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The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes (Pashto: پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل‎), are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto
Pashto
language and follow Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans.[1][2][3][4][5] They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سربڼي), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).

Flag of the Durrani
Durrani
(Abdali or Ebodalo) tribes of the Sarbani confederacy

Folkloric genealogies trace the descendants of the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
to Qais Abdur Rashid and his three sons Sarbaṇ (سربڼ), Beṭ (بېټ), and Gharghax̌t (غرغښت) as well as his fourth son, the Karlani confederacy Ormur Baraki, who became the progenitor of the Karlani.[6]:33 There are several levels of organisation of Pashtun tribes. The "tribe" is subdivided into kinship groups, each of which is a khel and zai. A khel or Zai is further divided into "Plarina", each of which consists of several extended families.[7] A large tribe often has dozens of subtribes whose members may see themselves as belonging to each, some or all of the sub-tribes in their family tree depending upon the social situation: co-operative, competitive or confrontational.[8]

Contents

1 Etymologies 2 Dialects 3 History 4 Territories

4.1 Sarbani 4.2 Bettani 4.3 Gharghashti 4.4 Karlani

5 References 6 External links

Etymologies[edit] Tarbur refers to a "tribe" split into two or more clans and Tarbur mean cousin in Pashto
Pashto
so Tarbur could be enemy as well in the Pashtun culture that they can occupy your land or property. Every Pashtun tribe is then divide into subtribes, also called khel or zai. Zai in Pashto
Pashto
means "descendant". In Avestan
Avestan
it is similar to Pashto
Pashto
"Zoi" meaning son or offspring. William Crooke has said that khel is from an Arabic word meaning "association" or "company".[9] A khel is often based in a single village,[10] but it may also be based on a larger area including several villages, or part of a town.[11][12] Plarina is related to the Bactrian term plār, which derives from Old Iranian piðar (in Bactrian and Pashto, Old Iranian
Old Iranian
/ð/ usually yields /l/), and is related to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pitar and English "father". The plural form of plār is plārina. A plārina is considered only when the 7th generation is born, meaning the father of multiple families (kahol). Usually, the 7th forefather is assumed to take from one-and-a-half century to two centuries. Kul (plural kahol) is the smallest unit in Pashtun tribal system, named after an ancestor of 1. Zāmon ("children"), 2. Lmasay / Nwasay ("grandchildren"), 3. Kaṛwasay ("great-grandchildren"), and 4. Kaoday ("great-great-grandchildren"). Once the fourth generation is born, it would be labelled a "family" or kūl. Dialects[edit] Main article: Pashto
Pashto
dialects The Bettani
Bettani
speak various Pashto
Pashto
dialects. The Ghilji
Ghilji
or (Gharzai) of the central region around Paktika speak Central Pashto, a dialect with unique phonetic features, transitional between the southern and the northern dialects of Pashto.[6] The Lohani (Rohani,Nohani) Marwat, as well as some other minor Lodi tribes and the Bettani
Bettani
proper, speak the Marwat Lodi Bettani
Bettani
dialect, which is a southern Pashto
Pashto
variety, however, its phonetics are different from the southern Kandahari Pashto. The Sheerani tribe of the Bettani
Bettani
confederacy speaks another southern dialect. The northern Bettani
Bettani
clans speak the northern or "hard" Pashto
Pashto
variety. Some of the Bettani
Bettani
lineages, including some (but not all) clans of the Tanoli , Niazi, and Swati tribes, have abandoned Pashto. Today they speak other languages, like Urdu, Hindko, Saraiki, Punjabi, Dari. The Gharghashti Kakar
Kakar
Panni
Panni
Mandokhel and Musakhel and other minor settled in the region around Quetta
Quetta
Zhob
Zhob
ans Loralai speak dialect, which is a "soft" Pashto
Pashto
dialect very similar to Kandahari Pashto. The Safi, some of the Jaduns, and some other minor northern Gharghashti tribes speak the northern or "hard" Pashto
Pashto
variety. The Jaduns, living on the Mahabun mountain slopes around Swabi speak Pashto, while those living in Hazara speak Pashto
Pashto
and Hindko.[6]:26 Some clans of the Safi tribe speak the Pashayi languages but are mostly bilingual in Pashto. The Karlani
Karlani
speak some of the most distinctive Pashto
Pashto
dialects which are lexically different from standard Pashto
Pashto
varieties, and phonetically very varied. Furthermore, the Karlani
Karlani
dialects have a tendency towards a change in the pronunciation of vowels. Depending on the particular dialect, the standard Pashto
Pashto
[a], [ā], [o], [u] may change into [ā], [â/å/o], [ȯ/ȫ/e], [i], respectively.[13] In the Karlani
Karlani
dialects of Waziristan, Bannu, and Tani (southern Khost), which follow the vowel shift to the greatest extent, these four vowels normally change into [ā], [o], [e], [i], respectively. Much of the Ormur tribe settled in some villages of Waziristan
Waziristan
and Logar, who give their name to Ormur the folkloric ancestor of the Karlani, speak the Ormuri language
Ormuri language
which is distinct from Pashto.[6]:33 However, in general the Ormur are bilingual in Pashto, particularly in the Karlani dialect of Wazirwola. The Sarbani tribes, Southwestern most notably the Durrani, speak (Kandahari Pashto) a "soft" dialect of Pashto; while Northwestern Sarbani tribes, most notably they speak (Peshawari Pashto) Pashto
Pashto
a "hard" dialect of Pashto. Both of them are considered upper class dialects. In addition, a small section of the Tarin clan of the Sarbani living east of Quetta
Quetta
speak the distinctive Wanetsi (Tareeno) dialect, which is considered by some modern scholars to be distinctive enough to be classified as its own language.[14] History[edit] Main article: Pashtuns
Pashtuns
§ History and origins Further information: History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and History of Pakistan

The Hotak Empire
Hotak Empire
at its peak (1722–1729). It was established by the Hotak- Ghilji
Ghilji
clan of the Bettani
Bettani
confederacy, and mainly encompassed parts of present-day Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
(Durr-e Durrānī; the "founder of Afghanistan"), following a loya jirga held at Kandahar
Kandahar
in 1747. The modern Durrani
Durrani
tribe is named after him

Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
Mirazikhel, Founder of the 18th-century Bhopal State in Central India (in present-day Madhya Pradesh), belonged to the Orakzai
Orakzai
clan of the Karlani
Karlani
tribe

The origin of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas
Pakthas
(Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium,[15][16] who may be their early ancestors. Often characterised as a warrior and martial race, their history is mostly spread among various countries of South and Central Asia, centered on their traditional seat of power in medieval Afghanistan. One theory suggests that the modern Ghilji
Ghilji
lineages descended from the medieval Khalaj or Khilji tribe. Some Bettani lineages, however, are said to have descended in part from the medieval Ghorid people.The Bettani
Bettani
are named after their folkloric leader or ancestor, Shaikh Bet Baba (claimed to be among the first Pashto-language poets), who lived in the Altamur range, located between the Logar and Zurmat valleys. He is reported to have been buried in Ghazni.[17] In the 15th century, the Bettani
Bettani
are known to have mainly inhabited the Logar, Zurmat, and Ghazni
Ghazni
regions.[17] Subsequently, many of their lineages settled to the northeast, spreading up to the Damaan Valley, Mianwali, and parts of the present-day Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in the east, and parts of Kunduz Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the north. In the 19th century, the traditional way of life of the Bettani
Bettani
combined small-scale irrigated agriculture with seasonal nomadism or seminomadism. They engaged in pastoral migrations, along the mountain slopes in summers, and inversely, towards the Indus plains in winters.[17] From the 13th century, various Khilji dynasties and ruling entities took control in the Bengal and Delhi
Delhi
Sultanates of the Indian subcontinent. In the 15th century, the Lodi tribe founded the Lodi dynasty, the last dynasty to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. In the 16th century, the Sur Empire with its capital at Delhi
Delhi
was founded by Sher Shah Suri, a member of the Sur clan of the Bettani
Bettani
confederacy. Between 1709 and 1738, the Hotak
Hotak
clan of the Ghilji
Ghilji
tribe ruled the Hotak Empire
Hotak Empire
based first in Kandahar, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and later very briefly in Isfahan, Persia.[18] In the 16th century, Taj Khan Karrani of the Karlani
Karlani
tribe founded the Karrani dynasty, the last dynasty to rule the Bengal Sultanate. Several Karlani
Karlani
clans served in the Mughal army. The Bhopal State, in the present-day Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state of Central India, was founded in 1723 by Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
Mirazikhel. He was from the Orakzai
Orakzai
clan of the Karlani
Karlani
tribe, and was a mercenary in the Mughal army.[19] After his death in 1728, his descendants, the Nawabs of Bhopal, continued ruling the state until Hamidullah Khan, the last sovereign nawab of the dynasty, officially acceded the state to India in 1949.[20] The origin of the Sarbani might be connected with the Hephthalites (Ebodalo),[21]:242 who had a large nomadic confederation in the 5th–6th centuries CE, as well as with the Scythians,[22] whose languages are also known to be in the Eastern Iranian group along with Pashto. These groups were settled where most of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
live today. Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
of the Sadozai clan of the Abdali tribe (now known as "Durrani" after him) established the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
in 1747 with its capital at Kandahar. Ahmad Shah adopted the title Durr-e Durrānī ("pearl of pearls" or "pearl of the age"), and the name of his tribe Abdali was changed to "Durrani" after him.[21]:242 Ahmad Shah is now regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. He controlled areas from Khorasan in the west up to Kashmir
Kashmir
and Delhi
Delhi
in the east, and from the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
in the north up to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the south. It was the second-greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century, surpassed in size only by the Ottoman Empire.[23] In 1826, Dost Mohammad Khan, of the Barakzai
Barakzai
clan of the Durrani tribe, founded the Barakzai dynasty
Barakzai dynasty
centered at Kabul.[24] The Barakzai dynasty
Barakzai dynasty
ruled present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
until 1973 when Mohammed Zahir Shah, the last Barakzai
Barakzai
king, was overthrown in a bloodless coup by his own cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan. The coup ended the Barakzai
Barakzai
kingdom and established the Republic of Afghanistan (1973–1978).[25] The current heir apparent and crown prince of the Barakzai
Barakzai
kingdom (23 July 2007 – present) is Ahmad Shah Khan. During the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
era, the Pashtun Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
replaced the Turkic rulers in North India. Some ruled from the Bengal Sultanate. Majority Pashtuns
Pashtuns
fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century,[26] which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak
Hotak
followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani.[27] The Barakzai dynasty
Barakzai dynasty
played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are the largest dominion ethnic group in Afghanistan and ruled as the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. Territories[edit] Sarbani[edit] Main article: Sarbani The Sarbani confederacy include the Durrani
Durrani
historically called Abdali including its politically influential Sadozai and Barakzai
Barakzai
clans, Shinwari, Barech Alakozai, Achakzai, Niazi (Nayazai), Kasi, Gumoriani, Gigyani, Ghoryakhel, Muhammadzai (Hashtnagar), Mandanr, Tajkhel and other minor tribes and Khels. Bettani[edit] Main article: Bettani The Bettani
Bettani
confederacy include the Bettani
Bettani
Proper (whose highest concentration is in the region around Jandola), the much larger Ghilji or (Ghalzoi), Lodi Lohani (Rohani & Nohani) tribal groups and other minor tribes. Gharghashti[edit] Main article: Gharghashti The Gharghashti or ( Gharghakhti) tribe of The Kakar, settled mainly in the Balochistan
Balochistan
Province of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Kandahar, Zabul, Herat provinces of Afghanistan. The Jadun
Jadun
and Panni, settled mainly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
in Pakistan; and the Safi, whose highest concentration is in the Kohi Safi district of Parwan province and the Pech valley of Kunar province, but are also present in other parts of northeastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and in northwestern Pakistan. There are also other minor Gharghashti tribes. Karlani[edit] Main article: Karlani The Karlani
Karlani
confederacy primarily inhabit the eastern, northeastern, and central regions of Loya Paktia, and the southwestern region of Nangarhar in Afghanistan; as well as the southern and central regions of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
in Pakistan. References[edit]

^ Glatzer, Bernt (2002). "The Pashtun Tribal System" (PDF). New Delhi: Concept Publishers. Retrieved 25 January 2015.  ^ Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-3863-8. Retrieved 2010-10-17.  ^ Syed Saleem Shahzad (October 20, 2006). "Profiles of Pakistan's Seven Tribal Agencies". Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "Ethnic map of Afghanistan" (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor. National Geographic Society. 2003. Retrieved 24 October 2010.  ^ " Ethnologue
Ethnologue
report for Southern Pashto: Iran (1993)". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 18 Feb 2016.  ^ a b c d Coyle, Dennis Walter (August 2014). "Placing Wardak among Pashto
Pashto
varieties" (PDF). University of North Dakota:UND. Retrieved 26 December 2014.  ^ Wardak, A. (2003) " Jirga
Jirga
– A Traditional Mechanism of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan" p. 7, online at UNPAN (the United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance), accessed 10 January 2009 ^ Wardak, A. (2003) " Jirga
Jirga
– A Traditional Mechanism of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan" p. 10, online at UNPAN (the United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance), accessed 10 January 2009 ^ Crooke, William (1896) The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, p. 158, OCLC 4770515 ^ Wardak, A. (2003) " Jirga
Jirga
– A Traditional Mechanism of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan" p. 6, online at UNPAN (the United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance), accessed 10 January 2009 ^ Albrecht, Hans-Jörg (2006) Conflicts and Conflict Resolution in Middle Eastern Societies: Between Tradition and Modernity Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, p. 358, ISBN 3-428-12220-8 ^ Wardak, A. (2004). Afghanistan: Essential Field Guides to Humanitarian and Conflict Zones (2nd ed.). Geneva: Crosslines Ltd.,. ISBN 2-9700176-1-X.  ^ Morgenstierne, Georg (15 December 1983). "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 24 January 2015.  ^ Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4. LINK ^ Nath, Samir (2002). Dictionary of Vedanta. Sarup & Sons. p. 273. ISBN 81-7890-056-4. Retrieved 10 September 2010.  ^ "7". The History of Herodotus. Translated by George Rawlinson. The History Files. February 4, 1998 [original written 440 BC]. Retrieved 10 January 2007.  ^ a b c Balland, Daniel. Encyclopaedia Iranica. BĒṬANĪ. Originally published on 15 December 1989. ^ Ewans, Martin; Sir Martin Ewans (2002). Afghanistan: a short history of its people and politics. New York: Perennial. p. 30. ISBN 0060505087. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ Shaharyar M. Khan (2000). The Begums of Bhopal: A History of the Princely State of Bhopal. I.B.Tauris. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-86064-528-0.  ^ S.R. Bakshi and O.P. Ralhan (2007). Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. p. 360. ISBN 978-81-7625-806-7.  ^ a b The Hephthalites: Archaeological and Historical Analysis, Aydogdu Kurbanov, Berlin, 2010, page 242. ^ A brief history of Afghanistan, Shaista Wahab, Barry Youngerman, Infobase Publishing, 2007, page 14. ^ "The Durrani
Durrani
dynasty". Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree
Nancy Hatch Dupree
and others. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010.  ^ Tarzi, Amin H. "DŌSTMOḤAMMAD KHAN". Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University.  ^ Rubin, Barnett. "DĀWŪD KHAN". In Ehsan Yarshater. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved January 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-3863-8. Retrieved 17 October 2010.  ^ Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree; et al. "Last Afghan empire". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 

External links[edit]

Pashtun Tribe, Clan, & Ethnic Genealogies, US Naval Postgraduate School (on the Wayback Machine) Articulation of Tribalism into Modernity: the Case of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Afghanistan

v t e

Pashtun tribes

Bettani

Ghilji

Akakhel Alikhel Andar Gulwal Hotak Ibrahimkhel Ibrahimzai Kharoti

Nasher

Nasar Sulaimankhel

Ahmadzai Jabbarkhel

Tarakai Tokhi Painda Khel

Lodi

Dawlatzai Kundi Lodi Lohani

Marwat

Niazi

Kharotakhel

Sarwani Shirani

Harifal Miani

Sur

Gharghashti

Babai Dawi Gandapur

Hafizkhel Ibrahimzai Nattuzai Yaqubzai

Jadun Kakar

Bazai Jalalzai Khudiadadzai Mirdadzai

Ludin Mandokhel Mashwanis Musakhel Nasozai Panni

Barozai

Safi

Karlani

Afridi

Adamkhel Kalakhel

Bangash

Baizais

Banuchi Dawar Dilazak Khattak Khogyani

Kharboni

Sherzad

Wazir

Mahsud

Bahlolzai Shamankhel

Mangal Muqbil Orakzai

Mamozai Zaimukhts

Ormur Tirahi Turi Wardak Wazir

Ahmadzai Darweshkhel Utmanzai

Zadran Zazi

Sarbani

Durrani

Achakzai Alakozai Alizai

Hanbhi

Badozai Barakzai

Nawabi

Barech Ishakzai Kiral Loni Mohammadzai Nurzai Panjpai Popalzai

Habibzai Sadozai Wazirzada

Zirak

Shinwari

Mullagori

Yusufzai

Abakhel Adokhel Akazai Babuzai Balarkhel Chagharzai Degankhel Hassanikhel Hassanzai Khanan Khail Kamalzai Khwaja Khel (Khwajgan) Madakhel Mir khail Mahabatkhel Mulakhel,Malakhail Mandanr

Khadarzai

Niamatkhel Ranizai Tahirkheli Utmankhel Kamal Khel

Other Sarbani

Babar Ghoryakhel

Chamkani Khalil Mulagori

Kasi Zhmaryani Kheshgi Mohmand

Halimzai

Muhammadzai

Sherpao

Storyani Tareen Tarkani

Kakazai Mamund Salarzai Wur

Allied tribes

Awanzai Ismailkhel Sakzai Sheikh Mohammadi

v t e

Pashtun-related topics

Dynasties

Lodi dynasty Suri dynasty Hotak
Hotak
dynasty Durrani
Durrani
dynasty Barakzai
Barakzai
dynasty more

Key figures

Bahlul Lodi Sher Shah Suri Mirwais Hotak Ahmad Shah Khan Ahmad Shah Durrani Dost Mohammad Khan Malalai of Maiwand Saidu Baba Abdur Rahman Khan Mahmud Tarzi Soraya Tarzi Amanullah Khan Mohammed Nadir Shah Mullah Powindah Sartor Faqir Umra Khan Mirzali Khan Bacha Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Wali Khan Zahir Shah Daoud Khan Abdul Ahad Mohmand Mohammad Najibullah Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mohammed Omar Hamid Karzai Asfandyar Wali Khan Zalmay Khalilzad Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Abdur Rab Nishtar Abdul Waheed Kakar Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) Karnal Sher Khan Malala Yousafzai

Culture

Pashtun culture Pashtun cuisine Pashtunwali Pashto Pashtunization Pashtun dress Pashto
Pashto
media Pashto
Pashto
singers Pashtun tribes Loya jirga Adam Khan and Durkhanai Yusuf Khan and Sherbano Jirga

Poets

Amir Kror Suri Pir Roshan Rahman Baba Khushal Khattak Nazo Tokhi Abdul Hamid Baba Hussain Hotak Ahmad Shah Durrani Hamza Baba Ajmal Khattak Kabir Stori Ghani Khan

Topics and controversies

Pashtun nationalism Pashtunistan Afghan (ethnonym) Durand Line Bannu Resolution Khudai Khidmatgar Kalabagh Dam Taliban Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

First Battle of Panipat Battle of Gulnabad Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Jamrud Siege of Malakand Anglo-Afghan Wars Battle of Maiwand Tirah Campaign Battle of Saragarhi Soviet–Afghan War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) War in North-West Pakistan War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(201

.