Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (/əˈɡrɪpə/; 64/62 BC – 12 BC) was a
Roman consul, statesman, general and architect. He was a close
friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant to Gaius
Julius Caesar Octavianus
and was responsible for the construction of some of the most notable
buildings in the history of Rome and for important military victories,
most notably at the
Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium in 31 BC against the forces of
Mark Antony and Cleopatra. As a result of these victories, Octavianus
became the first Roman Emperor, adopting the name of Augustus. Agrippa
Augustus in making Rome 'a city of marble" and renovating
aqueducts to give all Romans, from every social class, access to the
highest quality public services. He was responsible for the creation
of many baths, porticoes and gardens, as well as the original
Pantheon. Agrippa was also father-in-law to the second Emperor
Tiberius, maternal grandfather to Caligula, and maternal
great-grandfather to the Emperor Nero.
1 Early life
2 Rise to power
3 Life in public service
4 Antony and Cleopatra
5 Late life
6.1 Marriages and issue
7 Agrippa in popular culture
7.3 Video games
8 See also
11 Further reading
Agrippa was born between 64–62 BC, in an uncertain location.
His father was perhaps called Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa. He had an
elder brother whose name was also Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, and a
sister named Vipsania Polla. His family originated in the Italian
countryside and was of humble and plebeian origins. They had not been
prominent in Roman public life. However, Agrippa was about the same
Octavian (the future emperor Augustus), and the two were
educated together and became close friends. Despite Agrippa's
association with the family of Julius Caesar, his elder brother chose
another side in the civil wars of the 40s BC, fighting under Cato
against Caesar in Africa. When Cato's forces were defeated, Agrippa's
brother was taken prisoner but freed after
Octavian interceded on his
It is not known whether Agrippa fought against his brother in Africa,
but he probably served in Caesar's campaign of 46–45 BC against
Gnaeus Pompeius, which culminated in the Battle of Munda. Caesar
regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study
in Apollonia (on the Illyrian coast) with the Macedonian legions,
while Caesar consolidated his power in Rome. In the fourth month of
their stay in Apollonia the news of Julius Caesar's assassination in
March 44 BC reached them. Agrippa and another friend, Quintus
Salvidienus Rufus, advised Octavius to march on Rome with the troops
from Macedonia, but Octavius decided to sail to Italy with a small
retinue. After his arrival, he learned that Caesar had adopted him as
his legal heir. Octavius at this time took Caesar's name, but
modern historians refer to him as "Octavian" during this period.
Rise to power
After Octavian's return to Rome, he and his supporters realised they
needed the support of legions. Agrippa helped
Octavian to levy troops
in Campania. Once
Octavian had his legions, he made a pact with
Mark Antony and Lepidus, legally established in 43 BC as the Second
Octavian and his consular colleague Quintus Pedius
arranged for Caesar's assassins to be prosecuted in their absence, and
Agrippa was entrusted with the case against Gaius Cassius
Longinus. It may have been in the same year that Agrippa began his
political career, holding the position of Tribune of the Plebs, which
granted him entry to the Senate.
Bust of Agrippa, Pushkin Museum
In 42 BC, Agrippa probably fought alongside
Octavian and Antony in the
Battle of Philippi. After their return to Rome, he played a major
role in Octavian's war against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia Antonia,
respectively the brother and wife of Mark Antony, which began in 41 BC
and ended in the capture of
Perusia in 40 BC. However, Salvidienus
remained Octavian's main general at this time. After the Perusine
Octavian departed for Gaul, leaving Agrippa as urban praetor in
Rome with instructions to defend Italy against Sextus Pompeius, an
opponent of the Triumvirate who was now occupying Sicily. In July 40,
while Agrippa was occupied with the
Ludi Apollinares that were the
praetor's responsibility, Sextus began a raid in southern Italy.
Agrippa advanced on him, forcing him to withdraw. However, the
Triumvirate proved unstable, and in August 40 both Sextus and Antony
invaded Italy (but not in an organized alliance). Agrippa's success in
Sipontum from Antony helped bring an end to the conflict.
Agrippa was among the intermediaries through whom Antony and Octavian
agreed once more upon peace. During the discussions
that Salvidienus had offered to betray him to Antony, with the result
that Salvidienus was prosecuted and either executed or committed
suicide. Agrippa was now Octavian's leading general.
Agrippa depicted in a relief of the Altar of Peace, the Ara Pacis
In 39 or 38 BC,
Octavian appointed Agrippa governor of Transalpine
Gaul, where in 38 he put down a rising of the Aquitanians. He also
fought the Germanic tribes, becoming the next Roman general to cross
Rhine after Julius Caesar. He was summoned back to Rome by
Octavian to assume the consulship for 37 BC. He was well below the
usual minimum age of 43, but
Octavian had suffered a humiliating naval
defeat against Sextus Pompey and needed his friend to oversee the
preparations for further warfare. Agrippa refused the offer of a
triumph for his exploits in
Gaul – on the grounds, says Dio, that he
thought it improper to celebrate during a time of trouble for
Sextus Pompeius had command of the sea on the
coasts of Italy, Agrippa's first care was to provide a safe harbour
for Octavian's ships. He accomplished this by cutting through the
strips of land which separated the Lacus Lucrinus from the sea, thus
forming an outer harbour, while joining the lake Avernus to the
Lucrinus to serve as an inner harbor. The new harbor-complex was
Portus Julius in Octavian's honour. Agrippa was also
responsible for technological improvements, including larger ships and
an improved form of grappling hook. About this time, he married
Caecilia Pomponia Attica, daughter of Cicero's friend Titus Pomponius
In 36 BC,
Octavian and Agrippa set sail against Sextus. The fleet was
badly damaged by storms and had to withdraw; Agrippa was left in
charge of the second attempt. Thanks to superior technology and
training, Agrippa and his men won decisive victories at
Naulochus, destroying all but seventeen of Sextus' ships and
compelling most of his forces to surrender. Octavian, with his power
increased, forced the triumvir Lepidus into retirement and entered
Rome in triumph. Agrippa received the unprecedented honour of a
naval crown decorated with the beaks of ships; as Dio remarks, this
was "a decoration given to nobody before or since".
Life in public service
Hadrian's Pantheon was built to replace the previous temple that had
been built during Agrippa's rule.
Hadrian retained the legend
M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT, which means Marcus Agrippa, son
of Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this
Agrippa participated in smaller military campaigns in 35 and 34 BC,
but by the autumn of 34 he had returned to Rome. He rapidly set
out on a campaign of public repairs and improvements, including
renovation of the aqueduct known as the
Aqua Marcia and an extension
of its pipes to cover more of the city. He became the first water
commissioner of Rome in 33 BC. Through his actions after being
elected in 33 BC as one of the aediles (officials responsible for
Rome's buildings and festivals), the streets were repaired and the
sewers were cleaned out, while lavish public spectacles were put
on. Agrippa signalled his tenure of office by effecting great
improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts,
enlarging and cleansing the Cloaca Maxima, constructing baths and
porticos, and laying out gardens. He also gave a stimulus to the
public exhibition of works of art. It was unusual for an ex-consul to
hold the lower-ranking position of aedile, but Agrippa's success
bore out this break with tradition. As emperor,
Augustus would later
boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble",
thanks in part to the great services provided by Agrippa under his
Antony and Cleopatra
Statue of Agrippa at the Archaeological Museum of Venice
Agrippa was again called away to take command of the fleet when the
war with Antony and
Cleopatra broke out. He captured the strategically
important city of Methone at the southwest of the Peloponnese, then
sailed north, raiding the Greek coast and capturing Corcyra (modern
Octavian then brought his forces to Corcyra, occupying it as a
naval base. Antony drew up his ships and troops at Actium, where
Octavian moved to meet him. Agrippa meanwhile defeated Antony's
supporter Quintus Nasidius in a naval battle at Patrae. Dio
relates that as Agrippa moved to join
Octavian near Actium, he
encountered Gaius Sosius, one of Antony's lieutenants, who was making
a surprise attack on the squadron of Lucius Tarius, a supporter of
Octavian. Agrippa's unexpected arrival turned the battle around.
As the decisive battle approached, according to Dio,
intelligence that Antony and
Cleopatra planned to break past his naval
blockade and escape. At first he wished to allow the flagships past,
arguing that he could overtake them with his lighter vessels and that
the other opposing ships would surrender when they saw their leaders'
cowardice. Agrippa objected, saying that Antony's ships, although
larger, could outrun Octavian's if they hoisted sails, and that
Octavian ought to fight now because Antony's fleet had just been
struck by storms.
Octavian followed his friend's advice.
On September 2, 31 BC, the
Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium was fought. Octavian's
victory, which gave him the mastery of Rome and the empire, was mainly
due to Agrippa.
Octavian then bestowed upon him the hand of his
Claudia Marcella Major in 28 BC. He also served a second
Octavian the same year. In 27 BC, Agrippa held a third
consulship with Octavian, and in that year, the senate also bestowed
Octavian the imperial title of Augustus.
In commemoration of the Battle of Actium, Agrippa built and dedicated
the building that served as the Roman Pantheon before its destruction
in 80 AD. Emperor
Hadrian used Agrippa's design to build his own
Pantheon, which survives in Rome. The inscription of the later
building, which was built around 125, preserves the text of the
inscription from Agrippa's building during his third consulship. The
years following his third consulship, Agrippa spent in Gaul, reforming
the provincial administration and taxation system, along with building
an effective road system and aqueducts.
The theatre at Merida, Spain; it was promoted by Agrippa, built
between 16 and 15 BC.
Agrippa's friendship with
Augustus seems to have been clouded by the
jealousy of Augustus' nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus, which was
probably instigated by the intrigues of Livia, the third wife of
Augustus, who feared his influence over her husband. Traditionally
it is said the result of such jealousy was that Agrippa left Rome,
ostensibly to take over the governorship of eastern provinces – a
sort of honourable exile, but he only sent his legate to Syria, while
he himself remained at Lesbos and governed by proxy, though he may
have been on a secret mission to negotiate with the Parthians about
the return of the Roman legions' standards which they held. On the
death of Marcellus, which took place within a year of his exile, he
was recalled to Rome by Augustus, who found he could not dispense with
his services. However, if one places the events in the context of the
crisis in 23 BC it seems unlikely that, when facing significant
opposition and about to make a major political climb down, the emperor
Augustus would place a man in exile in charge of the largest body of
Roman troops. What is far more likely is that Agrippa's 'exile' was
actually the careful political positioning of a loyal lieutenant in
command of a significant army as a backup plan in case the settlement
plans of 23 BC failed and
Augustus needed military support.
Moreover, after 23 BC as part of what became known as Augustus' Second
Constitutional Settlement, Agrippa's constitutional powers were
greatly increased to provide the
Augustus with greater
constitutional stability by providing for a political heir or
Augustus if he were to succumb to his habitual ill
health or was assassinated. In the course of the year, proconsular
imperium, similar to Augustus' power, was conferred upon Agrippa for
five years. The exact nature of the grant is uncertain but it probably
covered Augustus' imperial provinces, east and west, perhaps lacking
authority over the provinces of the Senate. That was to come later, as
was the jealously guarded tribunicia potestas, or powers of a tribune
of the plebeians. These great powers of state are not usually
heaped upon a former exile.
Bust of Agrippa from
Nicopolis in Epirus, Greece
It is said that Maecenas advised
Augustus to attach Agrippa still more
closely to him by making him his son-in-law. He accordingly
induced him to divorce Marcella and marry his daughter, Julia the
Elder--the widow of Marcellus,, equally celebrated for her beauty,
abilities, and her shameless extravagance--by 21 BC. In 19 BC, Agrippa
was employed in putting down a rising of the Cantabrians in Hispania
In 18 BC, Agrippa's powers were even further increased to almost match
those of Augustus. That year his proconsular imperium was augmented to
cover the provinces of the Senate. More than that, he was finally
granted tribunicia potestas, or powers of a tribune of the plebeians.
As was the case with Augustus, Agrippa’s grant of tribunician powers
was conferred without his having to actually hold that office.
These powers were considerable, giving him veto power over the acts of
the Senate or other magistracies, including those of other tribunes,
and the power to present laws for approval by the People. Just as
important, a tribune’s person was sacred, meaning that any person
who harmfully touched them or impeded their actions, including
political acts, could lawfully be killed. After the grant of these
powers Agrippa was, on paper, almost as powerful as
However, there was no doubt that
Augustus was the man in charge.
Agrippa was appointed governor of the eastern provinces a second time
in 17 BC, where his just and prudent administration won him the
respect and good-will of the provincials, especially from the Jewish
population. Agrippa also restored effective Roman control over the
Cimmerian Chersonnese (Crimean Peninsula) during his governorship.
Agrippa’s last public service was his beginning of the conquest of
Danube River region, which would become the Roman province
Pannonia in 13 BC. He died at
Campania in 12 BC at the age of
51. His posthumous son,
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, was named
in his honor.
Augustus honoured his memory by a magnificent funeral
and spent over a month in mourning.
Augustus personally oversaw all of
Agrippa's children’s educations. Although Agrippa had built a tomb
Augustus had Agrippa's remains placed in Augustus' own
Maison Carrée at Nîmes, modern France, built in 19 BC; Agrippa
was its patron.
Agrippa was also known as a writer, especially on the subject of
geography. Under his supervision, Julius Caesar's dream of having
a complete survey of the Empire made was carried out. Agrippa
constructed a circular chart, which was later engraved on marble by
Augustus, and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister
Polla. Amongst his writings, an autobiography, now lost, is
Agrippa established a standard for
Roman foot (Agrippa's own) in 29
BC, and thus a definition of a pace as 5 feet. An imperial
Roman mile denotes 5,000 Roman feet.
Via Agrippa is used for any part of the network of roadways
Gaul built by Agrippa. Some of these still exist as paths or even
Marriages and issue
Agrippa had several children through his three marriages:
By his first wife, Caecilia Attica, he had a daughter, Vipsania
Agrippina, who was to be the first wife of the Emperor Tiberius, and
who gave birth to a son, Drusus the Younger.
By his second wife,
Claudia Marcella Major, he may have had a
daughter, whose existence remains unclear, but this hypothetical
figure is referred to as "Vipsania Marcella". It is possible that this
daughter may have been a second daughter by Caecilia Attica, but there
is no information to say one way or the other. The existence of this
daughter rests solely on
Publius Quinctilius Varus
Publius Quinctilius Varus being mentioned as
the son-in-law of Agrippa in Augustus' funeral oration for
By his third wife,
Julia the Elder
Julia the Elder (daughter of Augustus), he had five
children: Gaius Caesar, Julia the Younger, Lucius Caesar, Agrippina
the Elder (wife of Germanicus, mother of the Emperor
Empress Agrippina the Younger), and
Agrippa Postumus (a posthumous
Through his numerous children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many
subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, whose position he
helped to attain, as well as many other reputed Romans.
(with Caecilia Attica)
Vipsania Agrippina I, 36 BC – AD 20, had at least 6 children by 2
husbands (1 by Tiberius, at least 5 by Gaius Asinius Gallus)
A. Drusus Julius Caesar, 13 BC – AD 23, had 3 children
I. Julia Livia, AD 5–43, had at least 1 child
a. Rubellius Plautus, AD 33–62, may have had several children, but
none of them survived Nero's purges in 66.
Nero 'Gemellus', AD 19–37 or 38, died
Tiberius Claudius Caesar
Germanicus II 'Gemellus', AD 19–23,
B. Gaius Asinius Pollio, died AD 45, children unknown
C. Marcus Asinius Agrippa, died AD 26
D. (?Gnaeus) Asinius Saloninus, died AD 22
E. Servius Asinius Celer, died before mid-47, had 1 child
a. Asinia Agrippina
F. (?Lucius) Asinius Gallus
(with Julia Caesaris)
2. Gaius Julius Caesar, 20 BC – AD 4, died without issue
Julia Agrippina (Julia the Younger), 19 BC – AD 28,
had two children;
A. Aemilia Lepida (fiancee of Claudius), 4 BC – AD 53, had five
I. Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus, 14–54, had one child;
Lucius Junius Silanus Torquatus the younger, 50–66, died young
II. Junia Calvina, 15–79, died without issue
III. Decimus Junius Silanus Torquatus, d. 64 without issue
Lucius Junius Silanus Torquatus the elder, d. 49 without issue
V. Junia Lepida, c. 18–65, issue unknown
B. Unnamed illegitimate son (by Decimus Junius Silanus), d. AD 8
(ordered to be exposed by Augustus)
4. Lucius Julius Caesar, 17 BC – AD 2, died without issue
Vipsania Agrippina II (Agrippina the Elder), 14 BC – AD 33,
had nine children, of whom three died young;
Julius Caesar Germanicus, 6–30, died without issue
Julius Caesar Germanicus, 7–33, died without issue
C. Gaius Julius Caesar, bef. AD 12 – bef. AD 12
Germanicus (Caligula), 12–41, had one child;
I. Julia Drusilla, 39–41, died young
Julia Agrippina (Agrippina the Younger), 15–59, had one child;
Nero Claudius Caesar
Germanicus (Lucius Domitius
Ahenobarbus), 37–68, had one child;
a. Claudia Augusta, Jan. 63 – April 63; died young
F. Julia Drusilla, 16–38, died without issue
G. Julia Livilla, 18–42, died without issue
Tiberius Julius Caesar, ? – ? (either born before Nero
Julius Caesar, between
Drusus Caesar and
Gaius Caesar (Caligula) or
Gaius Caesar (Caligula) and Julia Agrippina)
I. Son (name unknown), ? – ?
Julius Caesar Agrippa Postumus, 12 BC – AD 14, died
There have been some attempts to assign further descendants to a
number of the aforementioned figures, including two lines of Asinii
descended from Gaius Asinius Pollio and Marcus Asinius Agrippa
respectively. A daughter (and further descendants) named Rubellia
Bassa to Julia, who may have been a daughter of Gaius Rubellius
Blandus by an earlier marriage. And, finally, a series of descendants
Junia Lepida and her husband, Gaius Cassius Longinus. However,
all of these lines of descent are extremely hypothetical and lack any
evidence to support a connection to the descendants of
Agrippa in popular culture
An Audience at Agrippa's, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Agrippa is a character in William Shakespeare's play Antony and
A fictional version of Agrippa in his later life played a prominent
role in the 1976
BBC Television series I, Claudius. Agrippa was
portrayed as a much older man, though he would have only been 39 years
old at the time of the first episode (24/23 BC). He was played by John
Agrippa is the main character in Paul Naschy's 1980 film Los
cántabros, played by Naschy himself. It is a highly fictionalized
version of the
Cantabrian Wars in which Agrippa is depicted as the
lover of the sister of Cantabrian leader Corocotta.
Agrippa appears in several film versions of the life of Cleopatra. He
is normally portrayed as an old man rather than a young one. Among the
people to portray him are Philip Locke, Alan Rowe and Andrew Keir.
Agrippa is also one of the principal characters in the British/Italian
joint project Imperium:
Augustus (2003) featuring flashbacks between
Augustus and Julia about Agrippa, which shows him in his youth on
serving in Caesar's army up until his victory at
Actium and the defeat
of Cleopatra. He is portrayed by Ken Duken. In the 2005 series Empire
the young Agrippa (played by Christopher Egan) becomes Octavian's
sidekick after saving him from an attempted poisoning.
Marcus Agrippa, a highly fictional character based on Marcus Vipsanius
Agrippa's early life, is part of the BBC-HBO-RAI television series
Rome. He is played by Allen Leech. He describes himself as the
grandson of a slave. The series creates a romantic relationship
between Agrippa and Octavian's sister Octavia Minor, for which there
is no historical evidence.
Agrippa is mentioned by name in book VIII of Virgil's The Aeneid,
Aeneas sees an image of Agrippa leading ships in the Battle of
Actium on the shield forged for him by Vulcan and given to him by his
Agrippa is a main character in the early part of Robert Graves' novel
I, Claudius. He is a main character in the later two novels of Colleen
Masters of Rome series. He is a featured character of
prominence and importance in the historical fiction novel Cleopatra's
Daughter by Michelle Moran. He also features prominently in John
Edward Williams' historical novel Augustus. In the backstory of
Gunpowder Empire, the first volume in Harry Turtledove's Crosstime
Traffic series, Agrippa lived until AD 26, conquering all of Germania
for the Empire and becoming the second Emperor when
Augustus died in
A heavily fictionalized version of Agrippa is one of the playable
characters (the other being an equally fictionalized Augustus) in the
video game Shadow of Rome. There, Agrippa is sentenced to become a
gladiator after his father was wrongly sentenced for assassinating
Caesar. Agrippa's goal is to stay alive as a gladiator for as long as
Augustus acts as an infiltrator who slowly exposes the
conspiracy against Caesar. Eventually,
Augustus is able to prove
Vipsanius' innocence and both of them are pardoned. Then a civil war
breaks out, because the direct successor was outraged by exposure of
the conspiracy. Agrippa and
Augustus fight against Antonius. Agrippa
appears as a Great Admiral in the computer game Sid Meier's
Civilization V. A fictionalized version of Agrippa also appears in the
Assassin's Creed Origins
Assassin's Creed Origins as the commander of the Roman
Citadel in the province of Kyrenaika where the player character has to
kill him and retrieve a document from his body.
Julio-Claudian family tree
^ a b Reinhold, p. 9; Roddaz, p. 23.
^ Plate, William (1867). "Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius". In Smith,
William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1.
Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 77–80.
^ Dio 54.28.3 places Agrippa's death in late March 12 BC, while Pliny
the Elder 7.46 states that he died "in his fifty-first year".
Depending on whether Pliny meant that Agrippa was aged 50 or 51 at his
death, this gives a date of birth between March 64 and March 62. His
family cognomen was the Latin form of Greek Agrippas, meaning "wild
horse". A calendar from
Cyprus or Syria includes a month named after
Agrippa beginning on November 1, which may reflect the month of his
birth. See Reinhold, pp. 2–4; Roddaz, pp. 23–26.
^ cf Pantheon inscription "M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT" .
^ Velleius Paterculus 2.96, 127.
^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of
^ Reinhold, pp. 13–14.
^ Suetonius, Life of
^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of
Augustus 16–17; Velleius Paterculus
^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of
Augustus 31. It has been speculated
that Agrippa was among the negotiators who won over Antony's
Macedonian legions to Octavian, but there is no direct evidence for
this; see Reinhold, p. 16.
^ Velleius Paterculus 2.69.5; Plutarch, Life of Brutus 27.4.
^ Mentioned only by Servius auctus on Virgil,
Aeneid 8.682, but a
necessary preliminary to his position as urban praetor in 40 BC.
Roddaz (p. 41) favours the 43 BC date.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder 7.148 cites him as an authority for Octavian's
illness on the occasion.
^ Reinhold, pp. 17–20.
^ Dio 48.20; Reinhold, p. 22.
^ Dio 48.28; Reinhold, p. 23.
^ Reinhold, pp. 23–24.
^ Dio, 48.49
^ Dio 48.49; Reinhold, pp. 25–29. Agrippa's youth is noted by
Lendering, "From Philippi to Actium".
^ Reinhold, pp. 29–32.
^ Suetonius, Life of
^ Appian, Civil Wars 2.106, 118–119; Reinhold, pp. 33–35.
^ Reinhold, pp. 35–37.
^ Reinhold, pp. 37–42.
^ Dio 49.14.3.
^ Reinhold, pp. 45–47.
^ The World Book encyclopedia. World Book, Inc. Chicago: World Book.
1987. p. 580. ISBN 0716600889. OCLC 15063621.
^ Dio 49.42–43.
^ Lendering, "From Philippi to Actium".
^ Orosius, History Against the Pagans 6.19.6–7; Dio 50.11.1–12.3;
Reinhold, pp. 53–54.
^ Dio 50.13.5.
^ Dio 50.14.1–2; cf. Velleius Paterculus 2.84.2 ("Agrippa ... before
the final conflict had twice defeated the fleet of the enemy"). Dio is
wrong to say that Sosius was killed, since he in fact fought at and
Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium (Reinhold, p. 54 n. 14; Roddaz, p. 163
^ Dio 50.31.1–3.
^ Reinhold, pp. 57–58; Roddaz, pp. 178–81.
^ a b c d e f g Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Agrippa, Marcus
Vipsanius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. pp. 425–26.
^ David Magie, The Mission of Agrippa to the Orient in 23 BC,
Classical Philology, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Apr., 1908), pp. 145–52
^ Syme (1939), 342.
^ Syme (1939), 337–38.
Cassius Dio 54.6
^ Suetonius, The Life of
Augustus 63; Dio, 6.5; Reinhold, Marcus
Agrippa. A biography, pp. 67–68, 86–87.
^ Dio, Roman History 54.12.4.
^ Everett (2006), 217.
^ Dio, 28
Cassius Dio 54.28.5
^ Soren (1999), p. 184.
^ Kölner Papyrus I (1976), no. 10.
^ May be the 'Gnaeus Asinius' mentioned in the records of the
townsfolk of Puteoli, to whom that man was a patron
^ Consul suffectus in AD 38
^ Seneca, The Pumpkinification of Claudius
Cassius Dio (60.27.5)
^ CIL 06, 00889
^ CIL 06, 00888
^ CIL 06, 00890
^ Virgil, The Aeneid, trans. Robert Fitzgerald, Vintage Classics, pp.
Badian, E. (1981). "Notes on the Laudatio of Agrippa". Classical
Journal. 76: 97–109.
Buchan, J. (1937). Augustus. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Evans, H.B. (1982). "Agrippa's Water Plan". American Journal of
Archeology. 86 (3): 401–11. doi:10.2307/504429.
Firth, J.B. (1903).
Augustus Caesar and the Organization of the Empire
of Rome. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Gray, E.W. (1970). "The
Imperium of M. Agrippa: A Note on P. Colon.
Inv. No. 4701". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 6:
Lendering, Jona. "Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa". Livius. Retrieved
McKechnie, P. (October 1981). "Cassius Dio's Speech of Agrippa: A
Realistic Alternative to Imperial Government?". Greece and Rome. 28
(02): 150–55. doi:10.1017/S0017383500033258.
Reinhold, Meyer (1933). Marcus Agrippa: A Biography. Geneva: W. F.
Roddaz, Jean-Michel (1934). Marcus Agrippa (in French). Rome: École
Française de Rome.
Shipley, Frederick W. (1933). Agrippa's Building Activities in Rome.
St. Louis: Washington University.
Soren, D.; et al. (1999), "A Roman villa and a late Roman infant
cemetery : excavation at Poggio Gramignano, Lugnano in Teverina",
Bibliotheca Archaeologica (No. 23), Rome: L'Erma di
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
Goldsworthy, Adrian (2014), Augustus: From Revolutionary to Emperor,
London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 9780297864257
Powell, Lindsay (2015), Marcus Agrippa: Right-hand man of Caesar
Augustus, Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword, ISBN 9781848846173
Geoffrey Mottershead, The Constructions of Marcus Agrippa in the West,
University of Melbourne, 2005
Augustus' Funeral Oration for Agrippa
Marcus Agrippa, article in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Appius Claudius Pulcher and Gaius Norbanus Flaccus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Lucius Caninius Gallus
Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Lucius Gellius Publicola
Augustus and Sextus Appuleius
Consul of the Roman Empire
Augustus and Titus Statilius Taurus
ISNI: 0000 0001 1590 0069
BNF: cb120153836 (data)