Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual
subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.
Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books,
magazines, postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting,
animation, sound recording, phone calls, writing, film, video, and
video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than
the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex
shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic
depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs,
and pornographic actors or porn stars, who perform in pornographic
films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in a porn film
may also be called a model.
Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual
nature immoral, addictive, and noxious, labeling them pornographic,
and attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity and other laws,
with varying degrees of success. Such works have also often been
subject to censorship and other legal restraints to publication,
display, or possession, leading in many cases to their loss. Such
grounds, and even the definition of pornography, have differed in
various historical, cultural, and national contexts.
Social attitudes towards the discussion and presentation of sexuality
have become more tolerant in Western countries, and legal definitions
of obscenity have become more limited, notably beginning in 1969 with
Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, the first adult erotic film depicting
explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States,
and the subsequent
Golden Age of Porn
Golden Age of Porn (1969-1984), leading to
an industry for the production and consumption of pornography in the
latter half of the 20th century. The introduction of home video and
Internet saw a boom in the worldwide porn industry that generates
billions of dollars annually. Commercialized pornography accounts for
over US$2.5 billion in the
United States alone, including the
production of various media and associated products and services. The
general porn industry is between $10-$12 billion in the U.S. In
2006 world pornography revenue was 97 billion dollars. Child porn
is a $3 billion industry. This industry employs thousands of
performers along with support and production staff. It is also
followed by dedicated industry publications and trade groups as well
as the mainstream press, private organizations (watchdog groups),
government agencies, and political organizations. More recently,
sites such as Pornhub, RedTube, and YouPorn, in addition to much
pirated porn posted by individuals, have served as repositories for
home-made or semi-professional pornography, made available free by its
creators (who could be called exhibitionists). They present a
significant challenge to the commercial pornographic film industry.
Irrespective of the legal or social view of pornography, it has been
used in a number of contexts. It is used, for example, at fertility
clinics to stimulate sperm donors. Some couples use pornography at
times for variety and to create a sexual interest or as part of
foreplay. There is also some evidence that pornography can be used to
4.1.1 Non-commercial pornography
4.2.2 Computer-generated images and manipulations
4.2.3 3D pornography
4.3 Production and distribution by region
5 Study and analysis
6 Legal status
6.1 What is not pornography
7 Views on pornography
7.2 Religious views
8 See also
8.1 Government and legislation
10 Further reading
10.3 Neutral or mixed
11 External links
The word pornography was coined from the ancient Greek words
πόρνη (pornē "prostitute" and πορνεία porneia
"prostitution"), and γράφειν (graphein "to write or to
record", derived meaning "illustration", as in "graph"), and the
suffix -ία (-ia, meaning "state of", "property of", or "place of"),
thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or
prostitution". No date is known for the first use of the word in
Greek; the earliest attested, most related word one could find in
Greek, is πορνογράφος, pornographos, i.e. "someone writing
about harlots", in the
Deipnosophists of Athenaeus. The Modern
Greek word pornographia (πορνογραφία) is a reborrowing of
the French pornographie.
"Pornographie" was in use in the French language during the 1800s. The
word did not enter the English language as the familiar word until
1857 or as a French import in
New Orleans in 1842. The word
was originally introduced by classical scholars as "a bookish, and
therefore nonoffensive, term for writing about prostitutes", but
its meaning was quickly expanded to include all forms of
"objectionable or obscene material in art and literature". As
early as 1864,
Webster's Dictionary defined the word bluntly as "a
Pornography is often abbreviated to porn or porno in informal
Scene from the
Turin Erotic Papyrus
Turin Erotic Papyrus showing a scruffy, balding man
engaging a beautiful young woman in sexual intercourse
Further information: History of erotic depictions
Depictions of a sexual nature have existed since prehistoric times, as
seen in the
Venus figurines and rock art. A vast number of
artifacts have been discovered from ancient
explicit heterosexual sex. Glyptic art from the Sumerian Early
Dynastic Period frequently shows scenes of frontal sex in the
missionary position. In Mesopotamian votive plagues from the early
second millennium BC, the man is usually shown entering the woman from
behind while she bends over, drinking beer through a straw. Middle
Assyrian lead votive figurines often represent the man standing and
penetrating the woman as she rests on top of an altar. Scholars
have traditionally interpreted all these depictions as scenes of
ritual sex, but they are more likely to be associated with the
cult of Inanna, the goddess of sex and prostitution. Many sexually
explicit images were found in the temple of
Inanna at Assur, which
also contained models of male and female sexual organs.
Depictions of sexual intercourse were not part of the general
repertory of ancient Egyptian formal art, but rudimentary sketches
of heterosexual intercourse have been found on pottery fragments and
in graffiti. The final two thirds of the Turin Erotic Papyrus
(Papyrus 55001), an Egyptian papyrus scroll discovered at Deir
el-Medina, consist of a series of twelve vignettes showing men
and women in various sexual positions. The scroll was probably
painted in the Ramesside period (1292-1075 BC) and its high
artistic quality indicates that was produced for a wealthy
audience. No other similar scrolls have yet been discovered.
Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum
When large-scale excavations of
Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s,
much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the
Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman
Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of
sexuality and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but
upper-class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the
Secret Museum in
Naples and what could not be removed was covered and
cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children,
and the working classes.
Fanny Hill (1748) is considered "the first original English prose
pornography, and the first pornography to use the form of the
novel." It is an erotic novel by
John Cleland first published in
England as Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. It is one of the
most prosecuted and banned books in history. The authors were
charged with "corrupting the King's subjects."
The world's first law criminalizing pornography was the English
Obscene Publications Act 1857
Obscene Publications Act 1857 enacted at the urging of the Society for
the Suppression of Vice. The Act, which applied to the United
Kingdom and Ireland, made the sale of obscene material a statutory
offence, giving the courts power to seize and destroy offending
material. The American equivalent was the
Comstock Act of 1873
which made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious"
materials through the mail. The English Act did not apply to Scotland,
where the common law continued to apply. However, neither the English
United States Act defined what constituted "obscene", leaving
this for the courts to determine. Before the English Act, the
publication of obscene material was treated as a common law
misdemeanour and effectively prosecuting authors and publishers
was difficult even in cases where the material was clearly intended as
pornography. Although nineteenth-century legislation eventually
outlawed the publication, retail, and trafficking of certain writings
and images regarded as pornographic and would order the destruction of
shop and warehouse stock meant for sale, the private possession of and
viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until
the twentieth century.
Historians have explored the role of pornography in social history and
the history of morality.
The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be
seen in the wording of the
Hicklin test stemming from a court case in
1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as
obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such
immoral influences." Although they were suppressed, depictions of
erotic imagery were common throughout history.
Pornographic film production commenced almost immediately after the
invention of the motion picture in 1895. Two of the earliest pioneers
Eugène Pirou and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner directed the earliest
surviving pornographic film for Pirou under the trade name "Léar".
The 1896 film
Le Coucher de la Mariée
Le Coucher de la Mariée showed Louise Willy performing
a striptease. Pirou's film inspired a genre of risqué French films
showing women disrobing and other filmmakers realised profits could be
made from such films.
Sexually explicit films opened producers and distributors to
prosecution. Those that were made were produced illicitly by amateurs
starting in the 1920s, primarily in France and the United States.
Processing the film was risky as was their distribution. Distribution
was strictly private. In 1969, Denmark became the first
country to abolish censorship, thereby decriminalizing pornography,
which led to an explosion in investment and of commercially produced
pornography. However, it continued to be banned in other countries,
and had to be smuggled in, where it was sold "under the counter" or
(sometimes) shown in "members only" cinema clubs. Nonetheless, and
also in 1969,
Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, was the first adult erotic
film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the
United States. The film was a seminal film in the Golden Age
of Porn and, according to Warhol, a major influence in the making of
Last Tango in Paris, an internationally controversial erotic drama
film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue
Movie was made.
Data suggests an increase in pornography viewing over the past few
decades, and this has been attributed to the growth of Internet
pornography since widespread public access to the
World Wide Web
World Wide Web in
the late 1990s. Through the 2010s, many pornographic production
companies and top pornographic websites – such as PornHub,
YouPorn – were acquired by MindGeek, which has been
described as "a monopoly".
The scholarly study of pornography, notably in cultural studies, is
limited, perhaps due to the controversy about the topic in feminism.
The first peer-reviewed academic journal about the study of
pornography, Porn Studies, was published in 2014.
Pornography is often distinguished from erotica, which consists of the
portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on
feelings and emotions, while pornography involves the depiction of
acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical
act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions.
Pornography is generally classified as either softcore or hardcore. A
pornographic work is characterized as hardcore if it has any hardcore
content, no matter how small. Both forms of pornography generally
Softcore pornography generally contains nudity or
partial nudity in sexually suggestive situations, but without explicit
sexual activity, sexual penetration or "extreme" fetishism, while
hardcore pornography may contain graphic sexual activity and visible
penetration, including unsimulated sex scenes.
Main article: List of pornographic subgenres
Pornography encompasses a wide variety of genres. Pornography
featuring heterosexual acts composes the bulk of pornography and is
"centred and invisible", marking the industry as heteronormative.
However, a substantial portion of pornography is not normative,
featuring more nonconventional forms of scenarios and sexual activity
such as "'fat' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by
women, queer porn, BDSM, and body modification."
Pornography can be classified according to the physical
characteristics of the participants, fetish, sexual orientation, etc.,
as well as the types of sexual activity featured. Reality and voyeur
pornography, animated videos, and legally prohibited acts also
influence the classification of pornography.
Pornography may fall into
more than one genre. The genres of pornography are based on the type
of activity featured and the category of participants, for example:
Straight porn (unless otherwise stated this is assumed in this
Revenues of the adult industry in the
United States are difficult to
determine. In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail
value of hardcore pornography in the
United States was no more than
Forrester Research published a report on the online "adult
content" industry estimating $750 million to $1 billion in
annual revenue. As an unsourced aside, the Forrester study speculated
on an industry-wide aggregate figure of $8–10 billion, which
was repeated out of context in many news stories, after being
published in Eric Schlosser's book on the American black market.
Studies in 2001 put the total (including video, pay-per-view, Internet
and magazines) between $2.6 billion and $3.9 billion.
As of 2014[update], the porn industry was believed to bring in more
than $13 billion on a yearly basis in the United States.
CNBC has estimated that pornography was a $13 billion industry in
the USA, with $3,075 being spent on porn every second and a new porn
video being produced every 39 minutes.
A significant amount of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando
Valley, which has been a pioneering region for producing adult films
since the 1970s, and has since become home for various models,
actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses
involved in the production and distribution of pornography.
The pornography industry has been considered influential in deciding
format wars in media, including being a factor in the
VHS vs. Betamax
format war (the videotape format war) and in the
HD DVD format war (the high-def format war).
In addition to the porn industry, there is a large amount of
non-commercial pornography. This should be distinguished from
commercial pornography falsely marketed as featuring "amateurs".
Pornographers have taken advantage of each technological advance in
the production and distribution of pornography. They have used
lithographs, the printing press, and photography.
considered a driving force in the development of technologies from the
printing press, through photography (still and motion), to satellite
TV, other forms of video, and the Internet. With the invention of tiny
cameras and wireless equipments voyeur pornography is gaining
ground. Mobile cameras are used to capture pornographic photos
or videos, and forwarded as MMS, a practice known as sexting.
Computer-generated images and manipulations
Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some
pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of
completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as
one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and
Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be
produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing
segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the
rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004,
computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children
and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already
produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy
featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne
Due to the popularity of 3D blockbusters in theaters such as Avatar
and How to Train Your Dragon, companies are now looking to shoot
pornographic films in 3D. The first case of this occurred in Hong
Kong, when a group of filmmakers filmed 3D
Sex and Zen: Extreme
Ecstasy released in April 2011.
Production and distribution by region
Pornography by region
The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities
of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and
the influence that it has in political circles are matters of
In the United States, the sex film industry is centered in the San
Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. In Europe,
Budapest is regarded as the
Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution, of adult material is of
great concern to the industry, the subject of litigation, and
formalized anti-piracy efforts.
Study and analysis
Main article: Effects of pornography
Research concerning the effects of pornography is concerned with
multiple outcomes. Such research includes potential influences on
rape, domestic violence, sexual dysfunction, difficulties with sexual
relationships, and child sexual abuse. While some literature
reviews suggest that pornographic images and films can be addictive,
insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions.
Several studies conclude the liberalization of porn in society may be
associated with decreased rape and sexual violence rates, while others
suggest no effect, or are inconclusive.
More than 70% of male internet users from 18 to 34 visit a
pornographic site in a typical month. A 2009 study published in
the Journal of Economic Perspectives found that
Utah was the largest
consumer of paid internet pornography per capita in the United
Pornography by region
Pornography by region and Laws regarding child
Sex and the law
Age of consent
Deviant sexual intercourse
Miscegenation (interracial relations)
(Varies by jurisdiction)
Criminal transmission of HIV
Female genital mutilation
UK Section 63 (2008)
Sex offender registration
Sex offender registry
Sex offender registries in the United States
World map of pornography (18+) laws
Pornography legal, but under some restrictions
The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country.
Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some
countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold
in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the
other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a
slightly lesser degree the possession, of child pornography is illegal
in almost all countries, and some countries have restrictions on
pornography depicting violence (see, for example, rape pornography) or
animal pornography, or both.
Pornographic entertainment on display in a sex shop window, where
there is usually a minimum age to go into pornographic stores
Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore
materials, limiting availability to sex shops, mail-order, and
television channels that parents can restrict, among other means.
There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores,
or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all.
More generally, disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal.
Many of these efforts have been rendered practically irrelevant by
Internet pornography. A failed US law would have made
these same restrictions apply to the internet.
In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he
or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a
Prohibitory Order, either against all mail from a particular sender,
or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United
States Postal Service. There are recurring urban legends of snuff
movies, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite
extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement
officials have not found any such works.
Some people, including pornography producer
Larry Flynt and the writer
Salman Rushdie, have argued that pornography is vital to freedom
and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its
willingness to accept pornography.
The UK government has criminalized possession of what it terms
"extreme pornography" following the highly publicized murder of Jane
Child pornography is illegal in most countries, with a person most
commonly being a child until the age of 18 (though the age varies). In
those countries, any film or photo with a child subject in a sexual
act is considered pornography and illegal.
Pornography can infringe into basic human rights of those involved,
especially when consent was not obtained. For example, revenge porn is
a phenomenon where disgruntled sexual partners release images or video
footage of intimate sexual activity, usually on the internet. In
many countries there has been a demand to make such activities
specifically illegal carrying higher punishments than mere breach of
privacy or image rights, or circulation of prurient material.
As a result, some jurisdictions have enacted specific laws against
What is not pornography
In the U.S., a July 2014 criminal case decision in Massachusetts,
Commonwealth v. Rex, 469 Mass. 36 (2014), made a legal
determination of what was not to be considered "pornography" and in
this particular case "child pornography". It was determined that
photographs of naked children that were from sources such as National
Geographic magazine, a sociology textbook, and a nudist catalog were
not considered pornography in
Massachusetts even while in the
possession of a convicted and (at the time) incarcerated sex
In the United States, some courts have applied US copyright protection
to pornographic materials. Although the first US copyright law
specifically did not cover obscene materials, the provision was
removed subsequently.[when?] Most pornographic works are theoretically
work for hire meaning pornographic models do not receive statutory
royalties for their performances. Of particular difficulty is the
changing community attitudes of what is considered obscene, meaning
that works could slip into and out of copyright protection based upon
the prevailing standards of decency. This was not an issue with the
copyright law up until 1972 when copyright protection required
registration. The law was changed to make copyright protection
automatic, and for the life of the author.
Some courts have held that copyright protection effectively applies to
works, whether they are obscene or not, but not all courts have
ruled the same way. The copyright protection rights of pornography
United States has again been challenged as late as February
Views on pornography
Main article: Opposition to pornography
A caricature on "the great epidemic of pornography, 19th-century
Views and opinions of pornography come in a variety of forms and from
a diversity of demographics and societal groups. Opposition of the
subject generally, though not exclusively, comes from three main
sources: law, feminism and religion.
Feminist views of pornography
Many feminists, including
Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon,
argue that all pornography is demeaning to women or that it
contributes to violence against women, both in its production and in
its consumption. The production of pornography, they argue, entails
the physical, psychological, or economic coercion of the women who
perform in it, and where they argue that the abuse and exploitation of
women is rampant; in its consumption, they charge that pornography
eroticizes the domination, humiliation and coercion of women, and
reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape
and sexual harassment. They charge that pornography
presents a severely distorted image of sexual relations, and
reinforces sex myths; that it always shows women as readily available
and desiring to engage in sex at any time, with any man, on men's
terms, always responding positively to any advances men make.
They argue that because pornography often shows women enjoying and
desiring to be violently attacked by men, saying "no" when they
actually want sex, fighting back but then ending up enjoying the
act – this can affect the public understanding of legal issues
such as consent to sexual relations.
In contrast to these objections, other feminist scholars argue that
the lesbian feminist movement in the 1980s was good for women in the
porn industry. As more women entered the developmental side of
the industry, this allowed women to gear porn more towards women
because they knew what women wanted, both for actresses and the
audience. This is believed to be a good thing because for such a
long time, the porn industry has been directed by men for men.
This also sparked the arrival of making lesbian porn for lesbians
instead of men.
Furthermore, many feminists argue that the advent of VCR and consumer
video allowed for the possibility of feminist pornography.
Consumer video made it possible for the distribution and consumption
of video pornography to locate women as legitimate consumers of
pornography. Tristan Taormino says that feminist porn is "all about
creating a fair working environment and empowering everyone
Feminist porn directors are interested in challenging
representations of men and women, as well as providing
sexually-empowering imagery that features many kinds of bodies.
In a 1995 essay for The New Yorker, writer
Susan Faludi argued that
porn was one of the few industries where women enjoy a power advantage
in the workplace. "'Actresses have the power,' Alec Metro, one of the
men in line, ruefully noted of the X-rated industry. A former
firefighter who claimed to have lost a bid for a job to affirmative
action, Metro was already divining that porn might not be the ideal
career choice for escaping the forces of what he called 'reverse
discrimination.' Female performers can often dictate which male actors
they will and will not work with. 'They make more money than us.' Porn
– at least, porn produced for a heterosexual audience – is one of
the few contemporary occupations where the pay gap operates in women's
favor; the average actress makes fifty to a hundred per cent more
money than her male counterpart. But then she is the object of desire;
he is merely her appendage, the object of the object."
Harry Brod offered a
Marxist feminist view, "I [Brod] would argue that
sex seems overrated [to men is] because men look to sex for
fulfillment of nonsexual emotional needs, a quest doomed to failure.
Part of the reason for this failure is the priority of quantity over
quality of sex which comes with sexuality's commodification."
Main article: Religious views on pornography
Religious organizations have been important in bringing about
political action against pornography. In the United States,
religious beliefs affect the formation of political beliefs that
Adult Film Database
Adult movie theater
Adult video arcade
Ban This Filth
Feminist views on pornography
Lesbianism in erotica
Pregnancy in art
Sex and nudity in video games
Sex in advertising
Pornographic film actor
Vagina and vulva in art
Government and legislation
Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance
Meese Report, 1986 U.S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography
President's Commission on
Obscenity and Pornography, 1969, United
Stanley v. Georgia, U.S. Supreme Court case that established a right
Williams Committee, 1979 U.K. Committee on
Obscenity and Film
List of authors of erotic works
List of pornographic book publishers
List of pornographic film studios
List of pornographic magazines
Lists of pornographic actors
List of pornographic subgenres
^ a b What Distinguishes
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Psychology Today, 6 April 2011
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^ From the precedent set by R. v. Curl (1729) following the
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^ H. Montgomery Hyde A History of Pornography. (1969) London,
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and the Making of American Morality (U of North Carolina Press, 2017).
^ Beck, Marianna (May 2003). "The Roots of Western Pornography:
Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections". Libido, The
Sex and Sensibility. Retrieved 22 August 2006.
^ Bottomore, Stephen (1996). "Léar (Albert Kirchner)". Who's Who of
Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
(Stephen Herbert and Luke McKernan, eds.)
^ Bottomore, Stephen (1996). "Eugène Pirou". Who's Who of Victorian
Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2006. (Stephen
Herbert and Luke McKernan, eds.)
^ a b Chris Rodley, Dev Varma, Kate Williams III (Directors); Marilyn
Milgrom, Grant Romer, Rolf Borowczak, Bob Guccione, Dean Kuipers
(Cast) (7 March 2006). Pornography: The Secret History of Civilization
(DVD). Port Washington, NY: Koch Vision. ISBN 1-4172-2885-7.
Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 21 October
^ Corliss, Richard (29 March 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was
Chic". Time. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 16
^ Jacobs, Tom (August 28, 2015). "
Pornography Consumption on the
Rise". Pacific Standard. The Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media
and Public Policy. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
^ "Bulk Alexa rank checker". BulkSeoTools.com Bulk Alexa Rank Checker.
27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
^ Auerbach, David (23 October 2014). "Vampire Porn". Slate. Archived
from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December
^ Dugdale, John (2 May 2013). "Porn studies is the new discipline for
academics". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
^ William J. Gehrke (10 December 1996). "
Erotica is Not Pornography".
^ "h2g2 – What is Erotic and What is Pornographic?". BBC. 29 March
2004. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
Martin Amis (17 March 2001). "A rough trade". The Guardian.
Retrieved 29 February 2012.
^ "P20th Century Nudes in Art". The Art History Archive. Retrieved 29
^ Mulholland, Monique (March 2011). "WHEN PORNO MEETS HETERO".
Feminist Studies. Taylor & Francis. 26 (67): 119–135.
doi:10.1080/08164649.2011.546332. The pornographic genre is immense,
and includes an enormous variety of styles catering to an equally vast
range of tastes and fetishes. Certainly, mainstream heteroporn makes
up the main bulk of the genre, and is most easily accessible. As
stated above, this style of porn includes highly formulaic displays of
paired or group sex, enacted by bodies exhibiting a conventional
gendered aesthetic, moving through various sexual positions and
penetrations. Nonetheless, some forms of porn are more normative than
others, and indeed not all forms of heteroporn are normative, such as
' rimming ', girl on boy strap-on anal sex, and hard-core BDSM.
Pornography also includes an endless array of different kinds of
fetish, ' fat ' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by
women, queer porn, BDSM and body modification. The list of non-
mainstream porn is endless and displays bodies, gender scenarios and
sexual activity differently to heteronormative formulations of
^ President's Commission on
Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The
Pornography 1970, Washington, D.C.: U. S.
Government Printing Office.
^ Richard, Emmanuelle (23 May 2002). "The Naked Untruth". Alternet.
Archived from the original on 28 September 2004. Retrieved 8 September
^ Schlosser, Eric (8 May 2003). Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap
Labor in the American Black Market. Houghton Mifflin.
ISBN 978-0-618-33466-7. Schlosser's book repeats the
$10 billion figure without additional evidence
^ Szymanski, Dawn M.; Stewart-Richardson, Destin N. (January 2014).
"Psychological, relational, and sexual correlates of pornography use
on young adult heterosexual men in romantic relationships". The
Journal of Men's Studies. Sage. 22 (1): 64–82.
^ Josh Lipton. "Coming Soon: XXX In 3D". Minyanville. Retrieved 9
^ a b Mearian, Lucas (2 May 2006). "Porn industry may be decider in
Blu-ray, HD-DVD battle". MacWorld. Archived from the original on 12
July 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2007. Ron Wagner, Director of IT
at a California porn studio: "If you look at the
VHS vs. Beta
standards, you see the much higher-quality standard dying because of
[the porn industry's support of VHS] ... The mass volume of tapes in
the porn market at the time went out on VHS."
^ a b Lynch, Martin (17 January 2007). "
Blu-ray loves porn after all".
The Inquirer. Incisive Media Investments. Archived from the original
on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. By many accounts VHS
would not have won its titanic struggle against Sony's
tape format if it had not been for porn. This might be over-stating
its importance but it was an important factor. ... There is no way
that Sony can ignore the boost that porn can give the Blu-ray
^ Gardiner, Bryan (22 January 2007). "Porn Industry May Decide DVD
Format War". FOXNews.com – Technology News. Archived from the
original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. As was
expected, the 2007
Consumer Electronics Show
Consumer Electronics Show saw even more posturing
and politics between the
Blu-ray Disc and
HD DVD camps, with each side
announcing a new set of alliances and predicting that the end of the
war was imminent.
^ Staff. "Magnet Media Holds Porn/Tech Event in NYC This Tuesday:".
Video News. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
^ Staff. "How Porn Drives Mainstream
Internet Technology Adoption
Tuesday, Mar 11, 12:30 pm @ Rose Auditorium". Garys Guide.
Retrieved 11 March 2014.
Playboy undressed video game women – Aug. 25, 2004". CNN. 25
August 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
Hong Kong filmmakers shoot 'first' 3D porn film". Yahoo. 8 August
2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 8 August
Hong Kong filmmakers shoot 'first' 3D porn film". Asian Sex
Gazette. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
^ “Strange and wonderful”
Budapest — Where the living is
increasingly pleasant...and still very cheap Archived 2010-02-23 at
the Wayback Machine.. Escapeartist.com (1989-09-11). Retrieved
Sex trade moguls thrive by the Blue Danube – World, News. The
Independent (1996-07-21). Retrieved 2011-04-21.
^ The Art and Politics of Netporn » Abstract.
Networkcultures.org. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
^ Hymes, Tom. "Adult Tube Sites Now Spamming Through Google News".
AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
^ Kernes, Mark. "Nightline Takes a Look at Porn Piracy, and Targets
MindGeek". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
^ Staff. "Takedown Piracy Celebrates Fifth Anniversary". AVN.com.
Retrieved 20 August 2014.
^ Segal, David (28 March 2014). "Does porn hurt children?". The New
York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
^ "Is porn harmful?". BBC. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September
^ Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N (2015-09-22).
"Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science".
Neuropsychopharmacology. 41 (1): 385–386. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.300.
ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 4677151 . PMID 26657963.
^ Kraus, Shane W.; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N. (2016-02-19).
"Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?".
Addiction. In press: 2097–2106. doi:10.1111/add.13297.
PMC 4990495 . PMID 26893127.
^ Kühn, S; Gallinat, J (2016). "Neurobiological Basis of
Hypersexuality". International review of neurobiology. 129: 67–83.
doi:10.1016/bs.irn.2016.04.002. PMID 27503448.
^ Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly; Laier, Christian; Wölfling,
Klaus; Potenza, Marc N. "Integrating psychological and neurobiological
considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific
Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of
Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model". Neuroscience &
Biobehavioral Reviews. 71: 252–266.
doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.033. PMID 27590829.
^ Kutchinsky, Berl (1992), "Pornography, sex crime and public policy",
in Gerull, Sally-Anne; Halstead, Boronia,
Sex industry and public
policy: proceedings of a conference held 6-8 May 1991, Canberra, ACT:
Australian Institute of Criminology, pp. 41–55, archived from
the original on October 7, 2015 ISBN 9780642182913 Pdf.
^ Kutchinsky, Berl (Summer 1973). "The effect of easy availability of
pornography on the incidence of sex crimes: the Danish experience".
Journal of Social Issues. Wiley for the Society for the Psychological
Study of Social Issues. 29 (3): 163–181.
^ Diamond, Milton (September–October 2009). "Pornography, public
acceptance and sex related crime: A review". International Journal of
Law and Psychiatry. Elsevier. 32 (5): 304–314.
^ Slade, Joseph (2001).
Pornography and sexual representation: a
reference guide, volume 3. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
^ Kutchinsky, Berl (1970). Studies on pornography and sex crimes in
Denmark. New social science monographs. United States: Nyt fra
Samfundsvidenskaberne, eksp. OCLC 155896. Online. Archived
2007-10-30 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Kendall, Todd D. (January 19–20, 2007). Pornography, rape, and the
internet (doc). Fourth bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the
Internet Industries. Toulouse, France. Retrieved 30 March
^ D'Amato, Anthony (June 23, 2006). "Porn up, rape down". Northwestern
Law (Research Paper No. 913013). Social Science Research
Network. doi:10.2139/ssrn.913013. SSRN 913013 .
^ Statistics on Pornography, Sexual Addiction and Online Perpetrators
and their Effects on Children, Pastors and Churches. Safefamilies.org.
^ Edelman, Benjamin. "Red Light States: Who Buys Online Adult
Entertainment?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 23, Number 1
(Winter 2009), pages 209–220.
^ Baxter, Sarah; Brooks, Richard (8 August 2004). "Porn is vital to
freedom, says Rushdie". The Times. London. Archived from the original
on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
everywhere, of course, but when it comes into societies in which it's
difficult for young men and women to get together and do what young
men and women often like doing, it satisfies a more general need....
While doing so, it sometimes becomes a kind of standard-bearer for
freedom, even civilisation.
^ Salter, Michael (2013). "Responding to revenge porn: Gender, justice
and online legal impunity". academia.edu. Retrieved 3 January
^ Levendowski, Amanda M. (2014). "Using
Copyright to Combat Revenge
Porn". NYU Journal of Intellectual Property & Entertainment Law.
Social Science Research Network. 3. SSRN 2374119 .
^ Bhasin, Puneet (29 November 2014). "Online Revenge Porn-Recourse for
Victims under Cyber Laws". India: iPleaders. Retrieved 29 January
^ "'Revenge porn' Facebook post leads to jail sentence". BBC News.
Retrieved 9 October 2015.
^ Staff. "Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, Norfolk.
COMMONWEALTH v. John REX. No. SJC–11480. Decided: July 9, 2014".
findlaw.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
^ a b Kernes, Mark. "MA Supremes Rule National Geographic Photos Not
Kid Porn". AVN.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
^ a b Goussé, Caroline (2012-02-16). "No
Copyright Protection for
Pornography: A Daring Response to File-Sharing Litigation".
Intellectual Property Brief. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
^ Masnick, Mike (2011-11-04). "Court Wonders If Porn Can Even Be
Covered By Copyright". Tech Dirt. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
^ Mitchell Bros. Film Group v. Cinema Adult Theater, 604 F.2d 852 (5th
Cir.1979) and Jartech v. Clancy, 666 F.2d 403 (9th Cir.1982) held that
obscenity could not be a defense to copyright claims.
^ Devils Films, Inc. v. Nectar
Video Under, 29 F.Supp.2d 174, 175
(S.D.N.Y. 1998) refused to follow the Mitchell ruling and relied on
the doctrine of "clean hands" to deny copyright protection to works
seen as obscene.
^ "You Can’t
Copyright Porn, Harassed BitTorrent Defendant Insists",
TorrentFreak, 6 February 2012. Retrieved 9 Augusti 2012.
^ "2 male porn performers test positive for HIV". Retrieved 31
^ Shrage, Laurie (Fall 2015), "
Feminist perspectives on sex markets:
pornography", Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of
^ MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1983). "Not a moral issue". Yale
Policy Review. Yale
Law School. 2 (2): 321–345. JSTOR 40239168.
Sex forced on real women so that it can be sold at a profit to be
forced on other real women; women's bodies trussed and maimed and
raped and made into things to be hurt and obtained and accessed, and
this presented as the nature of women; the coercion that is visible
and the coercion that has become invisible—this and more grounds the
feminist concern with pornography Pdf.
Reprinted as: MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1989), "Pornography: on
morality and politics", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Toward a Feminist
Theory of the State, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University
Press, pp. 195–214, ISBN 9780674896468.
Also reprinted as: MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1987), "Not a moral
issue", in MacKinnon, Catharine A.,
Feminism unmodified: discourses on
life and law, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,
pp. 146–162, ISBN 9780674298743. Preview.
^ "A Conversation With Catherine MacKinnon (transcript)". Think Tank.
1995. PBS. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
^ Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (Interview with
Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian. London.
^ Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (Interview with
Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian. London. Catharine MacKinnon
argues that: "
Pornography affects people's belief in rape myths. So
for example if a woman says 'I didn't consent' and people have been
viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did
consent no matter what she said. That when she said no, she meant yes.
When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said
she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to
be given a good corrective experience.
Pornography promotes these rape
myths and desensitises people to violence against women so that you
need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography
consumer. This is very well documented."
^ a b c d Ziv, Amalia (October 2014). "Girl meets boy: cross-gender
queer and the promise of pornography". Sexualities. Sage. 17 (7):
^ Commella, Lynn (2013), "From text to context", in Taormino, Tristan;
Parreñas Shimizu, Celine; Penley, Constance; Miller-Young, Mireille,
The feminist porn book: the politics of producing pleasure, New York,
Feminist Press at the City University of New York,
pp. 79–96, ISBN 9781558618190.
^ Vogels, Josey (21 April 2009). "Female-friendly porn". Metro News.
Canada: Metro International. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ Erickson, Loree (2013), "Out of line: the sexy femmegimp politics of
flaunting it!", in Taormino, Tristan; Parreñas Shimizu, Celine;
Penley, Constance; Miller-Young, Mireille, The feminist porn book: the
politics of producing pleasure, New York, New York:
Feminist Press at
the City University of New York, pp. 320–328,
^ Fauldi, Susan (October 30, 1995). "The Money Shot". The New Yorker.
pp. 65–66. (Emphasis in original).
^ Brod, Harry (1996). "
Pornography and the alienation of male
sexuality". In May, Larry; Strikwerda, Robert; Hopkins, Patrick D.
Rethinking masculinity: philosophical explorations in light of
feminism (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
p. 242. ISBN 9780847682577.
^ Sherkat, Darren E.; Ellison, Christopher G. (March 1997). "The
cognitive structure of a moral crusade: conservative protestantism and
opposition to pornography". Social Forces. Oxford Journals. 75 (3):
958. doi:10.1093/sf/75.3.957. JSTOR 2580526.
^ Sherkat, Darren E.; Ellison, Christopher G. (August 1999). "Recent
developments and current controversies in the sociology of religion".
Annual Review of Sociology. Annual Reviews. 25: 370.
doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.363. JSTOR 223509. Pdf.
Bright, Susie (1990). Susie Sexpert's lesbian sex world. Pittsburgh:
Cleis Press. ISBN 9780939416356.
Bright, Susie (1992). Susie Bright's sexual reality: a virtual sex
world reader. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Cleis Press.
ISBN 9780939416592. Both of Bright's books challenge any
equations between feminism and anti-pornography positions.
Hunter, Jack (September 14, 2012), "Art or obscene? (blog)", in
Feminism and free speech: pornography, Feminists for
Free Expression 1993, retrieved May 8, 2002
Ellis, Kate (1988). Caught looking: feminism, pornography &
censorship (2nd ed.). Seattle: Real Comet Press.
Griffin, Susan (1981).
Pornography and silence: culture's revenge
against nature. New York: Harper & Row.
Gever, Matthew (3 December 1998). "
Pornography helps women, society".
Daily Bruin. UCLA. Retrieved 3 July 2011. Student run newspaper.
Gregory, Michele. "Pro-
Sex Feminism: Redefining
Pornography (or, a
study in alliteration: the pro pornography position paper)".
Witsendzine.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2002.
Retrieved 3 July 2011.
Juno, Andrea; Vale, V. (Fall 1991). "Angry women". RE/Search.
Re/Search Publications. 13. ISBN 9780940642249. Performance
artists and literary theorists who challenge Dworkin and MacKinnon.
McElroy, Wendy (29 June 2000). "You are what you read?".
lewrockwell.com. Retrieved 3 July 2011. Defends the availability
of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns.
McElroy, Wendy. "A feminist overview of pornography, ending in a
defense thereof". wendymcelroy.com. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
McElroy, Wendy. "A feminist defense of pornography". Council for
Secular Humanism. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013.
Retrieved 3 July 2011.
Newitz, Annalee (8 May 2002). "Obscene feminists: why women are
leading the battle against censorship". San Francisco Bay Guardian.
San Francisco Newspaper Company. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
Strossen, Nadine (2000). Defending pornography: free speech, sex, and
the fight for women's rights. New York London: New York University
Press. ISBN 9780814781494.
Review of Strossen's book: Blumen, Jonathan (November 1995). "Nadine
Strossen: pornography must be tolerated". The Ethical Spectacle,
special issue: Humans and their pornography. Jonathan Wallace. 1
Tucker, Scott (1990). "Gender, fucking, and utopia: an essay in
response to John Stoltenberg's Refusing to Be a Man". Social Text.
Duke University Press
Duke University Press via JSTOR. 27 (27): 3–34. doi:10.2307/466305.
JSTOR 466305. Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin's
positions on pornography and power.
Williams, Linda (1989). Hard core: power, pleasure, and the "frenzy of
the visible". Berkeley: University of California Press.
Also as: Williams, Linda (1999). Hard core: power, pleasure, and the
"frenzy of the visible" (Expanded paperback ed.). Berkeley: University
of California Press. ISBN 9780520219434.
Williams, Linda, ed. (2004). Porn studies. Durham, North Carolina:
Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822333128.
Assiter, Alison (1989). Pornography, feminism, and the individual.
London Winchester, Massachusetts: Pluto Press.
ISBN 9780745303192. Assiter advocates seeing pornography as
epitomizing a wider problem of oppression, exploitation and inequality
which needs to be better understood.
Carse, Alisa L. (February 1995). "Pornography: an uncivil liberty?".
Hypatia: A Journal of
Feminist Philosophy, special issue: Feminist
Ethics and Social Policy, Part 1. Wiley. 10 (1): 155–182.
doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1995.tb01358.x. JSTOR 3810463. An
argument for approaches to end harm to women caused by pornography.
Davies, Alex (March 2014). "How to silence content with porn, context
and loaded questions". European Journal of Philosophy. Wiley. 24 (2):
498–522. doi:10.1111/ejop.12075. (Online version before
inclusion in an issue.) An illustration of Catharine Mackinnon's
theory that pornography silence's women's speech, this illustration
differs from one given by Rae Langton (below).
Hill, Judith M. (June 1987). "
Pornography and degradation". Hypatia: A
Feminist Philosophy. Wiley. 2 (2): 39–54.
doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1987.tb01064.x. JSTOR 3810015. A
critique of the pornographic industry within a Kantian ethical
Kimmel, Michael (1990). Men confront pornography. New York: Crown.
ISBN 9780517569313. A variety of essays that try to assess
ways that pornography may take advantage of men.
Langton, Rae (Autumn 1993). "Speech acts and unspeakable acts".
Philosophy & Public Affairs. Wiley. 22 (4): 293–330.
JSTOR 2265469. Pdf. A description of Catharine Mackinnon's
theory that pornography silence's women's speech, this description
differs from the one given by Alex Davies (above).
Lubben, Shelley. Secondary negative effects on employees of the
pornographic industry (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on
MacKinnon, Catharine (1983). "Not a moral issue". Yale
Policy Review. Yale
Law School. 2 (2): 321–345.
JSTOR 40239168. Pdf. An argument that pornography is one
element of an unjust institution of the subordination of women to men.
MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1987), "Francis Biddle's sister: pornography,
civil rights, and speech", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Feminism
unmodified: discourses on life and law, Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press, pp. 177, 181 and 193,
ISBN 9780674298743. Preview. An argument that pornography
silences women therefore acting as an infringement of free speech (see
Davies above, and Langton, also above).
MacKinnon, Catharine A. (January 1989). "Sexuality, pornography, and
method: "Pleasure under Patriarchy"". Ethics. University of Chicago
Press. 99 (2): 314–346. doi:10.1086/293068.
Vadas, Melinda (September 1987). "A first look at the
Pornography/Civil Rights Ordinance: could pornography be the
subordination of women?". The Journal of Philosophy. Philosophy
Documentation Center. 84 (9): 487–511. doi:10.5840/jphil198784938.
JSTOR 2027061. A defence of the Dworkin-MacKinnon
definition and condemnation of pornography employing putatively
relatively rigorous analysis.
See also: Parent, W. A. (April 1990). "A second look at pornography
and the subordination of women". The Journal of Philosophy. Philosophy
Documentation Center. 87 (4): 205–211. doi:10.2307/2026681.
JSTOR 2026681. A criticism of Vadas' paper.
Vadas, Melinda (August 1992). "The Pornography/Civil Rights Ordinance
v. The BOG: and the winner is…?". Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist
Philosophy. Wiley. 7 (3): 94–109.
doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1992.tb00906.x. JSTOR 3809874. An
argument that pornography increases women's vulnerability to rape.
Pornography and sexual violence: evidence of the
links. The complete transcript of Public Hearings on Ordinances to Add
Pornography as Discrimination Against Women: Minneapolis City Council,
Government Operations Committee, December 12 and 13, 1983. London:
Everywoman. ISBN 9781870868006. A representation of the
causal connections between pornography and violence towards women.
Whisnant, Rebecca (2015), "Not your father's Playboy, not your
mother's feminist movement: feminism in porn", in Kiraly, Miranda;
Tyler, Meagan, Freedom fallacy: the limits of liberal feminism,
Ballarat, Victoria: Connor Court Publishing,
Neutral or mixed
Vance, Carole, ed. (1984). Pleasure and danger: exploring female
Routledge & K. Paul.
ISBN 9780710202482. Collection of papers from 1982
conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography
activists and lesbian S&M theorists.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pornography.
Early silent pornographic film from 1925 available at Wikimedia
Look up pornography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pornography
"American Porn". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
Interactive web site companion to a Frontline documentary exploring
the pornography industry within the United States.
From teledildonics to interactive porn: the future of sex in a digital
age (2014-06-06), The Guardian
Susannah Breslin, Contributor (2013-12-20). "LEADERSHIP: What Porn
Stars Do When The Porn Industry Shuts Down". Forbes.
Kutchinsky, Berl, Professor of Criminology: The first law that
legalized pornography (Denmark)
Patricia Davis, PhD, Simon Noble & Rebecca J. White (2010). The
History of Modern Pornography. History.com. CS1 maint: Uses
authors parameter (link)
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in Japan". International Journal of
Law and Psychiatry. 22 (1):
1–22. doi:10.1016/s0160-2527(98)00035-1. PMID 10086287.
Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. CS1 maint: Uses authors
Pornography and Censorship". Stanford Encyclopedia of
Articles related to pornography
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R v Peacock
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union
Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc.
Stanley v. Georgia
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Science of photography
Intentional camera movement
Rule of thirds
Golden triangle (composition)
Timeline of photography technology
Painted photography backdrops
Photography and the law
Digital versus film photography
Foveon X3 sensor
CMYK color model
RGB color model
Digital image processing
Gelatin silver process
Most expensive photographs
Summer of Love
Divorce law by country
Freedom of speech
Freedom of the press
Golden Age of Porn
Pornography in the United States
The Pill (1965)
United States v. One Book Called Ulysses
"Make love, not war"
"The personal is political"
Masters and Johnson Institute
Protests of 1968
Counterculture of the 1960s
Feminist views of pornography
LGBT culture in New York City
Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre
55th Street Playhouse
Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution: An Unfettered History (2001
Human sexuality and sexology
Sex Addicts Anonymous
BNF: cb12647536c (data)