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Pope
Pope
Martin IV, (Latin: Martinus IV; c. 1210/1220 – 28 March 1285), born Simon de Brion, was Pope
Pope
from 22 February 1281[1] to his death in 1285. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon
Avignon
(the Avignon
Avignon
Papacy).

Contents

1 Early life 2 Cardinal Simon de Brion 3 Three Conclaves of 1276 4 Election of Nicholas III 5 Conclave of 1280-1281 6 Pope
Pope
Martin IV 7 Death 8 Notes 9 Bibliography

Early life[edit] Simon de Brion, son of Jean, sieur de Brion, was born at the château of Meinpincien,[2] Île-de-France, France, in the decade following 1210. He had a brother named Gilo, who was a knight in diocese of Sens.[3] The seigneurial family of Brion, who took their name from Brion near Joigny, flourished in the Brie français.[4] He spent time at the University of Paris,[5] and is said to have then studied law at Padua
Padua
and Bologna. Through papal favour he received a canonry at Saint-Quentin in 1238 and spent the period 1248–1259 as a canon of the cathedral chapter in Rouen, finally as archdeacon.[6] At the same time he was appointed treasurer of the church of St. Martin in Tours by King Louis IX of France,[7] an office he held until he was elected pope in 1281. In 1255-1259, King Louis IX founded the French royal convent at Longchamps for the Poor Clares
Poor Clares
(Minoresses); the King's sister Isabelle was the patroness (though she never entered the cloister herself),[8] and Simon de Brion was the Guardian.[9] In 1259, he was appointed to the council of the king, who made him keeper of the great seal, chancellor of France, one of the great officers in the household of the king. He became Chancellor of Louis IX of France (1260-1261).[10] Cardinal Simon de Brion[edit] On December 17, 1261,[11] the new French Pope, Urban IV (Jacques Pantaléon), made Chancellor de Brion cardinal-priest, with the titulus of the church of St. Cecilia. This would have entailed Simon de Brion's residence in Rome, but the affairs of Pope
Pope
Urban required that he send a representative of the highest level to France
France
to deal personally with King Louis IX and his brother Charles of Anjou
Charles of Anjou
and Provence. Simon's previous experience at the French Court made him the perfect choice as Legate. Cardinal Simon therefore returned to France
France
as Papal Legate for Urban IV and also for his successor Pope
Pope
Clement IV in 1264–1268.[12] In 1264, on the eve of S. Bartholomew, he held a general synod at Paris.[13] He was appointed again, by Pope
Pope
Gregory X
Gregory X
on 1 August 1274, and he served continuously in France
France
until 1279. His first task was to raise support and money for a Crusade against Manfred, the Hohenstaufen candidate for the Imperial Crown.[14] He immediately became deeply involved in the negotiations for papal support for the assumption of the crown of Sicily
Sicily
by Charles of Anjou. As Legate he presided over several synods on reform, and on the raising of funds for Pope
Pope
Gregory's crusade. The most important of these was held at Bourges
Bourges
on 13 September 1276.[15] Signatures on papal bulls indicate that Cardinal Simon was back in Viterbo by 11 January 1268. In a letter of 14 or 15 January 1268,[16] Pope
Pope
Clement IV wrote to Cardinal Simon de Brion that he had heard that the Cardinal had fallen from his horse and in the accident had injured his leg. He also wrote that Conradin and Ludwig Duke of Bavaria were at Verona, and were pressing for Pavia. A general war was likely. Cardinal Simon's injury must not have been severe, since, on April 3, 1268, the Pope
Pope
wrote to him with the request (not an order) that he undertake a legation to Germany (Teutonia), if he wished and if it were possible. The Pope
Pope
needed a prudent and faithful man, who had clean hands and eyes wide open, who could stay centered on the business and let himself stray neither right nor left, who could preserve the Empire, keep the Apostolic See free from scandal, and the neighboring kingdoms free from danger. In vetting names, Simon seemed the most suitable.[17] Pope
Pope
Clement IV (Guy Foulques) fell ill on the Feast of S. Cecilia (November 22), and died at Viterbo on 29 November 1268. He had governed the Church for three years, nine months, and twenty-four days. The See of Peter was vacant for two years and nine months. Cardinal Simon de Brion came from France
France
to attend the Conclave, which took place in the Episcopal Palace, next to the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo in Viterbo.[18] He was the senior cardinal-priest. Around Pentecost of 1270 (June 1), Cardinal Simon and Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi of S. Angelo had to leave the Conclave and retire to their residences for the sake of their health. 20213]. On 22 August 1270, he was one of the signatories to the letter of protest sent by the Cardinals to Raynerius Gatti, Captain of the City of Viterbo, to cease and desist from their harassment of the Cardinals and their suites.[19] He was one of the cardinals who signed the electoral compact on September, 1270, to leave the election of a new pope to a committee of six, promising to accept the committee's decision.[20] He was not, however, one of the six cardinals elected to the Compromise Committee that selected Archdeacon Teobaldo Visconti as pope on 1 September 1270. The newly elected pope was not present in Viterbo, but was serving on Crusade with King Edward I of England. He arrived in Italy on 1 January 1271, and travelled to Viterbo, where he arrived early in February. He accepted the election, and chose to be called Gregory X. He and the Curia travelled to Rome, arriving on 13 March. On 19 March he was ordained a priest, and on 27 March he was consecrated bishop, and then crowned by Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini. Three Conclaves of 1276[edit] Simon de Brion's appointment as Legate in France, made by Pope
Pope
Gregory on 1 August 1274 [21] continued throughout 1276. He was unable to be present for the Conclave of 1 January 1276,[22] which elected Peter of Tarantaise as Pope
Pope
Innocent V. Nor was he present for the Conclave of 2–11 July,[23] which elected Ottobono Fieschi as Pope
Pope
Adrian V. Nor was he present at the September Conclave, which, on 8 September, elected Peter Julian as Pope
Pope
John XXI.[24] In each case the election was completed before he could have been notified, and before he could have travelled from France
France
to central Italy. This was one of the defects of Gregory X's regulations on the holding of a Conclave. Election of Nicholas III[edit] Pope
Pope
John XXI was in contact with Cardinal Simon. He had written to him on 3 March 1277, ordering him to speak with the king of France about matters connected with Alfonso of Castile.[25] But the Pope
Pope
died rather suddenly, after a reign of only eight months. He was still living in the Episcopal Palace in Viterbo, where Adrian V (Fieschi) had died and where he had been elected. The palace was still under construction, when suddenly the roof of one of the chambers collapsed. The Pope
Pope
was in the room at the time, and he was severely injured. He died three (or six) days later, on 20 May 1277. Cardinal Simon de Brion was still in France
France
when the Conclave began, but he was unable to predict that the Conclave would last until 25 November, and therefore he was not present. There were only seven cardinals in Viterbo, since neither Innocent V, nor Adrian V, nor John XXI had named any new cardinals.[26] They argued on and on, trying to choose a pope.[27] There were three cardinals who favored the Angevin Charles I and his designs. There were three who opposed him. Cardinal Bertrand de Saint Martin, Bishop of Sabina, the only surviving Cardinal Bishop, held a middle course, or perhaps one should say he saw too clearly to be willing to commit to either party.[28] Finally, they chose Cardinal Giovanni Gaetani (Orsini), a native Roman, the Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere and senior Deacon, and Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. Nicholas III immediately set out for Rome, where he was ordained a priest on December 18, 1277, and consecrated Bishop of Rome
Rome
on December 19. He was crowned on the Feast of S. Stephen, December 26, 1277 at the Vatican Basilica. One person, at least, was deeply unhappy about the outcome of this Conclave, King Charles I of Sicily.[29] The new Orsini pope was an enemy of the Angevins, and Charles knew he would have nothing but trouble from Nicholas III. A week after the election of Nicholas III, the new pope wrote to Simon, who was still Legate in France, urging him to effect a reconciliation between the King of France, Philip III, and the King of Leon and Castile, Alfonso the Wise.[30] Since the King of Aragon, Peter III (who was married to Constance of Sicily) was involved in the struggle over Sicily
Sicily
with Charles I, this peace initiative threatened King Charles directly. On 22 April 1279, Pope
Pope
Nicholas wrote to Cardinal Simon about King Philip. The Pope
Pope
had issued a prohibition on tournaments, and King Philip and his barons were flagrantly violating the prohibition. Cardinal Simon was ordered to excommunicate the King of France.[31] To ensure that his victory against the Angevins would stand, Nicholas III decided to go forward with a much needed addition to the Sacred College of Cardinals. At his first opportunity, on 12 March 1278, he created ten cardinals. Five cardinal bishops were named: Latino Frangipani Malabranca, OP, of Rome
Rome
(Nicholas III's nephew by his sister Mabilia); Erhard de Lessines (Lesigny), of Langres, son of Guillaume, Marshal of Champagne; Bentivenga de Bentivengis, O.Min., of Aquasparta; Robert Kilwardby, OP, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury; and Ordoño (Ordeonio) Álvarez, Bishop of Braga. Two cardinal-priests were named: Gerardo Bianchi of Parma, and Girolamo Masci d' Ascoli, O.Min., of Picenum. He also appointed three cardinal-deacons: Giordano Orsini, brother of Pope
Pope
Nicholas III, of Rome; Giacomo Colonna of Rome; and Gerardo Cupalates, O.Min., of Piacenza.[32] The effect of these creations was to seriously dilute the Angevin influence in the Sacred College, and to considerably increase the monastic element, especially the Franciscan one. It needs to be recalled that Nicholas III was the Governor, Corrector, and Protector of the Franciscans. The Roman influence was also strengthened. The inevitable consequence would be that the next pope too would not be a creature of Charles I of Sicily. Eventually, though, by 19 October 1279, Pope
Pope
Nicholas recalled Cardinal Simon de Brion.[33] Conclave of 1280-1281[edit]

The Cathedral and Episcopal Palace, Viterbo

Pope Nicholas III
Pope Nicholas III
(Giovanni Caetano Orsini) died at Castro Soriano in the diocese of Viterbo on August 22, 1280 of an apoplectic stroke which had left him without speech.[34] A story was circulated nonetheless that he had been poisoned. At the time of his death on 22 August 1280, there were thirteen cardinals.[35] This would be the fifth Conclave in five years. King Charles had taken the trouble to make friends with the Annibaldi faction, led by Riccardo Annibaldi, who were enemies of the Orsini and who had been driven out of Rome
Rome
in street fighting following the death of Nicholas III.[36] They had taken refuge in Viterbo, and now, by coincidence, they were present and entrenched and ready to make trouble on behalf of Charles I and themselves. Annibaldi led a coup in Viterbo, which drove out the governor of the city, Orso Orsini, the dead pope's nephew. The Angevins thereupon dominated the Conclave, in which the regulations of Gregory X
Gregory X
were still in abayence. But the Conclave still required a two-thirds vote to elect a pope, in according with the Constitution of Alexander III, which was still in effect. Neither the Orsini faction nor the French faction had sufficient votes to elect, but each had sufficient votes to block an election. The stalemate continued throughout the winter. On 2 February 1280, the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a mob broke into the Episcopal palace, where the Conclave was in progress, and abducted two of the cardinals, Matteo Rosso Orsini and Giordano Orsini (the late pope's brother).[37] Without their opposition, Simon de Brion was unanimously elected to the papacy on 22 February 1281, taking the name Martin IV,[38] For the third time in fifteen years Viterbo had hosted a papal conclave. And for the third time there were disorders which had threatened the validity of the election and the lives of the participants. Viterbo was placed under the ban of excommunication and of the interdict for the imprisonment of the cardinals. It was not possible, therefore, for the Coronation to take place in Viterbo. But Rome
Rome
was not at all inclined to accept a hated Frenchman as Pope. Martin IV sent two cardinals, Latino Orsini and Goffredo da Alatri, to Rome
Rome
with a letter, proposing that he be crowned in Rome
Rome
on Quadragesima Sunday.[39] The Romans positively refused to allow the Coronation to take place in Rome. But they did hold a public meeting, and elected Giovanni Caetani Orsini in his purely personal capacity as their Senator, and authorized him to appoint anyone he chose as his substitute. So Martin IV was crowned instead at Orvieto
Orvieto
on 23 March 1281.[40] He never visited Rome
Rome
during his Pontificate. Instead he immediately sent his Vicar, Peter of Lavagna, to Rome. But on 30 April 1281, Pope
Pope
Martin handed the senatorial power over to King Charles for the rest of his reign.[41] Pope
Pope
Martin IV[edit]

Papal bulla
Papal bulla
of Martin IV

Dependent on Charles of Anjou
Charles of Anjou
in nearly everything, the new Pope quickly appointed him to the position of Senator of Rome.[42] At the insistence of Charles, Martin IV excommunicated the Eastern Roman Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus, who stood in the way of Charles's plans to restore the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
of the East that had been established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade. He thus broke the tenuous union which had been reached between the Greek and the Latin Churches at the Second Council of Lyons
Second Council of Lyons
in 1274 and further compromise was rendered impossible. In 1282, Charles lost control of the island of Sicily
Sicily
in the violent massacre known as the Sicilian Vespers.[43] The Sicilians had elected Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon
as their king and sought papal confirmation, in vain, though they were willing to reconfirm Sicily
Sicily
as a vassal state of the papacy. Martin IV used all the spiritual and material resources at his command against the Aragonese in order to preserve Sicily
Sicily
for the House of Anjou. He excommunicated Peter III, declared his kingdom of Aragon forfeit, and ordered a crusade against him,[44] but it was all in vain. Due to the hostility of Raynerius, the Captain of Orvieto, in the repeated struggles between Guelphs and Ghibbelines, Pope
Pope
Martin was unable to remain at Orvieto.[45] He removed himself and the Papal Curia from Orvieto
Orvieto
on 26 June 1284, and arrived in Perugia
Perugia
on 4 October.[46] He died at Perugia
Perugia
on 28 March 1285.

The Cathedral and town of Orvieto

Following the example of Nicholas III, Pope
Pope
Martin IV created new cardinals at his first opportunity, on the Quattuor Tempora of Lent, April 12, 1281. His new cardinals included: Bernardus de Languissello of Nîmes, the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Arles since 1273; Hugh of Evesham, Canon of York and Archdeacon of Worcester; Gervasius de Glincamp of Mans, Archdeacon of Paris; Comes Giusianus, Conte de Casate, of Milan, Auditor of the Rota; Gaufridus (Geoffroy) de Barro or Barbeau, of Burgundy, Dean of the Cathedral of Paris; Johannes Chauleti (Cholet), of the village of Nointre in the diocese of Beauvais, a personal friend of Philip III, Philip IV, and Pope
Pope
Martin IV; and Benedetto Gaetano of Anagni, who was elected Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII on 24 December 1295. The French influence is strongly in evidence, and only Cardinal Gaetano came from the neighborhood of Rome. Death[edit] Pope
Pope
Martin IV celebrated a solemn Mass in the Cathedral at Perugia
Perugia
on Easter Sunday, March 25, 1285, which was also the Feast of the Annunciation. After his usual lunch with his chaplains he was stricken with a sudden illness. On the following Wednesday, March 28, around the fifth hour of the night, he died. He was buried in the Cathedral of San Lorenzo in Perugia. He had reigned four years and one month. His successor was elected four days later, on April 2. In the Divine Comedy, Dante sees Martin IV in Purgatory, where the reader is reminded of the former pontiff's fondness for Lake Bolsena eels and Vernaccia wine. Notes[edit]

^ http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1261.htm#Brion ^ Nikolaus Backes, Kardinal Simon de Brion (Breslau) 1910, used by H.K. Mann and J. Hollnsteiner, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages XVI (London) 1932: 171–205., both quoted by Kay, Richard (1965). "Martin IV and the Fugitive Bishop of Bayeux". Speculum. 40 (3): 460–483 [p. 461f.] doi:10.2307/2850920. JSTOR 2850920.  ^ F. Duchesne, Preuves de l' histoire de tous les cardinaux françois (Paris 1660) p. 220. ^ The Brie champenoise, by contrast, consisted of that part of the pays of Brie that lay within territories of the counts of Champagne. As a measure of the fractionalisations caused by feudalism, the sieur de Brion nevertheless held his seigneurie of Meinpincien from the count of Champagne. ^ César du Boulay, Historia Universitatis Parisiensis Tomus III (Paris 1655), p. 710. He studied the Liberal Arts as a youth. ^ As Magister Simon de Meinpiciaco he signed a document at Louviers, 2 March 1248. (Kay 1965:463). ^ F. Duchesne, Preuves de l' histoire de tous les cardinaux françois (Paris 1660) pp. 218-219. ^ Gábor Klaniczay, Holy Rulers and Blessed Princesses: Dynastic Cults in Medieval Central Europe (Cambridge: CUP 2002), p. 237. ^ Robert Brentano, Rome
Rome
before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth Century Rome
Rome
(Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press 1990), p. 230. Acta Sanctorum Augusti Vol. 6, p. 789. ^ F. Duchesne, Histoire des chanceliers et gardes des sceaux de France (Paris 1680), 234-236. ^ Date as given by Mann and Hollnsteiner 1932. Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 8, with n. 1. ^ A large collection of letters from Urban IV and from Clement IV to Cardinal Simon can be found in: Edmund Martène and Ursine Durand, Thesaurus novus anecdotorum Tomus Secundus (Paris 1717), 1-636. A not inconsiderable number of these concern money. ^ F. Duchesne, Preuves de l' histoire de tous les cardinaux françois (Paris 1660) p. 219. ^ Martene and Durand, p. 114, Epistle 32. ^ Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana chiesa I. 2 (Roma 1792), p. 304; Adolphe-Charles Peltier, Dictionnaire universel des conciles I (Paris 1847), 358. Carl Joseph von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte nach dem Quellen bearbeitet second edition Volume VI (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder 1890) 176-177. ^ Epistole et dictamina Clementis pape quarti (ed. Matthias Thumser) (Berlin 2007), no. 418, pp. 258-259. ^ Epistole et dictamina Clementis pape quarti (ed. Matthias Thumser) (Berlin 2007), no. 473, p. 292. ^ Sede Vacante and Conclave, 1268-1271 (Dr. J. P. Adams). ^ Francesco Cristofori, Il conclave del MCCLXX in Viterbo (Roma-Siena-Viterbo 1888) pp. 343-344. ^ F. Cristofori, Le tombe dei pape in Viterbo (Siena 1887), pp. 208-209. ^ A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 22 (Bar-le-Duc 1870), p. 334, under the year 1274, no. 35-36; Richard Sternfeld , Der Kardinal Johann Gaetan Orsini (Papst Nikolaus III) 1244-1277 (Berlin 1905) 241. ^ Conclave of 20-21 January, 1276 (Dr. J. P. Adams). ^ Conclave of 2-11 July, 1276 (Dr. J. P. Adams). ^ Conclave of September, 1276 (Dr. J. P. Adams). ^ Registre de Jean XXI (ed. Cadier, 1892), no. 164, p. 55. ^ Sede Vacante and Conclave of 1277 (Dr. J.P. Adams). ^ F. Gregorovius, History of Rome
Rome
in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1906) pp. 477-479. ^ Annales Placentini Ghibellini, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores Volume XVIII, p. 569. ^ Friedrich Baethgen, "Eine Pamphlet Karls I. von Anjou zur Wahl Papst Nikolaus III.," Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-historische Klasse no. 7 (Munich 1960) ^ Otto Posse, Analecta Vaticana (Oeniponti: Libraria Academica Wagneriana 1878) #898. ^ Augustinus Theiner (Editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus Vigesimus Secundus 1257-1285 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1870), under the year 1279, § 17, p. 454. August Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), p. 1742, no. 21567. ^ Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I editio altera (Monasterii 1913), pp. 9-10. ^ H. Denifle, Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis I (Paris 1889), p. 578. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana chiesa I. 2 (Roma 1792), p. 304 ^ Bernardus Guidonis, "Vita Nicolai III" in Ludovico Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1733), p. 606-607. ^ Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 10 note 3. ^ Gregorovius, Volume V, part 2, pp. 491-492. ^ Giovanni Villani, Cronica Book
Book
VII, chaper 58 (ed. Dragomanni) Tome I (Firenze 1844), pp. 391-392. ^ Popes Marinus I and Marinus II, by an old error of the papal chancery, were counted as "Martins" II and III. (Encyclopædia Britannica' 1911, s.v., "Brie") ^ Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 22, under the year 1280, § 5, pp. 483-484. Gregorovius, Volume V, part 2, pp. 493-495. ^ Bernardus Guidonis, "Vita Martini IV" in Ludovico Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1733), p. 608. ^ Gregorovius, Volume V, part 2, p. 494. ^ Robert Brentano, Rome
Rome
before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth Century Rome
Rome
(Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press 1990), pp. 96-99; 120-125. Friedrich Bock, "Le trattive per la senatoria di Roman e Carlo d'Angiò,' Archivio della Società romana di storia patria 78 (1955), 69-105. Franco Bartolini, "Per la storia del Senato Romano nel secoli XII e XIII," Bullettino dell'Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medioevo e Archivio Muratoriano, 60 (1946), 1-108. Luigi Pompili Olivieri, Il senato Romano I (Roma 1886), pp. 201-202. ^ Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, England: University Press; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1958). I papi ed i vespri siciliani. Con documenti inediti (Roma, Stamperia vaticana, 1882). Michele Amari, La Guerra del vespro siciliano seconda edizione (Paris 1843). F. Soldevila, História de Catalunya (Barcelona 1962), I, pp. 377-402. ^ Bradbury, Jim (2007). The Capetians: Kings of France, 987–1328. London: Continuum Press. p. 239. ISBN 9781852855284.  ^ A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 22 (Bar-le-Duc 1870), p. 537, under the year 1284, no. 17. ^ Edith Pasztor, "Per la storia dell'amministrazione dello stato pontificio sotto Martino IV." Miscellanea in onore di Monsignor Martino Giusti, Vol. 2 (Vatican City, 1978), pp. 181-194.

Bibliography[edit]

Chouiller, Ernest, "Recherches sur la vie du pape Martin IV," Revue de Champagne et de Brie 4 (1878) 15-30. Picherit, Gilles, Documents pour l'histoire de Simon de Brion, pape Martin II dit IV., 1215-1285 (Les Herbiers: chez l'Auteur 1995). Cerrini, Simonetta, "Martino IV," Enciclopedia dei papi (Roma 2000), I, 446-449. Catholic Encyclopedia " Pope
Pope
Martin IV" Salvador Miranda, "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church": Martin's seven cardinals

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by Nicholas III Pope 22 February 1281 – 28 March 1285 Succeeded by Honorius IV

v t e

Popes of the Catholic Church

List of popes

graphical canonised

Papal names Tombs

extant non-extant

Antipope Pope
Pope
emeritus

Papal resignation

Pope-elect

1st–4th centuries During the Roman Empire (until 493) including under Constantine (312–337)

Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

5th–8th centuries Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857)

Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III

9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo (1257–1281) Orvieto
Orvieto
(1262–1297) Perugia
Perugia
(1228–1304) Avignon
Avignon
Papacy (1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417) Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon
Avignon
Papacy (1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

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History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

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Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
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by country Vatican City

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Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
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art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon
Avignon
Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France
France
during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 34624603 LCCN: nr2001025457 ISNI: 0000 0000 5315 0353 GND: 118782215 SUDOC: 086043064 BNF:

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