Mossad (/məˈsæd/; Hebrew: הַמוֹסָד, IPA: [ha moˈsad];
Arabic: الموساد, al-Mōsād, IPA: [almoːˈsaːd];
literally meaning "the Institute"), short for Ha
uleTafkidim Meyuḥadim (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין
ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence
Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of
Israel. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence
Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet
Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, covert operations,
Mossad is separate from Israel's democratic
institutions. Because no law defines its purpose, objectives, roles,
missions, powers or budget and because it is exempt from the
constitutional laws of the State of
Mossad has been described
as a deep state. Its director answers directly and only to
the Prime Minister. Its annual budget is estimated to be around 10
billion shekels (US$2.73 billion) and it is estimated that it employs
around 7,000 people directly, making it the second-largest espionage
agency in the Western world, after the American
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1.1 Executive offices
1.4 Counter-terrorist units
1.5 Venture capital
1.6 Operation Harpoon
3.1.5 South Africa
3.2.2 United States
3.3.1 Central and West Asia
18.104.22.168 United Arab Emirates
3.3.3 South and East Asia
22.214.171.124 North Korea
3.4.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina
3.4.14 Soviet Union/Russia
3.5.1 New Zealand
4 In fiction
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
The largest department of
Mossad is Collections, tasked with many
aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections
Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and
unofficial. The Political Action and Liaison Department is
responsible for working with allied foreign intelligence services, and
nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with
Mossad has a Research Department,
tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department
concerned with the development of tools for Mossad
Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949, as the Central Institute for
Coordination at the recommendation of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion
to Reuven Shiloah. Ben Gurion wanted a central body to coordinate and
improve cooperation between the existing security services—the
army's intelligence department (AMAN), the Internal Security Service
(Shin Bet), and the foreign office's "political department". In March
1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister's
office, reporting directly to the prime minister.
Mossad's former motto, be-tachbūlōt ta`aseh lekhā milchāmāh
(Hebrew: בתחבולות תעשה לך מלחמה) is a quote
from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): "For by wise guidance you can wage
your war" (NRSV). The motto was later changed to another Proverbs
passage: be-'éyn tachbūlōt yippol `ām; ū-teshū`āh be-rov
yō'éts (Hebrew: באין תחבולות יפול עם, ותשועה
ברוב יועץ, Proverbs 11:14). This is translated by NRSV
as: "Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance
of counselors there is safety."
Metsada is a unit responsible for attacking the enemy. Metsada runs
"small units of combatants" whose missions include "assassinations and
Kidon is a unit which belongs to the Caesarea department (one of
Mossad's eight departments). It is described by Yaakov Katz as "an
elite group of expert assassins who operate under the Caesarea branch
of the espionage organization. Not much is known about this mysterious
unit, details of which are some of the most closely guarded secrets in
the Israeli intelligence community." It recruits from "former soldiers
from the elite IDF special force units." This unit has been
a part of Israel's policy of assassinations, which according to Ronen
Bergman is a policy that
Israel has used more than any other country
in the West since world war II, stating it has carried out at least
2,700 assassination missions.
Mossad has opened a venture capital fund, in order to invest in
hi-tech startups to develop new cyber technologies. The
names of technology startups funded by
Mossad will not be
Together with Shurat HaDin, they started Operation Harpoon, for
”destroying terrorists’ money networks.”
Reuven Shiloah, 1949–53
Isser Harel, 1953–63
Meir Amit, 1963–68
Zvi Zamir, 1968–73
Yitzhak Hofi, 1973–82
Nahum Admoni, 1982–89
Shabtai Shavit, 1989–96
Danny Yatom, 1996–98
Efraim Halevy, 1998–2002
Meir Dagan, 2002–2011
Tamir Pardo, 2011–2016
Yossi Cohen, 2016–present
Provision of intelligence for the cutting of communications between
Port Said and Cairo in 1956.
Mossad spy Wolfgang Lotz, holding West German citizenship, infiltrated
Egypt in 1957, and gathered intelligence on Egyptian missile sites,
military installations, and industries. He also composed a list of
German rocket scientists working for the Egyptian government, and sent
some of them letter bombs. After the East German head of state made a
state visit to Egypt, the Egyptian government detained thirty West
German citizens as a goodwill gesture. Lotz, assuming that he had been
discovered, confessed to his cold war espionage activities.
After a tense May 25, 1967, confrontation with
Tel Aviv station
chief John Hadden, who warned that the United States would help defend
Israel launched a surprise attack,
Mossad director Meir Amit
flew to Washington, D.C. to meet with U.S. Defense Secretary Robert
McNamara and reported back to the Israeli cabinet that the United
States had given
Israel "a flickering green light" to
Provision of intelligence on the
Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force for Operation
Focus, the opening air strike of the Six-Day War.
Operation Bulmus 6 – Intelligence assistance in the Commando Assault
Green Island, Egypt during the War of Attrition.[citation
Operation Damocles – A campaign of assassination and intimidation
against German rocket scientists employed by
Egypt in building
A bomb sent to the Heliopolis rocket factory killed five Egyptian
workers, allegedly sent by
Otto Skorzeny on behalf of the
Heinz Krug, 49, the chief of a Munich company supplying military
Egypt disappeared in September 1962 and is believed to
have been assassinated by
Otto Skorzeny on behalf of the
In September 1956,
Mossad established a secretive network in Morocco
Moroccan Jews to
Israel after a ban on immigration to
Israel was imposed.
In early 1991, two
Mossad operatives infiltrated the Moroccan port of
Casablanca and planted a tracking device on the freighter Al-Yarmouk,
which was carrying a cargo of North Korean missiles bound for Syria.
The ship was to be sunk by the Israeli Air Force, but the mission was
later called off by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
The 1988 killing of
Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), a founder of
The alleged killing of Salah Khalaf, head of intelligence of the PLO
and second in command of
Fatah behind Yasser Arafat, in
The 2016 alleged killing of
Hamas operative, Mohammad al-Zawahri, in
Tunisia. Mohammad Zawari, known to Israel's security echelon as "The
Engineer", was a
Hamas affiliated engineer who was believed to be
constructing drones for the group. He was shot at close
Operation Entebbe in 1976,
Mossad provided intelligence regarding
Entebbe International Airport and extensively interviewed
hostages who had been released.
In the late 1990s, after
Mossad was tipped off to the presence of two
Iranian agents in
Johannesburg on a mission to procure advanced
weapons systems from Denel, a
Mossad agent was deployed, and met up
with a local Jewish contact. Posing as South African intelligence,
they abducted the Iranians, drove them to a warehouse, and beat and
intimidated them before forcing them to leave the country.
After the 1994 AMIA bombing, the largest bombing in Argentine history,
Mossad began gathering intelligence for a raid by Israeli Special
Forces on the Iranian embassy in
Khartoum as retaliation. The
operation was called off due to fears that another attack against
worldwide Jewish communities might take place as revenge.
assisted in Operation Moses, the evacuation of
Ethiopian Jews to
Israel from a famine-ridden region of Sudan in 1984, also maintaining
a relationship with the Ethiopian government.
Mossad discovered that the
Adolf Eichmann was in
Argentina. A team of five
Mossad agents led by Shimon Ben Aharon
Argentina and through surveillance, confirmed that he had
been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was abducted
on May 11, 1960 and taken to a hideout. He was subsequently smuggled
to Israel, where he was tried and executed.
Argentina protested what
it considered as the violation of its sovereignty, and the United
Security Council noted that "repetition of acts such as [this]
would involve a breach of the principles upon which international
order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust
incompatible with the preservation of peace" while also acknowledging
that "Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes
of which he is accused" and that "this resolution should in no way be
interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is
Mossad abandoned a second operation,
intended to capture Josef Mengele.
During the 1990s,
Mossad discovered a
Hezbollah agent operating within
the United States in order to procure materials needed to manufacture
IEDs and other weapons. In a joint operation with U.S. intelligence,
the agent was kept under surveillance in hopes that he would betray
Hezbollah operatives, but was eventually arrested.
Mossad informed the FBI and
CIA in August 2001 that, based on its
intelligence, as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United
States and planning "a major assault on the United States." The
Israeli intelligence agency cautioned the FBI that it had picked up
indications of a "large-scale target" in the United States and that
Americans would be "very vulnerable." However, "It is not
known whether U.S. authorities thought the warning to be credible, or
whether it contained enough details to allow counter-terrorism teams
to come up with a response." A month later, terrorists struck at the
World Trade Center and the Pentagon in the largest terrorist attack in
Mossad assassinated Latvian
Herberts Cukurs in
Central and West Asia
A report published on the Israeli military’s official website in
February, 2014 said that Middle Eastern countries that cooperate with
Israel (Mossad) are the United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, the
Republic of Azerbaijan,
Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. The report claimed
Bahrain has been providing
Israel with intelligence on Iranian
and Palestinian organizations. The report also highlights the growing
secret cooperation with Saudi Arabia, claiming that
Mossad has been in
direct contact with Saudi intelligence about Iran’s nuclear energy
Prior to the
Iranian Revolution of 1978–79,
SAVAK (Organization of
National Security and Information), the Iranian secret police and
intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States
and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957.
After security relations between the United States and
Iran grew more
distant in the early 1960s which led the
CIA training team to leave
Mossad became increasingly active in Iran, "training SAVAK
personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with
A US intelligence official told
The Washington Post
The Washington Post that Israel
orchestrated the defection of Iranian general
Ali Reza Askari on
February 7, 2007. This has been denied by Israeli
spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a
Mossad asset since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be
Iranian Intelligence Minister Heydar Moslehi has accused
assassination plots and killings of Iranian physicists in 2010.
Reports have noted that such information has not yet been evidently
proven. Iranian state TV broadcast a stated confession from Majid
Jamali-Fashi, an Iranian man who claimed to have visited
Israel to be
trained by Mossad.
Le Figaro claimed that
Mossad was possibly behind a blast at the
Iranian Revolutionary Guard's Imam Ali military base, on October 12,
2011. The explosion at the base killed 18 and injured 10 others. Among
the dead was also general Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, who served as the
commander of the Revolutionary Guards’ missile program and was a
crucial figure in building Iran’s long-range missile
program. The base is believed to store long-range
missiles, including the Shahab-3, and also has hangars. It is one of
Iran's most secure military bases.
Mossad has been accused of assassinating Masoud Alimohammadi, Ardeshir
Hosseinpour, Majid Shahriari,
Darioush Rezaeinejad and Mostafa
Ahmadi-Roshan; scientists involved in the Iranian nuclear program. It
is also suspected of being behind the attempted assassination of
Iranian nuclear scientist Fereydoon Abbasi. Meir Dagan,
who served as Director of
Mossad from 2002 until 2009, while not
taking credit for the assassinations, praised them in an interview
with a journalist, saying "the removal of important brains" from the
Iranian nuclear project had achieved so-called "white defections,"
frightening other Iranian nuclear scientists into requesting that they
be transferred to civilian projects.
In early February 2012,
Tamir Pardo met with U.S.
national security officials in Washington, D.C. to sound them out on
possible American reactions in the event
Iran over the
objections of the United States.
In 2018 the
Mossad broke into Iran's secret nuclear archive in Teheran
and smuggled over 100,000 documents and computer files to Israel. The
documents and files showed that the Iranian
AMAD Project aimed to
develop nuclear weapons.
Israel shared the information
with its allies, including European countries and the United
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MiG-21 at the
Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Museum in Hatzerim
Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa,
an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG-21 to
Israel in 1966:
"Operation Diamond". Redfa's entire family was also successfully
Iraq to Israel. Previously unknown information about the
MiG-21 was subsequently shared with the United States.
Operation Sphinx – Between 1978 and 1981, obtained
highly sensitive information about Iraq's
Osirak nuclear reactor by
recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France.
Operation Bramble Bush II – In the 1990s,
Mossad began scouting
Saddam Hussein could be ambushed by Sayeret
Matkal commandos inserted into
Iraq from Jordan. The mission was
called off due to
Operation Desert Fox
Operation Desert Fox and the ongoing Israeli-Arab
In what is thought to have been a reprisal action for a Hamas
suicide-bombing in Jerusalem on July 30, 1997 that killed 16 Israelis,
Benjamin Netanyahu authorised an operation against Khaled Mashal, the
Hamas representative in Jordan. On September 25, 1997,
Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been a
derivative of the synthetic opiate
Levofentanyl). Jordanian authorities
Mossad agents posing as Canadian tourists and trapped
a further six in the Israeli embassy. In exchange for their release,
an Israeli physician had to fly to Amman and deliver an antidote for
Mashal. The fallout from the failed killing eventually led to the
release of Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the
Hamas movement, and scores of
Hamas prisoners. Netanyahu flew into
Amman on September 29 to apologize personally to King Hussein, but he
was instead met by the King's brother, Crown Prince
The sending of letter bombs to PFLP member
Bassam Abu Sharif
Bassam Abu Sharif in 1972.
Sharif was severely wounded, but survived.
The killing of the Palestinian writer and leading PFLP member Ghassan
Kanafani by a car bomb in 1972.
The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in the 1973
Operation Spring of Youth special forces raid on Beirut.
The targeted killing of Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black
September, on January 22, 1979 in
Beirut by a car
Providing intelligence for the killing of Abbas al-Musawi, secretary
general of Hezbollah, in
Beirut in 1992.
Allegedly killed Jihad Ahmed Jibril, the leader of the military wing
of the PFLP-GC, in
Beirut in 2002.
Allegedly killed Ali Hussein Saleh, member of Hezbollah, in
Allegedly killed Ghaleb Awwali, a senior
Hezbollah official, in Beirut
Allegedly killed Mahmoud al-Majzoub, a leader of Palestinian Islamic
Jihad, in Sidon in 2006.
Mossad was suspected of establishing a large spy network in Lebanon,
recruited from Druze, Christian, and Sunni Muslim communities, and
officials in the Lebanese government, to spy on
Hezbollah and its
Iranian Revolutionary Guard advisors. Some have allegedly been active
since the 1982 Lebanon War. In 2009, Lebanese Security Services
supported by Hezbollah's intelligence unit, and working in
collaboration with Syria, Iran, and possibly Russia, launched a major
crackdown which resulted in the arrests of around 100 alleged spies
"working for Israel". Previously, in 2006, the Lebanese
army uncovered a network that allegedly assassinated several Lebanese
and Palestinian leaders on behalf of Israeli intelligence agency
Caesarea tried for many years to assassinate Palestine Liberation
Organization leader Yasser Arafat, a job later tasked by Israel's
Minister of Defense
Ariel Sharon to a military special ops task force
code named "Salt Fish," later renamed "Operation Goldfish," specially
created for the job of assassinating Arafat, with Ronan
Bergman suggesting that
Israel used radiation poisoning to kill Yasser
Eli Cohen infiltrated the highest echelons of the Syrian government,
was a close friend of the Syrian President, and was considered for the
post of Minister of Defense. He gave his handlers a complete plan of
the Syrian defenses on the Golan Heights, the Syrian Armed Forces
order of battle, and a complete list of the Syrian military's weapons
inventory. He also ordered the planting of trees by every Syrian
fortified position under the pretext of shading soldiers, but the
trees actually served as targeting markers for the
Forces. He was discovered by Syrian and Soviet intelligence, tried in
secret, and executed publicly in 1965. His information
played a crucial role during the Six-Day War.
On 1 April 1978, 12 Syrian military and secret service personnel were
killed by a booby trapped sophisticated Israeli listening device
planted on the main telephone cable between
The alleged death of General Anatoly Kuntsevich, who from the late
1990s was suspected of aiding the Syrians in the manufacture of VX
nerve-gas, in exchange for which he was paid huge amounts of money by
the Syrian government. On April 3, 2002, Kuntsevich died mysteriously
during a plane journey, amid allegations that
The alleged killing of Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, a senior member of
the military wing of Hamas, in an automobile booby trap in September
2004 in Damascus.
The uncovering of a nuclear reactor being built in
Syria as a result
of surveillance by
Mossad of Syrian officials working under the
command of Muhammad Suleiman. As a result, the Syrian nuclear reactor
was destroyed by Israeli Air Forces in September 2007 (see Operation
The alleged killing of Muhammad Suleiman, head of Syria's nuclear
program, in 2008. Suleiman was on a beach in
Tartus and was killed by
a sniper firing from a boat.
On July 25, 2007, the al-Safir chemical weapons depot exploded,
killing 15 Syrian personnel as well as 10 Iranian engineers. Syrian
investigations blamed Israeli sabotage.
The alleged killing of Imad Mughniyah, a senior leader of Hezbollah
complicit in the 1983 United States embassy bombing, with an exploding
Damascus in 2008.
The decomposed body of Yuri Ivanov, the deputy head of the GRU,
Russia's foreign military intelligence service, was found on a Turkish
beach in early August 2010, amid allegations that Mossad
may have played a role. He had disappeared while staying near Latakia,
Mossad was accused of being behind the assassination of Aziz Asbar, a
senior Syrian scientist responsible for developing long-range rockets
and chemical weapons programs. He was killed in a car bomb in Masyaf
on August 5, 2018.
United Arab Emirates
Mossad is suspected of killing Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas
military commander, in January 2010 at Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
The team which carried out the killing is estimated, on the basis of
CCTV and other evidence, to have consisted of at least 26 agents
traveling on bogus passports. The operatives entered al-Mabhouh's
hotel room, where Mabhouh was subjected to electric shocks and
interrogated. The door to his room was reported to have been locked
Although the UAE police and
Hamas have declared
Israel responsible for
the killing, no direct evidence linking
Mossad to the crime has been
found. The agents' bogus passports included six British passports,
cloned from those of real British nationals resident in
suspected by Dubai, five Irish passports, apparently forged from those
of living individuals, forged Australian passports that
raised fears of reprisal against innocent victims of identity
theft, a genuine German passport and a false French
passport. Emirati police say they have fingerprint and DNA evidence of
some of the attackers, as well as retinal scans of 11 suspects
Dubai airport. Dubai's police
chief has said "I am now completely sure that it was Mossad," adding:
"I have presented the (Dubai) prosecutor with a request for the arrest
of (Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu and the head of
Mossad," for the murder.
South and East Asia
Rediff story in 2003 revealed that
Mossad had clandestine links with
Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), India's external
intelligence agency. When R&AW was founded in September 1968 by
Rameshwar Nath Kao, he was advised by then Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi to cultivate links with Mossad. This was suggested as a
countermeasure to military links between that of Pakistan and China,
as well as with North Korea.
Israel was also concerned that Pakistani
army officers were training Libyans and Iranians in handling Chinese
and North Korean military equipment.
Pakistan believed intelligence relations between India and Israel
threatened Pakistani security. When young Israeli tourists began
visiting the Kashmir valley in the early 1990s, Pakistan suspected
they were disguised Israeli army officers there to help Indian
security forces with anti-terrorism operations. Israeli tourists were
attacked, with one slain and another kidnapped. Pressure from the
Kashmiri Muslim diaspora in the United States led to his release.
Kashmiri Muslims feared that the attacks could isolate the American
Jewish community, and result in them lobbying the US government
against Kashmiri separatist groups.
In 1996, R.K. Yadav, a former RAW official had filed a
disproportionate assets case in the Delhi High Court against Anand
Kumar Verma, RAW chief between 1987 and 1990. Yadav listed eight
properties that he claimed were purchased illegally by Verma using
RAW's unaudited funds for secret operations. Although his petition for
a CBI inquiry into Verma's properties was dismissed, Yadav managed to
obtain more information using in RTI in 2005 and filed another case in
2009. In 2013, the CBI carried out an investigation of Verma's
properties. Proceedings in the Delhi High Court revealed the names of
two companies floated by RAW in 1988 – Piyush Investments and Hector
Leasing and Finance Company Ltd. The firms were headed by two senior
RAW officials V. Balachandran and B. Raman. Balachandran and Raman
retired in 1994 and 1995 respectively. The companies were listed as
trading houses that dealt in several kinds of minerals, automobiles,
textiles, metals and spare parts, and also claimed to produce feature
films. The companies purchased two flats in Gauri Sadan, a residential
building on Hailey Road, New Delhi in March 1989 for ₹23
India Today reported that the two flats were RAW safe houses used as
operational fronts for
Mossad agents and housed Mossad's station chief
between 1989 and 1992. RAW had reportedly decided to have closer ties
to Mossad, and the subsequent secret operation was approved by then
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. India Today cites "RAW insiders" as
saying that RAW agents hid a
Mossad agent holding an Argentine
passport and exchanged intelligence and expertise in operations,
including negotiations for the release of an Israeli tourist by the
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front militants in June 1991. When asked
about the case Verma refused to speak about the companies, but claimed
his relationship with them was purely professional. Raman stated,
"Sometimes, spy agencies float companies for operational reasons. All
I can say is that everything was done with government approval. Files
were cleared by the then prime minister [Rajiv Gandhi] and his cabinet
secretary. Balachandran stated, "It is true that we did a large number
of operations but at every stage, we kept the Cabinet Secretariat and
the prime minister in the loop."
In November 2015, The Times of India reported that agents from Mossad
MI5 were protecting Prime Minister
Narendra Modi during his visit
to Turkey. Modi was on a state visit to the United Kingdom and was
scheduled to attend the 2015 G-20 Summit in Antalya, Turkey. The paper
reported that the agents had been called in to provide additional
cover to Modi's security detail, composed of India's Special
Protection Group and secret agents from RAW and IB, in wake of the
Mossad may have been involved in the 2004 explosion of Ryongchon,
where several Syrian nuclear scientists working on the Syrian and
Iranian nuclear-weapons programs were killed and a train carrying
fissionable material was destroyed.
In a September 2003 news article, it was alleged by Rediff
News that General Pervez Musharaf, the then-President of Pakistan,
decided to establish a clandestine relationship between Inter-Services
Intelligence (ISI) and
Mossad via officers of the two services posted
at their embassies in Washington, DC.
In 1954, after
Mossad received intelligence that an Israeli officer
who had access to classified military technologies, Major Alexander
Israel, had approached Egyptian officials in Europe and offered to
sell Israeli military secrets and documents, a team of
Mossad and Shin
Bet officers was quickly sent to Europe to locate him and abduct him,
and located him in Vienna. The mission was code-named Operation Bren.
A female agent managed to lure him to a meeting through a honey trap
operation, and he was subsequently kidnapped, sedated, and flown to
Israel aboard a waiting Israeli military plane. However, the plane had
to make several refueling stops, and he was given an additional dose
of sedatives each time, which ultimately caused him to overdose,
killing him. Upon arrival in Israel, after it was discovered that he
was dead, he was given a burial at sea, and the case remained highly
classified for decades.
Mossad gathered information on Austrian politician
Jörg Haider using
Mossad is alleged to be responsible for the killing of Canadian
engineer and ballistics expert
Gerald Bull on March 22, 1990. He was
shot multiple times in the head outside his Brussels
apartment. Bull was at the time working for
Iraq on the
Project Babylon supergun. Others, including Bull's son,
Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to
scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative
theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA.
Iran are also
candidates for suspicion.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Assisted in air and overland evacuations of Bosnian Jews from war-torn
Israel in 1992 and 1993.
The killing of Hussein Al Bashir in Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1973 in
relation to the Munich massacre.
Mossad allegedly assisted Morocco's domestic security service in the
disappearance of dissident politician
Mehdi Ben Barka
Mehdi Ben Barka in
Cherbourg Project – Operation Noa, the 1969 smuggling of five Sa'ar
3-class missile boats out of Cherbourg.
The killing of Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, coordinator of the Munich
massacre, with an exploding telephone in his
Paris apartment in
The killing of Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi, who was involved in the Munich
Paris in 1973.
The killing of Mohammad Boudia, member of the PFLP, in
On April 5, 1979,
Mossad agents are believed to have triggered an
explosion which destroyed 60 percent of components being built in
Toulouse for an Iraqi reactor. Although an environmental organization,
Groupe des écologistes français, unheard of before this incident,
claimed credit for the blast, most French officials
discount the claim. The reactor itself was subsequently destroyed by
an Israeli air strike in 1981.
The alleged killing of Zuheir Mohsen, a pro-Syrian member of the PLO,
The killing of Yehia El-Mashad, the head of the
Iraq nuclear weapons
program, in 1980.
The alleged killing of Atef Bseiso, a top intelligence officer of the
Paris in 1992. French police believe that a team of assassins
Atef Bseiso from Berlin, where that first team connected with
another team to close in on him in front of a Left Bank hotel, where
he received three head-shots at point blank range.
Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-
Mossad to further
Israel's nuclear program. The German freighter "Scheersberg A"
disappeared on its way from
Genoa along with its cargo of
200 tons of yellowcake, after supposedly being transferred to an
The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God
campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal. Their purpose might
not have been to kill the receiver. A
Mossad letter bomb led to
Alois Brunner losing 4 fingers from his
right hand in 1980.
The alleged targeted killing of Dr Wadie Haddad, using poisoned
chocolate. Haddad died on 28 March 1978, in the German Democratic
Republic supposedly from leukemia. According to the book Striking
Back, published by Aharon Klein in 2006, Haddad was eliminated by
Mossad, which had sent the chocolate-loving Haddad Belgian chocolates
coated with a slow-acting and undetectable poison which caused him to
die several months later. "It took him a few long months to die",
Klein said in the book.
Mossad discovered that
Hezbollah had recruited a German national named
Steven Smyrek, and that he was travelling to Israel. In an operation
conducted by Mossad, the CIA, the German Internal Security agency
Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz
Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV), and the Israeli Internal
Security agency Shin Bet, Smyrek was kept under constant surveillance,
and arrested as soon as he landed in Israel.
The killing of Zaiad Muchasi,
Fatah representative to Cyprus, by an
explosion in his Athens hotel room in 1973.
The assassination of Mahmoud Al-Mabhouh – a senior
commander – in Dubai, 2010, was suspected to be the work of Mossad,
and there were eight Irish passports (six of which were used)
fraudulently obtained by the Israeli embassy in Dublin, Ireland for
use by alleged
Mossad agents in the operation. The Irish government
was angered over the use of Irish passports, summoned the Israeli
ambassador for an explanation and expelled the Israeli diplomat deemed
responsible from Dublin, following an investigation. One of the
passports was registered to a residence on Pembroke Road, Ballsbridge,
on the same road as the Israeli embassy. The house was empty when
later searched, but there was suspicion by Irish authorities it had
been used as a
Mossad safe house in the
Mossad is reported to have a working
relationship with Ireland's armed forces' national intelligence
service, the Directorate of Military Intelligence, and
has previously tipped the Irish authorities off about arms shipments
from the Middle East to Ireland for use by dissident republican
militants, resulting in their interception and arrests.
The killing of Wael Zwaiter, thought to be a member of Black
Mossad used an undercover agent to lure
Mordechai Vanunu from
the United Kingdom to Italy in a honey trap style operation where he
was abducted and returned to
Israel where he was tried and found
guilty of treason because of his role in exposing Israel's nuclear
The killing of Fathi Shiqaqi. Shiqaqi, a leader of the Palestinian
Islamic Jihad, was shot several times in the head in 1995 in front of
the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta.
On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer,
Norway, was killed by
Mossad agents. He had been mistaken for Ali
Hassan Salameh, one of the leaders of Black September, the Palestinian
group responsible for the Munich massacre, who had been given shelter
Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports, which
angered the Canadian government. Six
Mossad agents were arrested, and
the incident came to be known as the
Lillehammer affair. Israel
subsequently paid compensation to Bouchiki's
Israel provided weapons to the Serbs during the Bosnian War, possibly
due to the pro-Serbian bias of the government of the
time, or possibly in exchange for the immigration of the
Sarajevo Jewish community to Israel. The Mossad
allegedly was responsible for providing Serbian groups with
According to secret
US State Department
US State Department documents discovered
by the Iranian students who took over the
U.S. Embassy in Tehran
U.S. Embassy in Tehran on
November 4, 1979:
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Switzerland the Israelis have an Embassy in
Bern and a
Zürich which provide cover for Collection
Department officers involved in unilateral operations. These Israeli
diplomatic installations also maintain close relations with the Swiss
on a local level in regard to overt functions such as physical
security for Israeli official and commercial installations in the
country and the protection of staff members and visiting Israelis.
There is also close collaboration between the Israelis and Swiss on
scientific and technical matters pertaining to intelligence and
security operations. Swiss officials have made frequent trips to
Israel. There is a continual flow of Israelis to and through
Switzerland. These visits, however, are usually arranged through the
Political Action and Liaison regional controller at the Embassy in
Paris directly with the Swiss and not through the officials in the
Israeli Embassy in Bern, although the latter are kept informed.
In February 1998, five
Mossad agents were caught wiretapping the home
Hezbollah agent in a
Bern suburb. Four agents were freed, but the
fifth was tried, found guilty, sentenced to one year in prison, and
following his release was banned from entering
Switzerland for five
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Mossad was involved in outreach to Refuseniks in the Soviet Union
during the crackdown on Soviet Jews in the period between the 1950s
and the 1980s.
Mossad helped establish contact with Refuseniks in the
USSR, and helped them acquire Jewish religious items, banned by the
Soviet government, in addition to passing communications into and out
of the USSR. Many rabbinical students from Western countries
travelled to the Soviet Union as part of this program in order to
establish and maintain contact with refuseniks.
In February 2011, a Palestinian engineer, Dirar Abu Seesi, was
allegedly pulled off a train by
Mossad agents en route to the capital
Kiev from Kharkiv. He had been planning to apply for Ukrainian
citizenship, and reappeared in an Israeli jail only three weeks after
Further information: Israel-New Zealand relations
In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on
an incident in which two Australia-based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and
Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for Mossad, attempted to
fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of
a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister
Silvan Shalom later
apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled
several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli
agents. Both Kelman and Cara served half of their
six-month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two
others, an Israeli, Ze'ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick,
are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the
passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before
In book 4 of Mark Greaney's Gray Man series, Dead Eye,
Mossad and the
CIA partner to capture the world's most feared and lethal rogue former
black ops agent Courtland Gentry.
Since the episode "Kill Ari (Part 1)",
Mossad has played an
instrumental part in the American show NCIS. Mossad's presence
includes one of the main characters, Agent Ziva David, who is a former
Mossad Agent. She originally filled the position of
Mossad liaison to
NCIS, until the end of Season 7, when she became a full-time NCIS
agent. Her father, Eli David, was the director of Mossad, until the
Season 10 episode Shabbat Shalom, when he was killed. Many other
characters have been included in the show from Mossad, including
Michael Rivkin and Ari Haswari. Some episodes of the show have taken
place in Israel.
The TV series
Covert Affairs had a
Mossad agent Eyal Lavin as a
The TV series The Blacklist has
Samar Navabi (played by
Mozhan Marnò) as one of the side characters.
In the 2001 film Swordfish, lead character Gabriel Shear (played by
John Travolta) is believed to be a
In Jeffrey Archer's novel Honour Among Thieves, the lead female
protagonist is a
Author Daniel Silva's best-selling spy novel series is centered on
Mossad agent and assassin, Gabriel Allon. The term "Mossad"
is never used in the novels, but the protagonist is described as
working for Israel's intelligence service (which the characters refer
to simply as "the Office").
In the 2005 film Munich,
Mossad agents are depicted in their
retaliation against Black September following the events of the 1972
Duvdevan Unit – Israel's undercover strike unit
List of Israeli assassinations
Special Activities Division
The Spy Machine (1998), a British documentary special about the work
of the Mossad
Israeli Intelligence Corps SIGINT and cyber unit
Yamam, Israel's elite Border Police SWAT Unit
^ "The secret history of Mossad, Israel's feared and respected
intelligence agency". www.newstatesman.com. Retrieved July 2,
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^ Levinson, Chaim (August 26, 2018). "A Golden Age for the Mossad:
More Targets, More Ops, More Money". Haaretz. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
^ a b
Mossad profile, Global Security. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
Mossad profile, Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved October
^ Workings of Israel's secret service exposed, London Times, 2 August
Israel Vs. Iran: The Shadow War, Potomac Books, Inc, 2012, page 91,
By Yaakov Katz, Yoaz Hendel
^ Poisoned toothpaste and exploding phones: New book chronicles
Israel’s ‘2,700’ assassination operations Ethan Bronner,
Saturday 27 January 2018, The Independent
^ How Israel’s leaders use targeted killings to try to ‘stop
history’ By DAVID HOROVITZ, 26 January 2018, Times of Israel
^ Szalai, Jennifer (January 31, 2018). "'Rise and Kill First' Shines
Light on Israel's Hidden Assassinations". The New York Times.
^ a b ISRAEL'S MOSSAD IS LOOKING FOR A FEW GOOD STARTUPS BY HERB
KEINON, JUNE 27, 2017, Jerusalem Post
^ OP. HARPOON: HOW THE MOSSAD AND AN ISRAELI NGO DESTROYED TERRORIST
MONEY NETWORKS, Jerusalem Post, 7 Nov 2017
^ Following the Money, By Yishai Schwartz, January 18, 2018
^ a b Bergman, Ronen (January 25, 2012). "Will
Israel Attack Iran?".
The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
^ a b The Forward and
Dan Raviv And
Yossi Melman (March 27, 2016).
"The Strange Case of a
Nazi Who Became an Israeli Hitman". Haaretz.
Israel Intelligence and covert operations: Chronology 1948 –
1955". Zionism-israel. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
^ Ross, Michael: The Volunteer (2006)
^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York:
Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 203–210.
^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York:
Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58234-049-4.
Hamas operative known as 'The Engineer' assassinated by
Mossad in Tunisia By JPOST.COM STAFF, 12/16/2016
^ Tunisia investigating Mossad-suspected assassination Roi Kais,
Mossad took photos, Entebbe Operation was on its way". Ynetnews.
2006. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
Israel marks 30th anniversary of Entebbe." Associated Press in USA
Today. July 5, 2006.
^ Ross, Michael, The Volunteer, pp. 251–272
Argentina claimed that the "illicit and clandestine transfer of
Eichmann from Argentine territory constitutes a flagrant violation of
the Argentine State's right of sovereignty[.]" Bass, Gary J. (2004.)
Adolf Eichmann Case: Universal and National Jurisdiction. In
Stephen Macedo (ed,) Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the
Prosecution of Serious Crimes. (ch.4) Philadelphia: U.Penn. Press. In
Eichmann's case, the most salient feature from the perspective of
international law was the fact of Israeli law enforcement action in
another state's territory without consent; the human element includes
the dramatic circumstances of the capture by
Mossad agents and the
ensuing custody and transfer to Israel[.] Damrosch, Lori F. (2004.)
Connecting the Threads in the Fabric of International Law. In Stephen
Macedo (ed,) Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the
Prosecution of Serious Crimes. (ch.5) Philadelphia: U.Penn. Press. The
principle of territorial integrity (in Art. 2(4) UN Charter) At its
most obvious level this means that the exercise of enforcement
jurisdiction within the territory of another state will be a violation
of territorial integrity 32 Note 32: E.g. after
Adolf Eichmann [...]
was abducted from
Argentina by a group of Israelis, now known to be
from the Israeli Secret Service (Mossad), the Argentine Government
lodged a complaint with the UN
Security Council [...] It is however
unclear whether as a matter of international law the obligation to
make reparation for a violation of territorial sovereignty such as
that involved in the Eichmann case includes an obligation to return
Higgins, Rosalyn and Maurice Floy. (1997). Terrorism and International
Law. UK: Routledge. (p. 48)
Security Council Resolution 138, "Question Relating to the Case of
Adolf Eichmann"". UN. Archived from the original on November 26, 2011.
Retrieved December 4, 2011.
^ Posner, Gerald L.; John Ware. "How
Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele
cheated justice for 34 years". Chicago Tribune Magazine. May 18, 1986.
^ Ross, Michael The Volunteer, pp. 168–171
^ a b Officials Told of ‘Major Assault’ Plans.
^ "Simon Wiesenthal Center". Wiesenthal. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
Mossad cooperates with Saudis, Bahrain". presstv.ir. February 8,
Mossad chief reportedly visited
Saudi Arabia for talks on Iran".
^ "Israeli army report reveals intelligence and security relations
with several Arab and Muslim countries". middleeastmonitor.com.
Archived from the original on February 22, 2014.
^ Iran, Library of Congress Country Studies (pp 276). Retrieved August
^ Ervand Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions (University of California
Press, 1999), p. 104
^ "CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
^ Linzer, Dafna. "Former Iranian Defense Official Talks to Western
Intelligence", The Washington Post, March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 8,
^ Mahnaimi, Uzi. "Defector spied on
Iran for years", The Sunday Times,
March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2007.
^ Edward Yeranian (January 11, 2011). "'Israeli Plot Against Nuclear
Scientists'". VOA. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
Iran mourns missile commander killed in blastt' New York Times
November 14, 2011
Mossad behind Iranian military base blast' Ynet, October 25, 2010
^ "Geopolitical Diary: Israeli Covert Operations in Iran". Stratfor.
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^ Daniel Klaidman, Eli Lake and Dan Ephron (February 13, 2012).
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^ Mossad’s stunning op in
Iran overshadows the actual intelligence
it stole Times of Israel, May 1, 2018
^ European intelligence officials briefed in
Israel on Iran’s
nuclear archive Times of Israel, May 5, 2018
^ a b c Ostrovsky, Victor (1990), By Way of Deception – The making
and unmaking of a
Mossad Officer, New York: St. Martin's Press,
^ McGeough, Paul (2009) Kill Khalid – The Failed Mossad
Assassination of Khalid Mishal and the Rise of Hamas. Quartet Books.
ISBN 978-0-7043-7157-6. Pages 126,127.
^ a b Cowell, Alan (October 15, 1997). "The Daring Attack That Blew Up
in Israel's Face".
^ McGeough, Paul (2009) Kill Khalid – The Failed Mossad
Assassination of Khalid Mishal and the Rise of Hamas. Quartet Books.
ISBN 978-0-7043-7157-6. Page 184.
^ Guerin, Orla. "Arafat: On borrowed time", BBC News, June 29, 2002.
Retrieved October 27, 2006.
^ Barbara Harlow (Winter–Spring 1986). "Return to Haifa: "Opening
the Borders" in Palestinian Literature". Social Text. No. 13/14
(13/14): 3–23. JSTOR 466196.
^ Life and Death of a Terrorist, The New York Times, July 10, 1983.
^ Shalev, Noam 'The hunt for Black September', BBC News Online,
January 26, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2006.
^ a b c d e f Israeli "Hits" On Terrorists, Jewish Virtual Library,
last updated December 18, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
^ Blanford, Nicholas (June 15, 2006). "Lebanon exposes deadly Israeli
spy ring". The Times. London. Retrieved August 14, 2006.
Beirut blast kills
Hezbollah fighter". BBC News. August 2, 2003.
Retrieved June 9, 2013.
Beirut bomb kills
Hezbollah man". BBC News. July 19, 2004.
Retrieved April 21, 2011.
^ Mrque, Baseem (May 26, 2006). "Islamic Jihad Leader Killed in
Lebanon". The Washington Post. Washington. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
^ "Lebanon arrests another 2 over spying for Israel". Ya Libnan. June
28, 2010. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
^ "Lebanon: Israeli spying cell busted". Xinhua. June 13, 2006.
Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved April 21,
^ New York Times, 23 January 2018, "How Arafat Eluded Israel’s
^ Poisoned toothpaste and exploding phones: New book chronicles
Israel’s ‘2,700’ assassination operations Ethan Bronner,
Saturday 27 January 2018, The Independent.
^ Our Man in Damascus, 1969.
^ a b c d Ronen Bergman, The Spies Inside
Damascus Foreign Policy,
September 19, 2013
Hamas member assassinated in
Syria News From Bangladesh, September
^ Assassinations: the work of Mossad? Times, February 16, 2010
^ Mahnaimi, Uzi; Jaber, Hala; Swain, Jon (February 17, 2008). "Israel
kills terror chief with headrest bomb". The Sunday Times. London.
Retrieved February 16, 2008.
^ Top Russian spy’s body washes up 'after swimming accident’,
^ Israel's Red Line: Fate of Syrian Chemical Weapons May Trigger
WarDer Spiegel, By Ronen Bergman, Juliane von Mittelstaedt, Matthias
Schepp and Holger Stark, July 31, 2012
^ "A Top Syrian Scientist Is Killed, and Fingers Point at Israel". The
New York Times. August 6, 2018.
Dubai Releases Video Of Alleged Assassins In
Hamas Chief Killing
Huffington Post February 16, 2010, attributed to Associated Press
^ UAE: European team killed Mabhouh
Jerusalem Post and Associated
Press, February 15, 2010
^ Katz, Yaakov (January 31, 2010). "Analysis: Another blow to the
'axis of evil'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
^ Issacharoff, Avi (February 2, 2010). "Who killed Mahmoud al-Mabhouh?
/ Many wanted
Hamas man dead". Haaretz. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
^ Melman, Yossi (February 11, 2010). "10 agents including 3 women,
took part in
Hamas assassination" Haaretz. Retrieved February
Dubai suspects had five fake Irish passports". RTÉ News. February
18, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
^ "Man in photo on
Hamas leader hit squad passport not my son, says
mum". The Australian. February 25, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
^ 'U.K. police in
Israel to probe passports used in
(Haaretz, February 27, 2010
^ 'Interpol adds suspected
Dubai assassins to most wanted list'
Haaretz February 22, 2010)
^ Israeli PM's arrest sought over murder News, March 3, 2010
^ a b RAW and MOSSAD, the Secret Link,rediff.com
^ a b "An ex-RAW employee takes boss to unveil a riveting story of
safe houses for Mossad, fake firms and secret funds". India Today.
March 15, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
^ Rajshekhar Jha (November 15, 2015). "Mossad,
MI5 roped in to shield
Narendra Modi in Turkey?". The Times of India.
Retrieved November 13, 2016.
Mossad may be protecting Modi at Turkey G20 summit, paper claims".
The Times of Israel. November 15, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
^ Thomas, Gordon: Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad
^ "RAW & Mossad: The Secret Link". rediff.com. September 8, 2003.
^ Goldman, Jan: Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence
Professional, Volume 2 p. 63-64
^ Boyes, Roger (June 2, 2005). "
Mossad spied on farright Austrian".
The Times. London.
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^ Frum, Barbara (April 5, 1990). "Who killed Gerald Bull? (Video) –
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^ Friedman, From
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^ Ford, Peter S., Major, USAF, "Israel's Attack on Osiraq: A Model for
Future Preventive Strikes?", INSS Occasional Paper 59, USAF Institute
for National Security Studies, USAF Academy, Colorado, July 2005, p.
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^ Henley, Jon (March 3, 2001). "French court strikes blow against
fugitive Nazi". The Guardian. Retrieved October 27, 2006.
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^ Ross, Michael, The Volunteer, pp. 158–159
^ Black, Ian (June 15, 2010). "Ireland orders Israeli diplomat out of
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^ "Secret army squad keeps watch on 60 Al Qaeda in Ireland". Irish
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^ O'Hanlon, Ray (February 16, 2011). "Inside
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and Death". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
^ ""An Eye for an Eye", Bob Simon". CBS News. November 20, 2011.
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^ How are Bosnia's Serbs getting Israeli arms?, By Tom Sawicki, The
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^ Intelligence and the War in Bosnia, 1992–1995 (New Brunswick,
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^ America used Islamists to arm the Bosnian Muslims Richard J Aldrich,
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^ "UN confirms
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^ Hallel, Amir (October 2, 2004). "At home with the
Mossad men". The
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Bar-Zohar, Michael and Mishal, Nissim. Mossad: The Great Operations of
Israel's Secret Service. The Robson Press, 2012.
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Network. New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1992.
ISBN 1-879823-01-2. OCLC 26586922.
Black, Ian and Benny Morris. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of
Israel's Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991.
ISBN 978-0-8021-3286-4. OCLC 249707944.
Central Intelligence Agency. Israel: Foreign Intelligence and Security
Services: A Survey. Washington, D.C., 1979. (Included in Documents
from the US
Espionage Den. Tehran: Center for the Publication of the
Espionage Den's Documents, 1982.)
Jonas, George. Vengeance. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.
ISBN 0-671-50611-0. OCLC 10507421.
Lapid, Ephraim and Amos Gilboa, Israel's Silent Defender: An Inside
Look at Sixty Years of Israeli Intelligence (2012)
Libel, Tamir. "Looking for meaning: lessons from Mossad’s failed
adaptation to the post-Cold War era, 1991–2013." Journal of
Intelligence History 14.2 (2015): 83–95. abstract
Raviv, Dan and Melman, Yossi. Spies Against Armageddon: Inside
Israel's Secret Wars. Sea Cliff: Levant Books, 2012.
Official website (in Hebrew)
Official website (in Arabic)
GlobalSecurity.org entry for Mossad
vte Israeli Intelligence CommunityIntelligenceCommunity
Military Intelligence Directorate (Aman)
Institute for Intelligence and
Special Operations (Mossad)
Security Agency (Shin Bet)
Israel Police Intelligence Branch
Air Intelligence Directorate
Naval Intelligence Division
General Staff Intelligence Corps
Combat Intelligence Collection Corps
Information Security Department
General Staff Reconnaissance Unit (Unit 269/
Ministry of Defense Security Authority
Special Forces Units
National Security Council
Prime Minister's Office
Ministry of Defense
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Intelligence
Ministry of Intelligence Services
Ministry of Public Security
Ministry of Strategic Affairs
Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee
Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee of the Knesset
Ministry of Justice
Military Court of Appeals
Liaison Bureau (Nativ)
Scientific Relations Bureau (Lekem)
vteNational intelligence agenciesForeignintelligence
Belarus: KGB RB
Bosnia and Herzegovina: OSA-OBA
Congo (Democratic Republic of): ANR
Czech Republic: ÚZSI
Ghana: BNI, BGU, RDU
Ivory Coast: NSC
Japan: NPA, CIRO
Republic of Macedonia: UBK
New Zealand: NZSIS
North Korea: RGB
Oman: Palace Office
Papua New Guinea: NIO
Saudi Arabia: Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah
Sierra Leone: CISU
South Africa: SSA
South Korea: NIS
Sri Lanka: SIS
United Arab Emirates: UAEI
United Kingdom: SIS (MI6)
United States: CIA
Belarus: KGB RB
Bosnia and Herzegovina: SIPA
Congo (Democratic Republic of): ANR
Czech Republic: BIS
Ghana: GPS, CID
Hong Kong: CIB
India: IB, CBI, NSC, AIRMS
Iran: VAJA, IRGC, PAVA
Ireland: CSB, SDU, NSU
Israel: Shin Bet
Republic of Macedonia: IA
Japan: NPA, PSIA
New Zealand: NZSIS
North Korea: SSD
Pakistan: IB, FIA
Saudi Arabia: Mabahith
South Africa: SSA
South Korea: SPO
Sri Lanka: SIS
Thailand: ISOC, SB
United Kingdom: Security Service (MI5), NDEDIU, NCA, NBIS
United States: FBI
GRU MO RB
Canada: Int Branch
Congo (Democratic Republic of): DEMIAP
Czech Republic: VZ
Finland: PE TIEDOS
France: DRM, DGSE
Iran: General Staff, SAHEFAJA, SAHEFASA, SAHEFAVEDJA
India: DMI, DIA
Republic of Macedonia: MSSI
New Zealand: DDIS
North Korea: RGB
Pakistan: MI, NI, AI
Poland: SKW, SWW
Saudi Arabia: AFISC
Serbia: VOA, VBA
South Africa: SANDF-ID
South Korea: DIA, DSSC
Sri Lanka: DMI
Syria: MI, AFID
Turkey: GENKUR İ.D.B., JİTEM
Ukraine: HUR MO
United Kingdom: DI
United States: DIA
Brazil: 2ª Sch/EMD
New Zealand: GCSB
North Korea: RGB
Saudi Arabia: PSS
South Africa: SSA
Turkey: MİT-ETİB, MİT-SİB
United Kingdom: GCHQ
United States: NSA
Israel: Air Intelligence Group
New Zealand: GEOINT NZ
Russia: TsVTI GRU
United Kingdom: DGIFC
United States: NGA
Global surveillance disclosures
Great Firewall of China
Mass surveillance in China
Call detail record
Turbulence (NSA programme)
Surveillance issues in smart cities
ISNI: 0000 0001 0806 690X
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