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Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is an all-encompassing designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation " Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence
Florence
and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism; they also included styles we would identify as Mannerist or Baroque. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and later nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque
Baroque
features are present (Second Empire). The divergent forms of Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
in different parts of Europe, particularly in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall,[1] Italian Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, and the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.

Contents

1 Origins of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture 2 Birth of the Neo-Renaissance 3 Features of Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival architecture 4 Combined historicism

4.1 Gothic influences on the Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival 4.2 Baroque
Baroque
influences on the Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival

5 Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival interiors 6 Legacy 7 References 8 External links

Origins of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture[edit] Main article: Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture The origin of Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
is generally accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377–1446)[2]:243 Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew from scientific observations of nature, in particular human anatomy. Neo- Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance
Renaissance
art treasures as their war booty, but also stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley
Loire valley
a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, arcades, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance
Renaissance
tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House. Often these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture. This is particularly evident at Hatfield House
Hatfield House
built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
style often have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival
Gothic revival
style. Birth of the Neo-Renaissance[edit]

Mentmore Towers
Mentmore Towers
English Jacobethan
Jacobethan
Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
completed in 1854, derives motifs from Wollaton Hall
Wollaton Hall
completed in 1588

Russia: The façade of the Vladimir Palace
Vladimir Palace
in Saint Petersburg (1867–1872) redolent of Alberti's designs.

Czech Republic: Prague, National Theatre 1862

When in the 19th century Renaissance
Renaissance
style architecture came into vogue, it often materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
then frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, and in many cases the even later Baroque
Baroque
period. Mannerism
Mannerism
and Baroque
Baroque
being two very opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism
Mannerism
was exemplified by the Palazzo del Te
Palazzo del Te
and Baroque
Baroque
by the Wurzburg Residenz. Thus Italian, French and Flemish Renaissance
Renaissance
coupled with the amount of borrowing from these later periods can cause great difficulty and argument in correctly identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture. Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival
Gothic revival
can at times be especially difficult, as both styles were simultaneously popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice
Venice
and Florence
Florence
contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work"[3] from Late Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
and Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
to the Italian Renaissance. As a consequence a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was already in decline. The Hague's Peace Palace
Peace Palace
completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry
Charles Barry
introduced the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall (1829–1832). Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton
Joseph Paxton
for members of the Rothschild banking family. The style is characterized by original Renaissance
Renaissance
motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors the uppermost floor usually had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance
Renaissance
designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style later came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque
Baroque
features not found in the original Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture which was often more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
did not appear overnight fully formed but evolved slowly. One of the very first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg
Würzburg
Women's Prison, which was erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth. It included a heavily rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the slightly projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor. This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson
Henry Hobson Richardson
whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popular in the USA during the 1880s. Richardson's style at the end or the revival era was a severe mix of both Romanesque and Renaissance
Renaissance
features.[2]:300–318 This was exemplified by his "Marshall Field Warehouse" in Chicago
Chicago
(completed in 1887, now demolished). However, while the beginning of Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
period can be defined by its simplicity and severity, what came between was far more ornate in its design. This period can be defined by some of the great opera houses of the Europe, such as Gottfried Semper's Burgtheater in Vienna, and his Opera house
Opera house
in Dresden. This ornate form of the Neo-Renaissance, originating from France,[2]:311 is sometimes known as the "Second Empire" style, by now it also incorporated some Baroque elements. By 1875 it had become the accepted style in Europe for all public and bureaucratic buildings.[2]:p. 311; caption 938 In England, where Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
designed the London Foreign Office
Foreign Office
in this style between 1860 and 1875, it also incorporated certain Palladian
Palladian
features. Starting with the orangery of Sanssouci
Sanssouci
(1851), "the Neo-Renaissance became the obligatory style for university and public buildings, for banks and financial institutions, and for the urban villas" in Germany.[4] Among the most accomplished examples of the style were Villa Meyer in Dresden, Villa Haas
Villa Haas
in Hesse, Palais Borsig in Berlin, Villa Meissner in Leipzig; the German version of Neo-Renaissance culminated in such turgid projects as the Town Hall in Hamburg (1886–1897) and the Reichstag in Berlin
Berlin
(completed in 1894). In Austria, it was pioneered by such illustrious names as Rudolf Eitelberger, the founder of the Viennese College of Arts and Crafts (today the University of Applied Arts Vienna). The style found particular favour in Vienna, where whole streets and blocks were built in the so-called Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
style, in reality a classisizing conglomeration of elements liberally borrowed from different historical periods.

Andrássy Avenue
Andrássy Avenue
with the Hungarian State Opera House
Hungarian State Opera House
in 1896

Institute of Technology (today Eötvös Loránd University), Budapest by Imre Steindl

Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
was also the favourite style in Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
in the 1870s and 1880s. In the fast-growing capital, Budapest
Budapest
many monumental public buildings were built in Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
style like Saint Stephen's Basilica
Saint Stephen's Basilica
and the Hungarian State Opera House. Andrássy Avenue
Andrássy Avenue
is an outstanding ensemble of Neo-Renaissance townhouses from the last decades of the 19th century. The most famous Hungarian architect of the age, Miklós Ybl
Miklós Ybl
preferred Neo-Renaissance in his works. In Russia, the style was pioneered by Auguste de Montferrand
Auguste de Montferrand
in the Demidov House (1835), the first in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to take "a story-by-story approach to façade ornamentation, in contrast to the classical method, where the façade was conceived as a unit".[5]:44 Konstantin Thon, the most popular Russian architect of the time, used Italianate
Italianate
elements profusely for decorating some interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(1837–1851). Another fashionable architect, Andrei Stackensneider, was responsible for Marie Palace
Marie Palace
(1839–1844), with "the faceted rough-hewn stone of the first floor" reminiscent of 16th-century Italian palazzi.[5]:45

United States: The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, 1893

The style was further elaborated by architects of the Vladimir Palace (1867–1872) and culminated in the Stieglitz Museum
Stieglitz Museum
(1885–1896). In Moscow, the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
was less popular than in the Northern capital, although interiors of the neo-Muscovite City Duma (1890–1892) were executed with emphasis on Florentine and Venetian décor. While the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
is associated primarily with secular buildings, Princes Yusupov commissioned the interior of their palace church (1909–1916) near Moscow
Moscow
to be decorated in strict imitataton of the 16th-century Venetian churches. The style spread to North America, where as in Europe it was a favourite domestic architectural style of the very wealthy, The Breakers in Rhode Island, a residence of the Vanderbilt family, designed by R M Hunt in 1870 being a prime example. During the latter half of the 19th century 5th Avenue in New York City
New York City
was lined with "Renaissance" French chateaux, and Italian palazzi all in one or the other of the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
styles. Most of these have since been demolished. Features of Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival architecture[edit]

A Renaissance
Renaissance
staircase at the Château de Chambord
Château de Chambord
completed in 1547. Variations of this design became a popular feature of the Neo-Renaissance.(See Waddesdon illustrated right)

Paris Hôtel de Ville completed circa 1880 in an unequivocal French Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
style.

One of the most widely copied features of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture were the great staircases from the chateaux of Blois and Chambord.[6] Blois had been the favourite residence of the French Kings throughout the renaissance. The Francis I wing, completed in 1524, of which the staircase is an integral part was one of the earliest examples of French Renaissance.[7] French renaissance architecture was a combination of the earlier Gothic style coupled with a strong Italian influence represented by arches, arcades, balustrading and, in general, a more flowing line of design than had been apparent in the earlier Gothic. The Chateau
Chateau
de Blois's triumphal staircase was imitated almost from the moment of its completion, and was certainly the predecessor of the "double staircase" (sometimes attributed to Leonardo da Vinci) at the Château de Chambord
Château de Chambord
just a few years later. A Grand Staircase
Staircase
whether based on that of Blois, or the Villa Farnese was to become one of the features of Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
design. It became a common feature for the staircase to be not just a feature of the internal architecture but also the external. But whereas at Blois the stairs had been open to the elements in the 19th century new and innovative use of glass was able to give protection from the weather, giving the staircase the appearance of being in the true renaissance open style, when it was in fact a truly internal feature. Further and more adventurous use of glass also enabled the open and arcaded Renaissance
Renaissance
courtyards to be reproduced as lofty halls with glazed roofs. This was a feature at Mentmore Towers
Mentmore Towers
and on a far larger scale at the Warsaw University of Technology, where the large glazed court contained a monumental staircase. The "Warsaw University of Technology staircase", though if Renaissance
Renaissance
in spirit at all, is more in the lighter, more columned style of Ottaviano Nonni's (named il Mascherino) staircase designed for Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII
Gregory XIII
at Rome's Palazzo Quirinale in 1584, thus demonstrating that architects wherever their location were selecting their Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
styles reardless of geography Combined historicism[edit] Gothic influences on the Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival[edit] See also: Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
architecture and Scottish baronial style

A Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival doorway illustrates the historic French Gothic influence on French Renaissance
Renaissance
design. A Renaissance
Renaissance
segmented arched door is beneath a floral Venetian Gothic point.

Historically speaking, there were no similarities between Gothic architecture and the succeeding Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture. However, sometimes Gothic influences can be discerned: first as some architecture was designed during the period of transition; and then as Renaissance−era design evolved from the addition of Renaissance ornamental elements to Gothic−era buildings to creating new structures. In the modern−era Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival style, competent architects usually avoid any references to Gothic Revival architecture, drawing instead on a variety of other classically based styles.[citation needed] However, there are exceptions and occasionally the two distinct styles are mixed. The chosen style of Gothic features used is often floral Venetian Gothic architecture, as originally used with the Venetian Renaissance
Renaissance
style for Doge's Palace Courtyard in the 1480s. Baroque
Baroque
influences on the Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival[edit]

The staircase at the Warsaw University of Technology, with strong Baroque
Baroque
Revival influences.

See also: Baroque
Baroque
Revival architecture A common Baroque
Baroque
architecture feature introduced into the Renaissance Revival styles was the "imperial staircase" (a single straight flight dividing into two separate flights). The staircase at otherwise Jacobethan
Jacobethan
Mentmore Towers
Mentmore Towers
designed by Joseph Paxton, and the one at the Warsaw University of Technology designed by Bronisław Rogóyski and Stefan Szyller (late 19th century), both rise from pastiches of true Renaissance
Renaissance
courtyards. Both staircases seem more akin to Balthasar Neumann's great Baroque staircase at the Würzburg
Würzburg
Residenz than anything found in a true Renaissance
Renaissance
Palazzo. The apparent Baroque
Baroque
style staircase at Mentmore is not without a Renaissance
Renaissance
influence, its first flight is similar to "The staircase of the Giants" rises from the Doge's Palace Courtyard, designed when the Venetian Gothic was being uncomfortably merged with Renaissance
Renaissance
style. Similarly to that at Mentmore, the Staircase
Staircase
of the Giant's terminates on to an arcaded loggia. Perhaps not ironically the Hall and Staircase
Staircase
at Mentmore were designed by Paxton to display furniture formerly housed in the Doge's Palace. Paris has many buildings in a combined style of Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival and Baroque
Baroque
Revival elements, such as the Opera Garnier, which seem to fit into neither category. However, the Parisian Hôtel de Ville is firmly emulating the true French Renaissance
Renaissance
style as it evolved, complete with the steeply pitched roofs and towers. The rebuilding, completed circa 1880, faithfully reproduced the Renaissance architectural details of the previous Hôtel de Ville.[8] In the British Raj
British Raj
in 1880, the façades of the 1777 Writers' building in Kolkata
Kolkata
were redesigned in the Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival style then popular in colonial India, though this version was remarkable in its unique design. Loggias of Serlian arches deceptively form an almost Indian appearance, yet they sit beneath a Mansard
Mansard
roof. In what at first glance appears an Indian building, on closer examination shows a Historicist example of Classical Palladianism combined with the French Renaissance, a uniquely distinctive interpretation of the Renaissance Revival style. Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival interiors[edit]

True Renaissance: The Villa Farnese: the curved staircase, tall segmented windows, and marble balustrading were all features frequently reproduced in the 19th century revival.

As mentioned above, the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
style was in reality an eclectic blending of past styles, which the architect selected on the whims of his patrons. In the true Renaissance
Renaissance
era there was a division of labour between the architect, who designed the exterior highly visible shell, and others—the artisans—who decorated and arranged the interior.[9] The original Italian mannerist house was a place for relaxation and entertaining, convenience and comfort of the interior being a priority; in the later Baroque
Baroque
designs, comfort and interior design were secondary to outward appearance. This was followed by the Neoclassical period, which gave importance to the proportions and dignity of interiors, but still lost the comfort and internal convenience of the mannerist period. It was during the Neo-Renaissance period of the 19th century that the mannerist comforts were re-discovered and taken a step further. Not only did the improved building techniques of the 1850s allow the glazing of formerly open loggias and arches with the newly invented sheets of plate glass, providing the first "picture windows", but also the blending of architectural styles allowed interiors and exteriors to be treated differently. It was at this time that the concept of "furnishing styles" manifested itself, allowing distinctions to be made between interior rooms and external appearances, and indeed between the various rooms themselves.[9] Thus the modern concept of treating a room individually, and differently from its setting and neighbours, came into its infancy. Classic examples of this are the great Rothschild house in Buckinghamshire, hybrids of various Renaissance chateaux, and 16th century English country houses, all with interiors ranging from "Versailles" to "Medici", and in the case of Mentmore Towers a huge central hall, resembling the arcaded courtyard of a Renaissance
Renaissance
villa, conveniently glazed over, furnished in Venetian style and heated by a fireplace designed by Rubens for his house in Antwerp[10] Legacy[edit]

Provincial Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
English style: the NatWest
NatWest
Bank at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire, England is an example of the manner in which Neo- Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
evolved among lesser architects in more modest surroundings as it gained in popularity.

By the beginning of the 20th century Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
was a commonplace sight on the main streets of thousands of towns, large and small around, the world. In southern Europe the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
style began to fall from favour circa 1900. However, it was still extensively practiced in the 1910s in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
by such architects as Leon Benois, Marian Peretyatkovich, or Francisco Tamburini (picture). In England it was so common that today one finds " Renaissance
Renaissance
Italian Palazzi" serving as banks or municipal buildings in the centres of even the smallest towns. It has been said "It is a well-known fact that the nineteenth century had no art style of its own."[11] While to an extent this may be true, the same could be said of most eras until the early 20th century, the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
in the hands of provincial architects did develop into a style not always instantly recognisable as a derivative of the Renaissance. In this less obvious guise the Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
was to provide an important undercurrent in totalitarian architecture of various countries, notably in Stalinist architecture of the Soviet Union, as seen in some pavilions of the All-Soviet Exhibition Centre.

Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
Russian style: a little recorded, Neo-Renaissance building showing Baroque
Baroque
and Rococo
Rococo
influences in Yaroslavl, Russia.

Neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture, because of its diversity, is perhaps the only style of architecture to have existed in so many forms, yet still common to so many countries.

Gottfried Semper's Dresden
Dresden
Semper Opera House of 1870, incorporating both Baroque
Baroque
and Renaissance
Renaissance
architectural features.

References[edit]

^ "Wollaton Hall". Greatbuildings.com. Retrieved 11 June 2011.  ^ a b c d Copplestone, Trewin (1963). World Architecture. Hamlyn. ^ Rosanna Pavoni. Reviving the Renaissance: The Use and Abuse of the Past in Nineteenth-Century Italian Art. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-521-48151-1. Page 73. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Modern German Culture. Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-56870-6. Page 283. ^ a b Julie A. Buckler. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape. Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-11349-1. ^ Chateau
Chateau
de Chambord retrieved 19 April 2006 ^ " Chateau
Chateau
de Blois". Castles.org. Retrieved 11 June 2011.  ^ "Hôtel de Ville". Aviewoncities.com. Retrieved 11 June 2011.  ^ a b Dal Lago, Adalbert (1966). Ville Antiche. Milan: Fratelli Fabbri. ^ Sotheby's. Mentmore ^ Lessenich, Rolf P. "Ideals Versus Realities: Nineteenth-Century Decadent Identity and the Renaissance". 2004-01. Accessed 10 November 2013.

External links[edit]

Rosanna Pavoni, editor (1997) Reviving the Renaissance: The Use and Abuse of the Past in Nineteenth-Century Italian Art and Decoration in Series: Cambridge Studies in Italian History and Culture (Cambridge University Press) ISBN 0-521-48151-1. The first assessment of the Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival in post-Unification Italy. Book synopsis Marek Zgórniak, Wokół neorenesansu w architekturze XIX wieku, Kraków 1987. ISBN 83-233-0187-5. General study. See abstract on the author's page. "History & styles: The other neo-styles of the 19th century"

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Baroque
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