Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies,
whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases.
Naval aviation is typically projected to a position nearer the target
by way of an aircraft carrier.
Carrier-based aircraft must be sturdy
enough to withstand demanding carrier operations. They must be able to
launch in a short distance and be sturdy and flexible enough to come
to a sudden stop on a pitching flight deck; they typically have robust
folding mechanisms that allow higher numbers of them to be stored in
below-decks hangars and small spaces on flight decks. These aircraft
are designed for many purposes, including air-to-air combat, surface
attack, submarine attack, search and rescue, matériel transport,
weather observation, reconnaissance and wide area command and control
1.2 World War I
1.3 Development of the aircraft carrier
1.4 Interwar period
1.5 World War II
1.6 Post-war developments
2.1 Fleet air defense
2.2 Anti-submarine warfare
2.3 Anti-surface warfare
2.4 Amphibious warfare
2.5 Maritime patrol
2.6 Vertical replenishment
2.7 Disaster relief
Naval aviation branches
4 See also
6 Further reading
6.1 World War II
7 External links
Mayfly was built in 1908 and was the first aircraft to be used in a
Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took
place in 1903 at
Woolwich Common for the Admiralty. Samuel Franklin
Cody demonstrated the capabilities of his 8 foot long black kite and
it was proposed for use as either a mechanism to hold up wires for
wireless communications or as a manned reconnaissance device that
would give the viewer the advantage of considerable height.
In 1908 Prime Minister
H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an
"Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence" to
investigate the potential for naval aviation. In 1909 this body
accepted the proposal of Captain
Reginald Bacon made to the First Sea
Lord Sir John Fisher that rigid airships should be constructed for the
Navy to be used for reconnaissance. This resulted in the
construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to
become operational, and the genesis of modern naval aviation.
The first pilots for the Royal
Navy were transferred from the Royal
Aero Club in June 1910 along with two aircraft with which to train new
pilots, and an airfield at Eastchurch became the Naval Flying School,
the first such facility in the world. Two hundred applications were
received, and four were accepted: Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A
M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI.
The French also established a naval aviation capability in 1910 with
the establishment of the Service Aeronautique and the first flight
Eugene Ely taking off from USS Birmingham in November 1910
U.S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator
Glenn Curtiss who
contracted with the United States
Navy to demonstrate that airplanes
could take off from and land aboard ships at sea. One of his pilots,
Eugene Ely, took off from the cruiser USS Birmingham anchored off
Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months later Ely landed
aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay,
proving the concept of shipboard operations. However, the platforms
erected on those vessels were temporary measures. The U.S.
Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911. On 27
January, Curtiss flew the first seaplane from the water at San Diego
Bay and the next day U.S.
Navy Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, a student at
the nearby Curtiss School, took off in a Curtiss "grass cutter" plane
to become the first naval aviator.
$25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation (United States
Navy) to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four
additional officers were trained as pilots by the
Wright brothers and
Curtiss. A camp with a primitive landing field was established on the
Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis, Maryland. The group
expanded with the addition of six aviators in 1912 and five in 1913,
from both the
Navy and Marine Corps, and conducted maneuvers with the
Fleet from the battleship USS Mississippi, designated as the
Navy's aviation ship. Meanwhile, Captain
Henry C. Mustin
Henry C. Mustin successfully
tested the concept of the catapult launch in August 1912, and in 1915
made the first catapult launching from a ship underway. The first
permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in
January 1914 with Mustin as its commanding officer. On April 24 of
that year, and for a period of approximately 45 days afterward, five
floatplanes and flying boats flown by ten aviators operated from
Mississippi and the cruiser Birmingham off Veracruz and Tampico,
Mexico, respectively, conducting reconnaissance for troops ashore in
the wake of the Tampico Affair.
Lieutenant Charles Samson's historic takeoff from Hibernia on 9 May
In January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in
aircraft experiments at Sheerness. She was fitted for flying off
aircraft with a 100-foot (30 m) downward-sloping runway which was
installed on her foredeck, running over her forward 12-inch
(305 mm) gun turret from her forebridge to her bow and equipped
with rails to guide the aircraft. The Gnome-engined Short Improved
S.27 "S.38", pusher seaplane piloted by Lieutenant Charles Samson
become the first British aircraft to take-off from a ship while at
anchor in the River Medway, on 10 January 1912. Africa then
transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia.
In May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the "S.38", the first
ever instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship which was under
way occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h;
12.1 mph) at the
Royal Fleet Review
Royal Fleet Review in Weymouth Bay, England.
Hibernia then transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London.
Based on these experiments, the Royal
Navy concluded that aircraft
were useful aboard ship for spotting and other purposes, but that
interference with the firing of guns caused by the runway built over
the foredeck and the danger and impracticality of recovering seaplanes
that alighted in the water in anything but calm weather more than
offset the desirability of having airplanes aboard. In 1912, the
nascent naval air detachment in the United Kingdom was amalgamated to
form the Royal Flying Corps and in 1913 a seaplane base on the Isle
of Grain, an airship base at
Kingsnorth and eight new airfields were
approved for construction. The first aircraft participation in
naval manoeuvres took place in 1913 with the cruiser Hermes converted
into a seaplane carrier. In 1914, naval aviation was split again,
and became the Royal Naval Air Service. However, shipboard naval
aviation had begun in the Royal Navy, and would become a major part of
fleet operations by 1917.
Other early operators of seaplanes were Germany, within its
Marine-Fliegerabteilung naval aviation units within the Kaiserliche
Marine, and Russia. The Japanese established the Imperial Japanese
Navy Air Service, modelled on the RNAS, in 1913. On 24 January 1913
came the first wartime naval aviation interservice cooperation
mission. Greek pilots on a seaplane observed and drew a diagram of the
positions of the Turkish fleet against which they dropped four bombs.
This event was widely commented upon in the press, both Greek and
World War I
At the outbreak of war the
Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Naval Air Service had ninety-three
aircraft, six airships, two balloons and seven hundred and
twenty-seven personnel, making it larger than the Royal Flying
Corps. The main roles of the RNAS were fleet reconnaissance,
patrolling coasts for enemy ships and submarines, attacking enemy
coastal territory and defending Britain from enemy air-raids, along
with deployment along the Western Front. In 1914 the first aerial
torpedo was dropped in trials performed in a Short "Folder" by
Air Chief Marshal
Air Chief Marshal Sir) Arthur Longmore, and in
August 1915, a
Short Type 184
Short Type 184 piloted by Flight Commander Charles
Edmonds from HMS Ben-my-Chree sank a Turkish supply ship in the
Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara with a 14-inch-diameter (360 mm), 810-pound
(370 kg) torpedo.
Maurice Farman seaplane from Wakamiya
The first strike from a seaplane carrier against a land target as well
as a sea target took place in September 1914 when the Imperial
Navy carrier Wakamiya conducted ship-launched air raids
Kiaochow Bay during the
Battle of Tsingtao
Battle of Tsingtao in China. The four
Maurice Farman seaplanes bombarded German-held land targets
(communication centers and command centers) and damaged a German
minelayer in the Tsingtao peninsula from September until 6 November
1914, when the Germans surrendered.
On the Western front the first naval air raid occurred on 25 December
1914 when twelve seaplanes from HMS Engadine, Riviera and Empress
(cross-channel steamers converted into seaplane carriers) attacked the
Zeppelin base at Cuxhaven. The raid was not a complete success, owing
to sub-optimal weather conditions, including fog and low cloud, but
the raid was able to conclusively demonstrate the feasibility of
air-to-land strikes from a naval platform.
Development of the aircraft carrier
The need for a more mobile strike capacity led to the development of
the aircraft carrier - the backbone of modern naval aviation.
HMS Ark Royal was the first purpose-built seaplane carrier and
was also arguably the first modern aircraft carrier. She was
originally laid down as a merchant ship, but was converted on the
building stocks to be a hybrid airplane/seaplane carrier with a launch
platform and the capacity to hold up to four wheeled aircraft.
Launched on 5 September 1914, she served in the
and throughout World War I.
Sqn. Cdr. E. H. Dunning makes the first landing of an aircraft on a
moving ship, a
Sopwith Pup on HMS Furious, 2 August 1917
During World War I the Royal
Navy also used HMS Furious to
experiment with the use of wheeled aircraft on ships. This ship was
reconstructed three times between 1915 and 1925: first, while still
under construction, it was modified to receive a flight deck on the
fore-deck; in 1917 it was reconstructed with separate flight decks
fore and aft of the superstructure; then finally, after the war, it
was heavily reconstructed with a three-quarter length main flight
deck, and a lower-level take-off only flight deck on the fore-deck.
On 2 August 1917, Squadron Commander E.H. Dunning, Royal Navy, landed
Sopwith Pup aircraft on Furious in Scapa Flow, Orkney, becoming
the first person to land a plane on a moving ship. He was killed
five days later during another landing on Furious.
The aircraft carrier HMS Furious, with seven Sopwith Camels on
the flight deck en route to the Tondern raid, the first ever aircraft
HMS Argus was converted from an ocean liner and became the first
example of what is now the standard pattern of aircraft carrier, with
a full-length flight deck that allowed wheeled aircraft to take off
and land. After commissioning, the ship was heavily involved for
several years in the development of the optimum design for other
aircraft carriers. Argus also evaluated various types of arresting
gear, general procedures needed to operate a number of aircraft in
concert, and fleet tactics.
The Tondern raid, a British bombing raid against the Imperial German
Navy's airship base at Tønder,
Denmark was the first attack in
history made by aircraft flying from a carrier flight deck, with seven
Sopwith Camels launched from HMS Furious. For the loss of one man, the
British destroyed two German zeppelins, L.54 and L.60 and a captive
Genuine aircraft carriers did not emerge beyond Britain until the
Hōshō, the first purpose-built aircraft carrier, in 1922.
Hōshō in 1945, after removal of its control tower and subsequent
enlargement of its flight deck.
The Japanese Hōshō (1921) was the world's first purpose-built
aircraft carrier, although the initial plans for HMS Hermes
(1924) began sooner. Both Hōshō and Hermes initially boasted the
two most distinctive features of a modern aircraft carrier: a
full-length flight deck and a starboard-side control tower island.
Both continued to be adjusted in the light of further experimentation
and experience, however: Hōshō even opted to remove its island
entirely in favor of a less obstructed flight deck and improved pilot
visibility. Instead, Japanese carriers opted to control their
flight operations from a platform extending from the side of the
In the United States, Admiral William Benson attempted to entirely
dissolve the USN's Naval Aeronautics program in 1919. Assistant
Secretary of the
Navy Franklin Roosevelt and others succeeded in
maintaining it, but the service continued to support battleship-based
doctrines. To counter Billy Mitchell's campaign to establish a
separate Department of Aeronautics, Secretary of the
Daniels ordered a rigged test against USS Indiana in 1920 which
reached the conclusion that "the entire experiment pointed to the
improbability of a modern battleship being either destroyed or
completely put out of action by aerial bombs." Investigation by
New-York Tribune that discovered the rigging led to Congressional
resolutions compelling more honest studies. The sinking of
SMS Ostfriesland involved violating the Navy's rules of
engagement but completely vindicated Mitchell to the public. Some
men, such as Captain (soon Rear Admiral) William A. Moffett, saw the
publicity stunt as a means to increase funding and support for the
Navy's aircraft carrier projects. Moffett was sure that he had to move
decisively in order to avoid having his fleet air arm fall into the
hands of a proposed combined Land/Sea Air Force which took care of all
the United States's airpower needs. (That very fate had befallen the
two air services of the United Kingdom in 1918: the Royal Flying Corps
had been combined with the
Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Naval Air Service to become the Royal
Air Force, a condition which would remain until 1937.) Moffett
supervised the development of naval air tactics throughout the '20s.
The first aircraft carrier entered the U.S. fleet with the conversion
of the collier USS Jupiter and its re-commissioning as
USS Langley in 1922.
Many British naval vessels carried float planes, seaplanes or
amphibians for reconnaissance and spotting: two to four on battleships
or battlecruisers and one on cruisers. The aircraft, a Fairey Seafox
or later a Supermarine Walrus, were catapult-launched, and landed on
the sea alongside for recovery by crane. Several submarine aircraft
carriers were built by Japan, each carrying one floatplane, which did
not prove effective in war. The French
Navy built one large submarine,
Surcouf which also carried one floatplane, and was also not effective
World War II
A Japanese Mitsubishi A6M2 "Zero" fighter launches to attack Pearl
World War II
World War II saw the emergence of naval aviation as the decisive
element in the war at sea. The principal users were Japan, United
States (both with Pacific interests to protect) and Britain. Germany,
the Soviet Union, France and Italy had a lesser involvement. Soviet
Naval Aviation was mostly organised as land-based coastal defense
force (apart from some scout floatplanes it consisted almost
exclusively of land-based types also used by its air arms).
During the course of the war, seaborne aircraft were used in fleet
actions at sea (Battle of Midway, Bismarck), strikes against naval
units in port (Battle of Taranto, Attack on Pearl Harbor), support of
ground forces (Battle of Okinawa, Allied invasion of Italy) and
anti-submarine warfare (the Battle of the Atlantic). Carrier-based
aircraft were specialised as dive bombers, torpedo bombers, and
fighters. Surface-based aircraft such as the
PBY Catalina helped
finding submarines and surface fleets.
Douglas Dauntless SBD dive-bomber in Battle of Midway.
World War II
World War II the aircraft carrier replaced the battleship as the
most powerful naval offensive weapons system as battles between fleets
were increasingly fought out of gun range by aircraft. The Japanese
Yamato, the most powerful battleship ever built, was first turned back
by light escort carrier aircraft and later sunk lacking its own air
Doolittle Raid of 1942, the US
Army Air Force
medium bombers on one-way missions to bomb Tokyo. All were lost to
fuel exhaustion after bombing their targets and the experiment was not
repeated. Smaller carriers were built in large numbers to escort slow
cargo convoys or supplement fast carriers. Aircraft for observation or
light raids were also carried by battleships and cruisers, while
blimps were used to search for attack submarines.
Experience showed that there was a need for widespread use of aircraft
which could not be met quickly enough by building new fleet aircraft
carriers. This was particularly true in the North Atlantic, where
convoys were highly vulnerable to
U-boat attack. The British
authorities used unorthodox, temporary, but effective means of giving
air protection such as CAM ships and merchant aircraft carriers,
merchant ships modified to carry a small number of aircraft. The
solution to the problem were large numbers of mass-produced merchant
hulls converted into escort aircraft carriers (also known as "jeep
carriers"). These basic vessels, unsuited to fleet action by their
capacity, speed and vulnerability, nevertheless provided air cover
where it was needed.
Navy had observed the impact of naval aviation and, obliged
to prioritise their use of resources, abandoned battleships as the
mainstay of the fleet. HMS Vanguard was therefore the last
British battleship and her sisters were cancelled. The United States
had already instigated a large construction programme (which was also
cut short) but these large ships were mainly used as anti-aircraft
batteries or for shore bombardment.
Other actions involving naval aviation included:
Battle of the Atlantic, aircraft carried by low-cost escort carriers
were used for antisubmarine patrol, defense, and attack.
At the start of the
Pacific War in 1941, Japanese carrier-based
aircraft sank many US warships during the attack on Pearl Harbor and
land-based aircraft sank two large British warships. Engagements
between Japanese and American naval fleets were then conducted largely
or entirely by aircraft - examples include the battles of Coral Sea,
Midway, Bismarck Sea and Philippine Sea.
Battle of Leyte Gulf, with the first appearance of kamikazes, perhaps
the largest naval battle in history. Japan's last carriers and pilots
are deliberately sacrificed, a battleship is sunk by aircraft.
Operation Ten-Go demonstrated U.S. air supremacy in the Pacific
theater by this stage in the war and the vulnerability of surface
ships without air cover to aerial attack.
The first carrier landing and take-off of a jet aircraft: Eric
"Winkle" Brown landing on HMS Ocean in 1945.
Jet aircraft were used on aircraft carriers after the War. The first
jet landing on a carrier was made by Lt Cdr
Eric "Winkle" Brown
Eric "Winkle" Brown who
landed on HMS Ocean in the specially modified de Havilland
Vampire LZ551/G on 3 December 1945. Following the introduction of
angled flight decks, jets were operating from carriers by the
An important development of the early 1950s was the British invention
of the angled flight deck by Capt D.R.F. Campbell RN in conjunction
with Lewis Boddington of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at
Farnborough. The runway was canted at an angle of a few degrees
from the longitudinal axis of the ship. If an aircraft missed the
arrestor cables (referred to as a "bolter"), the pilot only needed to
increase engine power to maximum to get airborne again, and would not
hit the parked aircraft because the angled deck pointed out over the
sea. The angled flight deck was first tested on HMS Triumph, by
painting angled deck markings onto the centerline flight deck for
touch and go landings. The modern steam-powered catapult, powered
by steam from the ship's boilers or reactors, was invented by
Commander C.C. Mitchell of the Royal Naval Reserve. It was widely
adopted following trials on HMS Perseus between 1950 and 1952
which showed it to be more powerful and reliable than the hydraulic
catapults which had been introduced in the 1940s. The first
Optical Landing System, the Mirror Landing Aid was invented by
Lieutenant Commander H. C. N. Goodhart RN. The first trials of a
mirror landing sight were conducted on HMS Illustrious in 1952.
The ski-jump on Royal
Navy carrier HMS Invincible
Navy built the first aircraft carrier to be powered by nuclear
reactors. USS Enterprise was powered by eight nuclear reactors
and was the second surface warship (after USS Long Beach) to be
powered in this way. The post-war years also saw the development of
the helicopter, with a variety of useful roles and mission capability
aboard aircraft carriers. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the
United Kingdom and the United States converted some older carriers
into Commando Carriers or Landing Platform Helicopters (LPH); seagoing
helicopter airfields like HMS Bulwark. To mitigate the expensive
connotations of the term "aircraft carrier", the Invincible-class
carriers were originally designated as "through deck cruisers" and
were initially to operate as helicopter-only craft escort carriers.
The arrival of the
Sea Harrier VTOL/
STOVL fast jet meant they could
carry fixed-wing aircraft, despite their short flight deck. The
British also introduced the ski-jump ramp as an alternative to
contemporary catapult systems. As the Royal
Navy retired or sold
the last of its World War II-era carriers, they were replaced
with smaller ships designed to operate helicopters and the V/
Harrier jet. The ski-jump gave the Harriers an enhanced STOVL
capability, allowing them to take off with heavier payloads.
The experimental X-47B performs the first successful catapult launch
of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from an aircraft carrier in 2013
In 2013, the US
Navy completed the first successful catapult launch
and arrested landing of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aboard an
aircraft carrier. After a decade of research and planning, the US Navy
has been testing the integration of UAVs with carrier-based forces
since 2013, using the experimental Northrop Grumman X-47B, and is
working to procure a fleet of carrier-based UAVs, referred to as the
Unmanned Carrier Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike (UCLASS)
The flight deck of the modern aircraft carrier USS Harry S.
Naval aviation forces primarily perform naval roles at sea. However,
they are also used for other tasks which vary between states. Common
roles for such forces include:
Fleet air defense
Carrier-based naval aviation provides a country's seagoing forces with
air cover over areas that may not be reachable by land-based aircraft,
giving them a considerable advantage over navies composed primarily of
During the Cold War, the navies of
NATO faced a significant threat
from Soviet submarine forces, specifically Soviet
Navy SSN and SSGN
assets. This resulted in the development and deployment of light
aircraft carriers with major anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities
NATO navies. One of the most effective weapons against
submarines is the ASW helicopter, several of which could be based on
these light ships. These carriers are typically around 20,000 tons
displacement and carry a mix of ASW helicopters and BAe
Sea Harrier or
Harrier II V/STOL aircraft. Land-based maritime patrol aircraft are
also useful in this role, since they can operate independently of
Aircraft operated by navies are also used in the anti-surface warfare
(ASUW or ASuW) role, to attack enemy ships and other, surface
combatants. This is generally conducted using air-launched anti-ship
Naval aviation is also used as part of amphibious warfare. Aircraft
based on naval ships provide support to marines and other forces
performing amphibious landings. Ship-based aircraft may also be used
to support amphibious forces as they move in land.
Naval aircraft are used for various maritime patrol missions, such as
reconnaissance, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement.
Vertical replenishment, or VERTREP is a method of supplying naval
vessels at sea, by helicopter. This means moving cargo and supplies
from supply ships to the flight decks of other naval vessels using
Naval aircraft are used to airlift supplies, insert specialized
personnel (e.g. medical staff, relief workers), and evacuate persons
in distress in the aftermath of natural disasters. Naval aircraft are
vital in cases where traditional infrastructure to provide relief are
destroyed or overtaxed in the wake of a disaster, such as when a
region's airport is destroyed or overcrowded and the region cannot be
effectively accessed by road or helicopter. The capability of ships to
provide clean, fresh water which can be transported by helicopter to
affected areas is also valuable. Naval aircraft played an important
part in providing relief in the wake of the
2010 Haiti earthquake
2010 Haiti earthquake and
Naval aviation branches
Air Division of the Royal Thai
Navy (Royal Thai Navy)
Air Wing Six (Republic of Korea Navy)
Argentine Naval Aviation
Argentine Naval Aviation (Argentine Navy)
Bangladesh Naval Aviation
Bangladesh Naval Aviation (Bangladesh Navy)
Brazilian Naval Aviation
Brazilian Naval Aviation (Brazilian Navy)
Chilean Naval Aviation (Chilean Navy)
Fleet Air Arm (RAN)
Fleet Air Arm (RAN) (Royal Australian Navy)
Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm (Royal Navy)
French Naval Aviation
French Naval Aviation (French Navy)
Indian Naval Air Arm
Indian Naval Air Arm (Indian Navy)
Islamic Republic of Iran
Navy Aviation (Islamic Republic of Iran Navy)
Navy Aviation (Italian Navy)
Marineflieger (German Navy)
Mexican Naval Aviation
Mexican Naval Aviation (Mexican Navy)
Pakistan Naval Air Arm
Pakistan Naval Air Arm (Pakistan Navy)
People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force
People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force (People's Liberation Army
Peruvian Naval Aviation
Peruvian Naval Aviation (Peruvian Navy)
Polish Naval Aviation (Polish Navy)
Republic of China Naval Aviation Command (Republic of China Navy)
Russian Naval Aviation
Russian Naval Aviation (Russian Navy)
Turkish Naval Aviation
Turkish Naval Aviation (Turkish Navy)
United States Naval Air Forces (United States Navy)
United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps Aviation (United States Marine Corps)
Navy Air Service (Imperial Japanese Navy)
Soviet Naval Aviation
Soviet Naval Aviation (Soviet Navy)
Portuguese Naval Aviation
Portuguese Naval Aviation (Portuguese Navy)
Modern United States
Navy carrier air operations
Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm History". Retrieved 2013-12-17.
^ Tim Benbow, ed. (2011). British Naval Aviation: The First 100 Years.
Ashgate Publishing,. p. 1.
^ Roskill. The Naval Air Service. I. p. 6.
^ Gollin. Impact of Air Power on the British People and the
Government. p. 168.
^ Roskill. The Naval Air Service. I. p. 33.
^ "France Naval Aviation". Retrieved 2012-12-17.
^ Roskill. The Naval Air Service. I. p. 37.
^ Roskill. The Naval Air Service. I. p. 70.
^ Roskill. The Naval Air Service. I. p. 138.
^ Roskill. The Naval Air Service. I. p. 156.
^ Hellenic Air Force History - Balkan Wars Archived 2009-07-18 at the
^ Layman. Naval Aviation in the First World War. p. 206.
^ a b GlobalSecurity.org. Military. TB Torpedo Bomber. T Torpedo and
bombing. Retrieved on 29 September 2009.
^ Guinness Book of Air Facts and Feats (3rd ed.). 1977.
^ Wakamiya is "credited with conducting the first successful carrier
air raid in history"Source:GlobalSecurity.org, also "the first air
raid in history to result in a success" (here)
^ "Sabre et pinceau", Christian Polak, p92
^ IJN Wakamiya Aircraft Carrier
^ Layman, R. D. (1989). Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development
of Aviation Vessels 1859–1922. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute
Press. ISBN 0-87021-210-9.
^ a b "HMS Furious 1917". Royal Navy. RN official web site. Archived
from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
^ Milanovich, Kathrin . "Hôshô: The First Aircraft Carrier of the
Imperial Japanese Navy", pp. 9 ff. in John Jordan's Warship. Conway
(London), 2008. ISBN 978-1-84486-062-3.
^ Milanovich (2008), p. 17 ff..
^ Peattie, Mark. Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power
1909–1941, p. 53. Naval Institute Press (Annapolis), 2001.
^ Correll, John T. "
Billy Mitchell and the Battleships" in Air Force
Magazine, pp. 64 f. June 2008.
^ Naval History & Heritage Command. The Naval Bombing Experiments:
Bombing Operations. 3 Apr 2007. Accessed 31 Dec 2010.
^ Boyne (2003), pp.227–8
^ a b c d e f g h Sturtivant, Ray (1990). British Naval Aviation, The
Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990. London: Arm & Armour Press.
pp. 161–179. ISBN 0-85368-938-5.
^ "The angled flight deck". Sea Power Centre Australia. Royal
Australian Navy. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
^ "Using Simulation to Optimize Ski Jump Ramp Profiles for STOVL
Aircraft". Retrieved 13 September 2014.
^ Ernst, Douglas (19 August 2014). "Navy's X-47B drone completes 'key'
carrier tests alongside F/A-18 Hornet". Washington Times. Retrieved 24
^ Gallagher, Sean (23 April 2014). "Top Gun, robot-style:
ahead on carrier-based drone program". arstechnica. Retrieved 24 March
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World War II
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Japanese Naval Pilots (2012) excerpt and text search
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Media related to
Naval aviation at Wikimedia Commons
United States Naval Aviation 1910-1995 - A comprehensive history from
the U.S. Naval Historical Center
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