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The Info List - Nuremberg Military Tribunal


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The subsequent Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials (formally the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Military Tribunals) were a series of twelve U.S. military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany, held in the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, after World War II from 1946 to 1949 following the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Trials 3 Result 4 Criticism

4.1 Conduct of the prosecution

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Background[edit] Although it had been initially planned to hold more than just one international trial at the IMT, the growing differences between the victorious allies (the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Soviet Union) made this impossible. However, the Control Council Law No. 10, which the Allied Control Council
Allied Control Council
had issued on 20 December 1945, empowered any of the occupying authorities to try suspected war criminals in their respective occupation zones. Based on this law, the U.S. authorities proceeded after the end of the initial Nuremberg Trial against the major war criminals to hold another twelve trials in Nuremberg. The judges in all these trials were American, and so were the prosecutors; the Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Brigadier General Telford Taylor. In the other occupation zones similar trials took place.[1] Trials[edit] The twelve U.S. trials before the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Military Tribunals (NMT) took place from 9 December 1946 to 13 April 1949.[1] The trials were as follows:

# Designations Dates Defendants

1 Doctors' Trial 9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947 23 Nazi physicians of the Action T4

2 Milch Trial 2 January – 14 April 1947 Field Marshal Erhard Milch
Erhard Milch
of the Luftwaffe

3 Judges' Trial 5 March – 4 December 1947 16 Nazi German "racial purity" jurists

4 Pohl Trial 8 April – 3 November 1947 Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
and 17 SS officers

5 Flick Trial 19 April – 22 December 1947 Friedrich Flick
Friedrich Flick
and 5 directors of his companies

6 IG Farben
IG Farben
Trial 27 August 1947 – 30 July 1948 directors of IG Farben, maker of Zyklon B

7 Hostages Trial 8 July 1947 – 19 February 1948 12 German generals of the Balkan Campaign

8 RuSHA Trial 20 October 1947 – 10 March 1948 14 racial cleansing and resettlement officials

9 Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial 29 September 1947 – 10 April 1948 24 officers of Einsatzgruppen

10 Krupp
Krupp
Trial 8 December 1947 – 31 July 1948 12 directors of the Krupp
Krupp
Group

11 Ministries Trial 6 January 1948 – 13 April 1949 21 officials of Reich ministries

12 High Command Trial 30 December 1947 – 28 October 1948 14 High Command generals

Result[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
process initiated 3,887 cases of which about 3,400 were dropped. 489 cases went to trial, involving 1,672 defendants. 1,416 of them were found guilty; less than 200 were executed, and another 279 defendants were sent to life in prison. By the 1950s almost all of them had been released.[2] Many of the longer prison sentences were reduced substantially by decree of high commissioner John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy
in 1951, and 10 outstanding death sentences from the Einsatzgruppen Trial
Einsatzgruppen Trial
were converted to prison terms. The same year, an amnesty released many of those who had received prison sentences. Criticism[edit] Some of the NMTs have been criticised for their conclusion that "moral bombing" of civilians, including its nuclear variety, was legal, and for their judgement that, in certain situations, executing civilians in reprisal was permissible.[3] Conduct of the prosecution[edit] In a 2005 interview for the Washington Post, Benjamin B. Ferencz, Chief Prosecutor for the United States Army at the Einsatzgruppen Trial, revealed some of his activities during his period in Germany. "Someone who was not there could never really grasp how unreal the situation was," he said. The Americans delivered at least a dozen low-ranking German SS suspects to displaced persons camps for the purpose of having them executed by the DPs ("displaced persons"), without prior trial or sentencing. Under military law at that time, it was legal to hand over suspects to their victims for further questioning.[4]

"I once saw DPs beat an SS man and then strap him to the steel gurney of a crematorium. They slid him in the oven, turned on the heat and took him back out. Beat him again, and put him back in until he was burnt alive. I did nothing to stop it. I suppose I could have brandished my weapon or shot in the air, but I was not inclined to do so. Does that make me an accomplice to murder?"[4]

In the interview, Ferencz also pointed out that the military legal norms at the time permitted actions that would not be possible today.

"You know how I got witness statements? I'd go into a village where, say, an American pilot had parachuted and been beaten to death and line everyone up against the wall. Then I'd say, 'Anyone who lies will be shot on the spot.' It never occurred to me that statements taken under duress would be invalid."[4]

See also[edit]

Auschwitz Trial
Auschwitz Trial
held in Kraków, Poland in 1947 against 40 SS-staff of the Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
death factory Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials, 1963–65 Majdanek Trials, the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years Chełmno Trials
Chełmno Trials
of the Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
personnel, held in Poland and in Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart Sobibor Trial
Sobibor Trial
held in Hagen, Germany in 1965, concerning the Sobibor extermination camp Belzec Trial
Belzec Trial
before the 1st Munich
Munich
District Court in the mid-1960s, eight SS-men of the Belzec extermination camp Belsen Trial
Belsen Trial
in Lüneburg, 1945 Command responsibility
Command responsibility
doctrine of hierarchical accountability Dachau Trials
Dachau Trials
held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp, 1945–1948 Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials, 1946–47 Ravensbrück Trial Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive

References[edit]

^ a b c Kevin Jon Heller (2011). The Trials. Introduction: the indictments, biographical information, and the verdicts. The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ Nelson, Anne (April 2009). Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. Random House. pp. 305–6.  ^ Heller, Kevin Jon (2011). The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3.  ^ a b c Brzezinski, Matthew (24 July 2005). "Giving Hitler Hell". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

Dubois, Josiah E. (1952). The Devil's Chemists (PDF). Boston, MA: Beacon Press. ASIN B000ENNDV6.  Priemel, Kim C., and Alexa Stiller, eds. Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals: Transitional Justice, Trial Narratives, and Historiography (Berghahn Books; 2012) 321 pages

External links[edit]

The NMT proceedings at the Mazal Library. An overview.

v t e

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

Primary

Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal

Subsequent

   

I. Doctors' Trial II. Milch Trial III. Judges' Trial

IV. Pohl Trial V. Flick Trial VI. IG Farben
IG Farben
Trial

VII. Hostages Trial VIII. RuSHA Trial IX. Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial

X. Krupp
Krupp
Trial XI. Ministries Trial XII.

.
l> Nuremberg Military Tribunal
HOME
The Info List - Nuremberg Military Tribunal


--- Advertisement ---



The subsequent Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials (formally the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Military Tribunals) were a series of twelve U.S. military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany, held in the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, after World War II from 1946 to 1949 following the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Trials 3 Result 4 Criticism

4.1 Conduct of the prosecution

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Background[edit] Although it had been initially planned to hold more than just one international trial at the IMT, the growing differences between the victorious allies (the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Soviet Union) made this impossible. However, the Control Council Law No. 10, which the Allied Control Council
Allied Control Council
had issued on 20 December 1945, empowered any of the occupying authorities to try suspected war criminals in their respective occupation zones. Based on this law, the U.S. authorities proceeded after the end of the initial Nuremberg Trial against the major war criminals to hold another twelve trials in Nuremberg. The judges in all these trials were American, and so were the prosecutors; the Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Brigadier General Telford Taylor. In the other occupation zones similar trials took place.[1] Trials[edit] The twelve U.S. trials before the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Military Tribunals (NMT) took place from 9 December 1946 to 13 April 1949.[1] The trials were as follows:

# Designations Dates Defendants

1 Doctors' Trial 9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947 23 Nazi physicians of the Action T4

2 Milch Trial 2 January – 14 April 1947 Field Marshal Erhard Milch
Erhard Milch
of the Luftwaffe

3 Judges' Trial 5 March – 4 December 1947 16 Nazi German "racial purity" jurists

4 Pohl Trial 8 April – 3 November 1947 Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
and 17 SS officers

5 Flick Trial 19 April – 22 December 1947 Friedrich Flick
Friedrich Flick
and 5 directors of his companies

6 IG Farben
IG Farben
Trial 27 August 1947 – 30 July 1948 directors of IG Farben, maker of Zyklon B

7 Hostages Trial 8 July 1947 – 19 February 1948 12 German generals of the Balkan Campaign

8 RuSHA Trial 20 October 1947 – 10 March 1948 14 racial cleansing and resettlement officials

9 Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial 29 September 1947 – 10 April 1948 24 officers of Einsatzgruppen

10 Krupp
Krupp
Trial 8 December 1947 – 31 July 1948 12 directors of the Krupp
Krupp
Group

11 Ministries Trial 6 January 1948 – 13 April 1949 21 officials of Reich ministries

12 High Command Trial 30 December 1947 – 28 October 1948 14 High Command generals

Result[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
process initiated 3,887 cases of which about 3,400 were dropped. 489 cases went to trial, involving 1,672 defendants. 1,416 of them were found guilty; less than 200 were executed, and another 279 defendants were sent to life in prison. By the 1950s almost all of them had been released.[2] Many of the longer prison sentences were reduced substantially by decree of high commissioner John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy
in 1951, and 10 outstanding death sentences from the Einsatzgruppen Trial
Einsatzgruppen Trial
were converted to prison terms. The same year, an amnesty released many of those who had received prison sentences. Criticism[edit] Some of the NMTs have been criticised for their conclusion that "moral bombing" of civilians, including its nuclear variety, was legal, and for their judgement that, in certain situations, executing civilians in reprisal was permissible.[3] Conduct of the prosecution[edit] In a 2005 interview for the Washington Post, Benjamin B. Ferencz, Chief Prosecutor for the United States Army at the Einsatzgruppen Trial, revealed some of his activities during his period in Germany. "Someone who was not there could never really grasp how unreal the situation was," he said. The Americans delivered at least a dozen low-ranking German SS suspects to displaced persons camps for the purpose of having them executed by the DPs ("displaced persons"), without prior trial or sentencing. Under military law at that time, it was legal to hand over suspects to their victims for further questioning.[4]

"I once saw DPs beat an SS man and then strap him to the steel gurney of a crematorium. They slid him in the oven, turned on the heat and took him back out. Beat him again, and put him back in until he was burnt alive. I did nothing to stop it. I suppose I could have brandished my weapon or shot in the air, but I was not inclined to do so. Does that make me an accomplice to murder?"[4]

In the interview, Ferencz also pointed out that the military legal norms at the time permitted actions that would not be possible today.

"You know how I got witness statements? I'd go into a village where, say, an American pilot had parachuted and been beaten to death and line everyone up against the wall. Then I'd say, 'Anyone who lies will be shot on the spot.' It never occurred to me that statements taken under duress would be invalid."[4]

See also[edit]

Auschwitz Trial
Auschwitz Trial
held in Kraków, Poland in 1947 against 40 SS-staff of the Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
death factory Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials, 1963–65 Majdanek Trials, the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years Chełmno Trials
Chełmno Trials
of the Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
personnel, held in Poland and in Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart Sobibor Trial
Sobibor Trial
held in Hagen, Germany in 1965, concerning the Sobibor extermination camp Belzec Trial
Belzec Trial
before the 1st Munich
Munich
District Court in the mid-1960s, eight SS-men of the Belzec extermination camp Belsen Trial
Belsen Trial
in Lüneburg, 1945 Command responsibility
Command responsibility
doctrine of hierarchical accountability Dachau Trials
Dachau Trials
held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp, 1945–1948 Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials, 1946–47 Ravensbrück Trial Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive

References[edit]

^ a b c Kevin Jon Heller (2011). The Trials. Introduction: the indictments, biographical information, and the verdicts. The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ Nelson, Anne (April 2009). Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. Random House. pp. 305–6.  ^ Heller, Kevin Jon (2011). The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3.  ^ a b c Brzezinski, Matthew (24 July 2005). "Giving Hitler Hell". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

Dubois, Josiah E. (1952). The Devil's Chemists (PDF). Boston, MA: Beacon Press. ASIN B000ENNDV6.  Priemel, Kim C., and Alexa Stiller, eds. Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals: Transitional Justice, Trial Narratives, and Historiography (Berghahn Books; 2012) 321 pages

External links[edit]

The NMT proceedings at the Mazal Library. An overview.

v t e

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

Primary

Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal

Subsequent

   

I. Doctors' Trial II. Milch Trial III. Judges' Trial

IV. Pohl Trial V. Flick Trial VI. IG Farben
IG Farben
Trial

VII. Hostages Trial VIII. RuSHA Trial IX. Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial

X. Krupp
Krupp
Trial XI. Ministries Trial XII.

.