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 Iran  Afghanistan  Albania[1][2]  Azerbaijan   China
China
(by Tajiks
Tajiks
and Turkic peoples)[3]  Georgia[4]   India
India
(by Iranis, Parsis
Parsis
and some Indian Muslims)[5]   Iraq
Iraq
(by Kurds
Kurds
and Turkmens)[6]  Kazakhstan[7]  Kyrgyzstan[7]   Pakistan
Pakistan
(by Balochis, Iranis, Parsis
Parsis
and Pashtuns)[8]   Russia
Russia
(by Tabasarans, Crimean Tatars, etc.)[9]   Syria
Syria
(by Kurds)[10][11]  Tajikistan[12]   Turkey
Turkey
(by Azerbaijanis, Kurds
Kurds
and Yörüks)[13][14]  Turkmenistan[15]  Uzbekistan

Ethnic groups

Albanians[16] Azerbaijanis[17] Balochs[18] Crimean Tatars[19] Gilaks Iranis Kazakhs[7] Kurds[10][14] Kyrgyzs[7] Lezgins[20] Lurs[21] Mazandaranis[22] Parsis[5][23] Pashtuns[24] Persians Slavs Tabasarans[20] Tajiks[12] Talyshs[25] Tats[26][27] Turkmens[15] Uyghurs[28] Uzbeks[29]

Type National, ethnic, international

Significance New Year
New Year
holiday

Date March 19, 20, or 21

2017 date Monday 20 March 2017 at 10:29 UTC *

2018 date Tuesday 20 March 2018 at 16:15 UTC *

2019 date Wednesday 20 March 2019 at 21:58 UTC *

2020 date Friday 20 March 2020 at 03:50 UTC *

Frequency annual

Norooz, Nawrouz, Newroz, Novruz, Nowrouz, Nowrouz, Nawrouz, Nauryz, Nooruz, Nowruz, Navruz, Nevruz, Nowruz, Navruz

UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage

Country Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

Reference 1161

Region Asia and the Pacific

Inscription history

Inscription 2016 (4th session)

Nowruz
Nowruz
(Persian: نوروز‎ Nowruz, [nouˈɾuːz]; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year,[30][31] also known as the Persian New Year,[32][33] which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year. Although having Iranian and religious Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
origins, Nowruz
Nowruz
has been celebrated by people from diverse ethno-linguistic communities. It has been celebrated for over 3,000 years in Western Asia, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Black Sea
Black Sea
Basin, and the Balkans.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] It is a secular holiday for most celebrants that is enjoyed by people of several different faiths, but remains a holy day for Zoroastrians.[43] Nowruz
Nowruz
is the day of the vernal equinox, and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. It marks the first day of the first month (Farvardin) in the Iranian calendar.[44] It usually occurs on March 21 or the previous or following day, depending on where it is observed. The moment the sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year, and families gather together to observe the rituals.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Regional variations in pronunciation 1.2 Spelling variations

2 History and origin

2.1 Ancient roots 2.2 Achaemenid period 2.3 Arsacid and Sassanid periods 2.4 After the Muslim conquest 2.5 Contemporary era

3 Locality

3.1 Iran 3.2 Azerbaijan 3.3 Afghanistan 3.4 Armenia 3.5 China 3.6 Georgia 3.7 Kurds 3.8 Slavic and Baltic countries

4 Observances

4.1 House cleaning and shopping 4.2 Festival of Charshanbe Suri 4.3 Festivals of Gul-i-Surkh and Dehqān 4.4 Decorative tables

4.4.1 Haft Seen 4.4.2 Haft Mewa 4.4.3 Khoncha

4.5 Traditional heralds

4.5.1 Amu Nowruz
Amu Nowruz
and Haji Firuz 4.5.2 Kampirak

4.6 Visiting one another 4.7 Sizdah bedar 4.8 Cuisine

4.8.1 Desserts and snacks 4.8.2 Dishes

5 Mythology 6 Astronomy 7 Calendar 8 Theology

8.1 Bahá'í Faith 8.2 Twelver
Twelver
Shia faith and Shia Ismaili faith

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The term Nowruz
Nowruz
is a Persian compound word, consisting of the words now and ruz. Now (Old Persian: nava), which means "new" and descends from Proto-Indo-European *néwos, is cognate with English new, German neu, Greek νέος (neos), Latin
Latin
novus, Russian новый (novyj), and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
नव (náva). Ruz (Middle Persian: rōz, rōj‎; Avestan: raocah), which means "day" in Modern Persian, and rok, which means year in some Slavic languages descends from Proto-Iranian *raučah-, itself deriving from Proto-Indo-European *lewk-. The original meaning of the word, however, was "light". It is related to Armenian լույս (luys), English light, Latin
Latin
lux, Sanskrit रुचि (rúci), and Slovenian luč.[45][46] Regional variations in pronunciation[edit] The Persian pronunciation differs in the many dialects of the language. While the eastern dialects have preserved the diphthong nau (IPA: [næuˈɾoːz]), the western dialects usually pronounce it with the diphthong now (IPA: [nouˈɾuːz]), and some colloquial variants (such as the Tehrani accent) pronounce it with a long monophthong (IPA: [noːˈɾuːz]). Spelling variations[edit] A variety of spelling variations for the word Nowruz
Nowruz
exist in English-language usage. Random House (unabridged) provides the spelling Nowruz.[47] Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
(2006) recognizes only the spelling "Nauruz" (and a contestant in the final round of the 2006 Scripps National Spelling Bee in the United States, Allion Salvador, was disqualified on that basis).[48][49][50][51] History and origin[edit] Ancient roots[edit] Although it is not clear whether Proto- Indo-Iranians
Indo-Iranians
celebrated a feast as the first day of the calendar, there are indications that Iranians may have observed the beginning of both autumn and spring, respectively related to the harvest and the sowing of seeds, for the celebration of the New Year.[52] Mary Boyce and Frantz Grenet explain the traditions for seasonal festivals and comment: "It is possible that the splendor of the Babylonian festivities at this season led the Iranians to develop their own spring festival into an established New Year feast, with the name Navasarda "New Year" (a name which, though first attested through Middle Persian derivatives, is attributed to the Achaemenian period)." Since the communal observations of the ancient Iranians appear in general to have been a seasonal ones, and related to agriculture, "it is probable that they traditionally held festivals in both autumn and spring, to mark the major turning points of the natural year."[52] Nowruz
Nowruz
is partly rooted in the tradition of Iranian religions, such as Mitraism
Mitraism
and Zoroastrianism. In Mitraism, festivals had a deep linkage with the sun's light. The Iranian festivals such as Mehrgan
Mehrgan
(autumnal equinox), Tirgan, and the eve of Chelle ye Zemestan (winter solstice) also had an origin in the Sun
Sun
god (Surya). Among other ideas, Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
is the first monotheistic religion that emphasizes broad concepts such as the corresponding work of good and evil in the world, and the connection of humans to nature. Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
practices were dominant for much of the history of ancient Iran. In Zoroastrianism, the seven most important Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
festivals are the six Gahambar festivals and Nowruz, which occurs at the spring equinox. According to Mary Boyce,[53] "It seems a reasonable surmise that Nowruz, the holiest of them all, with deep doctrinal significance, was founded by Zoroaster
Zoroaster
himself"; although there is no clear date of origin.[54] Between sunset on the day of the sixth Gahambar and sunrise of Nowruz, Hamaspathmaedaya (later known, in its extended form, as Frawardinegan; and today known as Farvardigan) was celebrated. This and the Gahambars are the only festivals named in the surviving text of the Avesta. The 10th-century scholar Biruni, in his work Kitab al-Tafhim li Awa'il Sina'at al-Tanjim, provides a description of the calendars of various nations. Besides the Iranian calendar, various festivals of Greeks, Jews, Arabs, Sabians, and other nations are mentioned in the book. In the section on the Iranian calendar, he mentions Nowruz, Sadeh, Tirgan, Mehrgan, the six Gahambars, Farvardigan, Bahmanja, Esfand Armaz and several other festivals. According to him, "It is the belief of the Iranians that Nowruz
Nowruz
marks the first day when the universe started its motion."[55] The Persian historian Gardizi, in his work titled Zayn al-Akhbār, under the section of the Zoroastrians festivals, mentions Nowruz
Nowruz
(among other festivals) and specifically points out that Zoroaster
Zoroaster
highly emphasized the celebration of Nowruz and Mehrgan.[56][57] Achaemenid period[edit]

A bas-relief at the Apadana, Persepolis, depicting Armenians
Armenians
bringing their famous wine to the king.

It has been suggested that the famous Persepolis
Persepolis
complex, or at least the palace of Apadana
Apadana
and the Hundred Columns Hall, were built for the specific purpose of celebrating a feast related to Nowruz. Although there may be no mention of the term Nowruz
Nowruz
in recorded Achaemenid inscriptions,[58] there is a detailed account by Xenophon
Xenophon
of a Nowruz celebration taking place in Persepolis
Persepolis
and the continuity of this festival in the Achaemenid tradition.[59] It was an important day during the time of the Achaemenids (c. 550–330 BCE), where kings from different nations under the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
used to bring gifts to the King of Kings
King of Kings
of Iran. The significance of the ceremony in the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
was such that King Cambyses II's appointment as the king of Babylon
Babylon
was legitimized only after his participation in the referred annual Achaemenid festival.[60] It was, therefore, a highly auspicious occasion for the ancient Iranian peoples. In 539 BC, the Jews came under Iranian rule, thus exposing both groups to each other's customs. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the story of Purim
Purim
as told in the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
is adapted from an Iranian novella about the shrewdness of harem queens, suggesting that Purim
Purim
may be a transformation of the Iranian New Year.[61] A specific novella is not identified and Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
itself notes that "no Jewish texts of this genre from the Persian period are extant, so these new elements can be recognized only inferentially". The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics
notes that the Purim
Purim
holiday is based on a lunar calendar, while Nowruz
Nowruz
occurs at the spring equinox (solar calendar). The two holidays are therefore celebrated on different dates but within a few weeks of each other, depending on the year. Given their temporal associations, it is possible that the Jews and Iranians of the time may have shared or adopted similar customs for these holidays.[62] Arsacid and Sassanid periods[edit] Nowruz
Nowruz
was the holiday of Arsacid dynastic empires who ruled Iran
Iran
(248 BCE–224 CE) and the other areas ruled by the Arsacid dynasties outside of Parthia
Parthia
(such as the Arsacid dynasties of Armenia
Armenia
and Iberia). There are specific references to the celebration of Nowruz during the reign of Vologases I
Vologases I
(51–78 CE), but these include no details.[58] Before Sassanids
Sassanids
established their power in Western Asia around 300 CE, Parthians celebrated Nowruz
Nowruz
in autumn, and the first of Farvardin began at the autumn equinox. During the reign of the Parthian dynasty, the spring festival was Mehrgan, a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
and Iranian festival celebrated in honor of Mithra.[63] Extensive records on the celebration of Nowruz
Nowruz
appear following the accession of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651 CE). Under the Sassanid emperors, Nowruz
Nowruz
was celebrated as the most important day of the year. Most royal traditions of Nowruz, such as royal audiences with the public, cash gifts, and the pardoning of prisoners, were established during the Sassanid era and persisted unchanged until modern times. After the Muslim conquest[edit] Nowruz, along with Sadeh
Sadeh
(celebrated in mid-winter), survived in society after the Muslim conquest of Iran
Iran
in 650 CE. Other celebrations such the Gahambars and Mehrgan
Mehrgan
were eventually side-lined or were only followed by the Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
who carried them. It was adopted as the main royal holiday during the Abbasid
Abbasid
period. In the book Nowruznama ("Book of the New Year", which is attributed to Omar Khayyam,[64] a well known Persian poet and mathematician), a vivid description of the celebration in the courts of the kings of Iran
Iran
is provided:[65] "From the era of Kai Khosrow
Kai Khosrow
till the days of Yazdegard, last of the pre-Islamic kings of Iran, the royal custom was thus: on the first day of the New Year, Now Ruz, the king's first visitor was the High Mobad of the Zoroastrians, who brought with him as gifts a golden goblet full of wine, a ring, some gold coins, a fistful of green sprigs of wheat, a sword, and a bow. In the language of Iran, he would then glorify God and praise the monarch. This was the address of the High Mobad to the king: "O Majesty, on this feast of the equinox, first day of the first month of the year, seeing that thou hast freely chosen God and the faith of the ancient ones; may Sraosha, the angel-messenger, grant thee wisdom and insight and sagacity in thy affairs. Live long in praise, be happy and fortunate upon thy golden throne, drink immortality from the Cup of Jamshid; and keep in solemn trust the customs of our ancestors, their noble aspirations, fair gestures and the exercise of justice and righteousness. May thy soul flourish; may thy youth be as the new-grown grain; may thy horse be puissant, victorious; thy sword bright and deadly against foes; thy hawk swift against its prey; thy every act straight as the arrow's shaft. Go forth from thy rich throne, conquer new lands. Honor the craftsman and the sage in equal degree; disdain the acquisition of wealth. May thy house prosper and thy life be long!" Following the demise of the caliphate and the subsequent re-emergence of Iranian dynasties such as the Samanids
Samanids
and Buyids, Nowruz
Nowruz
was elevated to an even more important event. The Buyids
Buyids
revived the ancient traditions of Sassanian times and restored many smaller celebrations that had been eliminated by the caliphate. According to the Syrian historian Yaqut al-Hamawi, the Iranian Buyid
Buyid
ruler ʿAżod-od-Dawla (r. 949-83) customarily welcomed Nowruz
Nowruz
in a majestic hall, wherein servants had placed gold and silver plates and vases full of fruit and colorful flowers.[66] The King would sit on the royal throne (masnad), and the court astronomer came forward, kissed the ground, and congratulated him on the arrival of the New Year.[66] The king would then summon musicians and singers, and invited his boon companions. They would gather in their assigned places and enjoy a great festive occasion.[66] Even the Turkic and Mongol
Mongol
invaders did not attempt to abolish Nowruz in favor of any other celebration. Thus, Nowruz
Nowruz
remained as the main celebration in Iranian lands by both the officials and the people.

Painting of Shah
Shah
Abbas II and the courtiers celebrating Nowruz.[citation needed]

A Safavid
Safavid
painting depecting a Charshanbe Suri
Charshanbe Suri
celebration.

A 16th-century painting of Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
and Humayun
Humayun
celebrating Nowruz.

Painting of Sultan Husayn
Sultan Husayn
and the courtiers celebrating Nowruz.

Contemporary era[edit] Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran
Iran
was the only country that officially observed the ceremonies of Nowruz. When the Caucasian and Central Asian countries gained independence from the Soviets, they also declared Nowruz
Nowruz
as a national holiday. The UN's General Assembly recognized the International Day of Nowruz in 2010, describing it as a spring festival of Iranian origin, which has been celebrated for over 3,000 years.[67][68] During the meeting of The Inter-governmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage of the United Nations, held between 28 September – 2 October 2009, Nowruz
Nowruz
was officially registered on the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.[69][70][71][72][73] In response to the UN recognition, Iran unveiled a postage stamp. The stamp was made public in the presence of the Iranian President during the first International Nowruz Celebrations in Tehran
Tehran
on Saturday, 27 March 2010.[74] The second International Nowruz
Nowruz
Celebrations were also held in Tehran in 2011. The 3rd International Nowruz
Nowruz
Celebrations were held in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, on March 25, 2012 with Tajik President and his Iranian and Afghan counterparts in attendance. The next international ceremonies to celebrate Nowruz
Nowruz
were scheduled to be hosted by Turkmenistan.[75] Haft Sin[76][77]: Households decorate a table with seven items that represent the new season which begin with the Persian letter sin (s). The items include[76]:

Seeb (apple), represents beauty Seer (garlic), represents good health Serkeh (vinegar), represents patience Sonbol (hyacinth), represents spring Samanu
Samanu
(sweet pudding), represents fertility Sabzeh (sprouts), represents rebirth Sekeh (coins), represents prosperity

Other items beginning with "s" as well as foods are also often used for Haft Sin[77]. A live goldfish and decorated eggs are included in Iranian-American households[76]. The Haft Sin's origins are not clear[77]. The practice been popularized over the past 100 years through the media[76]. Locality[edit] The festival of Nowruz
Nowruz
is celebrated by many groups of people in the Black Sea
Black Sea
basin, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Western Asia, central and southern Asia, and by Iranians worldwide.[78] Countries that have Nowruz
Nowruz
as a public holiday include:

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(21 March)[24] Albania
Albania
(22 March)[1][2] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(20 March to 26 March, total of seven days)[79][80] Georgia[81] Iran
Iran
(20 March to 24 March, total of five days in general and total of 14 days for schools and universities)[82] Iraq
Iraq
(de jure in Iraqi Kurdistan, de facto national)[6] (21 March)[83] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(21 March to 24 March, total of four days)[7] Kosovo
Kosovo
(21 March) Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(21 March)[84][85] Bayan-Ölgii, Mongolia
Mongolia
(22 March, regional state holiday only)[3] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(20 March to 23 March, total of four days)[12][86] Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(21 March to 22 March, total of two days)[87] Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(21 March)[88]

The Parliament of Canada, on 30 March 2009, by unanimous consent, passed a bill to add Nowruz
Nowruz
to the national calendar of Canada.[89][90] Nowruz
Nowruz
is celebrated by Kurdish people
Kurdish people
in Iraq[6][91] and Turkey,[92] as well as by the Iranis and Parsis
Parsis
in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and diaspora. It is also taken place by Iranian communities in several regions in Europe and the Americas, including Los Angeles, Toronto, Cologne
Cologne
and London.[93] But because Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is prone to devastating fires, there are very strict fire codes in the city. No fires are allowed even on one's own property. Usually, Iranians living in Southern California go to the beaches to celebrate the event where it is permissible to build fires.[94] On 15 March 2010, the House of Representatives of the United States passed the Nowruz
Nowruz
Resolution (H.Res. 267), by a 384–2 vote,[95] "Recognizing the cultural and historical significance of Nowruz, ... ."[96]

Tajik girls celebrating Navruz in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

Nawrız in Kazakhstan.

Nawrız in Tekeli, 2013.

Traditional costume for Nawrız in Kazakhstan.

Traditional dancing during a Nowruz
Nowruz
festival in Paris.

Iran[edit] Nowruz
Nowruz
marks the beginning of the New Year
New Year
in Iran's official calendar, the Solar Hejri calendar. The present-day calendar system was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on March 31, 1925.[97] Iran's Nowruz
Nowruz
celebrations last for two weeks,[98][99] before which a fire festival (Chaharshanbe Suri) is also celebrated,[100] and include four official public holidays from the first to the fourth day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian calendar (usually coincided with March 21 to 24).[101] Following the 1979 Revolution, some radical elements from the Islamic government attempted to suppress Nowruz,[102] but failed to do so. They considered Nowruz
Nowruz
a pagan holiday and a distraction from Islamic holidays. Nowruz
Nowruz
has been politicized,[103] and political leaders have been making annual Nowruz
Nowruz
speeches for years.

Greenery shop for Haft Seen
Haft Seen
in Iran.

Haft Seen
Haft Seen
in Tehran's Tupkhane Square, 2013.

Celebrating Nowruz
Nowruz
at a mall in Tehran.

Traditional setting for Nowruz
Nowruz
at a mall in Tehran.

Haft Seen
Haft Seen
table in a hotel in Tehran.

Amu Nowruz
Amu Nowruz
resting in a sidewalk in Tehran.

Painting huge eggs for Nowruz
Nowruz
in Tehran.

Celebrating Nowruz
Nowruz
next to the Tomb of Cyrus
Tomb of Cyrus
in Pasargadae.

Iranian Kurds
Kurds
celebrating Nowruz
Nowruz
in Palangan.

Iranian Kurds
Kurds
celebrating Nowruz
Nowruz
in Mariwan.

An Iranian diasporan Nowruz
Nowruz
concert at the Oberhausen Arena, Germany.

Azerbaijan[edit] Main article: Novruz in Azerbaijan After Iran, the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
hosts the greatest number of public holidays related to Nowruz, with a total of seven days.[80] In Azerbaijan, the holiday goes on for several days and ends with festive public dancing and other entertainment of folk bands, as well as the contests of national sports. In rural areas, crop holidays are also marked.[104]

Novruz on an Azerbaijani stamp.

Azerbaijani youth celebrating Novruz.

Novruz in Baku, Azerbaijan.

Novruz festival in Baku, Azerbaijan.

Folk dancers in Baku, during the Novruz celebrations.

The Azeri diaspora has communal associations that organize Nowruz celebrations in the US and Canada and in Israel[105] Afghanistan[edit] Main article: Nowruz
Nowruz
in Afghanistan Nauruz is celebrated widely in Afghanistan. Also known as the Farmer's Day, the observances usually last two weeks, culminating on the first day of the Afghan New Year, on March 21.[24] During the Taliban rule (1996–2001), Nauruz was banned and considered "an ancient pagan holiday centered on fire worship".[106] Armenia[edit] Since the extinction during the 19th century, Nowruz
Nowruz
is not celebrated by Armenians
Armenians
and is not a public holiday in Armenia. However, it is celebrated in Armenia
Armenia
by tens of thousands of Iranian tourists who visit Armenia
Armenia
with relative ease.[107] The influx of tourists from Iran
Iran
accelerated since around 2010–11.[108][109] In 2010 alone, around 27,600 Iranians spent Nowruz
Nowruz
in capital Yerevan.[110] In 2015, President Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
sent a letter of congratulations to Kurds
Kurds
living in Armenia
Armenia
and to the Iranian political leadership on the occasion of Nowruz.[111] China[edit] Traditionally, Nowruz
Nowruz
is celebrated mainly in China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region by the Uyghurs, Chinese Tajik, Salar, and Kazakh ethnicities.[3] It's a tradition for people to plant trees, dredge irrigation canals, clean houses and prepare scrumptious food for guests during the festival.[citation needed] Georgia[edit] Nowruz
Nowruz
is not celebrated by Georgians
Georgians
(excluding those who live in Iran
Iran
and Azerbaijan), but it has become a public holiday in Georgia since 2010. It is widely celebrated by the country's large Azerbaijani minority (~7% of the total population)[112] as well as by the Iranians living in Georgia.[112][113] Most Georgian Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
live in Kvemo Kartli, Kakheti, Shida Kartli, and Mtskheta-Mtianeti
Mtskheta-Mtianeti
regions. In addition, there is also a large historical Azerbaijani community in the capital city of Tbilisi, thus marking these as the core regions of celebration in Georgia.[112] Every year, large festivities are held notably in the capital Tbilisi.[112] Georgian politicians have attended the festivities in the capital over the years, and have congratulated the Nowruz-observing ethnic groups and nationals in Georgia on the day of Nowruz.[114][115] Kurds[edit] Main article: Newroz as celebrated by Kurds

Newroz in Istanbul, Turkey

Celebrating Nowruz
Nowruz
in Mariwan, Iran

Newroz (or Nevruz) is largely considered as a potent symbol of Kurdish identity in Turkey, even if there are some Turks (including Turkmens) celebrating the festival. The Kurds
Kurds
of Turkey
Turkey
celebrate this feast between 18th till 21 March. Kurds
Kurds
gather into fairgrounds mostly outside the cities to welcome spring. Women wear colored dresses and spangled head scarves and young men wave flags of green, yellow and red, the historic colors of Kurdish people. They hold this festival by lighting fire and dancing around it.[116] Newroz celebrations are usually organised by Kurdish cultural associations and pro-Kurdish political parties. Thus, the Democratic Society Party
Democratic Society Party
was a leading force in the organisation of the 2006 Newroz events throughout Turkey. In recent years, the Newroz celebration gathers around 1 million participants in Diyarbakır, the biggest city of the Kurdish dominated Southeastern Turkey. As the Kurdish Newroz celebrations in Turkey often are theater for political messages, the events are frequently criticized for being political rallies rather than cultural celebrations. Until 2005, the Kurdish population of Turkey
Turkey
could not celebrate their New Year
New Year
openly.[117] "Thousands of people have been detained in Turkey, as the authorities take action against suspected supporters of the Kurdish rebel movement, the PKK.[118] The holiday is now official in Turkey
Turkey
after international pressure on the Turkish government to lift culture bans. Turkish government renamed the holiday Nevroz in 1995.[119] In the recent years, limitations on expressions of Kurdish national identity, including the usage of Kurdish in the public sphere, have been considerably relaxed. On 21 March 2013, PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan
Abdullah Ocalan
called for a ceasefire through a message that was released in Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
during the Newroz celebrations.[120] In Syria, the Kurds
Kurds
dress up in their national dress and celebrate the New Year.[121] According to Human Rights Watch, the Kurds
Kurds
have had to struggle to celebrate Newroz, and in the past the celebration has led to violent oppression, leading to several deaths and mass arrests.[122] The government has stated that the Newroz celebrations will be tolerated as long as they do not become political demonstrations of the treatment of the Kurds.[123] During the Newroz celebrations in 2008, three Kurds
Kurds
were shot dead by Syrian security forces.[124] [125] Kurds
Kurds
in the diaspora also celebrate the New Year; for example, Kurds in Australia celebrate Newroz, not only as the beginning of the new year, but also as the Kurdish National Day. The Kurds
Kurds
in Finland celebrate the new year as a way of demonstrating their support for the Kurdish cause.[126] Also in London, organizers estimated that 25000 people celebrated Newroz during March 2006.[127] Slavic and Baltic countries[edit]

Ukrainian pisanka showing Iranian motifs.

Although Nowruz
Nowruz
(Nowy Rok, Nový Rok) was absorbed by Christian Easter, many traditions of the historical Slavic religion, resembling many aspects of ancient Zoroastrianism, are still traditionally observed in the rural areas. These ancient traditions are also promoted in the modern movement of Rodnovery. The Russian composer Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
dedicated Newruz the ballet Le Sacre du printemps. The Newruz burning piles were complemented by Marzanna
Marzanna
representing the cold and morbidity, which is burnt on the spring equinox and thrown into river. Also the tradition of original pisanki/krašanki survives, although slowly replaced by Christian Easter
Easter
eggs. At Nowruz the tradition of growing Cardamine, resembling that of Samani, is cultivated privately at homes. The rules of Avesta, despite Christianization, were regularly followed by Slavic and Baltic peoples until the 14th century. This is best reflected in the traditional wooden Slavic urban architecture strictly following instructions found in Avesta. Yasna
Yasna
resembles a Slavic word meaning the bright/light/clear/shining one (feminine adjective from jasność, Slavic J pronounced like English Y). The Slavic priests of the fire ceremony (Żertwa/Agnihotra) were called Żercy/Žercy resembling Zerdusht
Zerdusht
(Zarathushtra), the Slavic word for fire ogień resembles the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
agni. The Slavs
Slavs
absorbed many Iranic nations, e.g.: Sarmatians, Iazyges, Serboi, Amardi…[128][129] and may be considered the nordic European agriculturalist branch of the Indo-Iranians.

Replica of the oldest Ukrainian pisanka at Pisanka Museum of Kolomyia.

Traditional pisanka with a swastika (svarha) motif.

A mix of modern, diasporan and traditional Ukrainian pisanki.

A traditional Ukrainian pisanka with Gaokerena (Tree of life) motif.

A meander motif on a traditional pisanka.

Multilingual Zend- Avesta
Avesta
reconstructed and translated by Ignacy Pietraszewski (1858).

In the 19th century the Polish professor Ignacy Pietraszewski reconstructed from Avestan language
Avestan language
the books of Avesta
Avesta
and translated it along the original scriptures parallel into Polish, German and French offering also the Latin
Latin
transcription of the original Avestan scripture and valuable comments. A position at court of Naser al-Din Shah
Shah
Qajar was offered to the professor, which he kindly refused. His books were burnt on German stockpiles during Kulturkampf, and ironically inspired the German Nazis in the invention of their "Aryan" fairy-tales.

Miano slavianskie w ręku jednej familii od trzech tysięcy lat zostające, czyli nie Zendawesta, a Zędaszta, to jest życie dawcza książeczka Zoroastra. Das slavische Eigenthum seit dreitausend Jahren, oder nicht Zendavesta, aber Zendaschta, das heisst das lebenbringende Buch des Zoroaster, book 1-2, Berlin 1857 [another copy: [4]] (including books I-V of Vendidad. A new edition of the Polish translation only, titled Zędaszta, to jest życiodawcza książeczka Zoroastra albo Awesta Wielka, translated by Ignacy Pietraszewski, reedited by: Julian Edgar Kassner and Andrzej Sarwa. Series: Święte Księgi, Święte Teksty 19. Published by: Wydawnictwo Armoryka, Sandomierz 2011. ISBN 978-83-62661-19-0. Zend Avesta
Avesta
ou plutôt Zen-Daschta expliquè d’après un principe tout à fait noveau. (...). Le text est accompagné d’une prononciation, de traductions polonaise et français, et suivi d’un vocabulaire et d’une grammaire, Berlin 1858-62 (three parts in two books); containing:

part 1, book 1, 1858: Du Wendidad, rozdz. I-VIII another copy (extended by books VI-VIII of Vendidad, reprint of Miano slavianskie... from 1857); part 2, book 2, 1862: Du Wendidad, rozdz. IX-XXII); part 3, book 2, 1862: Wyspered et Jasna, rozdz. I-LXXI).

Another copy: google books Reprint: Teheran 1976. (3 parts in 1 book). Also: Kessinger Publishing 2009 (part 1).

Abregé de la grammaire Zend, Berlin 1861. Deutsche verbesserte Übersetzung der Bücher des Zoroaster, Berlin 1864.

Observances[edit]

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House cleaning and shopping[edit] Further information: Spring cleaning House cleaning, or shaking the house (خانه تکانی – xane tekāni) as referred to by Persian-speaking Iranians, is commonly observed before the arrival of Nowruz. People start preparing for Nowruz
Nowruz
with a major spring-cleaning of their house and the purchase of new clothes to wear for the New Year, as well the purchase of flowers. In particular, the hyacinth and the tulip are popular and conspicuous. In association with the "rebirth of nature", extensive spring cleaning is a national tradition observed by almost every household in Iran. This is also extended to personal attire, and it is customary to buy at least one set of new clothes. Parsis
Parsis
adorn their houses with different auspicious symbols; namely, stars, butterflies, birds and fish. They order and make new attires especially for the festival. On the day of Navroz, they dress in their new and best clothes and put on gold and silver kustis and caps. They decorate the doors and windows with garlands of roses and jasmines, and use color powders for creating patterns known as rangoli on the steps and thresholds. Fish and floral motifs are a favorite among rangolis and considered highly auspicious.[citation needed] Festival of Charshanbe Suri[edit] Main article: Charshanbe Suri

Charshanbe Suri
Charshanbe Suri
in New York City, March 2016.

Charshanbe Suri
Charshanbe Suri
(Persian: چارشنبه ‌سوری‎ – Čāršanbe Suri; Kurdish: Çarşema Sor‎; Azerbaijani: Çərşənbə Bayramı) is a prelude to the New Year. In Iran, it is celebrated on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz. It is usually celebrated in the evening, and is obtained by people making bonfires and jumping over them, as well as setting off fireworks and sparklers. In Azerbaijan, where the preparation for Novruz usually begins a month earlier, the festival is held every Tuesday during four weeks before the holiday of Novruz. Each Tuesday, people celebrate the day of one of the four elements – water, fire, earth and wind.[130] On the holiday eve, the graves of relatives are visited and tended.[131] Iranians sing the traditional poetic quote zardi ye man az to, sorkhi ye to az man during the festival, which literally means "my yellow is yours, your red is mine"; meaning you want the fire to replace your pallor, sickness, and problems with warmth and energy. Trail mix
Trail mix
and berries are also served during the celebration. Spoon hitting (قاشق زنی – qāšoq zani) is an Iranian tradition observed on the eve of Charshanbe Suri, which is similar to the Halloween
Halloween
custom Trick-or-treating. It is practiced by people wearing disguises and going door-to-door to bang spoons against plates or bowls and receive packaged snacks. In Azerbaijan, according to old traditions, children slip around to their neighbors' homes and apartments on the last Tuesday prior to Novruz, knock at the doors, and leave their caps or little basket on the thresholds all the while hiding nearby waiting for candies, pastries and nuts.[130] The ritual of jumping over fire has remained in Armenia
Armenia
in the feast of Trndez, which is a feast of purification in the Armenian Apostolic Church and Armenian Catholic Churches, celebrated forty days after Jesus's birth.[132] Festivals of Gul-i-Surkh and Dehqān[edit] In Afghanistan, the festival of Gul-i-Surkh (Dari: گل سرخ‎; "Red Flower", referring to red tulip flowers) is the principal festival for Nauruz. It is celebrated in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
during the first 40 days of the year, when the tulip flowers grow in the green plains and over the hills surrounding the city. People from all over the country travel to Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to attend the Nauruz festivals. Various activities and customs are performed during the Gul-i-Surkh festival, including:

Jahenda Bala (Dari: جهنده بالا‎; "Raising"), which is celebrated on the first day of the New Year,[133] and is attended by high-ranking government officials such as the Vice-President, Ministers, and Provincial Governors – It is a specific religious ceremony performed at the Blue Mosque of Mazar-i-Sharif. The ceremony is performed by raising a special banner whose color configuration resembles Derafsh Kaviani. This is the biggest recorded Nawroz gathering where up to 200,000 people from all over Afghanistan
Afghanistan
get together to celebrate the ceremony. Buzkashi
Buzkashi
tournament, held during the Gul-i-Surkh festival in Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul
Kabul
and other northern cities of Afghanistan

The festival of Dehqān (Dari: دهقان‎; "Farmer") is celebrated on the first day of the New Year, in which the farmers walk in the cities as a sign of encouragement for the agricultural productions. In recent years, this activity is being performed only in Kabul
Kabul
and other major cities of Afghanistan, in which the mayor and other high governmental personalities participate for watching and observing. The citizens of Kabul
Kabul
go to Istalif, Charikar
Charikar
or other green places around where the Cercis
Cercis
flowers grow. They go for picnic with their families during the first two weeks of the New Year. Decorative tables[edit] Haft Seen[edit] Main article: Haft Seen Haft Seen
Haft Seen
(Persian: هفت سین‎ – Haft Sin); "Seven S's") is the traditional table setting of Nowruz
Nowruz
in Iran. Typically, before the arrival of Nowruz, family members gather around a table, with the Haft Seen set on it, and await the exact moment of the March equinox
March equinox
to celebrate the New Year. At that time, the New Year
New Year
gifts are exchanged. The setting includes seven items starting with the letter S or seen (س) in the Perso-Arabic alphabet. The items include:

Greenery (سبزه – sabze): Wheat, barley or lentil sprouts grown in a dish Samanu
Samanu
(سمنو – samanu): A sweet pudding made from germinated wheat The dried fruit of the oleaster tree (سنجد – senjed) Garlic
Garlic
(سیر – sir) Apples
Apples
(سیب – sib) Sumac
Sumac
berries (سماق – somāq) Vinegar
Vinegar
(سرکه – serke)

These items are also known to have astrological correlations to planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Sun
Sun
and Moon.[citation needed] Other symbolic items which are usually set along the Haft Seen
Haft Seen
are candles, a mirror, decorating coins, and decorated eggs (sometimes one for each member of the family). A bowl of water with goldfish,[134] a holy book (e.g. the Avesta
Avesta
or Quran) and/or a poetry book (e.g. the Divan of Hafez), and rose water are also included to the setting. The custom and the traditional practice of Haft Seen
Haft Seen
has been changed over times. The initial term Haft Chin meaning "the seven collected", has been gradually altered to the present-day name of the setting.

Greenery for Haft Seen.

A Haft Seen
Haft Seen
table.

A 2008 White House
White House
Haft Seen.

A Haft Seen
Haft Seen
table in the Netherlands.

Haft Mewa[edit] In Afghanistan, people prepare Haft Mewa (Dari: هفت میوه‎ – Haft Mēwa; literally "the Seven Fruits") for the New Year's Day. It is similar to a fruit salad, and is made from seven different dried fruits served in their own syrup. The seven dried fruits prepared for the Haft Mewa setting include:

Raisin Senjed, the dried fruit of the oleaster tree. Pistachio Hazelnut Prune, the dry fruit of plum. Walnut Almond
Almond
or other species of drupes.

Khoncha[edit] In Azerbaijan, the decoration of the festive table is called Khoncha (Azerbaijani: Xonça). It consists of a big silver or copper tray, with Samani
Samani
placed in the center, as well as candles and dyed eggs by the number of family members around it. The table should be set, at least, with seven dishes.[130]

A Khoncha setting.

Samani

A girl with Khoncha.

A giant Samani
Samani
in Baku.

A Khoncha setting.

Traditional heralds[edit] Amu Nowruz
Amu Nowruz
and Haji Firuz[edit] Main articles: Amu Nowruz
Amu Nowruz
and Hajji Firuz

Amu Nowruz

Haji Firuz performers on a road to Tehran.

In Iran, the traditional heralds of the festival of Nowruz
Nowruz
are Amu Nowruz
Nowruz
and Haji Firuz, who appear annually in the streets to celebrate the New Year. Amu Nowruz
Amu Nowruz
brings children gifts, much like his Christian counterpart Santa Claus.[135] He is the husband of Nane Sarma, with whom he shares a traditional love story in which they can meet each other only once a year.[136][137] He is characterized as an elderly silver-haired man who puts on a felt hat, and has a walking stick, a long cloak of blue canvas, a sash, a pair of thin-soled giveh, and a pair of linen trousers.[138] Haji Firuz, a character with his face and hands covered in soot, clad in bright red clothes and a felt hat, is the companion of Amu Nowruz. He dances through the streets while singing and playing a tambourine. In the traditional songs, he introduces himself as a serf trying to cheer people whom he refers to as his lords.[139] Kampirak[edit] In the folklore of Afghanistan, Kampirak and his retinue pass village by village distributing gathered charities among people. He is an old bearded man wearing colorful clothes with a long hat and rosary who symbolizes beneficence and the power of nature yielding the forces of winter. The tradition is observed in central provinces, specially Bamyan and Daykundi.[140] Visiting one another[edit] During the Nowruz
Nowruz
holidays, people are expected to visit one another (mostly limited to families, friends and neighbors) in the form of short house visits, which are usually reciprocated. Typically, the youth will visit the elders first, and the elders return their visit later. In Iran, the visits naturally have to be relatively short, otherwise one will not be able to visit everybody on the list. A typical visit is lesser than 30 minutes, where you often run into other visiting relatives and friends who happen to be paying a visit to the same house at that time. Because of the house visits, you make sure you have a sufficient supply of pastry, cookies, fresh and dried fruits and mixed nuts on hand, as you typically serve your visitors with these items with tea and other beverages. Many Iranians will throw large Nowruz
Nowruz
parties in a central location as a way of dealing with the long distances between groups of friends and family. Sizdah bedar[edit] Main article: Sizdebedar In Iran, the Nowruz
Nowruz
holidays last thirteen days. On the thirteenth day of the New Year, Iranians leave their houses to join nature and picnic outdoors, as part of the Sizdebedar ceremony. On the day of Sizdah bedar, the greenery grown for the Haft Seen setting is thrown away, particularly into a running water. It is also customary for young single people, especially young girls, to tie the leaves of the greenery before discarding it, expressing a wish to find a partner. Another custom associated with Sizdah bedar is Lie of the Thirteen, which is the process of lying to someone and making them believe it.[141][142][143] It has been directly borrowed from April Fools' Day, and has become in vogue in Iran
Iran
due to its coincidence with the day of the celebration of Sizdah bedar. Cuisine[edit]

Baklava

Sabzi polow

Desserts and snacks[edit]

Ajil (Kurds, Persians): Trail mix Baklava
Baklava
(Azerbaijanis, Persians, Turks): A flaky pastry filled with walnuts, almonds or pistachios, and flavored with rosewater Falooda
Falooda
dessert (Parsis): A sweet milk drink made from vermicelli and flavored with rose essence Lagan-nu-custard dessert (Parsis): A type of caramel custard. Nan berenji (Iranians): Cookies made from rice flour Noql (Pashtuns, Persians, Tajiks): Sugar-coated almonds Samanu
Samanu
(Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Persians): Sprouted wheat pudding Shekerbura
Shekerbura
(Azerbaijanis): Azerbaijani sweet pastries Shorgoghal (Azerbaijanis): Flaky bread with a spice filling

Dishes[edit]

Ash e reshte (Iranians): A noodle soup traditionally served on the first day of Nowruz.[144] Chicken farcha (Parsis): A typical Parsi
Parsi
dish of fried chicken. Dolma
Dolma
(Azerbaijanis): A traditional dish of Azeri people, cooked just before the New Year. It includes vegetables, meat and rice which have been cooked, then rolled in grape leaves and cooked again. Fried fish and jelabi (Afghans): The most often meal of the Nauruz picnics in Afghanistan. Kuku sabzi (Iranians): Herbs and vegetable soufflé, traditionally served for dinner on New Year's. It is a light and fluffy omelet made with parsley, dill herb, coriander greens (cilantro), spinach, spring onion leaves and chives, mixed with eggs and walnuts. Kulcha-e Nauruzī (Pashtuns, Tajiks): Afghan rice cookies which are only baked for Nauruz. Nawrız koje (Kazakhs): A traditional New Year's Day
New Year's Day
dish of the Kazakh people, which includes water, meat, salt, flour, grain and milk. Reshte polow (Iranians): Rice cooked with noodles. Sabzi chalaw (Pashtuns, Tajiks): A dish made from rice and spinach. Sabzi polow with fish (Iranians): A traditional New Year's Day
New Year's Day
meal of rice with green herbs, served with fish. The traditional seasonings for sabzi polow are parsley, coriander greens (cilantro), chives, dill herb and fenugreek greens.

Mythology[edit]

Bas-relief
Bas-relief
in Persepolis, depicting a symbol in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
for Nowruz.[note 5]

There exist various foundation myths for Nowruz
Nowruz
in Iranian mythology. The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
dates Nowruz
Nowruz
as far back to the reign of Jamshid, who in Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
texts saved mankind from a killer winter that was destined to kill every living creature.[145] Jamshid, the mythical Iranian king, perhaps symbolizes the transition of the Proto-Iranians from animal hunting to animal husbandry and a more settled life in human history.[citation needed] In the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
and Iranian mythology, he is credited with the foundation of Nowruz. The book reads that Jamshid constructed a throne studded with gems. He had demons raise him above the earth into the heavens; there he sat on his throne like the sun shining in the sky. The world's creatures gathered in wonder about him and the scattered jewels around him, and called this day the New Day (Now Ruz). This was the first day of Farvardin, which is the first month of the Iranian calendar.[146] Astronomy[edit] Main article: March equinox

Illumination of Earth by the Sun
Sun
on the day of an equinox.

The first day of the Iranian calendar falls on the March equinox, the first day of spring, around 21 March. At the time of the equinox, the sun is observed to be directly over the equator, and the north and south poles of the Earth lie along the solar terminator. Sunlight is evenly divided between the north and south hemispheres. In around the 11th century CE, major reforms of the Iranian calendars took place and whose principal purpose were to fix the beginning of the calendar year, i.e. Nowruz, at the vernal equinox. Accordingly, the definition of Nowruz
Nowruz
given by the Iranian scientist Tusi was the following: "the first day of the official New Year
New Year
[Nowruz] was always the day on which the sun entered Aries before noon."[147] Calendar[edit] Nowruz
Nowruz
is the first day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian solar calendar. In the Fasli/Bastani variant of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
calendar, Navroz is always the day of the vernal equinox (nominally falling on March 21). In the Shahenshahi and Kadmi calendars, which do not account for leap years, the New Year's Day
New Year's Day
has drifted ahead by over 200 days. These latter two variants of the calendar, which are only followed by the Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
of Pakistan
Pakistan
and India, celebrate the spring equinox as Jamshed-i Nouroz, with New Year's Day
New Year's Day
then being celebrated in July–August as Pateti "(day) of penitence" (from patet "confession," hence also repentance and penitence).[citation needed] Theology[edit] Followers of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
faith [148] include Nowruz
Nowruz
in their religious calendar, as do followers of other faiths. Shia literature refers to the merits of the day of Nowruz; the Day of Ghadir took place on Nowruz; and the fatwas of major Shia scholars [149] recommend fasting. Nowruz
Nowruz
is also a holy day for Sufis, Bektashis, Ismailis, Alawites,[150] Alevis, Babis and adherents of the Bahá'í Faith.[151] Bahá'í Faith[edit] Main article: Bahá'í Naw-Rúz Naw-Rúz is one of nine holy days for adherents of the Bahá'í Faith worldwide. It is the first day of the Bahá'í calendar, occurring on the vernal equinox around March 21.[152] The Bahá'í calendar is composed of 19 months, each of 19 days,[153] and each of the months is named after an attribute of God; similarly each of the nineteen days in the month also are named after an attribute of God.[153] The first day and the first month were given the attribute of Bahá, an Arabic word meaning splendour or glory, and thus the first day of the year was the day of Bahá in the month of Bahá.[152][154] Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, explained that Naw-Rúz was associated with the Most Great Name of God,[152][154] and was instituted as a festival for those who observed the Nineteen day fast.[155][156] The day is also used to symbolize the renewal of time in each religious dispensation.[157] `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son and successor, explained that significance of Naw-Rúz in terms of spring and the new life it brings.[152] He explained that the equinox is a symbol of the messengers of God and the message that they proclaim is like a spiritual springtime, and that Naw-Rúz is used to commemorate it.[158] As with all Bahá'í holy days, there are few fixed rules for observing Naw-Rúz, and Bahá'ís all over the world celebrate it as a festive day, according to local custom.[152] Persian Bahá'ís still observe many of the Iranian customs associated with Nowruz
Nowruz
such as the Haft Seen, but American Bahá'í communities, for example, may have a potluck dinner, along with prayers and readings from Bahá'í scripture. Twelver
Twelver
Shia faith and Shia Ismaili faith[edit] Along with Ismailis,[159][160] Alawites
Alawites
and Alevis, the Twelver
Twelver
Shia also hold the day of Nowruz
Nowruz
in high regard. It has been said that Musa al-Kadhim, the seventh Twelver
Twelver
Shia imam, has explained Nowruz
Nowruz
and said: "In Nowruz
Nowruz
God made a covenant with His servants to worship Him and not to allow any partner for Him. To welcome, His messengers and obey their rulings. This day is the first day that the fertile wind blow and the flowers on the earth appeared. The archangel Gabriel
Gabriel
appeared to the Prophet, and it is the day that Abraham
Abraham
broke the idols. The day Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
held Ali
Ali
on his shoulders to destroy the Quraishie's idols in the house of God, the Kaaba."[161] The day upon which Nowruz
Nowruz
falls has been recommended as a day of fasting for Twelver
Twelver
Shia Muslims by Shia scholars, including Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Ruhollah Khomeini[162] and Ali
Ali
al-Sistani.[163] The day also assumes special significance for Shias as it has been said that it was on 21 March 656 AD that the first Shia Imam, Ali, assumed the office of caliphate. See also[edit]

Tammuz (deity)

Holidays portal

Nowruz
Nowruz
Eve among Mazandarani people Vernal Equinox New Year's Day Assyrian new year Sham el-Nessim Akitu Seharane Aroos-Gooleh Ēostre

Notes[edit]

^ Historical forms: Новрузит, نۉڤوزيت, Νοβρουζιτ ^ Historical and proposed forms: ناڤروزى, Наврузи, Ναβρουζι, Նավրւզի ^ Historical forms: Нәԝроз, Նաւրոզ ^ Historical forms: ნოვრუზ, نوروز, Νοβρουζ ^ Eternally fighting bull (personifying the moon), and a lion (personifying the sun) representing the spring.

References[edit]

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May 31 – June 1, 2006 Archived June 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ New Jersey Girl wins Scripps Spelling Bee, ^ Elien, Shadi, "Is the Persian New Year
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