Porn is vital to freedom, says Rushdie". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. Pornography
Pornography
exists everywhere, of course, but when it comes into societies in which it's difficult for young men and women to get together and do what young men and women often like doing, it satisfies a more general need.... While doing so, it sometimes becomes a kind of standard-bearer for freedom, even civilisation.  ^ Salter, Michael (2013). "Responding to revenge porn: Gender, justice and online legal impunity". academia.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2016.  ^ Levendowski, Amanda M. (2014). "Using Copyright
Copyright
to Combat Revenge Porn". NYU Journal of Intellectual Property & Entertainment Law. Social Science Research Network. 3. SSRN 2374119 .  ^ Bhasin, Puneet (29 November 2014). "Online Revenge Porn-Recourse for Victims under Cyber Laws". India: iPleaders. Retrieved 29 January 2016.  ^ "'Revenge porn' Facebook post leads to jail sentence". BBC News. Retrieved 9 October 2015.  ^ Staff. "Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, Norfolk. COMMONWEALTH v. John REX. No. SJC–11480. Decided: July 9, 2014". findlaw.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.  ^ a b Kernes, Mark. "MA Supremes Rule National Geographic Photos Not Kid Porn". AVN.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.  ^ a b Goussé, Caroline (2012-02-16). "No Copyright
Copyright
Protection for Pornography: A Daring Response to File-Sharing Litigation". Intellectual Property Brief. Retrieved 2012-03-01. ^ Masnick, Mike (2011-11-04). "Court Wonders If Porn Can Even Be Covered By Copyright". Tech Dirt. Retrieved 2012-03-01. ^ Mitchell Bros. Film Group v. Cinema Adult Theater, 604 F.2d 852 (5th Cir.1979) and Jartech v. Clancy, 666 F.2d 403 (9th Cir.1982) held that obscenity could not be a defense to copyright claims. ^ Devils Films, Inc. v. Nectar Video
Video
Under, 29 F.Supp.2d 174, 175 (S.D.N.Y. 1998) refused to follow the Mitchell ruling and relied on the doctrine of "clean hands" to deny copyright protection to works seen as obscene. ^ "You Can’t Copyright
Copyright
Porn, Harassed BitTorrent Defendant Insists", TorrentFreak, 6 February 2012. Retrieved 9 Augusti 2012. ^ "2 male porn performers test positive for HIV". Retrieved 31 December 2014.  ^ Shrage, Laurie (Fall 2015), " Feminist
Feminist
perspectives on sex markets: pornography", Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1983). "Not a moral issue". Yale Law
Law
& Policy Review. Yale Law
Law
School. 2 (2): 321–345. JSTOR 40239168. Sex
Sex
forced on real women so that it can be sold at a profit to be forced on other real women; women's bodies trussed and maimed and raped and made into things to be hurt and obtained and accessed, and this presented as the nature of women; the coercion that is visible and the coercion that has become invisible—this and more grounds the feminist concern with pornography  Pdf.

Reprinted as: MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1989), "Pornography: on morality and politics", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Toward a Feminist Theory of the State, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 195–214, ISBN 9780674896468.  Also reprinted as: MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1987), "Not a moral issue", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Feminism
Feminism
unmodified: discourses on life and law, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 146–162, ISBN 9780674298743.  Preview.

^ "A Conversation With Catherine MacKinnon (transcript)". Think Tank. 1995. PBS. Retrieved 1 September 2009.  ^ Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (Interview with Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian. London.  ^ Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (Interview with Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian. London. Catharine MacKinnon argues that: " Pornography
Pornography
affects people's belief in rape myths. So for example if a woman says 'I didn't consent' and people have been viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did consent no matter what she said. That when she said no, she meant yes. When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to be given a good corrective experience. Pornography
Pornography
promotes these rape myths and desensitises people to violence against women so that you need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography consumer. This is very well documented."  ^ a b c d Ziv, Amalia (October 2014). "Girl meets boy: cross-gender queer and the promise of pornography". Sexualities. Sage. 17 (7): 885–905. doi:10.1177/1363460714532937.  ^ Commella, Lynn (2013), "From text to context", in Taormino, Tristan; Parreñas Shimizu, Celine; Penley, Constance; Miller-Young, Mireille, The feminist porn book: the politics of producing pleasure, New York, New York: Feminist
Feminist
Press at the City University of New York, pp. 79–96, ISBN 9781558618190.  ^ Vogels, Josey (21 April 2009). "Female-friendly porn". Metro News. Canada: Metro International. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  ^ Erickson, Loree (2013), "Out of line: the sexy femmegimp politics of flaunting it!", in Taormino, Tristan; Parreñas Shimizu, Celine; Penley, Constance; Miller-Young, Mireille, The feminist porn book: the politics of producing pleasure, New York, New York: Feminist
Feminist
Press at the City University of New York, pp. 320–328, ISBN 9781558618190.  ^ Fauldi, Susan (October 30, 1995). "The Money Shot". The New Yorker. pp. 65–66.  (Emphasis in original). ^ Brod, Harry (1996). " Pornography
Pornography
and the alienation of male sexuality". In May, Larry; Strikwerda, Robert; Hopkins, Patrick D. Rethinking masculinity: philosophical explorations in light of feminism (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 242. ISBN 9780847682577.  ^ Sherkat, Darren E.; Ellison, Christopher G. (March 1997). "The cognitive structure of a moral crusade: conservative protestantism and opposition to pornography". Social Forces. Oxford Journals. 75 (3): 958. doi:10.1093/sf/75.3.957. JSTOR 2580526.  ^ Sherkat, Darren E.; Ellison, Christopher G. (August 1999). "Recent developments and current controversies in the sociology of religion". Annual Review of Sociology. Annual Reviews. 25: 370. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.363. JSTOR 223509.  Pdf.

Further reading

Advocacy

Bright, Susie (1990). Susie Sexpert's lesbian sex world. Pittsburgh: Cleis Press. ISBN 9780939416356.  Bright, Susie (1992). Susie Bright's sexual reality: a virtual sex world reader. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Cleis Press. ISBN 9780939416592.  Both of Bright's books challenge any equations between feminism and anti-pornography positions. Hunter, Jack (September 14, 2012), "Art or obscene? (blog)", in Dodson, Betty, Feminism
Feminism
and free speech: pornography, Feminists for Free Expression 1993, retrieved May 8, 2002  Ellis, Kate (1988). Caught looking: feminism, pornography & censorship (2nd ed.). Seattle: Real Comet Press. ISBN 9780941104234.  Griffin, Susan (1981). Pornography
Pornography
and silence: culture's revenge against nature. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780060116477.  Gever, Matthew (3 December 1998). " Pornography
Pornography
helps women, society". Daily Bruin. UCLA. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  Student run newspaper. Gregory, Michele. "Pro- Sex
Sex
Feminism: Redefining Pornography
Pornography
(or, a study in alliteration: the pro pornography position paper)". Witsendzine.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  Juno, Andrea; Vale, V. (Fall 1991). "Angry women". RE/Search. Re/Search Publications. 13. ISBN 9780940642249.  Performance artists and literary theorists who challenge Dworkin and MacKinnon. McElroy, Wendy (29 June 2000). "You are what you read?". lewrockwell.com. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  Defends the availability of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns. McElroy, Wendy. "A feminist overview of pornography, ending in a defense thereof". wendymcelroy.com. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  McElroy, Wendy. "A feminist defense of pornography". Council for Secular Humanism. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  Newitz, Annalee (8 May 2002). "Obscene feminists: why women are leading the battle against censorship". San Francisco Bay Guardian. San Francisco Newspaper Company. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  Strossen, Nadine (2000). Defending pornography: free speech, sex, and the fight for women's rights. New York London: New York University Press. ISBN 9780814781494. 

Review of Strossen's book: Blumen, Jonathan (November 1995). "Nadine Strossen: pornography must be tolerated". The Ethical Spectacle, special issue: Humans and their pornography. Jonathan Wallace. 1 (11). 

Tucker, Scott (1990). "Gender, fucking, and utopia: an essay in response to John Stoltenberg's Refusing to Be a Man". Social Text. Duke University Press
Duke University Press
via JSTOR. 27 (27): 3–34. doi:10.2307/466305. JSTOR 466305.  Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin's positions on pornography and power. Williams, Linda (1989). Hard core: power, pleasure, and the "frenzy of the visible". Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520066533. 

Also as: Williams, Linda (1999). Hard core: power, pleasure, and the "frenzy of the visible" (Expanded paperback ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520219434. 

Williams, Linda, ed. (2004). Porn studies. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822333128. 

Opposition

Assiter, Alison (1989). Pornography, feminism, and the individual. London Winchester, Massachusetts: Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745303192.  Assiter advocates seeing pornography as epitomizing a wider problem of oppression, exploitation and inequality which needs to be better understood. Carse, Alisa L. (February 1995). "Pornography: an uncivil liberty?". Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist
Feminist
Philosophy, special issue: Feminist Ethics and Social Policy, Part 1. Wiley. 10 (1): 155–182. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1995.tb01358.x. JSTOR 3810463.  An argument for approaches to end harm to women caused by pornography. Davies, Alex (March 2014). "How to silence content with porn, context and loaded questions". European Journal of Philosophy. Wiley. 24 (2): 498–522. doi:10.1111/ejop.12075.  (Online version before inclusion in an issue.) An illustration of Catharine Mackinnon's theory that pornography silence's women's speech, this illustration differs from one given by Rae Langton (below). Hill, Judith M. (June 1987). " Pornography
Pornography
and degradation". Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist
Feminist
Philosophy. Wiley. 2 (2): 39–54. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1987.tb01064.x. JSTOR 3810015.  A critique of the pornographic industry within a Kantian ethical framework. Kimmel, Michael (1990). Men confront pornography. New York: Crown. ISBN 9780517569313.  A variety of essays that try to assess ways that pornography may take advantage of men. Langton, Rae (Autumn 1993). "Speech acts and unspeakable acts". Philosophy & Public Affairs. Wiley. 22 (4): 293–330. JSTOR 2265469.  Pdf. A description of Catharine Mackinnon's theory that pornography silence's women's speech, this description differs from the one given by Alex Davies (above). Lubben, Shelley. Secondary negative effects on employees of the pornographic industry (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on 2012-03-23.  MacKinnon, Catharine (1983). "Not a moral issue". Yale Law
Law
& Policy Review. Yale Law
Law
School. 2 (2): 321–345. JSTOR 40239168.  Pdf. An argument that pornography is one element of an unjust institution of the subordination of women to men. MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1987), "Francis Biddle's sister: pornography, civil rights, and speech", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Feminism unmodified: discourses on life and law, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 177, 181 and 193, ISBN 9780674298743.  Preview. An argument that pornography silences women therefore acting as an infringement of free speech (see Davies above, and Langton, also above). MacKinnon, Catharine A. (January 1989). "Sexuality, pornography, and method: "Pleasure under Patriarchy"". Ethics. University of Chicago Press. 99 (2): 314–346. doi:10.1086/293068. JSTOR 2381437.  Vadas, Melinda (September 1987). "A first look at the Pornography/Civil Rights Ordinance: could pornography be the subordination of women?". The Journal of Philosophy. Philosophy Documentation Center. 84 (9): 487–511. doi:10.5840/jphil198784938. JSTOR 2027061.  A defence of the Dworkin-MacKinnon definition and condemnation of pornography employing putatively relatively rigorous analysis.

See also: Parent, W. A. (April 1990). "A second look at pornography and the subordination of women". The Journal of Philosophy. Philosophy Documentation Center. 87 (4): 205–211. doi:10.2307/2026681. JSTOR 2026681.  A criticism of Vadas' paper.

Vadas, Melinda (August 1992). "The Pornography/Civil Rights Ordinance v. The BOG: and the winner is…?". Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy. Wiley. 7 (3): 94–109. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1992.tb00906.x. JSTOR 3809874.  An argument that pornography increases women's vulnerability to rape. Various (1988). Pornography
Pornography
and sexual violence: evidence of the links. The complete transcript of Public Hearings on Ordinances to Add Pornography
Pornography
as Discrimination Against Women: Minneapolis City Council, Government Operations Committee, December 12 and 13, 1983. London: Everywoman. ISBN 9781870868006.  A representation of the causal connections between pornography and violence towards women. Whisnant, Rebecca (2015), "Not your father's Playboy, not your mother's feminist movement: feminism in porn", in Kiraly, Miranda; Tyler, Meagan, Freedom fallacy: the limits of liberal feminism, Ballarat, Victoria: Connor Court Publishing, ISBN 9781925138542. 

Neutral or mixed

Vance, Carole, ed. (1984). Pleasure and danger: exploring female sexuality. Boston: Routledge
Routledge
& K. Paul. ISBN 9780710202482.  Collection of papers from 1982 conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography activists and lesbian S&M theorists.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pornography.

Early silent pornographic film from 1925 available at Wikimedia Commons.

Look up pornography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pornography

Commentary

"American Porn". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved 2014-02-01.  Interactive web site companion to a Frontline documentary exploring the pornography industry within the United States.

Technology

From teledildonics to interactive porn: the future of sex in a digital age (2014-06-06), The Guardian

Economics

Susannah Breslin, Contributor (2013-12-20). "LEADERSHIP: What Porn Stars Do When The Porn Industry Shuts Down". Forbes. 

Government

Kutchinsky, Berl, Professor of Criminology: The first law that legalized pornography (Denmark)

History

Patricia Davis, PhD, Simon Noble & Rebecca J. White (2010). The History of Modern Pornography. History.com. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Sociology

Diamond, M. and Uchiyama, A. (1999). "Pornography, Rape
Rape
and Sex
Sex
Crimes in Japan". International Journal of Law
Law
and Psychiatry. 22 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1016/s0160-2527(98)00035-1. PMID 10086287. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) " Pornography
Pornography
and Censorship". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 

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Alt porn Bisexual pornography Bondage pornography Imagery of nude celebrities

Celebrity sex tape

Clothed female, naked male Clothed male, naked female Convent pornography Ethnic pornography Gang bang pornography Gay pornography Gonzo pornography Incest pornography Lesbianism in erotica Mormon pornography Queer pornography Rape
Rape
pornography Reality pornography Tentacle erotica Transsexual pornography Women's pornography

Related

History of erotic depictions Pornographic film
Pornographic film
actor

Organizations

Adult Film Association of America Critics Adult Film Association Fans of X-Rated Entertainment Free Speech Coalition X-Rated Critics Organization

Opposition to pornography

Movements

Anti-pornography movement in the United Kingdom Anti-pornography movement in the United States Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance

Organizations

Churchmen's Committee for Decent Publications Feminists Fighting Pornography Fight the New Drug The Marriage
Marriage
Vow No More Page 3 Stop Bild Sexism Stop Child Trafficking Now Stop Porn Culture Women Against Pornography Women Against Violence in Pornography
Pornography
and Media XXXchurch.com

Pornography overuse

Support groups

NoFap The "S-fellowships"

See also

Content-control software Accountability software Parental controls Employee monitoring software

Views

Feminist
Feminist
views on pornography Religious views on pornography

Media

Pornographic
Pornographic
film

Parody Cartoon pornography

Pornographic
Pornographic
magazine

List

Pornographic
Pornographic
video game

Eroge

Newspaper features

Page 3 in The Sun (United Kingdom)

By region

Asia

Bangladesh India Japan

History

Middle East North Korea Pakistan Philippines Turkey

Europe

Denmark Hungary Italy United Kingdom

Americas

Canada United States

Possible effects

Internet
Internet
sex addiction Pornography
Pornography
addiction Pornophobia STDs in the porn industry Other effects

Laws

General

Adult film industry regulations Legal objections to pornography in the United States Legal status of Internet
Internet
pornography

Legislation and cases

Legislation

United Kingdom

Audiovisual Media Services Regulations 2014 British Board of Film Classification Committee on Obscenity
Obscenity
and Film Censorship Obscene Publications Act 1959 Possession of Extreme Pornographic
Pornographic
Images Video
Video
Recordings Act 2010

United States

Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance Child Online Protection Act Child Protection and Obscenity
Obscenity
Enforcement Act

Custodian of Records

Child Protection Restoration and Penalties Enhancement Act of 1990 Communications Decency Act Pornography
Pornography
Victims Compensation Act

Europe (excluding UK)

Bulgaria Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Russia Spain Sweden Ukraine

Asia

China India Indonesia Hong Kong Kazakhstan Japan Malaysia Maldives Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Turkey United Arab Emirates

Americas

Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Jamaica Mexico

African

Nigeria South Africa

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

Cases

American Booksellers v. Hudnut California v. Freeman Jacobellis v. Ohio Miller v. California R v Butler R v Glad Day Bookshops Inc R v Peacock Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. Stanley v. Georgia United States
United States
v. Extreme Associates United States
United States
v. Playboy
Playboy
Entertainment Group

Other

Meese Report President's Commission on Obscenity
Obscenity
and Pornography

Child pornography laws

By country

Australia Canada India Japan Netherlands Philippines Portugal United Kingdom United States

Child Pornography
Pornography
Prevention Act of 1996 New York v. Ferber Osborne v. Ohio PROTECT Act of 2003 United States
United States
v. Williams

Other

COPINE scale Debate regarding child pornography laws Dost test Legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution
Prostitution
and Child Pornography United States
United States
v. X-Citement Video, Inc.

People

Actors

Actresses by decade African-American Asian AVN Hall of Fame members British Gay male List of pornographic actors who appeared in mainstream films List of mainstream actors who have appeared in pornographic films

Directors

By genre

Bisexual Gay Lesbian Transsexual

By country

American British Canadian Czech French German Hungarian Italian Japanese Romanian Spanish Swedish

Awards

Adult Broadcasting Awards AVN Award

Hall of Fame GayVN Awards

AV Open Sexual Freedom Awards Fans of Adult Media and Entertainment Award Feminist
Feminist
Porn Award Grabby Awards Hot d'Or Japanese Adult Video
Video
Awards (1991–2008) PorYes SHAFTA Awards Transgender Erotica
Erotica
Awards UK Adult Film and Television Awards Urban X Award Venus Award XBIZ Award XRCO Award

Hall of Fame members

Events

Adultcon AVN Adult Entertainment Expo Barcelona International Erotic Film Festival Brussels International Festival of Eroticism Exotic Erotic Ball Exxxotica HUMP Porn Sunday

Miscellaneous

Adult movie theater

Adult video arcade

Blue Movie Golden Age of Porn Panda pornography "Porno chic" Pornographication Pornotopia R18 certificate Rule 34 Sex
Sex
shop Sexualization X rating

See also

Erotica

Art Comics Film Literature Photography

Ribaldry

Pornography
Pornography
related articles

v t e

Photography

Outline

Terminology

35 mm equivalent focal length Angle of view Aperture Black and white Chromatic aberration Circle of confusion Color
Color
balance Color
Color
temperature Depth of field Depth of focus Exposure Exposure compensation Exposure value Zebra patterning F-number Film format

Large Medium

Film speed Focal length Guide number Hyperfocal distance Metering mode Orb (optics) Perspective distortion Photograph Photographic printing Photographic processes Reciprocity Red-eye effect Science of photography Shutter speed Sync Zone System

Genres

Abstract Aerial Architectural Astrophotography Banquet Conceptual Conservation Cloudscape Documentary Ethnographic Erotic Fashion Fine-art Fire Forensic Glamour High-speed Landscape Lomography Nature Neues Sehen Nude Photojournalism Pornography Portrait Post-mortem Selfie Social documentary Sports Still life Stock Street Vernacular Underwater Wedding Wildlife

Techniques

Afocal Bokeh Brenizer Burst mode Contre-jour Cyanotype ETTR Fill flash Fireworks Harris shutter HDRI High-speed Holography Infrared Intentional camera movement Kirlian Kite aerial Long-exposure Macro Mordançage Multiple exposure Night Panning Panoramic Photogram Print toning Redscale Rephotography Rollout Scanography Schlieren photography Sabatier effect Stereoscopy Stopping down Strip

Slit-scan

Sun printing Tilt–shift

Miniature faking

Time-lapse Ultraviolet Vignetting Xerography

Composition

Diagonal method Framing Headroom Lead room Rule of thirds Simplicity Golden triangle (composition)

Equipment

Camera

light-field field instant pinhole press rangefinder SLR still TLR toy view

Darkroom

enlarger safelight

Film

base format holder stock

Filter Flash

beauty dish cucoloris gobo hood hot shoe monolight Reflector snoot Softbox

Lens

Wide-angle lens Zoom lens Telephoto lens

Manufacturers Monopod Movie projector Slide projector Tripod

head

Zone plate

History

Timeline of photography technology Analog photography Autochrome Lumière Box camera Calotype Camera
Camera
obscura Daguerreotype Dufaycolor Heliography Painted photography backdrops Photography
Photography
and the law Glass plate Visual arts

Digital photography

Digital camera

D-SLR

comparison

MILC camera back

Digiscoping Digital versus film photography Film scanner Image sensor

CMOS APS CCD Three-CCD camera Foveon X3 sensor

Image sharing Pixel

Color photography

Color Print film Reversal film Color
Color
management

color space primary color CMYK color model RGB color model

Photographic processing

Bleach bypass C-41 process Cross processing Developer Digital image processing Dye coupler E-6 process Fixer Gelatin silver process Gum printing Instant film K-14 process Print permanence Push processing Stop bath

Lists

Most expensive photographs Photographers

Norwegian Polish street women

 Category  Portal

v t e

Sexual revolution

Main topics

Free love Summer of Love

Milestones

Abortion law Blue Movie Divorce law by country Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Golden Age of Porn "Porno chic" Pornography Pornography
Pornography
in the United States Swinging The Pill (1965) United States
United States
v. One Book Called Ulysses

Slogans

"Make love, not war" "The personal is political"

Events

Kinsey Reports Masters and Johnson Institute Playboy Protests of 1968 Stonewall riots

People

Gerard Damiano Hugh Hefner Virginia Johnson Alfred Kinsey William Masters Radley Metzger Wilhelm Reich Andy Warhol

Related topics

Counterculture of the 1960s Feminist
Feminist
views of pornography Hippie LGBT LGBT
LGBT
culture in New York City Lust New Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Garrick Theatre 55th Street Playhouse Peace movement The Factory Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution: An Unfettered History (2001 book)

v t e

Human sexuality
Human sexuality
and sexology

Sexual relationship phenomena

Asexuality

Gray asexuality

Bisexuality Casual relationship Casual sex Celibacy Celibacy
Celibacy
syndrome Committed relationship Free love Foreplay Herbivore men Heterosexuality Homosexuality Hypersexuality Marriage One-night stand Polyamory Promiscuity

Female

Romantic love

Romantic orientation

Flirting Sex
Sex
life Sexual abstinence Sexual partner Single person Swinging

Sexual dynamics

Hypergamy Intersex Physical attractiveness Sexual attraction Sexual ethics

See also

Sexual addiction Sex
Sex
Addicts Anonymous Sexual surrogate

Authority control

LCCN: sh85105008 GND: 4046809-4 BNF: cb12647536c (data) HDS: 1

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