Manama (Arabic: المنامة al-Manāma Bahrani
pronunciation: [elmɐˈnɑːmɐ]) is the capital and largest city of
Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people. Long an
important trading center in the Persian Gulf,
Manama is home to a very
diverse population. After periods of Portuguese and Persian control
and invasions from the ruling dynasties of
Saudi Arabia and Oman,
Bahrain established itself as an independent nation during the 19th
century period of British hegemony.
Although the current twin cities of
Muharraq appear to have
been founded simultaneously in the 1800s,
Muharraq took prominence
due to its defensive location and was thus the capital of Bahrain
Manama became the mercantile capital, and was the gateway
to the main
Bahrain Island.  In the 20th century, Bahrain's oil
wealth helped spur fast growth and in the 1990s a concerted
diversification effort led to expansion in other industries and helped
Manama into an important financial hub in the Middle East.
Manama was designated as the capital of Arab culture for the year 2012
by the Arab League.
2.1 Pre-modern history
2.2 Early modern history
2.3 Modern history
6.1 Road network
6.3 Air transport
10 Twin towns—sister cities
11 See also
14 External links
The name is derived from the
Arabic word المنامة
(transliterated:al-manãma) meaning "the place of rest" or "the place
There is evidence of human settlement on the northern coastline of
Bahrain dating back to the Bronze Age. The
inhabited the area in 3000 BC, serving as a key regional trading
hub between Mesopotamia, Magan and the Indus Valley
civilisation. Approximately 100,000
Dilmun burial mounds were
found across the north and central regions of the country, some
originating 5,000 years ago. Despite the discovery of the mounds,
there is no significant evidence to suggest heavy urbanisation took
place during the
Dilmun era.  It is believed that the majority of
the population lived in rural areas, numbering several thousands.
Evidence of an ancient large rural population was confirmed by one of
Alexander the Great's ship captains, during voyages in the Persian
Gulf. A vast system of aqueducts in northern
Bahrain helped facilitate
ancient horticulture and agriculture. 
" The capital of Awal... is a town well populated whose environs
are fertile and produce corn and dates in abundance. "
The commercial network of
Dilmun lasted for almost 2,000 years, after
which the Assyrians took control of the island in 700 BC for more
than a century. This was followed by Babylonian and
which later gave way to Greek influence during the time of Alexander
the Great's conquests. In the first century AD, the Roman writer
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder wrote of Tylos, the Hellenic name of
Bahrain in the
classical era, and its pearls and cotton fields. The island came
under the control of the Parthian and
Sassanid empires respectively,
by which time
Nestorian Christianity started to spread in Bahrain. By
410-420 AD, a Nestorian bishopric and monastery was established
in Al Dair, on the neighbouring island of Muharraq. Following
the conversion of
Islam in 628 AD, work on one of the
earliest mosques in the region, the Khamis Mosque, began as early as
the seventh century AD. During this time,
Bahrain was engaged in long
distance marine trading, evident from the discovery of Chinese coins
dating between 600-1200 AD, in Manama.
The Khamis Mosque.
In 1330, under the Jarwanid dynasty, the island became a tributary of
the Kingdom of Hormuz. The town of
Manama was mentioned by name for
the first time in a manuscript dating to 1345 AD. Bahrain,
Manama and the nearby settlement of Bilad Al Qadeem,
became a centre of
Shia scholarship and training for the ulema, it
would remain so for centuries. The ulema would help fund pearling
expeditions and finance grain production in the rural areas
surrounding the city. In 1521,
Bahrain fell to the expanding
Portuguese Empire in the Persian Gulf, having already defeated
Hormuz. The Portuguese consolidated their hold on the island by
Bahrain Fort, on the outskirts of Manama. After
numerous revolts and an expanding
Safavid empire in Persia, the
Portuguese were expelled from
Bahrain and the Safavids took control in
Early modern history
The Safavids, sidelining Manama, designated the nearby town of Bilad
Al Qadeem as the provincial capital. The town was also the seat of
the Persian governor and the Shaikh al-
Islam of the islands. The
position of Shaikh al-
Islam lied under jurisdiction of the central
Safavid government and as such, candidates were carefully vetted by
Isfahan courts. During the Safavid era, the islands continued to
be a centre for
Twelver Shi'ism scholarship, producing clerics for use
in mainland Persia. Additionally, the rich agricultural northern
Bahrain continued to flourish due to an abundance of date
palm farms and orchards. The Portuguese traveler Pedro Teixeira
commented on the extensive cultivation of crops like barley and wheat.
The opening of Persian markets to Bahraini exports, especially pearls,
boosted the islands' export economy. The yearly income of exported
Bahraini pearls was 600,000 ducats, collected by around 2,000 pearling
dhows. Another factor that contributed to Bahrain's agricultural
wealth was the migration of
Shia cultivators from Ottoman-occupied
Qatif and Al-Hasa, fearing religious persecution, in 1537. Some
time after 1736,
Nader Shah constructed a fort on the southern
Manama (likely the Diwan Fort).
Persian control over the
Persian Gulf waned during the later half of
the 18th century. At this time,
Bahrain archipelago was a dependency
of the emirate of Bushehr, itself a part of Persia. In 1783, the Bani
Utbah tribal confederation invaded
Bahrain and expelled the resident
governor Nasr Al-Madhkur. As a result, the
Al Khalifa family became
the rulers of the country, and all political relations with Bushehr
Iran were terminated.
Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa (later
called Ahmed al-Fateh, lit. "Ahmed the conqueror") become the
dynasty's first Hakim of Bahrain. Political instability in the 19th
century had disastrous effects on Manama's economy; Invasions by the
Omanis in 1800 and by the Wahhabis in 1810–11, in addition to a
civil war in 1842 between Bahrain's co-rulers saw the town being a
major battleground. The instability paralysed commercial trade in
Manama; the town's port was closed, most merchants fled abroad to
Kuwait and the Persian coast until hostilities ceased. The English
scholar William Gifford Palgrave, on a visit to
Manama in 1862,
described the town as having a few ruined stone buildings, with a
landscape dominated with the huts of poor fishermen and
The British political agency, circa 1900.
Pax Britannica of the 19th century resulted in British
consolidation of trade routes, particularly those close to the British
Raj. In response to piracy in the
Persian Gulf region, the British
deployed warships and forced much of the
Persian Gulf States at the
time (including Bahrain) to sign the General Maritime Treaty of 1820,
which prohibited piracy and slavery. In 1861, the Perpetual Truce
of Peace and Friendship was signed between Britain and Bahrain, which
placed the British in charge of defending
Bahrain in exchange for
British control over Bahraini foreign affairs. With the ascension of
Isa ibn Ali
Al Khalifa as the Hakim of
Bahrain in 1869,
the centre of British activity in the Persian Gulf, though its
interests were initially strictly commercial.  Trading recovered
fully by 1873 and the country's earnings from pearl exports increased
by sevenfold between 1873 and 1900. Representing the British were
native agents, usually from minorities such as Persians or
regularly reported back to British
India and the British political
residency in Bushehr. The position of native agent was later
replaced by a British political agent, following the construction of
the British political residency (locally referred to in Arabic: بيت
الدولة) in 1900, which further solidified Britain's position
Manama harbour, circa 1870.
Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the
British Raj used
Manama as a military base of operations during the Mesopotamian
campaign. Prompted by the presence of oil in the region, the
British political agency in
Bushire concluded an oil agreement with
the Hakim to prohibit the exploration and exploitation of oil for a
five-year period. In 1919,
Bahrain was officially integrated into the
British empire as an overseas imperial territory following the Bahrain
order-in-council decree, issued in 1913. The decree gave the
resident political agent greater powers and placed
Bahrain under the
Bushire and therefore under the governance of the British
Raj. The British pressured a series of administrative reforms in
Bahrain during the 1920s (a move met with opposition from tribal
leaders), during which the aging Hakim Isa ibn Ali
Al Khalifa was
forced to abdicate in favour of his reform-minded son Hamad ibn Isa Al
Khalifa. A municipal government was established in
Manama in 1919, the
customs office was reorganised in 1923 and placed under the
supervision of an English businessman, the pearling industry was later
reformed in 1924. Earnings from the customs office would be kept in
the newly created state treasury. Civil courts were established for
the first time in 1923, followed by the establishment of the
Department of Land Registration in 1924. Charles Belgrave, from
the Colonial office, was appointed in 1926 by the British to carry on
further reforms and manage administration as a financial advisor to
the King. He later organised the State Police and was in charge of the
Finance and Land departments of the government. 
The newly formed
Manama municipality (left) and the reorganised
customs office of
In 1927, the country's pearling economy collapsed due to the
introduction of Japanese cultured pearls in the world market. It is
estimated that between 1929 and 1931, pearling entrepreneurs lost more
than two-thirds of their income. Further aggravated by the Great
Depression, many leading Bahraini businessmen, shopkeepers and
pearl-divers fell into debt. With the discovery of oil in 1932 and
the subsequent production of oil exports in 1934, the country gained a
greater significance in geopolitics. The security of oil supplies in
the Middle East was a priority of the British, especially in the
run-up to the Second World War. The discovery of oil led to a
gradual employment of bankrupt divers from the pearling industry in
the 1930s, eventually causing the pearling industry to disappear.
During the war, the country served as a strategic airbase between
India as well as hosting RAF
Muharraq and a naval base in
Bahrain was bombed by the Italian Air Force in 1940. In
1947, following the end of the war and subsequent Indian independence,
the British residency of the
Persian Gulf moved to
Manama Souq in 1965
Following the rise of
Arab nationalism across the Middle East and
sparked by the
Suez Crisis in 1956, anti-British unrest broke out in
Manama, organised by the National Union Committee. Though the NUC
advocated peaceful demonstrations, buildings and enterprises belonging
to Europeans (the British in particular) as well as the main Catholic
church in the city and petrol stations, were targeted and set
ablaze. Demonstrations held in front of the British political
residency called for the dismissal of Charles Belgrave, who was later
dismissed by direct intervention of the
Foreign Office the following
year. A subsequent crackdown on the NUC led to the dissolution of
the body. Another anti-British uprising erupted in March 1965, though
predominately led by students aspiring for independence rather than by
Arab nationalists. In 1968, the British announced their withdrawal
Bahrain by 1971.  The newly independent State of Bahrain
Manama as the capital city.
Manama was characterised by the rapid urbanisation
of the city and the swallowing-up of neighboring villages and hamlets
into a single urbanised area, incorporating new neighbourhoods such as
Adliya and Salmaniya. The construction boom attracted large numbers of
foreigners from the
Indian subcontinent and by 1981, foreigners
outnumbered Bahrainis two-to-one. The construction of the
Diplomatic Area district in the city's northeast helped facilitate
diversification of the country's economy from oil by exploiting the
lucrative financial industry. Financial institutions in the district
numbered 187 by 1986. Scarcity of land suitable for construction led
to land reclamation.  Religious activism migrated from
the suburban districts of Bani Jamra,
Diraz and Bilad Al Qadeem,
hotspots of unrest in the 1990s uprising that called for the
reinstatement of an elected parliament.  In 2001, the National
Action Charter, presented by King
Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa
Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa was
approved by Bahrainis. The charter led to the first parliamentary and
municipal elections in decades. Further elections in 2006 and 2010
led to the election of Islamist parties, Al Wefaq, Al Menbar, and Al
Asalah, as well as independent candidates. In 2011, a month-long
uprising led to the intervention of GCC forces and the proclamation of
a three-month state of emergency. The
Bahrain Independent Commission
of Inquiry published a 500-page report on the events of 2011.
See also: Governorates of Bahrain, Demographics of Bahrain, and
Politics of Bahrain
Manama in 1926
Manama has been restricted to what is now known as the
Manama Souq and the
Manama Fort (now the Ministry of Interior) to its
south. However the city has now grown to include a number of newer
suburban developments as well as older neighboring villages that have
been engulfed by the growth of the city. The neighborhoods of Manama
(including Fareeq el-Makharqa)
Umm Al Hassam
Neighborhoods of Manama
Bilad Al Qadeem
Central Business District
Umm Al Hassam
Manama is part of the Capital Governorate, one of five Governorates of
Bahrain. Until 2002 it was part of the municipality of Al-Manamah.
Councils exist within the governorates; eight constituencies are voted
upon within Capital Governorate in 2006.
Main article: Economy of Bahrain
Manama is the focal point of the Bahraini economy. While petroleum has
decreased in importance in recent years due to depleting reserves and
growth in other industries, it is still the mainstay of the economy.
Heavy industry (e.g. aluminium smelting, ship repair), banking and
finance, and tourism are among the industries which have experienced
recent growth. Several multinationals have facilities and offices in
and around Manama. The primary industry in
Manama itself is
financial services, with over two hundred financial institutions and
banks based in the CBD and the Diplomatic Area.
Manama is a financial
hub for the
Persian Gulf region and a center of Islamic banking. There
is also a large retail sector in the shopping malls around Seef, while
the center of
Manama is dominated by small workshops and traders.
Manama's economy in the early 20th century relied heavily on pearling;
in 1907, the pearling industry was estimated to include 917 boats
providing employment for up to 18,000 people.
employed several hundreds in both
Manama and Muharraq. The estimated
income earned from pearling in 1926 and subsequent years prior to the
Great Depression was £1.5 million annually.
Custom duties and tariffs
served as the prime source of revenue for the government. With the
onset of the Great Depression, the collapse of the pearling industry
and the discovery of oil in 1932, the country's economy began to shift
Historically, the ports at
Manama were of poor reputation. The British
described the ports importing systems as being "very bad - goods were
exposed to the weather and there were long delays in delivery", in
1911. Indians began maintaining the ports and new resources were built
on site, improving the situation. As of 1920,
Manama was one of the
main exporters of
Bahrain pearls, attracting steamships from India.
During this time, they also imported goods from
India and from other
regional countries. They imported rice, textiles, ghee, coffee, dates,
tea, tobacco, fuel, and livestock. They exported less of a variety,
with focus on pearls, oysters, and sailcloth. For the year of
Manama was visited by 52 steamships, the majority being
British and the rest Turkish-Arabian.
Bahrain Census 2010
The role of
Manama as a regional port city in the
Persian Gulf made it
a hub for migrant workers in search of a better living. As a result,
Manama has often been described, both in the pre-oil and post-oil era,
as a cosmopolitan city. In 1904, it was estimated that Manama's
population numbered 25,000, out of which half were believed to have
been foreigners from Basra, Najd,
Al Hasa and Iran, as well as from
India and Europe.
The two main branches of Islam,
Islam and Sunni Islam, coexisted
Manama for centuries and are represented by distinct ethnic groups.
Shia community is represented by the native Arab Baharna, the
Hasawis and Qatifis of mainland Arabia and the Persian Ajam. The
Sunni community is represented by Arab
Bedouin tribes who migrated in
the eighteenth century along with the
Bani Utbah and the Huwala,
Arabic-speaking Persians. There is also a sizable native Bahraini
Christian population in the country, numbering more than a thousand,
in addition to immigrant Hindus and a small native Jewish community
Main article: Transport in Bahrain
Manama is the main hub of the country's road network. At the moment
the city's road network is undergoing substantial development to
ameliorate the situation of traffic in the city. Due to the fact that
it is the capital and the main city in the country, where most of the
government and the commercial offices and facilities are established,
along with the entertainment centers, and the country's fast growth,
vehicle population is increasing rapidly.
Manama night view
The widening of roads in the old districts of
Manama and the
development of a national network linking the capital to other
settlements commenced as early as the arrival of the first car in
1914. The continuous increase in the number of cars from 395 in
1944, to 3,379 in 1954 and to 18,372 cars in 1970 caused urban
development to primarily focus on expanding the road network, widening
carriageways and the establishment of more parking spaces. Many
tracks previously laid in the pre-oil era (prior to the 1930s) were
resurfaced and widened, turning them into 'road arteries'. Initial
widening of the roads started in the
Manama Souq district, widening
its main roads by demolishing encroaching houses.
Manama skyline from Juffair.
A series of ring roads were constructed (Isa al Kabeer avenue in the
1930s, Exhibition avenue in the 1960s and Al Fateh highway in the
1980s), to push back the coastline and extend the city area in
belt-like forms. To the north, the foreshore used to be around
Government Avenue in the 1920s but it shifted to a new road, King
Faisal Road, in the early 1930s which became the coastal road. To
the east, a bridge connected
Muharraq since 1929, a new
causeway was built in 1941 which replaced the old wooden bridge.
Transits between the two islands peaked after the construction of the
Bahrain International Airport in 1932.
To the south of Manama, roads connected groves, lagoons and marshes of
Gudaibiya and Juffair. Villages such as Mahooz,
Seqaya served as the end of these roads. To the west, a
major highway was built that linked
Manama to the isolated village
port of Budaiya, this highway crossed through the 'green belt'
villages of Sanabis,
Jidhafs and Duraz. To the south, a road was
built that connected
Manama to Riffa. The discovery of oil accelerated
the growth of the city's road network.
The four main islands and all the towns and villages are linked by
well-constructed roads. There were 3,164 km (1,966 mi) of
roadways in 2002, of which 2,433 km (1,512 mi) were paved. A
causeway stretching over 2.8 km (2 mi), connect
Muharraq Island, and another bridge joins
Sitra to the main island. A
four-lane highway atop a 24 km (15 mi) causeway, linking
Bahrain with the
Saudi Arabian mainland via the island of Umm an-Nasan
was completed in December, 1986, and financed by Saudi Arabia. In
2000, there were 172,684 passenger vehicles and 41,820 commercial
Bahrain's port of
Mina Salman can accommodate 16 oceangoing vessels
drawing up to 11 m (36 ft). In 2001,
Bahrain had a merchant
fleet of eight ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 270,784 GRT.
Private vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in
Manama has a recently reformed comprehensive bus service that launched
on 1 April 2015, with a fleet of 141 MAN buses. Regulated by the
Ministry of Transportation, bus routes extend across
Manama with fares of a minimum 200 Fils (BD0.200) (around
Bahrain International Airport is located on the nearby Muharraq
Island, approximately 7 km (4 mi) from the CBD. It is a
premier hub airport in the Middle East. Strategically located in the
Persian Gulf between the major markets of
Saudi Arabia and
Iran, the airport has one of the widest range and highest frequency of
regional services with connections to major international destinations
in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America.
Main article: Education in Bahrain
See also: List of schools in Bahrain
Quranic schools were the only source of education in
Bahrain prior to
the 20th century; such schools were primarily dedicated to the study
of the Qur'an. The first modern school to open in the country was
a missionary elementary school setup in 1892 (according to one
Manama by the Reformed Church in America, with the
school's syllabus comprising English, Mathematics and the study of
Christianity. Leading merchants in the country sent their children to
the school until it was closed down in 1933 due to financial
difficulties. The school reopened some years later under the name
Al Raja School where it operates till the present day. In addition
to the American Mission School, another foreign private school was
opened in 1910; Al-Ittihad school, funded by the Persian community of
The Jafaria school in Manama, 1931.
Following the end of the First World War, Western ideas became more
widespread in the country, culminating in the opening of the first
public school of Bahrain, Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia Boys school, in the
Muharraq in 1919. The school was founded by prominent
Muharraq and was endorsed by the Bahraini royal family.
The country's first Education Committee was established by several
leading Bahraini merchants, headed by Shaikh Abdulla bin Isa
Al-Khalifa, the son of the then-ruler of
Bahrain Isa ibn Ali Al
Khalifa, who acted as the de facto Minister of Education. The
Education Committee was also responsible for managing the Al-Hidaya
Boys school. The school was in fact the brainchild of Shaikh
Abdulla, who suggested the idea after returning from post-World War I
celebrations in England.
In 1926, a second public school for boys opened up in the capital
city, Manama. Two years later, in 1928, the first public school for
girls was established. Due to financial constraints suffered by the
Education Committee, the Bahraini government took control of the
schools in 1930.
Manama has a wide range of private and public universities
and colleges such as Ahlia University, Applied Science University,
Arab Open University, Arabian Gulf University,
Bahrain Institute of
Banking and Finance, Delmon University. Other notable primary and
secondary schools situated in the city include the
Bahrain School, The
Bahrain amongst others.
Main article: Geography of Bahrain
The city is located in the north-eastern corner of
Bahrain on a small
peninsula. As in the rest of Bahrain, the land is generally flat (or
gently rolling) and arid.
A panoramic view of the skyline of
Manama from left to right:1. The
twin towers of the
2. The twin towers of the
Bahrain Financial Harbor (BFH).
3. The NBB tower (short building next to BFH).
Almoayyed Tower (tallest in the photo, center of image).
Abraj Al Lulu
Abraj Al Lulu residential project (three towers)
under-construction on the far-right).
Main article: Climate of Bahrain
Manama has an arid climate. In common with the rest of Bahrain, Manama
experiences extreme climatic conditions, with summer temperatures up
to 45 °C (113 °F), and winter as low as 7 °C
(45 °F) with even hail at rare occasions. Average temperatures
of the summer and winter seasons are generally from 17 °C
(63 °F) to about 45 °C (113 °F). The most pleasant
Bahrain is autumn when sunshine is comparatively low, coupled
with warm temperatures tempered by soft breezes.
Climate data for
Bahrain International Airport) 1961–1990,
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: NOAA, Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)
Ministry of Transportation (Bahrain) 
Men sitting at a street cafe in the
Main article: Culture of Bahrain
The country attracts a large number of foreigners and foreign
influences, with just under one third of the population hailing from
Alcohol is legal in the country, with bars and nightclubs
operating in the city.
Bahrain gave women the right to vote in
elections for the first time in 2002. Football is the most popular
Manama (and the rest of the country), with 3 teams from
Manama participating in the Bahraini Premier League.
The central areas of
Manama are the main location for Muharram
processions in the country, attracting hundreds of thousands of people
Twin towns—sister cities
Kuwait City, Kuwait
United States (2004)
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Chiang Mai, Thailand
Ta'if, Saudi Arabia
List of islands of Bahrain
List of tallest structures in Bahrain
List of tourist attractions in Bahrain
List of shopping malls in Bahrain
Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage
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Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. (2007). Cities of the Middle East
and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
Rice, Michael (2005). Traces of Paradise: The Archaeology of Bahrain,
2500 BC to 300 AD. .B.Tauris. ISBN 9781860647420.
Larsen, Curtis E. (1983). Life and Land Use on the
The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society. University of
Fuccaro, Nelida (2009). Histories of City and State in the Persian
Manama Since 1800. Cambridge University Press.
Shirawi, May Al-Arrayed (1987). Education in
Bahrain - 1919-1986, An
Analytical Study of Problems and Progress (PDF). Durham
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manama.
Manama travel guide from Wikivoyage
Governorates of Bahrain
Current divisions (governorates)
Former divisions (regions)
Rifa and Southern Region
Major cities of Bahrain
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in
North and Central Asia
West and Southwest Asia
Hong Kong (China)
Pyongyang, North Korea
Seoul, South Korea
Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK)
Kotte, Sri Lanka
New Delhi, India
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor
Flying Fish Cove,
Christmas Island (Australia)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine †
Kuwait City, Kuwait
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus*
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia*
† Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.
Capitals of Arab countries
El Aaiun (proclaimed)
Tifariti (de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Ramallah (de facto), Palestine1
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation
Arab Capital of Culture
Cairo 1996 (Egypt)
Tunis 1997 (Tunisia)
Sharjah 1998 (United Arab Emirates)
Beirut 1999 (Lebanon)
Riyadh 2000 (Saudi Arabia)
Kuwait City 2001 (Kuwait)
Amman 2002 (Jordan)
Rabat 2003 (Morocco)
San'a 2004 (Yemen)
Khartoum 2005 (Sudan)
Muscat 2006 (Oman)
Algiers 2007 (Algeria)
Damascus 2008 (Syria)
Jerusalem 2009 (State of Palestine)
Doha 2010 (Qatar)
Sirte 2011 (Libya)
Manama 2012 (Bahrain)
Baghdad 2013 (Iraq)
Tripoli 2014 (Libya)
Constantine 2015 (Algeria)
Sfax 2016 (Tunisia)
Portuguese overseas empire
Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)
Aguz (Souira Guedima)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
São João da Mamora (Mehdya)
Fernando Poo (Bioko)
Elmina (São Jorge da Mina)
Portuguese Gold Coast
São João Baptista de Ajudá
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
1 Part of São Tomé and
Príncipe from 1753.
2 Or 1600.
3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.
4 Part of
Portuguese Guinea from 1879.
5 Part of
Portuguese Angola from the 1920s.
Middle East [Persian Gulf]
Gamru (Bandar Abbas)
Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)
Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama)
(Coulão / Kollam)
Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)
Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)
(Porto Grande De Bengala)
Daman and Diu
Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
East Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia]
Portuguese Timor (East Timor)1
Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and
subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence
was fully recognized.
North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
16th century [Canada]
Terra Nova (Newfoundland)
South America & Antilles
Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Nova Colónia do Sacramento
Grão-Pará and Maranhão
Grão-Pará and Rio Negro
Maranhão and Piauí
Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)
Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia