Pied-Noir (French pronunciation: [pjenwaʁ], "Black-Foot"),
plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of
European, mostly French, origin who lived in
Algeria during the period
of French rule from 1830 to 1962. The term, translated from Arabic to
French, originated among the Arab community in reference to the French
soldiers who wore black boots and who were instrumental in conquering
and colonizing the region. The term was later applied to all French
citizens and eventually to Europeans in general. More broadly, it can
refer to other
Jewish people from all parts of the
Mediterranean whose families had migrated in the 19th and 20th
centuries to French Algeria, the
French protectorate in Morocco
French protectorate in Morocco or the
French protectorate of Tunisia, where many had lived for several
generations and who fled or were expelled at the end of French rule in
North Africa between 1956 and 1962. The term sometimes includes the
North African Jews, who had been living there for many centuries but
were awarded French citizenship by the 1870
Crémieux Decree whilst
the rest of the native population was maintained in a second class
status with the "Code de l'Indigénat" (ref Indigénat). More
specifically, the term
Pied-Noir is used for those of European
ancestry who "returned" to mainland
France as soon as
independence, or in the months following.
From the French invasion on 18 June 1830 until its independence,
Algeria was administratively part of France, and its European
population was simply called Algerians or colons (colonists), whereas
Muslim people of
Algeria were called Arabs, Muslims or Indigenous.
The term "pied-noir" began to be commonly used shortly before the end
Algerian War in 1962. As of the last census in Algeria, taken
on 1 June 1960, there were 1,050,000 non-
Muslim civilians (mostly
Catholic, but including 130,000 Algerian Jews) in Algeria, 10 percent
of the total population.
Algerian War the Pieds-Noirs overwhelmingly supported
colonial French rule in
Algeria and were opposed to Algerian
nationalist groups such as the Front de libération nationale
(English: National Liberation Front) (FLN) and Mouvement national
algérien (English: Algerian National Movement) (MNA). The roots of
the conflict reside in political and economic inequalities perceived
as an "alienation" from the French rule as well as a demand for a
leading position for the Berber, Arab, and Islamic cultures and rules
existing before the French conquest. The conflict contributed to the
fall of the
French Fourth Republic
French Fourth Republic and the mass exodus of Algerian
Jews to France.
Algeria became independent in 1962, about 800,000 Pieds-Noirs of
French nationality were evacuated to mainland
France while about
200,000 chose to remain in Algeria. Of the latter, there were still
about 100,000 in 1965 and about 50,000 by the end of the 1960s.
Those who moved to
France suffered ostracism from the Left for their
perceived exploitation of native Muslims and some blamed them for the
war, thus the political turmoil surrounding the collapse of the French
Fourth Republic. In popular culture, the community is often
represented as feeling removed from French culture while longing for
Algeria. Thus, the recent history of the Pieds-Noirs has been
imprinted with a theme of double alienation from both their native
homeland and their adopted land. Though the term rapatriés d'Algérie
implies that they once lived in France, most Pieds-Noirs were born in
Algeria. Many families had lived there for generations, and the
Algerian Jews, who were considered Pieds-Noirs, were as indigenous to
Algeria as its
1 Origin of the term
2.1 French conquest and settlement
2.2 Relationship to mainland
Pied-Noir population as part of the total Algerian population
Algerian War and exodus
2.5.1 Algerian War
2.5.3 Flight to mainland France
3 The Song of the Africans
4 Notable Pieds-Noirs
5 See also
Origin of the term
Generic "black feet" emblem used by post-independence Pied-Noir
There are competing theories about the origin of the term "pied-noir".
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it refers to "a person of
European origin living in
Algeria during the period of French rule,
especially a French person expatriated after
Algeria was granted
independence in 1962." The Le Robert dictionary states that in 1901
the word indicated a sailor working barefoot in the coal room of a
ship, who would find his feet dirtied by the soot and dust. Since, in
the Mediterranean, this was often an Algerian native, the term was
used pejoratively for Algerians until 1955 when it first began
referring to "French born in Algeria" according to some sources.
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary claims this usage originated from
mainland French as a negative nickname.
There is also a theory that the term comes from the black boots of
French soldiers compared to the barefoot Algerians. Other theories
focus on new settlers dirtying their clothing by working in swampy
areas, wearing black boots when on horseback, or trampling grapes to
French conquest and settlement
Algeria by Admiral Duperré's forces in 1830
Four children in a wagon pulled by two donkeys, circa 1905. The first
Pieds-Noirs were the French Army of Africa personnel's children.
Main articles: French
Algeria and History of Algeria
European settlement of
Algeria began during the 1830s, after France
had commenced the process of conquest with the military seizure of the
Algiers in 1830. The invasion was instigated when the
Algiers struck the French consul with a fly-swatter in 1827, although
economic reasons are also cited. In 1830 the government of Charles X
Algeria and an armada sailed to Algiers, followed by a land
expedition. A troop of 34,000 soldiers landed on 18 June 1830, at
Sidi Ferruch, 27 kilometres (17 mi) west of Algiers. Following a
three-week campaign, the Hussein
Dey capitulated on 5 July 1830, and
In the 1830s the French controlled only the northern part of the
country. Entering the
Oran region, they faced resistance from Emir
Abd al-Kader, a leader of a Sufi Brotherhood. In 1839 Abd
al-Kader began a seven-year war by declaring jihad against the French.
The French signed two peace treaties with al-Kader, but they were
broken because of a miscommunication between the military and the
Parisian government. In response to the breaking of the second treaty,
Abd al-Kader drove the French to the coast. In reply, a force of
nearly 100,000 troops marched to the Algerian countryside and
forced Abd al-Kader's surrender in 1847. In 1848
divided into three départements of France, Alger, Oran, and
Constantine, thus becoming part of the French state.
The French modeled their colonial system on their predecessors, the
Ottomans, by co-opting local tribes. In 1843 the colonists began
supervising through Bureaux Arabes operated by military
officials with authority over particular domains. This system
lasted until the 1880s and the rise of the French Third Republic, when
colonization intensified. Large-scale regrouping of lands began
when land-speculation companies took advantage of government policy
that allowed massive sale of native property. By the 20th century
Europeans held 1,700,000 hectares; by 1940,
2,700,000 hectares, about 35 to 40
percent; and by 1962 it was 2,726,700 hectares representing 27
percent of the arable land[clarify] of Algeria. Settlers came from
all over the western Mediterranean region, particularly Italy, France,
Spain, and Malta.
Relationship to mainland
Map of French Algeria
Pied-Noir relationship with
Algeria was marked by
alienation. The settlers considered themselves French, but many of
the Pieds-Noirs had a tenuous connection to mainland France, which 28
percent of them had never visited. The settlers encompassed a range of
socioeconomic strata, ranging from peasants to large landowners, the
latter of whom were referred to as grands colons.
In Algeria, the Muslims were not considered French and did not share
the same political or economic benefits. For example, the
indigenous population did not own most of the settlements, farms, or
businesses, although they numbered nearly nine million (versus roughly
one million Pieds-Noirs) at independence. Politically, the Muslim
Algerians had no representation in the
French National Assembly
French National Assembly until
1945 and wielded limited influence in local governance. To obtain
citizenship, they were required to renounce their
Since this would constitute apostasy, only about 2,500 Muslims
acquired citizenship before 1930. The settlers' politically
and economically dominant position worsened relations between the two
Pied-Noir population as part of the total Algerian
Muslim proportion of population in 1954 by département (post-1957
administrative division). White: less than 2% non-Muslim; light blue:
2-5%; mid-blue: 5-10%; dark blue: 10-30%; black: greater than 30%
From roughly the last half of the 19th century until independence, the
Pieds-Noirs accounted for approximately 10% of the total Algerian
population. Although they constituted a numerical minority, they were
undoubtedly the prime political and economic force of the region.
In 1959, the Pieds-Noirs numbered 1,025,000, and accounted for 10.4%
of the total population of Algeria, a percentage gradually diminishing
since the peak of 15.2% in 1926. However, some areas of
high concentrations of Pieds-Noirs, such as the regions of
Annaba), Algiers, and above all the area from
Oran had been under European rule since the 17th
century, and the population in the
Oran metropolitan area was 49.3%
Jewish in 1959. In the
Algiers metropolitan area,
Jewish people accounted for 35.7% of the population. In
the metropolitan area of
Bône they accounted for 40.5% of the
population. The département of Oran, a rich European-developed
agricultural land of 16,520 km² (6,378 sq. miles) stretching
between the cities of
Oran and Sidi-Bel-Abbès, and including them,
was the area of highest
Pied-Noir density outside of the cities, with
the Pieds-Noirs accounting for 33.6% of the population of the
département in 1959.
The general Algerian Population vs. the Pied Noir population
Pied Noir population
14,000 (in 1836)
100,000 (in 1847)
1,111,000 (in 1959)
100,000 (in 1965)
Main article: History of the
Jews in Algeria
See also: Crémieux Decree
An Algerian Jew, c. late 19th-early 20th century
Jews were present in North Africa and Iberia for centuries, some since
the time when "Phoenicians and Hebrews, engaged in maritime commerce,
Hippo Regius (current Annaba), Tipasa, Caesarea (current
Cherchel), and Icosium (current Algiers)". According to oral
tradition they arrived from Judea after the First Jewish-Roman War
(66–73 AD), while it is known historically that many Sephardi Jews
came following the Spanish Reconquista. In 1870, Justice Minister
Adolphe Crémieux wrote a proposal, décret Crémieux, giving French
citizenship to Algerian Jews. Thus, the
came to be considered part of the
Pied-Noir community, Though this
advancement was resisted by part of the larger
Pied-Noir community. In
1897 a wave of anti-Semitic riots occurred in Algeria. During World
War II the décret Crémieux was abolished under the Vichy regime, and
Jews were barred from professional jobs between 1940 and 1943.
Citizenship was restored in 1943. Many
Jews fled the country to France
in 1962, alongside most other Pieds-Noirs, after the Algerian War.
Algerian War and exodus
Algerian War and Évian Accords
For more than a century
France maintained colonial rule in Algerian
territory. This allowed exceptions to republican law, including Sharia
laws applied by Islamic customary courts to
Muslim women which gave
women certain rights to property and inheritance that they did not
have under French law. Discontent among the
Muslim Algerians grew
after the World Wars, in which the Algerians sustained many
casualties. Algerian nationalists began efforts aimed at
furthering equality by listing complaints in the Manifesto of the
Algerian People, which requested equal representation under the state
and access to citizenship, but no equality for all citizens to
preserve Islamic precepts. The French response was to grant
citizenship to 60,000 "meritorious" Muslims. During a reform
effort in 1947, the French created a bicameral legislature with one
house for the French citizens and another for the Muslims; but gave a
European's vote equal seven times more weight than a Muslim's
vote. Paramilitary groups such as the National Liberation Front
(Front de Libération nationale, FLN) appeared, claiming an
Arab-Islamic brotherhood and state. This led to the outbreak of a
war for independence, the Algerian War, in 1954.
Muslim quarters (green), European quarters (brown), terrorist
From the first armed operations of November 1954,
had always been targets for the FLN, either by assassination; bombing
bars and cinemas; mass massacres; torture; and rapes in farms. At
the onset of the war, the Pieds-Noirs believed the French military
would be able to overcome opposition. In May 1958 a demonstration for
French Algeria, led by Pieds-Noirs but including many Muslims,
occupied an Algerian government building. General Jacques Massu
controlled the riot by forming a 'Committee of Public Safety'
demanding that his acquaintance
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle be named president
of the French Fourth Republic, to prevent the "abandonment of
Algeria". This eventually led to the fall of the Republic. In
response, the French Parliament voted 329 to 224 to place de Gaulle in
power. Once de Gaulle assumed leadership, he attempted peace by
Algeria within three days of his appointment, proclaiming
"French Algeria!"; but in September 1959 he planned a referendum for
Algerian self-determination that passed overwhelmingly. Many
French political and military leaders in
Algeria viewed this as a
betrayal and formed the
Organisation armée secrète
Organisation armée secrète (OAS) that had
much support among Pieds-Noirs. This paramilitary group began
attacking officials representing de Gaulle's authority, Muslims, and
de Gaulle himself. The OAS was also accused of murders and
bombings which nullified reconciliation opportunities between the
communities, while Pieds-Noirs themselves never believed such
reconciliation possible as their community was targeted from the
The opposition culminated in the
Algiers putsch of 1961, led by
retired generals. After its failure, on 18 March 1962, de Gaulle and
the FLN signed a cease-fire agreement, the Évian Accords, and held a
referendum. In July, Algerians voted 5,975,581 to 16,534 to become
independent from France. This triggered a massacre of Pieds-Noirs
Oran by a suburban
Muslim population. European people were shot,
molested and brought to Petit-Lac slaughterhouse where they were
tortured and executed.
Minister of Justice Adolphe Crémieux's decrees of October 24, 1870
granted automatic French citizenship to French Algeria's Sephardic
Jews. In contrast, Muslims and 3-year resident European foreigners had
to have reached the age of majority (21) to apply.
The exodus began once it became clear that
Algeria would become
independent. In Algiers, it was reported that by May 1961 the
Pieds-Noirs' morale had sunk because of violence and allegations
that the entire community of French nationals had been responsible for
"terrorism, torture, colonial racism, and ongoing violence in general"
and because the group felt "rejected by the nation as
Pieds-Noirs ". These factors, the
Oran Massacre, and the
referendum for independence caused the
Pied-Noir exodus to begin in
The number of Pieds-Noirs who fled
Algeria totalled more than 800,000
between 1962 and 1964. Many Pieds-Noirs left only with what they
could carry in a suitcase. Adding to the confusion, the de
Gaulle government ordered the
French Navy not to help with
transportation of French citizens. By September 1962, cities such
as Oran, Bône, and
Sidi Bel Abbès
Sidi Bel Abbès were half-empty. All
administration-, police-, school-, justice-, and commercial activities
stopped within three months after many Pieds-Noirs were told to choose
either "la valise ou le cercueil" (the suitcase or the coffin).
200,000 Pieds-Noirs chose to remain, but they gradually left
through the following decade; by the 1980s only a few thousand
Pieds-Noirs remained in Algeria.
The flight of the Pieds-Noirs dwarfed that of the
Muslim harkis who
had fought on the French side during the Algerian War. Of
Muslim loyalists only about 90,000, including
dependents, were able to escape to France; and of those who remained
many thousands were killed by lynch mobs or executed as traitors by
the FLN. In contrast to the treatment of the European Pieds-Noirs,
little effort was made by the French government to extend protection
to the harkis or to arrange their organised evacuation.
Flight to mainland France
The French government claimed that it had not anticipated that such a
massive number would leave; it believed that perhaps 300,000 might
choose to depart temporarily and that a large portion would return to
Algeria. The administration had set aside funds for absorption of
those it called repatriates to partly reimburse them for property
losses. The administration avoided acknowledging the true numbers
of refugees in order to avoid upsetting its
Consequently, few plans were made for their return, and,
psychologically at least, many of the Pieds-Noirs were alienated from
Algeria and France.
Unofficial pied-noir flag
Many Pieds-Noirs settled in continental France, while others migrated
to New Caledonia, Australia, Spain, Israel, Italy, the
United States, Canada and Argentina. In France, many
relocated to the south, which offered a climate similar to North
Africa. The influx of new citizens bolstered the local economies;
however, the newcomers also competed for jobs, which caused
resentment. In some ways, the Pieds-Noirs were able to
integrate well into the French community, relative to their harki
Muslim counterparts. Their resettlement was made easier by the
economic boom of the 1960s. However, the ease of assimilation depended
on socioeconomic class. Integration was easier for the upper classes,
many of whom found the transformation less stressful than the lower
classes, whose only capital had been left in
Algeria when they fled.
Many were surprised that they were often treated as an "underclass or
outsider-group" with difficulties in gaining advancement in their
careers. Also, many Pieds-Noirs contended that the money allocated by
the government to assist in relocation and reimbursement was
insufficient regarding their loss.
Thus, the repatriated Pieds-Noirs frequently felt "disaffected" from
French society. They also suffered from a sense of alienation stemming
from the French government's changed position towards Algeria. Until
Algeria was legally a part of France; after independence
many felt that they had been betrayed and were now portrayed as an
"embarrassment" to their country or to blame for the war.
The Song of the Africans
Pied-Noir community has adopted, as both an unofficial anthem and
as a symbol of its identity, Captain Félix Boyer's 1943 version of
"Le Chant des Africains" (lit. "The Song of the Africans"). This
was a 1915
Infanterie de Marine
Infanterie de Marine marching song, originally titled
"C'est nous les Marocains" (lit. "We are the Moroccans") and dedicated
to Colonel Van Hecke, commander of the World War I cavalry unit the 7e
régiment de chasseurs d'Afrique ("7th African Light Cavalry
Regiment"). Boyer's song was adopted during World War II by the Free
French First Army that was drawn from units of the Army of Africa and
included many Pieds-Noirs. The music and words were later utilized by
the Pieds-Noirs to proclaim their allegiance to France. (listen to the
Chant des Africains)
The "Song of the Africans" was banned as official military music in
1962 at the end of the
Algerian War until August 1969, when the French
Minister of Veterans Affairs (Ministre des Anciens Combattants) at the
time, Henri Duvillard, lifted the prohibition.
Main article: List of Pieds-Noirs
Louis Althusser, philosopher
Jacques Attali, economist, writer
Paul Belmondo, sculptor, father of the actor Jean-Paul Belmondo
Yasmine Bleeth, actress
Patrick Bokanowski, filmmaker
Patrick Bruel, singer
Albert Camus, author
Étienne Daho, singer
Jacques Derrida, philosopher
Annie Fratellini, circus clown
Tony Gatlif, filmmaker
Marlène Jobert, actress and author
Alphonse Juin, Marshal of France
Marcel Cerdan, boxer
Jean-François Larios, footballer
Enrico Macias, singer
Jean Pélégri, author
Emmanuel Roblès, author
Yves Saint Laurent, fashion designer
White Africans of European ancestry
List of French possessions and colonies
^ De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (1994) Migration and development
co-operation.. Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9.
^ a b c "pied-noir". Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition. XI.
Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. 1989. pp. 799.
^ a b c d e f g Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2000).
France and Algeria: A
History of Decolonization and Transformation. University Press of
Florida. pp. 9–23, 14. ISBN 0-8130-3096-X.
^ a b Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe since 1945: an encyclopedia. New
York: Garland. p. 398. ISBN 0-8153-4057-5.
^ a b c d e f g h Smith, Andrea L. (2006). Colonial Memory And
Postcolonial Europe: Maltese Settlers in
Algeria And France. Indiana
University Press. pp. 4–37, 180.
^ a b c "Pieds-noirs": ceux qui ont choisi de rester, La Dépêche du
Midi, March 2012
^ a b c d e Shepard, Todd (2006). The Invention of Decolonization: The
Algerian War And the Remaking of France. Cornell University Press.
pp. 213–240. ISBN 0-8014-4360-1.
^ "pied-noir". Dictionnaire Historique de la langue française. 2.
Paris, France: Dictionnaires le Robert. March 2000.
pp. 2728–9. ISBN 2-85036-532-7.
^ "Pieds-noirs (histoire)" [Black feet (history)]. Microsoft Encarta
Online (in French). 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February
^ "Francparler.com - Voyons en détails..." 12 October 2005. Archived
from the original on 12 October 2005. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b c Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A History of Islamic Societies.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 585–600.
^ a b c Country Studies Program; formerly the Army Handbook (2006).
"Country Profile: Algeria" (PDF). Library of Congress, Federal
Research Division. The Library of Congress. p. 3. Retrieved
^ a b Milton-Edwards, Beverley (2006). Contemporary Politics in the
Middle East. Polity. p. 28. ISBN 0-7456-3593-8.
^ a b c Churchill, Charles Henry (1867). The Life of Abdel Kader,
Ex-sultan of the Arabs of Algeria. Chapman and Hall.
^ Stone, Martin (1997). The Agony of Algeria. Columbia University
Press. pp. 31–37. ISBN 0-231-10911-3.
^ a b Amselle, Jean-Loup (2003). Affirmative exclusion: cultural
pluralism and the rule of custom in France. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
University Press. pp. 65–100. ISBN 0-8014-8747-1.
^ Les réformes agraires en Algérie - Lazhar Baci - Institut National
Département d'Economie Rurale, Alger (Algérie)
^ a b c d e f g h Grenville, J. A. S. (2005). A History of the World
from the 20th to the 21st Century. Routledge. pp. 520–30.
^ a b c d e f g h i Kacowicz, Arie Marcelo; Pawel Lutomski (2007).
Population Resettlement in International Conflicts: A Comparative
Study. Lexington Books. pp. 30–70.
^ a b Kantowicz, Edward R. (2000). Coming apart, coming together.
Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans. p. 207.
^ Albert Habib Hourani, Malise Ruthven (2002). "A history of the Arab
peoples". Harvard University Press. p.323. ISBN 0-674-01017-5
^ "ALGERIA: population growth of the whole country". Populstat.info.
Retrieved 11 January 2018.
^ "Timelines : History of Algeria". Zum.de. Retrieved 11 January
^ The Agony of
Algeria By Martin Stone published by Columbia
University Press, 1997. ISBN 0231109113, page 32 (source for
pieds-noir population in 1836 and 1847).
^ "Pied-Noir". Encyclopedia of the Orient.
^ a b c d e f Stora, Benjamin (2005). Algeria, 1830-2000: A Short
History. Cornell University Press. pp. 12, 77.
^ a b Goodman, Martin; Cohen, Jeremy; Sorkin, David Jan (2005). The
Oxford Handbook of
Jewish Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
pp. 330–40. ISBN 0-19-928032-0.
^ Grobman, Alex (1983). Genocide: Critical Issues of the Holocaust.
Behrman House, Inc. p. 132. ISBN 0-940646-38-2.
^ a b Courrières, Yves (1968). La Guerre d'Algerie. Fayard.
p. 208. ISBN 2-213-61121-1.
^ a b c Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa: A History of Fifty Years
of Independence. PublicAffairs. p. 74.
^ Monneret, Jean. Oran, 5 juillet 1962. Michalon.
^ Horne, Alistair (1977). A Savage War of Peace:
The Viking Press. pp. 533 and 537. ISBN 0-670-61964-7.
^ "Pieds-noirs (France)". flagspot.net. Retrieved 11 January
^ a b "French migration to South Australia (1955-1971): What Alien
Registration documents can tell us". Vol. 2, Issue 2, August 2005.
Flinders University Languages. Retrieved 2007-12-25.
^ Sempere Souvannavong, Juan David (11 January 2018). "Les pieds-noirs
à Alicante". Revue européenne de migrations internationales. 17 (3):
173–198. doi:10.3406/remi.2001.1800. Retrieved 11 January
^ "Vidéo: l'alyah des juifs d'Algérie - JSS News - Israël -
Diplomatie - Géopolitique". 27 July 2010. Archived from the original
on 27 July 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
^ Alba, Richard; Silberman, Roxane (December 2002). "Decolonization
Immigrations and the Social Origins of the Second Generation: The Case
of North Africans in France". International Migration Review.
Blackwell Synergy. 36 (4): 1169–1193.
doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00122.x. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ Dine, Philip (1994). Images of the Algerian War: French Fiction and
Film, 1954-1992. Oxford University Press. pp. 189–99.
^ "Les Africains". nice.algerianiste.free.fr. Retrieved 11 January
^ John Franklin. "Mémoire Vive". Magazine du C.D.H.A. No. 32,
4th trimester 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
South Africa (Afrikaners)
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom (Huguenots)
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico
1Overseas parts of
Migration of minorities in
France (i.e. Basques) can be considered as
separate (ethnically) or French migration (by nationality).
West Asian peoples
Central Asian peoples
North African peoples
Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European
people are the majority group
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Trinidad and Tobago
First white child
Play the white man
Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento
White Australia policy
The White Man's Burden
phenomena and theories
Acting white (Passing as white)
Angry white male
Missing white woman syndrome
South African farm attacks
Whitewashed film roles
caricatures and stereotypes
in the United States
US definitions of whiteness
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Old Stock Americans
Human skin color
Color terminology for race