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v t e

The Muktikā
Muktikā
(Sanskrit: " मुक्तिका " , English: "deliverance" ) refers to the canon of 108 Upaniṣads. The date of composition of each is unknown, with the oldest probably from about 800 BCE and the youngest probably composed after the 15th-century CE by Dara Shikoh brother of Mugal Emperor Aurangzeb.[1][2] The Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
were composed in the 1st millennium BCE,[3] most Yoga Upanishads
Upanishads
composed probably from the 100 BCE to 300 CE period,[4] and seven of the Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads
Upanishads
composed before the 3rd century CE.[5][6]

Contents

1 The Canon 2 Transmission 3 Categories 4 References 5 External links

The Canon[edit] The canon is part of a dialogue between Rama
Rama
and Hanuman. Rama proposes to teach Vedanta, saying "Even by reading one verse of them [any Upanishad] with devotion, one gets the status of union with me, hard to get even by sages." Hanuman
Hanuman
enquires about the different kinds of "liberation" (Mukti, hence the name of the Upanishad), to which Rama
Rama
answers that "the only real type [of liberation] is Kaivalya".[citation needed] The list of 108 Upanishads
Upanishads
is introduced in verses 26-29:

But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha
Moksha
got? The Mandukya
Mandukya
is enough; if knowledge is not got from it, then study the Ten Upanishads. Getting knowledge very soon, you will reach my abode. If certainty is not got even then, study the 32 Upanishads
Upanishads
and stop. If desiring Moksha
Moksha
without the body, read the 108 Upanishads. Hear their order. (trans. Warrier)[full citation needed]

Some scholars list ten as principal – the Mukhya
Mukhya
Upanishads, while most consider twelve or thirteen as principal, most important Upanishads
Upanishads
(highlighted).[7][8][9] The list of 108 names is given in verses 30-39. They are as follows:

Isha Upanishad Kena Upanishad Katha Upanishad Prashna Upanishad Mundaka Upanishad Mandukya
Mandukya
Upanishad Taittiriya Upanishad Aitareya Upanishad Chandogya
Chandogya
Upanishad Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Brahma
Brahma
Upanishad Kaivalya Upanishad Jabala Upanishad Shvetashvatara Upanishad Hamsopanishad Aruneya Upanishad Garbhopanishad Narayanopanishad Paramahamsopanishad Amritabindu Upanishad Nada Bindu Upanishad Atharvashiras Upanishad Atharvashikha Upanishad Maitrayaniya Upanishad Kaushitaki Upanishad Brihajjabala Upanishad Nrisimha Tapaniya Upanishad Kalagni Rudra
Rudra
Upanishad Maitreya Upanishad Subala Upanishad Kshurika Upanishad Mantrika Upanishad Sarvasara Upanishad Niralamba Upanishad Shukarahasya Upanishad Vajrasuchi Upanishad Tejobindu Upanishad Nada Bindu Upanishad Dhyanabindu Upanishad Brahmavidya Upanishad Yogatattva Upanishad Atmabodha Upanishad Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad Trishikhibrahmana Upanishad Sita Upanishad Yogachudamani Upanishad Nirvana Upanishad Mandala-brahmana Upanishad Dakshinamurti Upanishad Sharabha Upanishad Skanda Upanishad Mahanarayana Upanishad Advayataraka Upanishad Rama
Rama
Rahasya Upanishad Rama
Rama
tapaniya Upanishad Vasudeva Upanishad Mudgala Upanishad Shandilya Upanishad Paingala Upanishad Bhikshuka Upanishad Maha Upanishad Sariraka Upanishad Yogashikha Upanishad Turiyatitavadhuta Upanishad Brihat- Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishad Paramahamsa Parivrajaka Upanishad Malika Upanishad Avyakta Upanishad Ekakshara Upanishad Annapurna Upanishad Surya Upanishad Akshi Upanishad Adhyatma Upanishad Kundika Upanishad Savitri Upanishad Atma Upanishad Pashupatabrahma Upanishad Parabrahma Upanishad Avadhuta Upanishad Tripuratapini Upanishad Devi
Devi
Upanishad Tripura Upanishad Kathashruti Upanishad Bhavana Upanishad Rudrahridaya Upanishad Yoga-Kundalini Upanishad Bhasma Upanishad Rudraksha Upanishad Ganapati Upanishad Darshana Upanishad Tarasara Upanishad Mahavakya Upanishad Pancabrahma Upanishad Pranagnihotra Upanishad Gopala Tapani Upanishad Krishna
Krishna
Upanishad Yajnavalkya Upanishad Varaha Upanishad Shatyayaniya Upanishad Hayagriva Upanishad Dattatreya Upanishad Garuda Upanishad Kali-Santarana Upanishad Jabali Upanishad Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad Sarasvati-rahasya Upanishad Bahvricha Upanishad Muktikā
Muktikā
Upanishad
Upanishad
(this text)

Transmission[edit] Almost all printed editions of ancient Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
depend on the late manuscripts that are hardly older than 500 years, not on the still-extant and superior oral tradition.[10] Michael Witzel explains this oral tradition as follows:

The Vedic texts were orally composed and transmitted, without the use of script, in an unbroken line of transmission from teacher to student that was formalized early on. This ensured an impeccable textual transmission superior to the classical texts of other cultures; it is, in fact, something like a tape-recording.... Not just the actual words, but even the long-lost musical (tonal) accent (as in old Greek or in Japanese) has been preserved up to the present.[11]

Categories[edit] In this canon,

10 upaniṣads are associated with the Rigveda
Rigveda
and have the śānti beginning vaṇme-manasi. 16 upaniṣads are associated with the Samaveda
Samaveda
and have the śānti beginning āpyāyantu. 19 upaniṣads are associated with the Shukla Yajurveda
Yajurveda
and have the śānti beginning pūrṇamada. 32 upaniṣads are associated with the Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda
Yajurveda
and have the śānti beginning sahanāvavatu. 31 upaniṣads are associated with the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
and have the śānti beginning bhadram-karṇebhiḥ.

The first 13 are grouped as mukhya ("principal"). 21 are grouped as Sāmānya Vedānta
Sāmānya Vedānta
("common Vedanta"), The remainder are associated with five different schools or sects within Hinduism, 20 with Sannyāsa
Sannyāsa
(asceticism), 8 with Shaktism, 14 with Vaishnavism, 12 with Shaivism
Shaivism
and 20 with Yoga.

  Shukla Yajurveda Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda Atharvaveda Samaveda Ṛgveda

Mukhya;[9] these form the core of ancient texts, predating classical Hinduism; they span the 1st millennium BCE and reflect the emergence of Vedanta from Vedic religion.

Īṣa Bṛhadāraṇyaka

Kaṭha Taittirīya Śvetāśvatara

Praśna Muṇḍaka Māṇḍūkya

Kena Chāndogya Maitrāyaṇi

Kauśītāki Aitareya

Sāmānya; These are general Upanishads, and do not focus on any specific post-classical Hindu
Hindu
tradition. Some are referred to as Vedantic Upanishads.[12]

Subāla Mantrikā Nirālamba Paiṅgala Adhyātmā Muktikā

Sarvasāra Śukarahasya Skanda Śārīraka Garbha Ekākṣara Akṣi Prāṇāgnihotra

Sūrya Ātmā

Vajrasūchi Maha Sāvitrī

Ātmabodha Mudgala

Sannyāsa[13] These are Upanishads
Upanishads
that focus on renunciation-related themes and the life of a sannyasi (monk)

Jābāla Paramahaṃsa Advayatāraka Bhikṣuka Turīyātīta Yājñavalkya Śāṭyāyaniya

Brahma Tejobindu Avadhūta Kaṭharudra

Nāradaparivrājaka Paramahaṃsa parivrājaka Parabrahma

Āruṇeya Maitreya Sannyāsa Kuṇḍika

Nirvāṇa

Śākta These are Upanishads
Upanishads
that focus on goddess Devi-related themes

 

Sarasvatīrahasya

Sītā Annapūrṇa Devī Tripurātapini Bhāvana

 

Tripura Saubhāgya Lakshmi Bahvṛca

Vaiṣṇava These are Upanishads
Upanishads
that focus on god Vishnu-related themes

Tārasāra

Nārāyaṇa Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa

Nṛsiṃhatāpanī Mahānārāyaṇa Rāmarahasya Rāmatāpaṇi Gopālatāpani Kṛṣṇa Hayagrīva Dattātreya Gāruḍa

Vāsudeva Avyakta

 

Śaiva These are Upanishads
Upanishads
that focus on god Shiva-related themes

Kaivalya Kālāgnirudra Dakṣiṇāmūrti Rudrahṛdaya Pañcabrahma

Atharvaśikha Bṛhajjābāla Śarabha Bhasma Gaṇapati

Rudrākṣa Jābāla

Akṣamālika (Mālika)

Yoga[14] These are Upanishads
Upanishads
that focus on Yoga-related themes

Haṃsa Triśikhi Maṇḍalabrāhmaṇa

Amṛtabindu Amṛtanāda Kṣurika Dhyānabindu Brahmavidyā Yogatattva Yogaśikhā Yogakuṇḍalinī Varāha

Śāṇḍilya Pāśupata Mahāvākya

Yogachūḍāmaṇi Darśana

Nādabindu

References[edit]

^ Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads. Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199540259, see Introduction ^ Gudrun Buhnemann (1996), Review: The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu
Hindu
Śakta Tantrism, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 116, Number 3, page 606 ^ Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, Chapter 1, pages 28-30 ^ Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, page 96 ^ Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, page 91 ^ Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages 5, 8-9 ^ Robert C Neville (2000), Ultimate Realities, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0791447765, page 319 ^ Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, pages 28-29 ^ a b Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500, pages 60-88 ^ Quotation of "... almost all printed editions depend on the late manuscripts that are hardly older than 500 years, not on the still extant and superior oral tradition" is from: Witzel, M., " Vedas
Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 69. ^ For the quotation comparing recital to a "tape-recording" see: Witzel, M., " Vedas
Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, pp. 68–69. ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 567. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7.  ^ Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages x-xi, 5 ^ The Yoga
Yoga
Upanishads
Upanishads
SS Sastri, Adyar Library

Muktika Upanishad, Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna
Krishna
Warrier, Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai,[year needed] Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5 

External links[edit]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: उपनिषत्

Muktika Upanishad
Upanishad
- Translated by: Dr. A. G. Krishna
Krishna
Warrier The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai 108 Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Muktika

v t e

The 108 Upanishads

Isha Kena Katha Prashna Mundaka Mandukya Taittiriya Aitareya Chandogya Brihadaranyaka Brahma Kaivalya Jabala Shvetashvatara Hamsa Aruneya Garbha Narayana Paramahamsa Amritabindu Amritanada Atharvashiras Atharvashikha Maitrayaniya Kaushitaki Brihajjabala Nrisimha Tapaniya Kalagni Rudra Maitreya Subala Kshurika Mantrika Sarvasara Niralamba Shukarahasya Vajrasuchi Tejobindu Nadabindu Dhyanabindu Brahmavidya Yogatattva Atmabodha Naradaparivrajaka Trishikhi-brahmana Sita Yogachudamani Nirvana Mandala-brahmana Dakshinamurti Sharabha Skanda Mahanarayana Advayataraka Rama
Rama
Rahasya Ramatapaniya Vasudeva Mudgala Shandilya Paingala Bhikshuka Maha Sariraka Yogashikha Turiyatita Sannyasa Paramahamsaparivrajaka Akshamalika Avyakta Ekakshara Annapurna Surya Akshi Adhyatma Kundika Savitri Atma Pashupatabrahma Parabrahma Avadhuta Tripuratapini Devi Tripura Kathashruti Bhavana Rudrahridaya Yoga-Kundalini Bhasma Rudraksha Ganapati Darshana Tarasara Mahavakya Pancabrahma Pranagnihotra Gopala-Tapani Krishna Yajnavalkya Varaha Shatyayaniya Hayagriva Dattatreya Garuda Kali-Santarana Jabali Saubhagyalakshmi Sarasvati-rahasya Bahvricha Muktikā

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