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Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the months of March or May. It complements similar celebrations honoring family members, such as Father's Day, Siblings Day, and Grandparents Day. In the United States, celebration of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
began in the early 20th century. It is not related to the many celebrations of mothers and motherhood that have occurred throughout the world over thousands of years, such as the Greek cult to Cybele, the Roman festival of Hilaria, or the Christian Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
celebration (originally a commemoration of Mother
Mother
Church, not motherhood).[1][2][3][4] However, in some countries, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
has become synonymous with these older traditions.[5] The modern American-derived version of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
has been criticized for having become too commercialized, especially by founder Anna Jarvis.[6][7]

Contents

1 Establishment of holiday 2 Spelling 3 Dates around the world 4 International history and tradition

4.1 Religion 4.2 By country (A–G)

4.2.1 Albania 4.2.2 Arab world 4.2.3 Argentina 4.2.4 Armenia 4.2.5 Australia 4.2.6 Belarus 4.2.7 Bhutan 4.2.8 Belgium 4.2.9 Bolivia 4.2.10 Brazil 4.2.11 Canada 4.2.12 China 4.2.13 Czech Republic 4.2.14 Egypt 4.2.15 Ethiopia 4.2.16 Estonia 4.2.17 Finland 4.2.18 France 4.2.19 Georgia 4.2.20 Germany

4.3 By country (H–M)

4.3.1 Hungary 4.3.2 India 4.3.3 Indonesia 4.3.4 Iran 4.3.5 Israel 4.3.6 Italy 4.3.7 Japan 4.3.8 Kyrgyzstan 4.3.9 Latvia 4.3.10 Lithuania 4.3.11 Malawi 4.3.12 Maldives 4.3.13 Malta 4.3.14 Mexico

4.4 By country (N–S)

4.4.1 Nepal 4.4.2 Netherlands 4.4.3 New Zealand 4.4.4 Nicaragua 4.4.5 North Korea 4.4.6 Norway 4.4.7 Pakistan 4.4.8 Panama 4.4.9 Paraguay 4.4.10 Philippines 4.4.11 Portugal 4.4.12 Romania 4.4.13 Russia 4.4.14 Samoa 4.4.15 Singapore 4.4.16 Slovakia 4.4.17 South Africa 4.4.18 South Sudan 4.4.19 Spain 4.4.20 Sri Lanka 4.4.21 Sweden 4.4.22 Switzerland

4.5 By country (T–Z)

4.5.1 Taiwan 4.5.2 Thailand 4.5.3 Ukraine 4.5.4 United Kingdom 4.5.5 United States

5 See also 6 Notes

6.1 Footnotes 6.2 Citations

7 References 8 External links

Establishment of holiday[edit] Main article: Mother's Day (United States)
Mother's Day (United States)
§ History The modern holiday of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was first celebrated in 1908, when Anna Jarvis
Anna Jarvis
held a memorial for her mother at St Andrew's Methodist Church in Grafton, West Virginia. St Andrew's Methodist Church now holds the International Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Shrine.[8] Her campaign to make "Mother's Day" a recognized holiday in the United States
United States
began in 1905, the year her mother, Ann Reeves Jarvis, died. Ann Jarvis had been a peace activist who cared for wounded soldiers on both sides of the American Civil War, and created Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Work Clubs to address public health issues. Anna Jarvis
Anna Jarvis
wanted to honor her mother by continuing the work she started and to set aside a day to honor all mothers because she believed that they were "the person who has done more for you than anyone in the world".[9] In 1908, the US Congress
US Congress
rejected a proposal to make Mother's Day
Mother's Day
an official holiday, joking that they would also have to proclaim a "Mother-in-law's Day".[10] However, owing to the efforts of Anna Jarvis, by 1911 all US states observed the holiday,[11] with some of them officially recognizing Mother's Day
Mother's Day
as a local holiday,[12] the first being West Virginia, Jarvis' home state, in 1910. In 1914, Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
signed a proclamation designating Mother's Day, held on the second Sunday in May, as a national holiday to honor mothers.[13] Although Jarvis was successful in founding Mother's Day, she became resentful of the commercialization of the holiday. By the early 1920s, Hallmark Cards
Hallmark Cards
and other companies had started selling Mother's Day cards. Jarvis believed that the companies had misinterpreted and exploited the idea of Mother's Day, and that the emphasis of the holiday was on sentiment, not profit. As a result, she organized boycotts of Mother's Day, and threatened to issue lawsuits against the companies involved.[14] Jarvis argued that people should appreciate and honor their mothers through handwritten letters expressing their love and gratitude, instead of buying gifts and pre-made cards.[13] Jarvis protested at a candy makers' convention in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1923, and at a meeting of American War Mothers
American War Mothers
in 1925. By this time, carnations had become associated with Mother's Day, and the selling of carnations by the American War Mothers
American War Mothers
to raise money angered Jarvis, who was arrested for disturbing the peace.[13][14] Spelling[edit] In 1912 Anna Jarvis
Anna Jarvis
trademarked the phrases "Second Sunday in May" and "Mother's Day", and created the Mother's Day
Mother's Day
International Association.[15] She specifically noted that "Mother's" should "be a singular possessive, for each family to honor its own mother, not a plural possessive commemorating all mothers in the world."[16] This is also the spelling used by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
in his 1914 presidential proclamation, by the U.S. Congress in relevant bills,[17][18] and by various U.S. presidents in their proclamations concerning Mother's Day.[19] Dates around the world[edit] While the United States
United States
holiday was adopted by some other countries, existing celebrations, held on different dates, honouring motherhood have become described as "Mother's Day", such as Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
in the United Kingdom[5] or, in Greece, the Eastern Orthodox celebration of the presentation of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
to the temple (2 February of Julian Calendar). Both the secular and religious Mother
Mother
Day are present in Greece.[citation needed] Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
is often referred to as "Mother's Day" even though it is an unrelated celebration.[5] In some countries, the date adopted is one significant to the majority religion, such as Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
Day in Catholic countries. Other countries selected a date with historical significance. For example, Bolivia's Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is the date of a battle in which women participated.[20] See the "International history and tradition" section for the complete list. Some ex-communist countries, such as Russia, celebrated International Women's Day instead of Mother's Day[21] or simply celebrate both holidays, which is the custom in Ukraine. Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
has recently introduced Mother's Day, but "year on year [International Women's Day] is certainly increasing in status".[22]

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Gregorian calendar

Occurrence Dates Country

Second Sunday of February

Feb 12, 2017 Feb 11, 2018 Feb 10, 2019

 Norway

3 March

 Georgia[23]

8 March (with International Women's Day)

 Afghanistan  Albania  Armenia  Azerbaijan  Belarus  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Bulgaria  Burundi  Burkina Faso  Kazakhstan  Kosovo  Laos  Macedonia  Moldova  Montenegro  Romania  Russia  Serbia  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  Vietnam[24]

Fourth Sunday in Lent
Lent
(Mothering Sunday)

26 Mar 2017 11 Mar 2018 31 Mar 2019

 Guernsey  Ireland  Isle of Man  Jersey  Nigeria  United Kingdom[25]

21 March (Spring equinox)

 Bahrain[26]  Comoros  Djibouti  Egypt[26]  Iraq  Jordan[26]  Kuwait[26]  Libya[26]  Lebanon[27][28]  Mauritania  Oman[26]  Palestine[26][28]  Qatar[26]  Saudi Arabia[citation needed]  Somalia  Sudan[26]  Syria[26]  United Arab Emirates[26]  Yemen

25 March

 Slovenia

7 April ( Annunciation
Annunciation
day)

  Armenia
Armenia
(Motherhood and Beauty Day)

First Sunday of May

May 7, 2017 May 6, 2018 May 5, 2019

 Angola  Cape Verde  Hungary  Lithuania  Mozambique  Portugal  Spain

8 May

  South Korea
South Korea
(Parents' Day)

10 May

 El Salvador  Guatemala  Mexico

Second Sunday of May

May 14, 2017 May 13, 2018 May 12, 2019 May 10, 2020

 Anguilla  Antigua and Barbuda  Aruba  Australia  Austria  Bahamas  Bangladesh  Barbados  Belgium  Belize  Bermuda  Bhutan  Bonaire  Botswana  Brazil  Brunei  Canada  Cambodia  Cayman Islands  Central African Republic  Chad  Chile[29]  China[30]  Colombia  Congo, Dem. Rep.  Congo, Rep.  Cote d'Ivoire  Croatia  Cuba[31]  Curaçao  Cyprus  Czech Republic[32]  Denmark  Dominica  Ecuador  Equatorial Guinea  Estonia  Ethiopia  Faroe Islands  Fiji  Finland  Germany  Gabon  Gambia  Greenland  Ghana  Greece  Grenada  Guyana  Honduras  Hong Kong  Iceland  India  Italy  Jamaica  Japan  Kenya  Latvia  Liberia  Liechtenstein  Macau  Malaysia  Malta  Myanmar  Namibia  Netherlands  New Zealand  Pakistan  Papua New Guinea  Peru[33]  Philippines  Puerto Rico  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Samoa  Singapore  Sint Maarten  Slovakia[32]  South Africa[34]  Sri Lanka  Suriname   Switzerland  Taiwan  Tanzania  Tonga  Trinidad and Tobago  Turkey  Uganda  Ukraine  United States  Uruguay  Vietnam[24]  Venezuela  Zambia  Zimbabwe

14 May

 Benin

15 May

  Paraguay
Paraguay
(same day as Día de la Patria)[35]

19 May

  Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(Russian: День матери, Kyrgyz: Энэ күнү)

22 May

  Israel
Israel
(new)[36]

26 May

  Poland
Poland
(Polish: Dzień Matki)

27 May

 Bolivia[20]

Last Sunday of May (sometimes First Sunday of June if the last Sunday of May is Pentecost)

May 28, 2017 May 27, 2018 May 26, 2019

 Algeria  Cameroon  Dominican Republic  France[25] (First Sunday of June if Pentecost
Pentecost
occurs on this day)

French Antilles
French Antilles
(First Sunday of June if Pentecost
Pentecost
occurs on this day)

 Madagascar  Mali  Morocco  Niger  Haiti[37]  Mauritius  Senegal  Sweden  Tunisia

30 May

 Nicaragua[38]

1 June

  Mongolia
Mongolia
(together with Children's Day)

Second Sunday of June

Jun 11, 2017 Jun 10, 2018 Jun 9, 2019

 Luxembourg

First Monday of July

Jul 3, 2017 Jul 2, 2018 Jul 1, 2019

 South Sudan

12 August

  Thailand
Thailand
(birthday of Queen Sirikit)

15 August (Assumption of Mary)

 Costa Rica   Antwerp
Antwerp
(Belgium)

14 October

  Belarus
Belarus
(since 1996[39])

15 October

  Malawi
Malawi
(Observed on 15 October or following work day)

Third Sunday of October

Oct 15, 2017 Oct 21, 2018 Oct 20, 2019

  Argentina
Argentina
(Día de la Madre)[40]

3 November

 Timor Leste

16 November

 North Korea[41]

Last Sunday of November

 Russia

8 December (Feast of the Immaculate Conception)

 Panama[42]

22 December

 Indonesia[43]

Hebrew calendars

Occurrence Equivalent Gregorian dates Country

Shevat
Shevat
30

Between 30 January and 1 March- Family
Family
Day

 Israel[36]

Hindu
Hindu
calendars

Occurrence Equivalent Gregorian dates Country

Baisakh[44] Amavasya
Amavasya
( Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
Aunsi[45])

Between 19 April and 19 May 6 May 2016 [44] 26 April 2017

   Nepal

Persian calendars

Occurrence Equivalent Gregorian dates Country

21 Ordibehesht[n 1]

20 April 2014 10 April 2015 30 March 2016

 Iran[46]

International history and tradition[edit]

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Play media

Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1925

Northern Pacific Railway
Northern Pacific Railway
postcard for Mother's Day
Mother's Day
1916.

Mother's Day
Mother's Day
gift in 2007

Mother
Mother
and daughter and Mother's Day
Mother's Day
card

In most countries, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is an observance derived from the holiday as it has evolved in the United States, promoted by companies who saw benefit in making it popular.[6] As adopted by other countries and cultures, the holiday has different meanings, is associated with different events (religious, historical or legendary), and is celebrated on different dates. In some cases, countries already had existing celebrations honoring motherhood, and their celebrations then adopted several external characteristics from the US holiday, such as giving carnations and other presents to one's mother. The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture.[citation needed] Religion[edit] In the Roman Catholic Church, the holiday is strongly associated with revering the Virgin Mary.[47] In some Catholic homes, families have a special shrine devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. In many Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, a special prayer service is held in honor of the Theotokos
Theotokos
Virgin Mary.[48][citation needed] In Islam
Islam
there is no concept of Mother's Day, but mothers hold a very high position[49] in religious matters. According to some Islamic traditions, Heaven
Heaven
is said to be found under a mother's feet, meaning that one can attain admission into heaven after death if they are a caring and loving child to their mothers.[citation needed] In Hindu
Hindu
tradition, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is called " Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
Aunshi" or " Mother
Mother
Pilgrimage fortnight", and is celebrated in countries with a Hindu
Hindu
population, especially in Nepal. The holiday is observed on the new moon day in the month of Baisakh, i.e., April/May. This celebration is based on Hindu
Hindu
religion and it pre-dates the creation of the US-inspired celebration by at least a few centuries.[citation needed] In Buddhism, the festival of Ullambana is derived from the story of Maudgalyayana and his mother.[50] By country (A–G)[edit] Albania[edit] Mother's day is celebrated in 8 March . The origin of the 8th of March holiday dates back to 1908 and is associated with a tragic event. A group of workers at a textile factory in New York strikes against extreme working conditions. On 8 March, the factory was shut down and the workers remained trapped inside. Suddenly a fire broke out, where 129 mothers died. Arab world[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in most Arab countries is celebrated on 21 March. It was introduced in Egypt
Egypt
by journalist Mustafa Amin[51] and was first celebrated in 1956.[52] The practice has since been copied by other Arab countries.[citation needed] Argentina[edit] In Argentina, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the third Sunday of October. The holiday was originally celebrated on 11 October, the old liturgical date for the celebration of the Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
but after the Second Vatican Council, which moved the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
festivity to 1 January, the Mother's Day
Mother's Day
started to be celebrated the third Sunday of October because of popular tradition.[40] Argentina
Argentina
is the only country in the world that celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on this date.[citation needed] Armenia[edit] In Armenia, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 8 March, and on 7 April as Maternity and Beauty Day. Australia[edit] In Australia, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. The tradition of giving gifts to mothers on Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Australia was started by Janet Heyden,[53] a resident of Leichhardt, Sydney, in 1924. She began the tradition during a visit to a patient at the Newington State Home for Women, where she met many lonely and forgotten mothers. To cheer them up, she rounded up support from local school children and businesses to donate and bring gifts to the women. Every year thereafter, Mrs Heyden raised increasing support for the project from local businesses and even the local Mayor. The day has since become commercialised. Belarus[edit] Belarus
Belarus
celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on 14 October. Like other ex-Communist republics, Belarus
Belarus
used to celebrate only the International Women Day on 8 March. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Belarus
Belarus
was officially established by the Belarus
Belarus
government, and it was celebrated for the first time in 1996.[39] The celebration of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
(the holiday of Protection of the Holy Mother
Mother
of God) is celebrated in the same day.[54] Bhutan[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Bhutan
Bhutan
is celebrated on 8 May. It was introduced in Bhutan
Bhutan
by the Tourism Council of Bhutan.[55] Belgium[edit] In Belgium, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(Moederdag or Moederkesdag in Dutch and Fête des Mères in French) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. In the week before this holiday children make little presents at primary school, which they give to their mothers in the early morning of Mother's Day. Typically, the father will buy croissants and other sweet breads and pastries and bring these to the mother while she is still in bed – the beginning of a day of pampering for the mother. There are also many people who celebrate Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on 15 August instead; these are mostly people around Antwerp, who consider that day (Assumption) the classical Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and the observance in May an invention for commercial reasons. It was originally established on that day as the result of a campaign by Frans Van Kuyck, a painter and Alderman from Antwerp.[citation needed] Bolivia[edit] In Bolivia, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 27 May. El Día de la Madre Boliviana was passed into law on 8 November 1927, during the presidency of Hernando Siles Reyes. The date commemorates the Battle of La Coronilla, which took place on 27 May 1812, during the Bolivian War of Independence, in what is now the city of Cochabamba. In this battle, women fighting for the country's independence were slaughtered by the Spanish army. It is not a public holiday, but all schools hold activities and festivities throughout the day.[20] Brazil[edit] In Brazil, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. The first Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Brazil
Brazil
was promoted by Associação Cristã de Moços de Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre
( Young Men's Christian Association
Young Men's Christian Association
of Porto Alegre) on 12 May 1918. In 1932, then President Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
made the second Sunday of May the official date for Mother's Day. In 1947, Archbishop Jaime de Barros Câmara, Cardinal-Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro, decided that this holiday would also be included in the official calendar of the Catholic Church.[citation needed] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is not an official holiday (see Public holidays in Brazil), but it is widely observed and typically involves spending time with and giving gifts to one's mother. Because of this, it is considered one of the celebrations most related to consumerism in the country, second only to Christmas Day
Christmas Day
as the most commercially lucrative holiday.[56] Canada[edit]

See also Other observances in Canada

Mother's Day
Mother's Day
cookie cake

Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Canada
Canada
is celebrated on the second Sunday in May (it is not a public holiday or bank holiday), and typically involves small celebrations and gift-giving to one's mother, grandmother, or other important female figures in one's family.[citation needed] Celebratory practices are very similar to those of other western nations. A Québécois tradition is for Québécois men to offer roses or other flowers to the women.[citation needed] China[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is becoming more popular in China. Carnations
Carnations
are a very popular Mother's Day
Mother's Day
gift and the most sold flowers in relation to the day.[57] In 1997 Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was set as the day to help poor mothers and to remind people of the poor mothers in rural areas such as China's western region.[57] In the People's Daily, the Chinese government's official newspaper, an article explained that "despite originating in the United States, people in China
China
accept the holiday without hesitation because it is in line with the country's traditional ethics – respect for the elderly and filial piety towards parents."[57] In recent years, the Communist Party member Li Hanqiu began to advocate for the official adoption of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in memory of Meng Mu, the mother of Mèng Zǐ. He formed a non-governmental organization called Chinese Mothers' Festival Promotion Society, with the support of 100 Confucian scholars and lecturers of ethics.[58][59] Li and the Society want to replace the Western-style gift of carnations with lilies, which, in ancient times, were planted by Chinese mothers when children left home.[59] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
remains an unofficial festival, except in a small number of cities.[citation needed] Czech Republic[edit] In the Czech Republic, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated every second Sunday in May. It started in former Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1923.[32] The promoter of this celebration was Alice Masaryková.[32] After World War II communists replaced Mother's Day
Mother's Day
with International Woman's Day, celebrated on 8 March.[32] The former Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
celebrated Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
in 1989.[32] After the split of the country in 1993, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
started celebrating Mother's Day
Mother's Day
again.[32] Egypt[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Egypt
Egypt
is celebrated on 21 March, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. It was introduced in Egypt
Egypt
by journalist Mustafa Amin[51] in his book Smiling America (1943). The idea was overlooked at the time. Later Amin heard the story of a widowed mother who devoted her whole life to raising her son until he became a doctor. The son then married and left without showing any gratitude to his mother. Hearing this, Amin became motivated to promote "Mother's Day". The idea was first ridiculed by president Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
but he eventually accepted it and Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was first celebrated on 21 March 1956. The practice has since been copied by other Arab countries.[citation needed] When Mustafa Amin was arrested and imprisoned, there were attempts to change the name of the holiday from "Mother's Day" to " Family
Family
Day" as the government wished to prevent the occasion from reminding people of its founder. These attempts were unsuccessful and celebrations continued to be held on that day; classic songs celebrating mothers remain famous to this day.[citation needed] Ethiopia[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated for three days in Ethiopia, after the end of rainy season. It comes in mid-fall where people enjoy a three-day feast called "Antrosht".[60] For the feast, ingredients will be brought by the children for a traditional hash recipe. The ingredients are divided along genders, with girls bringing spices, vegetables, cheese and butter, while the boys bring a lamb or bull. The mother hands out to the family the hash.[61] A celebration takes place after the meal. The mothers and daughters anoint themselves using butter on their faces and chests. While honoring their family and heroes, men sing songs.[62] Estonia[edit] In Estonia, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(emadepäev in Estonian) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is recognized nationally, but is not a public holiday.[63] Finland[edit] In Finland, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(äitienpäivä in Finnish) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is recognized nationally, and is a public holiday. It is usually celebrated at homes where children or grandchildren bring Mother´s day cards that they have drawn to their mothers and grandmothers. Usually some food, coffee and cakes are served for guests. Grown up children visit their parents homes and bring traditionally Mother´s day roses or other flowers accompanied with a Mother´s day card. The president of Finland
Finland
honors with medals every year some mothers who have done something exceptional and positive during the year. [64] France[edit] In France, amidst alarm at the low birth rate, there were attempts in 1896 and 1904 to create a national celebration honoring the mothers of large families.[65] In 1906 ten mothers who had nine children each were given an award recognising "High Maternal Merit" ("Haut mérite maternel").[66] American World War I soldiers fighting in France popularized the US Mother's Day
Mother's Day
holiday created by Anna Jarvis. They sent so much mail back to their country for Mother's Day
Mother's Day
that the Union Franco-Américaine created a postal card for that purpose.[65] In 1918, also inspired by Jarvis, the town of Lyon wanted to celebrate a "journée des Mères", but instead decided to celebrate a "Journée Nationale des Mères de familles nombreuses." The holiday was more inspired by anti-depopulation efforts than by the US holiday, with medals awarded to the mothers of large families.[65] The French government made the day official in 1920 as a day for mothers of large families.[67] Since then the French government awards the Médaille de la Famille française to mothers of large families.[citation needed] In 1941, by initiative of Philippe Pétain, the wartime Vichy government used the celebration in support of their policy to encourage larger families, but all mothers were now honored, even mothers with smaller families.[67] In 1950, after the war, the celebration was reinstated. The law of 24 May 1950 required (in Article 1) that the Republic pay official homage to French Mothers. Article 2 stated it should be celebrated on the last Sunday in May as the "Fête des Mères" (except when Pentecost fell on that day, in which case it was moved to the first Sunday in June). Article 3 stated that all expenditure shall be covered from the budget of the Ministry of Public Health and Population.[68] During the 1950s, the celebration lost all its patriotic and natalist ideologies, and became heavily commercialized.[65] In 1956, the celebration was given a budget and integrated into the new Code de l'action Sociale et des familles. In 2004 responsibility for the holiday was transferred to the Minister responsible for families.[citation needed] Georgia[edit] Georgia celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on 3 March. It was declared by the first President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
Zviad Gamsakhurdia
in order to replace the International Women Day, and it was officially approved by the Supreme Council in 1991. Nowadays Georgia celebrates both Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on 3 March and International Women's Day
International Women's Day
on 8 March.[23] Germany[edit]

Mother's Day
Mother's Day
cake in Germany

In the 1920s, Germany
Germany
had the lowest birthrate in Europe, and the declining trend was continuing. This was attributed to women's participation in the labor market. At the same time, influential groups in society (politicians of left and right, churchwomen, and feminists) believed that mothers should be honored but could not agree on how to do so. However, all groups strongly agreed on the promotion of the values of motherhood. In 1923, this resulted in the unanimous adoption of Muttertag, the Mother's Day
Mother's Day
holiday as imported from America[citation needed] and Norway. The head of the Association of German Florists cited "the inner conflict of our Volk and the loosening of the family" as his reason for introducing the holiday. He expected that the holiday would unite the divided country. In 1925, the Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Committee joined the task force for the recovery of the volk, and the holiday stopped depending on commercial interests and began emphasizing the need to increase the population in Germany by promoting motherhood.[69] The holiday was then seen as a means to encourage women to bear more children, which nationalists saw as a way to rejuvenate the nation. The holiday did not celebrate individual women, but an idealized standard of motherhood. The progressive forces resisted the implementation of the holiday because it was backed by so many conservatives, and because they saw it as a way to eliminate the rights of working women. Die Frau, the newspaper of the Federation of German Women's Associations, refused to recognize the holiday. Many local authorities adopted their own interpretation of the holiday: it would be a day to support economically larger families or single-mother families. The guidelines for the subsidies had eugenics criteria, but there is no indication that social workers ever implemented them in practice, and subsidies were given preferentially to families in economic need rather than to families with more children or "healthier" children.[69] With the Nazi party in power during 1933–1945, the situation changed radically. The promotion of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
increased in many European countries, including the UK and France. From the position of the German Nazi government, the role of mothers was to give healthy children to the German nation. The Nazi party's intention was to create a pure "Aryan race" according to nazi eugenics. Among other Mother's Day
Mother's Day
ideas, the government promoted the death of a mother's sons in battle as the highest embodiment of patriotic motherhood.[69][70] The Nazis quickly declared Mother's Day
Mother's Day
an official holiday and put it under the control of the NSV (National Socialist People's Welfare Association) and the NSF (National Socialist Women Organization). This created conflicts with other organizations that resented Nazi control of the holiday, including Catholic and Protestant churches and local women's organizations. Local authorities resisted the guidelines from the Nazi government and continued assigning resources to families who were in economic need, much to the dismay of the Nazi officials.[69]

Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in UNRRA camp Germany
Germany
in 1946

In 1938, the government began issuing an award called Mother's Cross (Mutterkreuz), according to categories that depended on the number of children a mother had. The medal was awarded on Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and also on other holidays due to the large number of recipients. The Cross was an effort to encourage women to have more children, and recipients were required to have at least four.[69][70] By country (H–M)[edit] Hungary[edit] In Hungary, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the first Sunday of May. It was first celebrated in 1925 by the Hungarian Red Cross Youth.[citation needed] India[edit] The modern Mother's Day
Mother's Day
has been assimilated into Indian culture,[71] and it is celebrated every year on the second Sunday of May.[72] Indians do not celebrate the occasion as a religious event, and it is celebrated primarily in urban centers. Indonesia[edit] Indonesian Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(Indonesian: Hari Ibu) is celebrated nationally on 22 December. The date was made an official holiday by President Soekarno
Soekarno
under Presidential Decree (Indonesian: Dekrit Presiden) no. 316 in 1953, on the 25th anniversary of the 1928 Indonesian Women Congress. The day originally sought to celebrate the spirit of Indonesian women and to improve the condition of the nation. Today, the meaning of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
has changed, and it is celebrated by expressing love and gratitude to mothers. People present gifts to mothers (such as flowers) and hold surprise parties and competitions, which include cooking and kebaya wearing. People also allow mothers a day off from domestic chores.[73] The holiday is celebrated on the anniversary of the opening day of the first Indonesian Women Congress (Indonesian: Kongres Perempuan Indonesia), which was held from 22 to 25 December 1928.[43][74] The Congress took place in a building called Dalem Jayadipuran, which now serves as the office of the Center of History and Traditional Values Preservation (Indonesian: Balai Pelestarian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional) in Brigjen Katamso Street, Yogyakarta. The Congress was attended by 30 feminist organizations from 12 cities in Java
Java
and Sumatra. In Indonesia, feminist organizations have existed since 1912, inspired by Indonesian heroines of the 19th century, e.g., Kartini, Martha Christina Tiahahu, Cut Nyak Meutia, Maria Walanda Maramis, Dewi Sartika, Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, Rasuna Said, etc.[43] The Congress intended to improve women's rights in education and marriage.[75] Indonesia
Indonesia
also celebrates the Kartini
Kartini
Day (Indonesian: Hari Kartini) on 21 April, in memory of activist Raden Ajeng Kartini. This is a celebration of the emancipation of women.[74] The observance was instituted at the 1938 Indonesian Women Congress.[75] During President Suharto's New Order (1965–1998), government propaganda used Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Kartini
Kartini
Day to inculcate into women the idea that they should be docile and stay at home.[75] Iran[edit]

A woman writes the name of Fatimah
Fatimah
during a ceremony for Mother's Day in Milad Tower

In Iran, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 20 Jumada al-thani. This is the sixth month in the Islamic calendar (a lunar calendar) and every year the holiday falls on a different day of the Gregorian calendar. This is the birthday anniversary of Fatimah, Prophet Muhammad's only daughter according to Shia Islam.[46][76] On this day, banners reading "Ya Fatemeah (O! Fatemeh)" is displayed on "government buildings, private buildings, public streets and car windows."[46] Mother's Day was originally observed on 16 December but the date was changed after the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
in 1979. The celebration is both Women's Day (replacing International Women's Day) and Mother's Day.[46][77] In 1960, the Institute for Women Protection adopted the Western holiday and established it on 25 Azar (16 December), the date the Institute was founded. The Institute's action had the support of Queen Farah Pahlavi, the wife of the last Shah of Persia, who promoted the construction of maternity clinics in remote parts of the country to commemorate the day.[78] Pahlavi regime
Pahlavi regime
used the holiday to promote "gender ideologies" of the regime.[46] The Shah's government honored and gave awards to women who represented the idealized view of the regime, including mothers who had many healthy children.[78] According to Shahla Haeri, the Islamic Republic government has used the holiday to "control and channel women's movements" and to promote role models for the traditional concept of family.[79] Fatimah
Fatimah
is seen by these critics as the chosen model of a woman completely dedicated to certain traditionally sanctioned feminine roles.[80] However, supporters of the choice contend that there is much more to her life story than simply such "traditional" roles.[81] Israel[edit] The Jewish population of Israel
Israel
used to celebrate Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on Shevat
Shevat
30 of the Jewish calendar, which falls between 30 January and 1 March. The celebration was set as the same date that Henrietta Szold died (13 February 1945). Henrietta had no biological children, but her organization Youth Aliyah
Youth Aliyah
rescued many Jewish children from Nazi Germany
Germany
and provided for them. She also championed children's rights. Szold is considered the "mother" of all those children, and that is why her annual remembrance day (יום השנה) was set as Mother's Day (יוֹם הָאֵם, yom ha'em). The holiday has evolved over time, becoming a celebration of mutual love inside the family, called Family Day (יוֹם הַמִשְּפָּחָה, yom hamishpacha). This holiday is mainly celebrated in preschools with an activity to which parents are invited. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is mainly celebrated by children at kindergartens. There are no longer mutual gifts among members of the family, and there is no longer any commercialization of the celebration. It is not an official holiday.[36] Italy[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Italy
Italy
was celebrated for the first time on 24 December 1933 as the "Day of the mother and the child" (Giornata della madre e del fanciullo). It was instituted by the Opera nazionale maternità e infanzia in order to publicly reward the most prolific Italian women every year.[82] After World War II, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was first celebrated on 12 May 1957 in Assisi, at the initiative of Reverend Otello Migliosi, the parish priest of the Tordibetto
Tordibetto
church.[83] This celebration was so popular that in the following year Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was adopted throughout Italy. On 18 December 1958, a proposal was presented to the Italian Senate to make the holiday official.[84] Japan[edit] In Japan, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(母の日, Haha no Hi) was initially commemorated during the Shōwa period
Shōwa period
as the birthday of Empress Kōjun (mother of Emperor Akihito) on 6 March. This was established in 1931 when the Imperial Women's Union was organized. In 1937, the first meeting of "Praise Mothers" was held on 8 May, and in 1949 Japanese society adopted the second Sunday of May as the official date for Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Japan. Today, people typically give their mothers gifts of flowers such as red carnations and roses.[citation needed] Japan
Japan
is most known for giving carnations on Mother's Day. Kyrgyzstan[edit] In Kyrgyzstan, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 19 May every year. The holiday was first celebrated in 2012.[85] Mothers are also honored on International Women's Day[86] This article is about a holiday celebrating mothers and motherhood. For other uses, see Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(other). Latvia[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Latvia
Latvia
was celebrated for the first time in 1922. Since 1934, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of May.[87] After the end of the soviet occupation of Baltic states celebration was resumed in 1992.[88] Mothers are also honored on International Women's Day.[citation needed] Lithuania[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Lithuania
Lithuania
was celebrated for the first time in 1928. In Lithuania, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the first Sunday of May. Malawi[edit] In Malawi. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is a public holiday. The day is observed on 15 October or the following workday. It is celebrated on the UN's World Rural Women’s Day. Maldives[edit] In the Maldives, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 13 May. The day is celebrated in different ways. Children give gifts and spend time with their mothers. Daughters give their mothers cards and handmade gifts and sons give their mothers gifts and flowers. Maldivians love to celebrate Mother's day, and they have it specially written on their calendar.[citation needed] Malta[edit] The first mention of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Malta
Malta
occurred during the Radio Children's Programmes run by Frans H. Said in May 1961. Within a few years, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
became one of the most popular dates in the Maltese calendar. In Malta, this day is commemorated on the second Sunday in May. Mothers are invariably given gifts and invited for lunch, usually at a good quality restaurant.[citation needed] Mexico[edit] See also: Public holidays in Mexico
Mexico
§ Festivities In Mexico, the government of Álvaro Obregón
Álvaro Obregón
imported the Mother's Day holiday from the US in 1922, and the newspaper Excélsior held a massive promotional campaign for the holiday that year.[89] The conservative government tried to use the holiday to promote a more conservative role for mothers in families, but that perspective was criticized by the socialists as promoting an unrealistic image of a woman who was not good for much more than breeding.[89] In the mid-1930s, the leftist government of Lázaro Cárdenas
Lázaro Cárdenas
promoted the holiday as a "patriotic festival". The Cárdenas government tried to use the holiday as a vehicle for various efforts: to stress the importance of families as the basis for national development; to benefit from the loyalty that Mexicans felt towards their mothers; to introduce new morals to Mexican women; and to reduce the influence that the church and the Catholic right exerted over women.[90] The government sponsored the holiday in the schools.[90] However, ignoring the strict guidelines from the government, theatre plays were filled with religious icons and themes. Consequently, the "national celebrations" became "religious fiestas" despite the efforts of the government.[90] Soledad Orozco García, the wife of President Manuel Ávila Camacho, promoted the holiday during the 1940s, resulting in an important state-sponsored celebration.[91] The 1942 celebration lasted a full week and included an announcement that all women could reclaim their pawned sewing machines from the Monte de Piedad at no cost.[91] Due to Orozco's promotion, the Catholic National Synarchist Union (UNS) took heed of the holiday around 1941.[92] Shop-owner members of the Party of the Mexican Revolution (now the Institutional Revolutionary Party) observed a custom allowing women from humble classes to pick a free Mother's Day
Mother's Day
gift from a shop to bring home to their families. The Synarchists worried that this promoted both materialism and the idleness of lower classes, and in turn, reinforced the systemic social problems of the country.[93] Currently this holiday practice is viewed as very conservative, but the 1940s' UNS saw Mother's Day
Mother's Day
as part of the larger debate on the modernization that was happening at the time.[94] This economic modernization was inspired by US models and was sponsored by the state. The fact that the holiday was originally imported from the US was seen as evidence of an attempt at imposing capitalism and materialism in Mexican society.[94] The UNS and the clergy of the city of León interpreted the government's actions as an effort to secularize the holiday and to promote a more active role for women in society. They concluded that the government's long-term goal was to cause women to abandon their traditional roles at home in order to spiritually weaken men.[94] They also saw the holiday as an attempt to secularize the cult to the Virgin Mary, inside a larger effort to dechristianize several holidays. The government sought to counter these claims by organizing widespread masses and asking religious women to assist with the state-sponsored events in order to "depaganize" them.[95] The clergy preferred to promote 2 July celebration of the Santísima Virgen de la Luz, the patron of León, Guanajuato, in replacement of Mother's Day.[92] In 1942, at the same time as Soledad's greatest celebration of Mother's Day, the clergy organized the 210th celebration of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
with a large parade in León.[95] There is a consensus among scholars that the Mexican government abandoned its revolutionary initiatives during the 1940s, including its efforts to influence Mother's Day.[92] Today the "Día de las Madres" is an unofficial holiday in Mexico
Mexico
held each year on 10 May,[96] the day on which it was first celebrated in Mexico.[97] In Mexico, to show affection and appreciation to the mother, it is traditional to start the celebration with the famous song "Las Mañanitas", either a cappella, with the help of a mariachi or a contracted trio. Many families usually gather to celebrate this special day trying to spend as much time as possible with mothers to honor them on their day. They are organized to bring some dishes and eat all together or maybe to visit any restaurant.[citation needed] By country (N–S)[edit] Nepal[edit] In Nepal, there is a festival equivalent to Mother's Day, called Mata Tirtha Aunsi (" Mother
Mother
Pilgrimage New Moon"), or Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
Puja (" Mother
Mother
Pilgrimage Worship"). It is celebrated according to the lunar calendar. It falls on the last day of the dark fortnight in the month of Baishakh which falls in April–May (in 2015, it will occur on 18 April). The dark fortnight lasts for 15 days from the full moon to the new moon. This festival is observed to commemorate and honor mothers, and it is celebrated by giving gifts to mothers and remembering mothers who are no more.[citation needed] To honor mothers who have died, it is the tradition to go on a pilgrimage to the Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
ponds, located 6 km to the southwest of downtown Kathmandu. The nearby Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
village is named after these ponds. Previously, the tradition was observed primarily by the Newar
Newar
community and other people living in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley. Now this festival is widely celebrated across the country.[citation needed] Many tragic folklore legends have been created, suggesting different reasons why this pond became a pilgrimage site. The most popular version says that, in ancient times, the mother of a shepherd died, and he made offerings to a nearby pond. There he saw the face of his mother in the water, with her hand taking the offerings. Since then, many people visited the pond, hoping to see their deceased mother's face. Pilgrims believe that they will bring peace to their mothers' souls by visiting the sacred place. There are two ponds. The larger one is for ritual bathing. The smaller one is used to "look upon mother's face", and is fenced by iron bars to prevent people from bathing in it.[citation needed] Traditionally, in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
valley the South-Western corner is reserved for women and women-related rituals, and the North-Eastern is for men and men-related rituals. The worship place for Mata Tirtha Aunsi is located in Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
in the South-Western half of the valley, while the worship place for Gokarna Aunsi, the equivalent celebration for deceased fathers, is located in Gokarna, Nepal, in the North-Eastern half. This division is reflected in many aspects of the life in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
valley.[98] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is known as Aama ko Mukh Herne Din in Nepali, which literally means "day to see mother's face". In Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa, the festival is known as Mām yā Khwā Swayegu, which can be translated as "to look upon mother's face".[citation needed] Netherlands[edit] In the Netherlands, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was introduced as early as 1910 by the Dutch branch of the Salvation Army.[99] The Royal Dutch Society for Horticulture and Botany, a group protecting the interest of Dutch florists, worked to promote the holiday; they hoped to emulate the commercial success achieved by American florists.[100] They were imitating the campaign already underway by florists in Germany
Germany
and Austria, but they were aware that the traditions had originated in the US.[100] Florists launched a major promotional effort in 1925. This included the publication of a book of articles written by famous intellectuals, radio broadcasts, newspapers ads, and the collaboration of priests and teachers who wanted to promote the celebration for their own reasons.[100] In 1931 the second Sunday of May was adopted as the official celebration date. In the mid-1930s the slogan Moederdag – Bloemendag ( Mother's Day
Mother's Day
– Flowers' Day) was coined, and the phrase was popular for many years.[101] In the 1930s and 1940's "Mother's Day cakes" were given as gifts in hospitals and to the Dutch Queen, who is known as the "mother of the country".[101] Other trade groups tried to cash in on the holiday and to give new meaning to the holiday in order to promote their own wares as gifts.[101] Roman Catholic priests complained that the holiday interfered with the honoring of the Virgin Mary, the divine mother, which took place during the whole month of May. In 1926 Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was celebrated on 7 July in order to address these complaints.[102] Catholic organizations and priests tried to Christianize the holiday, but those attempts were rendered futile around the 1960s when the church lost influence and the holiday was completely secularized.[102] In later years, the initial resistance disappeared, and even leftist newspapers stopped their criticism and endorsed Mother's Day.[103] In the 1980s, the American origin of the holiday was still not widely known, so feminist groups who opposed the perpetuation of gender roles sometimes claimed that Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was invented by Nazis and celebrated on the birthday of Klara Hitler, Hitler's mother.[104] New Zealand[edit] In New Zealand, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is not a public holiday. The New Zealand
New Zealand
tradition is to give cards and gifts and to serve mothers breakfast in bed.[citation needed] Nicaragua[edit] In Nicaragua, the Día de la Madre has been celebrated on 30 May since the early 1940s. The date was chosen by President Anastasio Somoza García because it was the birthday of Casimira Sacasa, his wife's mother.[38] North Korea[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 16 November as a public holiday in North Korea. The date takes its significance from the First National Meeting of Mothers held in 1961, for which Kim Il-sung, the leader of the country, published a work called The Duty of Mothers in the Education of Children. The date was designated as Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in May 2012 by the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly
Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly
but only became a public holiday and appeared on the North Korean calendar
North Korean calendar
starting in 2015.[41] Norway[edit] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was first celebrated on 9 February 1919 and was initially organized by religious institutions. Later it has become a family day, and the mother is often treated to breakfast in bed, flowers and cake.[105][better source needed] It has gradually become a major commercial event, with special pastries, flowers and other presents offered by retailers. Day-cares and primary schools often encourage children to make cards and other gifts.[citation needed] Pakistan[edit] In Pakistan, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. Media channels celebrate with special shows. Individuals honor their mothers by giving gifts and commemorative articles. Individuals who have lost their mothers pray and pay their respects to their loved ones lost. Schools hold special programs in order to acknowledge the efforts of their mothers.[106] Panama[edit] In Panama, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 8 December, the same day as the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. This date was suggested in 1930 by the wife of Panama's President Florencio Harmodio Arosemena. 8 December was adopted as Mother's Day
Mother's Day
under Law 69, which was passed the same year.[42] According to another account, in 1924 the Rotary Club
Rotary Club
of Panama
Panama
asked that Mother's Day
Mother's Day
be celebrated on 11 May. Politician Aníbal D. Ríos changed the proposal so that the celebration would be held on 8 December. He then established Mother's Day
Mother's Day
as a national holiday on that date.[107] Paraguay[edit] In Paraguay, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on 15 May, the same day as the Dia de la Patria, which celebrates the independence of Paraguay.[35] This date was chosen to honor the role played by Juana María de Lara in the events of 14 May 1811 that led to Paraguay's independence.[108] In 2008, the Paraguayan Minister of Culture, Bruno Barrios, lamented this coincidence because, in Paraguay, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is much more popular than independence day and the independence celebration goes unnoticed. As a result, Barrios asked that the celebration be moved to the end of the month.[109] A group of young people attempted to gather 20,000 signatures to ask the Parliament to move Mother's Day.[109] In 2008, the Comisión de festejos (Celebration Committee) of the city of Asunción
Asunción
asked that Mother's Day
Mother's Day
be moved to the second Sunday of May.[110] Philippines[edit] In the Philippines, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is officially celebrated on the second Sunday of May, but it is not a public holiday.[111] Although not a traditional Filipino holiday, the occasion owes its popularity to American Colonial Period influence. According to a 2008 article by the Philippine News Agency, in 1921 the Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Federation of Women's Clubs asked to declare the first Monday of December as Mother's Day
Mother's Day
"to honor these fabulous women who brought forth God's children into this world." In response, Governor-General Charles Yeater
Charles Yeater
issued Circular No. 33 declaring the celebration. In 1937 President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
issued Presidential Proclamation No. 213, changing the name of the occasion from "Mother's Day" to "Parent's Day" to address the complaints that there wasn't a "Father's Day". In 1980 President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
issued Presidential Proclamation No. 2037 proclaiming the date as both Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Father's Day. In 1988 President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
issued Presidential Proclamation No. 266, changing Mother's Day
Mother's Day
to the second Sunday of May, and Father's Day
Father's Day
to the third Sunday of June, discontinuing the traditional date.[112] In 1998 President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
returned both celebrations to the first Monday of December.[111] Portugal[edit] In Portugal, the "Dia da Mãe" ("Mother's Day") is an unofficial holiday held each year on the first Sunday of May (sometimes coinciding with Labour Day). The weeks leading up to this Sunday, school children spend a few hours a day to prepare a gift for their mothers, aided by their school teachers. In general, mothers receive gifts by their family members and this day is meant to be celebrated with the whole family. It used to be celebrated on the 8th December, the same date of the Conception of the Virgin celebration.[citation needed] Romania[edit] In Romania, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
has been celebrated on the first Sunday of May since 2010. Law 319/2009 made both Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Father's Day official holidays in Romania. The measure was passed thanks to campaign efforts from the Alliance Fighting Discrimination Against Fathers (TATA).[113] Previously, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was celebrated on 8 March, as part of International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(a tradition dating back to when Romania
Romania
was part of the Eastern bloc). Today, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and International Women's Day
International Women's Day
are two separate holidays, with International Women's Day
International Women's Day
being held on its original date of 8 March.[citation needed] Russia[edit] Main article: International Women's Day Traditionally Russia
Russia
had celebrated International Women's Day
International Women's Day
and Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on 8 March, an inheritance from the Soviet Union, and a public holiday.[114] Women's Day was first celebrated on the last Sunday in February in 1913 in Russia.[115] In 1917, demonstrations marking International Women's Day
International Women's Day
in Saint Petersburg on the last Sunday in February (which fell on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar) initiated the February Revolution. Following the October Revolution
October Revolution
later that year, the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Alexandra Kollontai persuaded Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
to make it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, and it was established, but was a working day until 1965.[citation needed] On 8 May 1965, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, International Women's Day
International Women's Day
was declared a non-working day in the Soviet Union "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland
Fatherland
during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, and also marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, and the struggle for peace. But still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays."[116] Samoa[edit] In Samoa, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday in May, and as a recognised national holiday on the Monday following. Singapore[edit] In Singapore, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is not recognized as a holiday by the government. Slovakia[edit] Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
celebrated only Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution in 1989. After the country split in 1993, Slovakia
Slovakia
started celebrating both Women's Day and Mother's Day. The politicization of Women's Day has affected the official status of Mother's Day. Center-right parties want Mother's Day
Mother's Day
to replace Women's Day, and social-democrats want to make Women's Day an official holiday. Currently, both days are festive, but they are not "state holidays". In the Slovak Republic, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated every second Sunday in May.[32] South Africa[edit] In South Africa, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is not recognized as a holiday by the government. The tradition is to give cards and gifts and to serve mothers breakfast in bed or to go out to lunch together as a family. South Sudan[edit] In South Sudan, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the first Monday in July. The president Salva Kiir Mayardit
Salva Kiir Mayardit
proclaimed Mother's Day
Mother's Day
as the first Monday in July after handing over from Sudan. Children in South Sudan
Sudan
are presenting mothers with gifts and flowers. The first Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was held in that country on 2 July 2012.[citation needed] Spain[edit] In Spain, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
or Día de la Madre is celebrated on the first Sunday of May. The weeks leading up to this Sunday, school children spend a few hours a day to prepare a gift for their mothers, aided by their school teachers. In general, mothers receive gifts by their family members & this day is meant to be celebrated with the whole family. It is also said to be celebrated in May, as May is the month dedicated to the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
(mother of Jesus) according to Catholicism.The idea of a month dedicated specifically to Mary can be traced back to baroque times. Although it wasn’t always held during May, Mary Month included thirty daily spiritual exercises honoring Mary.[117][citation needed] Sri Lanka[edit] In Sri Lanka, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. Sweden[edit] In Sweden, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was first celebrated in 1919, by initiative of the author Cecilia Bååth-Holmberg. It took several decades for the day to be widely recognized. Swedes born in the early nineteen hundreds typically did not celebrate the day because of the common belief that the holiday was invented strictly for commercial purposes. This was in contrast to Father's Day, which has been widely celebrated in Sweden
Sweden
since the late 1970s. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Sweden
Sweden
is celebrated on the last Sunday in May. A later date was chosen to allow everyone to go outside and pick flowers.[citation needed] Switzerland[edit] In Switzerland, the "règle de Pentecôte" law allows Mother's Day
Mother's Day
to be celebrated a week late if the holiday falls on the same day as Pentecost. In 2008, merchants declined to move the date.[118] By country (T–Z)[edit] Taiwan[edit] In Taiwan, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is celebrated on the second Sunday of the month of May, coinciding with Buddha's birthday
Buddha's birthday
and the traditional ceremony of "washing the Buddha". In 1999 the Taiwanese government established the second Sunday of May as Buddha's birthday, so they would be celebrated in the same day.[119][120] Since 2006,[121] the Tzu Chi, the largest charity organization in Taiwan, celebrates the Tzu Chi
Tzu Chi
Day, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Buddha's birthday all together, as part of a unified celebration and religious observance.[122][123][124] Thailand[edit] Mother's day in Thailand
Thailand
is celebrated on the birthday of the Queen of Thailand, Queen Sirikit
Queen Sirikit
(12 August).[125] The holiday was first celebrated around the 1980s as part of the campaign by the Prime Minister of Thailand
Thailand
Prem Tinsulanonda
Prem Tinsulanonda
to promote Thailand's Royal family.[126] Father's Day
Father's Day
is celebrated on the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej's birthday.[126] Ukraine[edit] Ukraine
Ukraine
celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(Ukrainian: День Матері) on the second Sunday of May. In Ukraine, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
officially became a holiday only in 1999[127] and is celebrated since 2000. Since then Ukrainian society struggles to transition the main holiday that recognizes woman from the International Women's Day, a holiday adopted under the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
that remained as a legacy in Ukraine
Ukraine
after its collapse, to Mother's Day.[citation needed] United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Mothering Sunday

Balloons outside, in the week before Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
2008

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
celebrates Mothering Sunday, which falls on the fourth Sunday of Lent
Lent
(26 March in 2017). This holiday has its roots in the church and was originally unrelated to the American holiday.[5][128] Most historians believe that Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
evolved from the 16th-century Christian practice of visiting one's mother church annually on Laetare Sunday.[129] As a result of this tradition, most mothers were reunited with their children on this day when young apprentices and young women in service were released by their masters for that weekend. As a result of the influence of the American Mother's Day, Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
transformed into the tradition of showing appreciation to one's mother. The holiday is still recognized in the original historical sense by many churches, with attention paid to Mary the mother of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
and the concept of the Mother Church.[citation needed] The custom was still popular by the start of the 19th century, but with the Industrial Revolution, traditions changed and the Mothering Day customs declined.[128] By 1935, Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
was less celebrated in Europe.[citation needed] Constance Penswick-Smith worked unsuccessfully to revive the festival in the 1910s–1920s. However, US World War II
World War II
soldiers brought the US Mother's Day
Mother's Day
celebration to the UK,[130] and the holiday was merged with the Mothering Sunday traditions still celebrated in the Church of England.[131] By the 1950s, the celebration became popular again in the whole of the UK, thanks to the efforts of UK merchants, who saw in the festival a great commercial opportunity.[131] People from UK started celebrating Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the same day on which Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
had been celebrated for centuries. Some Mothering Sunday traditions were revived, such as the tradition of eating cake on that day, although celebrants now eat simnel cake[25] instead of the cakes that were traditionally prepared at that time.[citation needed] The traditions of the two holidays are now mixed together and celebrated on the same day, although many people are not aware that the festivities have quite separate origins.[132] Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
occurs 3 weeks prior to Easter
Easter
Sunday or the fourth Sunday of Lent, meaning it can fall at the earliest on 1 March (in years when Easter
Easter
Day falls on 22 March) and at the latest on 4 April (when Easter
Easter
Day falls on 25 April).[133] United States[edit] Main article: Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(United States)

Prince Harry, Michelle Obama
Michelle Obama
and Jill Biden
Jill Biden
helping children create Mother's Day
Mother's Day
cards at the White House, 9 May 2013

Handmade Mother's Day
Mother's Day
gifts

The United States
United States
celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
on the second Sunday in May. In 1872 Julia Ward Howe
Julia Ward Howe
called for women to join in support of disarmament and asked for 2 June 1872, to be established as a " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
for Peace". Her 1870 "Appeal to womanhood throughout the world" is sometimes referred to as Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Proclamation. But Howe's day was not for honouring mothers but for organizing pacifist mothers against war. In the 1880s and 1890s there were several further attempts to establish an American "Mother's Day", but these did not succeed beyond the local level.[134] In the United States, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
remains one of the biggest days for sales of flowers, greeting cards, and the like; Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is also the biggest holiday for long-distance telephone calls.[135] Moreover, churchgoing is also popular on Mother's Day, yielding the highest church attendance after Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
and Easter. Many worshippers celebrate the day with carnations, coloured if the mother is living and white if she is dead.[136] Mother's Day
Mother's Day
continues to be one of the most commercially successful U.S. occasions.[137] It is possible that the holiday would have withered over time without the support and continuous promotion of the florist industries and other commercial industries. Other Protestant holidays from the same time, such as Children's Day
Children's Day
and Temperance Sunday, do not have the same level of popularity.[138] See also[edit]

Holidays portal

International Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Shrine International Women's Day May crowning Father's Day

Notes[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Since the Solar Hijri
Solar Hijri
uses the lunar year, which is shorter than the solar year, the day migrates through the seasons. Each year it falls a different day in the Gregorian Calendar, so it is listed separately.

Citations[edit] Enstam, Elizabeth York. "The Dallas equal suffrage association, political style, and popular culture: grassroots strategies of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1913–1919." Journal of Southern History 68.4 (2002):817+. Student Resources in Context. Web. 14 November 2014. References[edit]

^ L. James Grold (April 1968), "Mother's Day", American Journal of Psychiatry, 124: 1456–1458, Mother's Day, conceived by Anna Jarvis to honor unselfish mothers (...) Although there is no direct lineal descent to our modern Mother's Day
Mother's Day
custom, secular and religious motherhood have existed for thousands of years before 10 May 1908: the first church – St. Andrew's in Grafton, West Virginia
Grafton, West Virginia
– responded to her request for a Sunday service honoring mothers . Cybele (...)  ^ Tuleja, Tad (1999), Curious Customs: The Stories Behind 296 Popular American Rituals, Galahad Books, p. 167, ISBN 9781578660704, Although attempts have been made to link Mother's Day
Mother's Day
to ancient cults of the mother goddess, especially the worship of Cybele, the association is more conceptual than historic. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is a modern, American invention.  ^ Robert J. Myers, Hallmark Cards
Hallmark Cards
(1972), Celebrations; the complete book of American holidays, Doubleday, p. 143, Our observance of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is little more than half a century old [this was written in 1972], yet the nature of the holiday makes it seem as if it had its roots in prehistoric times. Many antiquarians, holiday enthusiasts, and students of folklore have claimed to find the source Mother's Day in the ancient spring festivals dedicated to the mother goddess, particularly the worship of Cybele.  ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 208 "The American origin of the Day, however, was duly acknowledged. 'The idea is imported,. America led the way.'" ^ a b c d Mothering Sunday, BBC, retrieved 4 March 2010  ^ a b " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
2016: Which countries celebrate it on 8 May – and why?". The Independent. 8 May 2016.  ^ Mother's Day
Mother's Day
2017, The Daily Telegraph ^ O'Reilly, Andrea (6 April 2010). Encyclopedia of Motherhood. Sage Publications (CA). p. 602. ISBN 978-1-4522-6629-9. She organized the first official Mother's Day
Mother's Day
service at Andrews Methodist Church in Grafton, West Virginia, on the morning of May 10, 1908. That same afternoon, 15,000 people attended a Mother's Day
Mother's Day
service at the Wanamaker Store Auditorium in Philadelphia, which she also organized. Jarvis chose the second Sunday in May for Mother's Day
Mother's Day
to mark the anniversary of her mother's death and selected her mother's favorite flower, the white carnation, as the day's official emblem.  ^ "Engaging Families - U.S. Department of Education". www2.ed.gov. 14 December 2017.  ^ Panati, Charles (2016). Panati's Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things. Book Sales. p. 59. ISBN 9780785834373.  ^ Antolini, Katharine Lane (2010). "Jarvis, Anna". Encyclopedia of Motherhood. SAGE. p. 602. ISBN 9781412968461.  ^ Connie Park Rice; Marie Tedesco (15 March 2015). Women of the Mountain South: Identity, Work, and Activism. Ohio University Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-8214-4522-8.  ^ a b c Lois M. Collins (6 May 2014). " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
100-year history a colorful tale of love, anger and civic unrest". Deseret News.  ^ a b "Hallmark celebrates 100th year of Mother's Day, started by a woman who grew to despise it". kansas.com.  ^ Compare footnote 51 in LaRossa, Ralph (1997). The Modernization of Fatherhood: A Social and Political History. University of Chicago Press. p. 272. ISBN 9780226469041. Retrieved 28 April 2016. Technically, at least, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was 'owned' by Jarvis. She managed not only to incorporate the Mother's Day
Mother's Day
International Association, but also to register 'Second Sunday in May, Anna Jarvis, Founder,' as the organization's trademark.  ^ Louisa Taylor, Canwest News Service (11 May 2008). "Mother's Day creator likely 'spinning in her grave'". The Vancouver Sun. Canada. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.  ^ House Vote No. 274 (7 May 2008) H. Res. 1113: Celebrating the role of mothers in the United States
United States
and supporting the goals and ideals of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(Vote On Passage) ^ House Vote No. 275 (7 May 2008) Table Motion to Reconsider: H RES 1113 Celebrating the role of mothers in the United States
United States
and supporting the goals and ideals of Mother's Day ^ Presidential proclamations from The American Presidency Project:

71 – Proclamation 2083 – Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Proclamation, Franklin D. Roosevelt, 3 May 1934. Proclamation 3535 Mother's Day, 1963 John F. Kennedy, 26 April 1963. Proclamation 3583 – Mother's Day, 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson, 23 April 1964 Proclamation 4437 – Mother's Day, 1976, Gerald Ford, 5 May 1976. Proclamation 5801 – Mother's Day, 1988, Ronald Reagan, 26 April 1988. Proclamation 6133 – Mother's Day, 1990, George Bush, 10 May 1990 Proclamation 6559 – Mother's Day, 1993, Bill Clinton, 7 May 1993. Proclamation 8253 – Mother's Day, 2008, George W. Bush, 8 May 2008.

^ a b c Sources for Bolivia:

"27 de mayo: madres que inspiran valentía". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 27 May 2009. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009.  "El Día de la Madre se nutre con la Virgen", La Razón (La Paz) (in Spanish), 27 May 2006, archived from the original on 5 November 2008 

^ Robert A. Saunders; Vlad Strukov (2010), Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, Historical dictionaries of French history, 78 (illustrated ed.), Scarecrow Press, p. 246, ISBN 9780810854758  ^ "About International Women's Day". International Women's Day.  ^ a b "Bidzina Ivanishvili Congratulates Mothers on Mother's Day". News Agency InterPressNews (IPN). 3 March 2013.  ^ a b Ngo, Dong (25 June 2009). "Latest U.S. export to Vietnam: Mother's Day". CNET. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ a b c Allen, Emily; Macphail, Cameron (6 March 2016). "Mother's Day 2016: Everything you need to know about Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
2016". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sawwan, Ameenah A. (23 March 2016). "A Special Note to Syrian Mothers on Mother's Day". News Deeply. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ John MacIntyre (2005), The amazing mom book: real facts, tender tales, and thoughts from the heart about the most important person on Earth, Sourcebooks, p. 7, ISBN 9781402203558, Lebanon
Lebanon
in the first day of Spring.  ^ a b "Lamis' Story – International Women's Day
International Women's Day
2015". Medical Aid for Palestinians. 21 March 2015. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Días Nacionales en Chile". Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ Xinhua from China
China
Daily (16 May 2006). "It's Mother's Day". SCUEC online. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009.  ^ "Principales efemérides. Mes Mayo". Unión de Periodistas de Cuba. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ a b c d e f g h Mixed emotions on Women's Day in Eastern Europe, euractiv.com, 9 March 2010, archived from the original on 11 March 2010  ^ "Calendario Cívico Escolar". Dirección Regional de Educación de Lima Metropolitana. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ Kabita Maharana (9 May 2014). " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
2014 to be Celebrated in US and other Countries: Best Quotes to Say 'Thank You' to Mum". International Business Times. Retrieved 11 May 2014.  ^ a b Ministerio de Educación y Cultura de Paraguay, Día de la Madre (in Spanish)  ^ a b c Sources for Israel :http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4801172,00.html https://www.facebook.com/events/1528903660772737/ ^ Sources: * "Haiti: Main Holidays". discoverhaiti.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.  * "6310.- Fêtes et Jours Fériés en Haiti" (in French). Archived from the original on 1 April 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.  ^ a b Lic. Pedro Rafael Díaz Figueroa (27 May 1999), "El origen del Día de la Madre", El Nuevo Diario, archived from the original on 14 May 2010  ^ a b The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus
Belarus
(14 October 2009), Support for mothers remains the key priority of Belarus’ social policy  ^ a b Padre Fabián Castro (3 October 2010). "El día de la madre en el mundo y en la Argentina" (in Spanish). padrefabian.com.ar. Retrieved 13 May 2013. La cuestión tiene que ver con el calendario litúrgico que la Iglesia Católica utilizaba antes de la reforma producto del Concilio Vaticano II. Allí el 11 de octubre era la festividad de la Maternidad de la Virgen María. (Actualmente se celebra el 1 de enero). Con este motivo era costumbre argentina pasar la celebración litúrgica al domingo anterior o siguiente al 11. Con el lento correr de los años la tradición popular fue fijando como el tercer domingo de octubre la celebración de la Madre y las madres.  ^ a b Lee Sang Yong (16 December 2014). "North Korea's Official 2015 Calendar Revealed". Daily NK. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ a b editorial (8 December 2001), "Bendita Madre", Crítica (in Spanish), archived from the original on 27 September 2011  ^ a b c seenthing (21 December 2010), Sejarah Perayaan Nasional Hari Ibu 22 Desembe  ^ a b Zhai, Yun Tan (7 May 2016). "Celebrating Mother's Day? Make Sure You Have The Date Right". NPR. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ " Mata Tirtha
Mata Tirtha
Aunsi today". República. Kathmandu: Nepal
Nepal
Republic Media. 6 May 2016. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ a b c d e Wendy S. DeBano (2009), "Singing against Silence: Celebrating Women and Music and the Fourth Jasmine Festival", in Laudan Nooshin, Music and the Play of Power in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, Soas Musicology Series (illustrated ed.), Ashgate Publishing, p. 234 (footnote 18), ISBN 9780754634577, In 2002, Fatemeh's birthday celebration (observed according to the hejri calendar) fell on Thursday 29 August (20 Jamādi 1423) (...) Fatemeh's birth date is also currently used to mark Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Iran, ritually recollecting, emphasising and reinscribing her role as a loyal mother, wife and daughter. Prior to the revolution, Mother's Day
Mother's Day
was used to promote the gender ideologies of the Pahlavi regime.  ^ Cordelia Candelaria; Peter J. García (2004). Encyclopedia of Latino popular culture (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 375. ISBN 9780313332104.  ^ Kennedy, Jon; Schroedel, Jenny; Schroedel, John (2011). Jesus and Mary. East Bridgewater, MA: Adams Media. p. 397. ISBN 9781572157491.  ^ "Islams Women – Status of Mothers in Islam". islamswomen.com.  ^ Teiser, Stephen F. (1988). The Ghost Festival
Ghost Festival
in Medieval China. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-691-02677-7.  ^ a b Jehl, Douglas (16 April 1997). "Mustafa Amin, Liberal Editor Jailed by Nasser, Dies at 83". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in the Arab World".  ^ Sources for Janet Heyden:

"Near and Far". The Sydney
Sydney
Morning Herald. 2 May 1927.  "A Gift for Mother". The Sun Herald. 9 May 1954. 

^ " Belarus
Belarus
celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
for 15th time. The President congratulated the Belarusian mothers.", Belteleradio, 14 October 2010, archived from the original on 29 September 2014  ^ " Bhutan
Bhutan
celebrates Mother's Day
Mother's Day
for 5th time.", Bhutanbroadcastingserviceradio, 8 May 2010  ^ "Dia das Mães: shoppings têm promoções especiais". 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ a b c " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Popular in China". People's Daily. 14 May 2001.  ^ people.com.cn, sina.com.cn (17 June 2008). "Researchers and Experts Propose a Chinese Mother's Day". All- China
China
Women's Federation. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009.  ^ a b "Do we need our own Mother's Day?". China
China
Daily. 16 May 2007.  ^ " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
- Holidays". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 13 April 2016.  ^ "Happy Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Birtukan!". HuffPost. Retrieved 13 April 2016.  ^ "Mothers Day History ~ The Complete History of Mother's Day". Mothers Day Central. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.  ^ "Pühade ja tähtpäevade seadus". Retrieved 3 March 2012.  ^ http://www.juhlapyhät.fi/aitienpaiva ^ a b c d Histoire de la fête des mères et celle de "l'Union fraternelle des pères de familles méritants d'Artas", Union des Familles en Europe  ^ Artas, berceau de la Fête des mères, mairie d'Artas  ^ a b Luc Capdevila (CRHISCO – University of Rennes 2), Fabrice Virgili (IHTP – CNRS), "Guerre, femmes et nation en France (1939–1945) Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.", in IRICE. ^ "Loi no 50-577 du 24 mai 1950 relative à la Fête des mères" [Law No. 50-577 of 24 May 1950 relating to Mother's Day] (in French). JORF. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ a b c d e Michelle Mouton (2007), "From Mother's Day
Mother's Day
to Forced Sterilization", From nurturing the Nation to Purifying the Volk: Weimar and Nazi family policy, 1918–1945, Publications of the German Historical Institute (illustrated ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 107–152, ISBN 0-521-86184-5  ^ a b Ann Taylor Allen (February 1995), "Reviewed work(s): Muttertag und Mutterkreuz: Der Kult um die "Deutsche Mutter" im Nationalsozialismus, by Irmgard Weyrather", American Historical Review, Frankfurt A.m, 100 (1): 186–187, doi:10.2307/2168063  ^ TTN (13 March 2004). "Social change in India
India
discussed". The Times of India.  ^ Charu Amar (1 May 2009), "Kyunki saas bhi toh maa hai!", The Times of India, Mention Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and everyone goes on a thinking spree to find the most innovative way to pamper their mommy dearest.  ^ Wardhani, Lynda K. (22 December 2010). "In observance of Mother's Day". The Jakarta Post. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Bulbeck, Chilla (2009). Sex, love and feminism in the Asia Pacific: a cross-cultural study of young people's attitudes. ASAA women in Asia. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415470063.  Preview. ^ a b c Kathryn Robinson (2009), Gender, Islam
Islam
and Democracy in Indonesia, ASAA women in Asia, Routledge, pp. 3, 36, 44, 72, ISBN 9781134118830  ^ "Ahmadinejad highlights women's significant role in society". Presidency of The Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
News Service. 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2008. (...) the occasion of the Mother's Day
Mother's Day
marking the birthday anniversary of Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA), the beloved daughter of Prophet Mohammad. The day fell on 23 June [2008]  ^ Shahla Haeri (1993). "Obedience versus Autonomy: Women and Fundamentalism in Iran
Iran
and Pakistan". In Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby; Helen Hardacre; Everett Mendelsohn. Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education. The Fundamentalism Project. 2 (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 197. ISBN 9780226508801. The more women try to engage the fundamentalists in their own discourse, negotiating and bargaining over their rights (Islamic or otherwise), the more frequently has the Islamic regime emphasized the ideal, the Fatimah
Fatimah
model, the quintessential obedient woman. The fundamentalist regime in iran has yet to resolve its central dilemma regarding the role of women and male-female relationships: should women emulate a Zainab-autonomous and assertive-or a Fatimah-obedient and submissive? Given the logic of an Islamic marriage and the worldview it implies, the fundamentalist regime has shown a marked preference for the latter. Thus Woman's Day and Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Iran
Iran
are celebrated on the occasion of Fatimah's birth.  ^ a b Firoozeh Kashani-Sabet (2011), Conceiving Citizens: Women and the Politics of Motherhood in Iran
Iran
(illustrated ed.), Oxford University Press, pp. 201–206, ISBN 9780195308860  ^ Shahla Haeri (2009), "Women, Religion, and Political Agency in Iran", in Ali Gheissari, Contemporary Iran:Economy, Society (illustrated ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 137, ISBN 9780195378481, Such [feminist] gatherings would not have been so remarkable had they not happened against the backdrop of the regime's ceaseless effort to discourage, even harass, women activists and their supporters. Within the narrative of Islamization, the state's argument has been, all along, that such gatherings are representative of the culture of imperialism, and hence are subversive and against the public good and the moral order. Above all, the Islamic state has tried hard to co-opt women by appropriating the terminology and language: "protecting women," "respect for women," "gender complementarity." Accordingly, in order to accommodate, and yet control and channel women's movements and activitites, the state commemorates the birthday of Fatemeh, the Prophet Muhammad's daughter, as a national woman's/mother's day.  ^ Mahdi, Ali Akbar (2003). "Iranian Women: Between Islamization and Globalization". Iran
Iran
Encountering Globalization: Problems and Prospects. Ali Mohammadi. London and New York: Routledge/Curzon. ISBN 0-415-30827-5. Archived from the original (DOC) on 15 September 2006. This Shia vision of family is based on a nostalgic and idealistic notion of Imam Ali's family in which Fatima Zahra (the Prophet Mohammad's daughter) dedicated herself to both her husband and Islamic cause. Other role models for women often cited by the officials and ideologues of the IRI are Khadijah, the prophet Mohammad's wife, and Zaynab, daughter of the first Shi'i (sic) Imam Ali. In fact, the IRI [Islamic Republic of Iran] replaced the universal Mother's Day
Mother's Day
with Fatima Zahar's (sic) birthday.  ^ "The Shiite Interpretation of the Status of Women". Institute for Advanced Study. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ de Ceglia, F. P.; Dibattista, L. (2013). Il bello della scienza. Intersezioni tra storia, scienza e arte (in Italian). Milan: Angeli. p. 102. ISBN 9788856849530.  ^ Anonymous (1 April 2010), "La Festa DeLLa Mamma", Italian America (in Italian)  (registration required) ^ Raul Zaccari – together with Senators Bellisario, Baldini, Restagno, Piasenti, Benedetti and Zannini. Senato della Repubblica, 78ª Seduta Pubblica, 18 dicembre 1958. "Istituzione de la festa della Mamma." (Annunzio di presentazione di disegni di legge) ^ Светлана Моисеева (17 May 2013). "Президент поздравил кыргызстанцев с Днем матери". Вечерный Бишкек. 19 мая народ Кыргызстана отмечает День матери. Эта памятная дата установлена только в прошлом году, но сразу стала для кыргызстанцев одной из любимых.  ^ "About International Women's Day". International Women's Day. Retrieved 15 February 2017.  ^ Apollo.lv (13 May 2012). "Šodien sveicam Māmiņas!". Apollo.lv India. Mātes dienu Latvijā sāka svinēt 1922. gadā, bet ar 1934. gadu tika noteikts, ka šī diena svinama katra maija otrajā svētdienā līdzīgi kā citās Eiropas valstīs. 1938. gadā pēc prezidenta Kārļa Ulmaņa ierosinājuma Mātes dienu sāka dēvēt par Ģimenes dienu, uzsverot mātes lielo lomu ģimenes pavarda veidošanā un uzturēšanā.  ^ Latvijā atzīmē Mātes dienu Archived 30 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. TVNET ^ a b Newcomer, page 133 ^ a b c Sherman, page 44 ^ a b Newcomer, pages 133–134 ^ a b c Newcomer, page 134 ^ Newcomer, 134–135 ^ a b c Newcomer, 135–136 ^ a b Newcomer, 136–139 ^ The History of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
from The Legacy Project, a Legacy Center (Canada) website ^ "When Is Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Celebrated In Mexico?". 7 May 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ J. C. Heesterman; Albert W. Van den Hoek; Dirk H. A. Kolff; Marianne S. Oort (1992). Ritual, State, and History in South Asia: Essays in Honour of J.C. Heesterman. BRILL. p. 786. ISBN 978-90-04-09467-3.  ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 206 ^ a b c Helsloot 2007, p. 208 ^ a b c Helsloot 2007, p. 209 ^ a b Helsloot 2007, p. 210 ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 213 ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 211 ^ " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
in Norway". 11 May 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015.  ^ "World marks Mother's Day
Mother's Day
with Utmost Love, Respect". ARY News. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2017.  ^ Penny de Henríquez (9 December 2005), "Origins. La celebración del Día de la Madre", La Prensa (in Spanish)  ^ Session of the Honorable Cámara de Senadores. Señor Senador Diego Abente Brun (in Spanish), p. 25 [permanent dead link] ^ a b "Buscan que se cambie fecha del día de la madre", Radio Viva 90.1 FM Paraguay, 14 May 2008 [permanent dead link] ^ Municipality of Asuncion
Asuncion
(27 July 2008), Hoy miércoles 27 de agosto se inician las acciones de la Comisión de Festejos por el Bicentenario, con una retreta en la Plaza de los Héroes, archived from the original on 10 May 2009  ^ a b "Proclamation No. 58, s. 1998". Official Gazette. 11 December 1998. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ Content Manager 03 (1 December 2014). "The First Monday of December is Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Father's Day". Malacañan Palace
Malacañan Palace
(official residence of the President of the Philippines).  ^ " Romania
Romania
Celebrates Fathers' Day On Second Sunday Of May". Mediafax. Bucharest. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ Постановление ЦК ВКП(б). (8 March 1966). К советским женщинам, обращение ЦК КПСС в связи с Международным днём 8 Марта. (DjVu). Советское искусство (in Russian). p. 4. Retrieved 22 March 2013.  ^ "About International Women's Day". International Women's Day. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Балаховская, Л. Г. (1969–1978). Международный женский день 8 марта.. In Введенский, Борис. «Большая советская энциклопедия» (БСЭ) (in Russian). Москва: «Советская энциклопедия». [permanent dead link] ^ "Why is May the Month of Mary?". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ Fleurop-Interflora (Suisse) (22 April 2008), La Fête des Mères 2008 ne sera pas reportée (in French)  ^ Camaron Kao (14 May 2012), "Thousands of believers mark Buddha's birthday", China
China
Post, archived from the original on 16 June 2013  ^ Ko Shu-Ling (9 May 2011). "Sakyamuni Buddha birthday celebrated". Taipei Times. The legislature approved a proposal in 1999 to designate the birthday of Sakyamuni Buddha – which falls on the eighth day of the fourth month of the lunar calendar – a national holiday and to celebrate the special occasion concurrently with International Mother's Day, which is celebrated on the second Sunday of May.  ^ "300,000 Attend Buddha Day Ceremonies in 34 Countries". Tzu Chi. 15 May 2012. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012.  ^ " Tzu Chi
Tzu Chi
Foundation to stage Mother's Day
Mother's Day
event", Taipei Times, 4 May 2008  ^ Caroline Hong (23 May 2004), "Cultural center performs `bathing Buddha' ceremony", Taipei Times  ^ unsigned (15 May 2006), " Taiwan
Taiwan
Quick Take: Tzu Chi
Tzu Chi
celebrates birthday", Taipei Times, p. 3  ^ "Police chief returns earlier for Mother's Day". MCOT
MCOT
news. Thai News Agency. 10 August 2012. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. (...) an audience with Her Majesty Queen Sirikit
Queen Sirikit
on Tuesday on the occasion of her birthday, which is also observed as National Mother's Day.  ^ a b Paul M. Handley (2006). The King Never Smiles: a biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. Yale University Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780300106824.  (online version) ^ "Украз Президента України. Про День Матері" (in Ukrainian). zakon2.rada.gov.ua.  ^ a b Robert J. Myers, Hallmark Cards
Hallmark Cards
(1972), Celebrations; the complete book of American holidays, Doubleday, pp. 144–146  ^ "Interfaith holy days by faith". Religion & Ethics. BBC. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2010.  ^ "How Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
became Mother's Day". Owenspencer-thomas.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ a b Ronald Hutton (2001), The stations of the sun: a history of the ritual year in Britain (illustrated, reprinted ed.), Oxford University Press, pp. 174–177, ISBN 9780192854483  ^ David Self (1993), One hundred readings for assembly, Heinemann Assembly Resources, Heinemann, pp. 27–29, ISBN 9780435800413  ^ " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
2017: When is Mothering Sunday
Mothering Sunday
and why does the date change?". Metro. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.  ^ Bernhard, Virginia (2002). "Mother's Day". In Joseph M. Hawes; Elizabeth F. Shores. The family in America: an encyclopedia (3, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 714. ISBN 9781576072325.  ^ Barbara Mikkelson, "We love you – call collect". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2010.03.08. ^ J. Ellsworth Kalas (19 October 2009). Preaching the Calendar: Celebrating Holidays and Holy Days. Westminster John Knox Press. Church attendance
Church attendance
on this day is likely to be third only to Christmas Eve and Easter. Some worshipers still celebrate with carnations, colored if the mother is living and white if she is deceased.  ^ " Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Dining Fact Sheet". National Restaurant Association. 28 April 2006. Mother's Day
Mother's Day
is the most popular day of the year to dine out, with 38 percent of consumers reporting doing so  ^ Leigh, page 256

General

Schmidt, Leigh Eric (1997). Princeton University Press, ed. Consumer Rites: The Buying and Selling of American Holidays (reprint, illustrated ed.). pp. 256–275. ISBN 0-691-01721-2.  Larossa, Ralph (1997). University of Chicago Press, ed. The Modernization of Fatherhood: A Social and Political History (illustrated ed.). pp. 90,170–192. ISBN 0-226-46904-2.  Helsloot, John (2007), "10. Vernacular Authenticity: Negotiating Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Father's Day
Father's Day
in the Netherlands", in Margry, Peter Jan; Roodenburg, Herman, Reframing Dutch Culture: Between Otherness and Authenticity, Progress in European Ethnology (illustrated ed.), Ashgate Publishing, pp. 6–7, 203–224, ISBN 978-0-7546-4705-8  Newcomer, Daniel (2004). Reconciling Modernity: Urban State Formation in 1940s León, Mexico
Mexico
(illustrated ed.). University of Nebraska Press. pp. 132–139. ISBN 9780803233492.  Sherman, John W. (1997). The Mexican Right: The End of Revolutionary Reform, 1929–1940 (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 44. ISBN 9780275957360. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mother's Day
Mother's Day
at Wikimedia Commons

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Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(1) Yennayer
Yennayer
(12)

February

Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
(14) Tafsut (28)

March

International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8) Victory Day (19) World Water Day
World Water Day
(22) Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30) Spring vacation (2 last weeks)

April

April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day
(1) Knowledge Day (16) Berber Spring (20) Earth Day
Earth Day
(22) Election Day (Thursday)

May

International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1) World Press Freedom Day (3) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(last Sunday)

June–July–August

Summer vacation (varies)

June

Children's Day
Children's Day
(1) Father's Day
Father's Day
(21)

July

Independence Day (5)

September

International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace
(21)

October

International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence
(2) Halloween
Halloween
(31)

November

Revolution Day (1)

December

Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(24) Christmas
Christmas
(25) New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
(31) Winter vacation (2 last weeks)

Varies (year round)

Hijri New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(Muharram 1) Ashura
Ashura
(Muharram 10) Mawlid
Mawlid
(Rabi' al-Awwal 12) Ramadan
Ramadan
( Ramadan
Ramadan
1) Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
( Ramadan
Ramadan
27) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Shawwal 1) Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah
(Dhu al-Hijjah 9) Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(Dhu al-Hijjah 10) Holi
Holi
(varies)

Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays.

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Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Day (CA) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day
Saint Joseph's Day
(religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day
Texas Independence Day
(TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Confederate Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse
Spouse
Day National Day of Prayer
National Day of Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Father's Day
Father's Day
(36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas / Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day
West Virginia Day
(WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day
Barack Obama Day
(IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan
Japan
Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California Admission Day
California Admission Day
(CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Gold Star Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the United States Virgin Islands.

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Public holidays in Mexico

Statutory holidays

Año Nuevo Día de la Constitución Natalicio de Benito Juárez Día del Trabajo Día de Independencia Día de la Revolución Transmisión del Poder Ejecutivo Federal Navidad

Civic holidays

Día del Ejército Día de la Bandera Aniversario de la Expropiación petrolera Heroica Defensa de Veracruz Cinco de Mayo Natalicio de Miguel Hidalgo Día de la Marina Grito de Dolores Día de los Niños Héroes Consumación de la Independencia Natalicio de José Ma. Morelos y Pavón Descubrimiento de América

Festivities

Día de los Santos Reyes Día de San Valentín Día del Niño Día de las Madres Día del Maestro Día del estudiante Día del Padre Día de Todos los Santos Día de los Fieles Difuntos Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe Las Posadas Nochebuena Dia de los Santos Inocentes

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Family

History Household Nuclear family Extended family Conjugal family Immediate family Matrifocal family Blended family Dysfunctional family Polyfidelitous families

First-degree relatives

Parent

father mother

Child

son daughter

Sibling

brother sister

Second-degree relatives

Grandparent Grandchild Aunt Uncle Nephew and niece

Third-degree relatives

Great-grandparent Great-grandchild Grandnephew and grandniece Cousin

Family-in-law

Spouse

wife husband

Parents-in-law Siblings-in-law Son-in-law Daughter-in-law

Stepfamily

Stepfather Stepmother Stepchild Stepsibling

Kinship

Australian Aboriginal kinship Adoption Affinity Consanguinity Disownment Divorce Estrangement Fictive kinship Marriage Nurture kinship

Lineage

Bilateral descent Common ancestor Family
Family
name Family
Family
tree Genealogy Heirloom Heredity Inheritance Lineal descendant Matrilineality Patrilineality Pedigree chart Progenitor

Relationships

Agape
Agape
(parental love) Eros (marital love) Filial piety Storge
Storge
(familial love)

Holidays

Mother's Day

U.S.

Father's Day Father– Daughter
Daughter
Day Siblings Day National Grandparents Day Parents' Day Children's Day Family
Family
Day

Canada

American Family
Family
Day National Family
Family
Week

UK

Related

Wedding anniversary Sociology of the family Museum of Motherhood

Authority control

GN

.