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Manama
Manama
(Arabic: المنامة‎ al-Manāma  Bahrani pronunciation: [elmɐˈnɑːmɐ]) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people. Long an important trading center in the Persian Gulf, Manama
Manama
is home to a very diverse population. After periods of Portuguese and Persian control and invasions from the ruling dynasties of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Oman, Bahrain
Bahrain
established itself as an independent nation during the 19th century period of British hegemony. Although the current twin cities of Manama
Manama
and Muharraq
Muharraq
appear to have been founded simultaneously in the 1800s,[2] Muharraq
Muharraq
took prominence due to its defensive location and was thus the capital of Bahrain until 1921. Manama
Manama
became the mercantile capital, and was the gateway to the main Bahrain
Bahrain
Island. [3] In the 20th century, Bahrain's oil wealth helped spur fast growth and in the 1990s a concerted diversification effort led to expansion in other industries and helped transform Manama
Manama
into an important financial hub in the Middle East. Manama
Manama
was designated as the capital of Arab culture for the year 2012 by the Arab League.[4][5]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-modern history 2.2 Early modern history 2.3 Modern history

3 Government 4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Transport

6.1 Road network 6.2 Buses 6.3 Air transport

7 Education 8 Geography

8.1 Climate

9 Culture 10 Twin towns—sister cities 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The name is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word المنامة (transliterated:al-manãma) meaning "the place of rest" or "the place of dreams".[6] History[edit] Pre-modern history[edit] There is evidence of human settlement on the northern coastline of Bahrain
Bahrain
dating back to the Bronze Age. The Dilmun
Dilmun
civilisation inhabited the area in 3000 BC, serving as a key regional trading hub between Mesopotamia, Magan and the Indus Valley civilisation.[7][8] Approximately 100,000 Dilmun
Dilmun
burial mounds were found across the north and central regions of the country, some originating 5,000 years ago. Despite the discovery of the mounds, there is no significant evidence to suggest heavy urbanisation took place during the Dilmun
Dilmun
era. [9] It is believed that the majority of the population lived in rural areas, numbering several thousands. Evidence of an ancient large rural population was confirmed by one of Alexander the Great's ship captains, during voyages in the Persian Gulf. A vast system of aqueducts in northern Bahrain
Bahrain
helped facilitate ancient horticulture and agriculture. [10]

" The capital of Awal... is a town well populated whose environs are fertile and produce corn and dates in abundance. "

 —Al-Idrisi[10]

The commercial network of Dilmun
Dilmun
lasted for almost 2,000 years, after which the Assyrians took control of the island in 700 BC for more than a century. This was followed by Babylonian and Achaemenid
Achaemenid
rule, which later gave way to Greek influence during the time of Alexander the Great's conquests.[11] In the first century AD, the Roman writer Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
wrote of Tylos, the Hellenic name of Bahrain
Bahrain
in the classical era, and its pearls and cotton fields.[8] The island came under the control of the Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
empires respectively, by which time Nestorian Christianity
Nestorian Christianity
started to spread in Bahrain. By 410-420 AD, a Nestorian bishopric and monastery was established in Al Dair, on the neighbouring island of Muharraq.[8][12] Following the conversion of Bahrain
Bahrain
to Islam
Islam
in 628 AD, work on one of the earliest mosques in the region, the Khamis Mosque, began as early as the seventh century AD. During this time, Bahrain
Bahrain
was engaged in long distance marine trading, evident from the discovery of Chinese coins dating between 600-1200 AD, in Manama.[8]

The Khamis Mosque.

In 1330, under the Jarwanid dynasty, the island became a tributary of the Kingdom of Hormuz. The town of Manama
Manama
was mentioned by name for the first time in a manuscript dating to 1345 AD.[8] Bahrain, particularly Manama
Manama
and the nearby settlement of Bilad Al Qadeem, became a centre of Shia
Shia
scholarship and training for the ulema, it would remain so for centuries. The ulema would help fund pearling expeditions and finance grain production in the rural areas surrounding the city. In 1521, Bahrain
Bahrain
fell to the expanding Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in the Persian Gulf, having already defeated Hormuz.[13] The Portuguese consolidated their hold on the island by constructing the Bahrain
Bahrain
Fort, on the outskirts of Manama.[14] After numerous revolts and an expanding Safavid empire
Safavid empire
in Persia, the Portuguese were expelled from Bahrain
Bahrain
and the Safavids took control in 1602.[14] Early modern history[edit] The Safavids, sidelining Manama, designated the nearby town of Bilad Al Qadeem as the provincial capital.[15] The town was also the seat of the Persian governor and the Shaikh al- Islam
Islam
of the islands. The position of Shaikh al- Islam
Islam
lied under jurisdiction of the central Safavid government and as such, candidates were carefully vetted by the Isfahan
Isfahan
courts. During the Safavid era, the islands continued to be a centre for Twelver Shi'ism
Twelver Shi'ism
scholarship, producing clerics for use in mainland Persia.[15] Additionally, the rich agricultural northern region of Bahrain
Bahrain
continued to flourish due to an abundance of date palm farms and orchards. The Portuguese traveler Pedro Teixeira commented on the extensive cultivation of crops like barley and wheat. The opening of Persian markets to Bahraini exports, especially pearls, boosted the islands' export economy. The yearly income of exported Bahraini pearls was 600,000 ducats, collected by around 2,000 pearling dhows.[13] Another factor that contributed to Bahrain's agricultural wealth was the migration of Shia
Shia
cultivators from Ottoman-occupied Qatif
Qatif
and Al-Hasa, fearing religious persecution, in 1537.[15] Some time after 1736, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
constructed a fort on the southern outskirts of Manama
Manama
(likely the Diwan Fort).[16] Persian control over the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
waned during the later half of the 18th century. At this time, Bahrain
Bahrain
archipelago was a dependency of the emirate of Bushehr, itself a part of Persia. In 1783, the Bani Utbah tribal confederation invaded Bahrain
Bahrain
and expelled the resident governor Nasr Al-Madhkur. As a result, the Al Khalifa
Al Khalifa
family became the rulers of the country, and all political relations with Bushehr and Persia/ Iran
Iran
were terminated. Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa (later called Ahmed al-Fateh, lit. "Ahmed the conqueror") become the dynasty's first Hakim of Bahrain. Political instability in the 19th century had disastrous effects on Manama's economy; Invasions by the Omanis in 1800 and by the Wahhabis in 1810–11, in addition to a civil war in 1842 between Bahrain's co-rulers saw the town being a major battleground. The instability paralysed commercial trade in Manama; the town's port was closed, most merchants fled abroad to Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Persian coast until hostilities ceased.[17] The English scholar William Gifford Palgrave, on a visit to Manama
Manama
in 1862, described the town as having a few ruined stone buildings, with a landscape dominated with the huts of poor fishermen and pearl-divers.[1][17]

The British political agency, circa 1900.

The Pax Britannica
Pax Britannica
of the 19th century resulted in British consolidation of trade routes, particularly those close to the British Raj. In response to piracy in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region, the British deployed warships and forced much of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
States at the time (including Bahrain) to sign the General Maritime Treaty of 1820, which prohibited piracy and slavery.[13] In 1861, the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship was signed between Britain and Bahrain, which placed the British in charge of defending Bahrain
Bahrain
in exchange for British control over Bahraini foreign affairs. With the ascension of Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa
Al Khalifa
as the Hakim of Bahrain
Bahrain
in 1869, Manama
Manama
became the centre of British activity in the Persian Gulf, though its interests were initially strictly commercial. [18] Trading recovered fully by 1873 and the country's earnings from pearl exports increased by sevenfold between 1873 and 1900.[19] Representing the British were native agents, usually from minorities such as Persians or Huwala who regularly reported back to British India
India
and the British political residency in Bushehr.[20] The position of native agent was later replaced by a British political agent, following the construction of the British political residency (locally referred to in Arabic: بيت الدولة‎) in 1900, which further solidified Britain's position in Manama.[20]

Manama
Manama
harbour, circa 1870.

Modern history[edit] Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the British Raj
British Raj
used Manama
Manama
as a military base of operations during the Mesopotamian campaign.[21] Prompted by the presence of oil in the region, the British political agency in Bushire
Bushire
concluded an oil agreement with the Hakim to prohibit the exploration and exploitation of oil for a five-year period. In 1919, Bahrain
Bahrain
was officially integrated into the British empire
British empire
as an overseas imperial territory following the Bahrain order-in-council decree, issued in 1913.[21] The decree gave the resident political agent greater powers and placed Bahrain
Bahrain
under the residency of Bushire
Bushire
and therefore under the governance of the British Raj. The British pressured a series of administrative reforms in Bahrain
Bahrain
during the 1920s (a move met with opposition from tribal leaders), during which the aging Hakim Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa
Al Khalifa
was forced to abdicate in favour of his reform-minded son Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa. A municipal government was established in Manama
Manama
in 1919, the customs office was reorganised in 1923 and placed under the supervision of an English businessman, the pearling industry was later reformed in 1924. Earnings from the customs office would be kept in the newly created state treasury. Civil courts were established for the first time in 1923, followed by the establishment of the Department of Land Registration in 1924.[22] Charles Belgrave, from the Colonial office, was appointed in 1926 by the British to carry on further reforms and manage administration as a financial advisor to the King. He later organised the State Police and was in charge of the Finance and Land departments of the government. [23]

The newly formed Manama
Manama
municipality (left) and the reorganised customs office of Manama
Manama
(right).

In 1927, the country's pearling economy collapsed due to the introduction of Japanese cultured pearls in the world market. It is estimated that between 1929 and 1931, pearling entrepreneurs lost more than two-thirds of their income. Further aggravated by the Great Depression, many leading Bahraini businessmen, shopkeepers and pearl-divers fell into debt.[24] With the discovery of oil in 1932 and the subsequent production of oil exports in 1934, the country gained a greater significance in geopolitics. The security of oil supplies in the Middle East was a priority of the British, especially in the run-up to the Second World War.[25] The discovery of oil led to a gradual employment of bankrupt divers from the pearling industry in the 1930s, eventually causing the pearling industry to disappear.[26] During the war, the country served as a strategic airbase between Britain and India
India
as well as hosting RAF Muharraq
Muharraq
and a naval base in Juffair.[27] Bahrain
Bahrain
was bombed by the Italian Air Force in 1940. In 1947, following the end of the war and subsequent Indian independence, the British residency of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
moved to Manama
Manama
from Bushire.[25]

Manama Souq
Manama Souq
in 1965

Following the rise of Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
across the Middle East and sparked by the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
in 1956, anti-British unrest broke out in Manama, organised by the National Union Committee. Though the NUC advocated peaceful demonstrations, buildings and enterprises belonging to Europeans (the British in particular) as well as the main Catholic church in the city and petrol stations, were targeted and set ablaze.[28] Demonstrations held in front of the British political residency called for the dismissal of Charles Belgrave, who was later dismissed by direct intervention of the Foreign Office
Foreign Office
the following year.[29] A subsequent crackdown on the NUC led to the dissolution of the body. Another anti-British uprising erupted in March 1965, though predominately led by students aspiring for independence rather than by Arab nationalists.[2] In 1968, the British announced their withdrawal from Bahrain
Bahrain
by 1971. [30] The newly independent State of Bahrain designated Manama
Manama
as the capital city.[31] Post-independence Manama
Manama
was characterised by the rapid urbanisation of the city and the swallowing-up of neighboring villages and hamlets into a single urbanised area, incorporating new neighbourhoods such as Adliya
Adliya
and Salmaniya. The construction boom attracted large numbers of foreigners from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and by 1981, foreigners outnumbered Bahrainis two-to-one.[32] The construction of the Diplomatic Area
Diplomatic Area
district in the city's northeast helped facilitate diversification of the country's economy from oil by exploiting the lucrative financial industry. Financial institutions in the district numbered 187 by 1986. Scarcity of land suitable for construction led to land reclamation. [33] Religious activism migrated from Manama
Manama
to the suburban districts of Bani Jamra, Diraz
Diraz
and Bilad Al Qadeem, hotspots of unrest in the 1990s uprising that called for the reinstatement of an elected parliament. [34] In 2001, the National Action Charter, presented by King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa
Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa
was approved by Bahrainis. The charter led to the first parliamentary and municipal elections in decades.[34] Further elections in 2006 and 2010 led to the election of Islamist parties, Al Wefaq, Al Menbar, and Al Asalah, as well as independent candidates.[34] In 2011, a month-long uprising led to the intervention of GCC forces and the proclamation of a three-month state of emergency. The Bahrain
Bahrain
Independent Commission of Inquiry published a 500-page report on the events of 2011.[35] Government[edit] See also: Governorates of Bahrain, Demographics of Bahrain, and Politics of Bahrain

Manama
Manama
in 1926

Historically, Manama
Manama
has been restricted to what is now known as the Manama Souq
Manama Souq
and the Manama
Manama
Fort (now the Ministry of Interior) to its south. However the city has now grown to include a number of newer suburban developments as well as older neighboring villages that have been engulfed by the growth of the city. The neighborhoods of Manama today include:

Manama
Manama
Souq

(including Fareeq el-Makharqa)

Awadhiya Adliya Bu Ashira Bu Ghazal Diplomatic Area Ghuraifa Gudaibiya Gufool Hoora Juffair Mahooz Noaim Ras Rumman Seef Seqaya Sulmaniya Umm Al Hassam Zinj

v t e

Neighborhoods of Manama

Awadhiya Adliya Bilad Al Qadeem Bu Ashira Bu Ghazal Central Business District Diplomatic Area Fareej el-Fadhel Fareej el-Hammam Fareej el-Hatab Fareej el-Makharqa Fareej Mushbir Ghuraifa Gudaibiya Gufool Hoora Juffair Mahooz Manama
Manama
Souq Noaim Ras Rumman Salmaniya Sanabis Seef Seqaya Umm Al Hassam Zinj

Manama
Manama
is part of the Capital Governorate, one of five Governorates of Bahrain. Until 2002 it was part of the municipality of Al-Manamah. Councils exist within the governorates; eight constituencies are voted upon within Capital Governorate in 2006.[36] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Bahrain

Central Manama

Manama
Manama
is the focal point of the Bahraini economy. While petroleum has decreased in importance in recent years due to depleting reserves and growth in other industries, it is still the mainstay of the economy. Heavy industry
Heavy industry
(e.g. aluminium smelting, ship repair), banking and finance, and tourism are among the industries which have experienced recent growth. Several multinationals have facilities and offices in and around Manama.[37] The primary industry in Manama
Manama
itself is financial services, with over two hundred financial institutions and banks based in the CBD and the Diplomatic Area. Manama
Manama
is a financial hub for the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region and a center of Islamic banking. There is also a large retail sector in the shopping malls around Seef, while the center of Manama
Manama
is dominated by small workshops and traders. Manama's economy in the early 20th century relied heavily on pearling; in 1907, the pearling industry was estimated to include 917 boats providing employment for up to 18,000 people. Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
also employed several hundreds in both Manama
Manama
and Muharraq. The estimated income earned from pearling in 1926 and subsequent years prior to the Great Depression
Great Depression
was £1.5 million annually. Custom duties
Custom duties
and tariffs served as the prime source of revenue for the government. With the onset of the Great Depression, the collapse of the pearling industry and the discovery of oil in 1932, the country's economy began to shift towards oil.[38] Historically, the ports at Manama
Manama
were of poor reputation. The British described the ports importing systems as being "very bad - goods were exposed to the weather and there were long delays in delivery", in 1911. Indians began maintaining the ports and new resources were built on site, improving the situation. As of 1920, Manama
Manama
was one of the main exporters of Bahrain
Bahrain
pearls, attracting steamships from India. During this time, they also imported goods from India
India
and from other regional countries. They imported rice, textiles, ghee, coffee, dates, tea, tobacco, fuel, and livestock. They exported less of a variety, with focus on pearls, oysters, and sailcloth. For the year of 1911–12, Manama
Manama
was visited by 52 steamships, the majority being British and the rest Turkish-Arabian.[39] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1860s 8,000 —    

1904 25,000 +212.5%

1941 27,835 +11.3%

1950 39,648 +42.4%

1959 61,726 +55.7%

1965 79,098 +28.1%

1971 88,785 +12.2%

1981 121,986 +37.4%

2010 329,510 +170.1%

Source:[40] Bahrain
Bahrain
Census 2010

The role of Manama
Manama
as a regional port city in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
made it a hub for migrant workers in search of a better living. As a result, Manama
Manama
has often been described, both in the pre-oil and post-oil era, as a cosmopolitan city.[41] In 1904, it was estimated that Manama's population numbered 25,000, out of which half were believed to have been foreigners from Basra, Najd, Al Hasa
Al Hasa
and Iran, as well as from India
India
and Europe.[19] The two main branches of Islam, Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
and Sunni Islam, coexisted in Manama
Manama
for centuries and are represented by distinct ethnic groups. The Shia
Shia
community is represented by the native Arab Baharna, the Hasawis and Qatifis of mainland Arabia and the Persian Ajam.[41] The Sunni community is represented by Arab Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes who migrated in the eighteenth century along with the Bani Utbah and the Huwala, Arabic-speaking Persians.[41] There is also a sizable native Bahraini Christian population in the country, numbering more than a thousand, in addition to immigrant Hindus and a small native Jewish community numbering 37.[42] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Bahrain Road network[edit] Manama
Manama
is the main hub of the country's road network. At the moment the city's road network is undergoing substantial development to ameliorate the situation of traffic in the city. Due to the fact that it is the capital and the main city in the country, where most of the government and the commercial offices and facilities are established, along with the entertainment centers, and the country's fast growth, vehicle population is increasing rapidly.

Manama
Manama
Harbor

Manama
Manama
night view

Road View

The widening of roads in the old districts of Manama
Manama
and the development of a national network linking the capital to other settlements commenced as early as the arrival of the first car in 1914.[43] The continuous increase in the number of cars from 395 in 1944,[43] to 3,379 in 1954 and to 18,372 cars in 1970[43] caused urban development to primarily focus on expanding the road network, widening carriageways and the establishment of more parking spaces.[43] Many tracks previously laid in the pre-oil era (prior to the 1930s) were resurfaced and widened, turning them into 'road arteries'. Initial widening of the roads started in the Manama Souq
Manama Souq
district, widening its main roads by demolishing encroaching houses.[43]

Manama
Manama
skyline from Juffair.

A series of ring roads were constructed (Isa al Kabeer avenue in the 1930s, Exhibition avenue in the 1960s and Al Fateh highway in the 1980s[43]), to push back the coastline and extend the city area in belt-like forms.[43] To the north, the foreshore used to be around Government Avenue in the 1920s but it shifted to a new road, King Faisal Road, in the early 1930s which became the coastal road.[43] To the east, a bridge connected Manama
Manama
to Muharraq
Muharraq
since 1929, a new causeway was built in 1941 which replaced the old wooden bridge.[43] Transits between the two islands peaked after the construction of the Bahrain
Bahrain
International Airport in 1932.[43] To the south of Manama, roads connected groves, lagoons and marshes of Hoora, Adliya, Gudaibiya
Gudaibiya
and Juffair.[43] Villages such as Mahooz, Ghuraifa, Seqaya
Seqaya
served as the end of these roads. To the west, a major highway was built that linked Manama
Manama
to the isolated village port of Budaiya,[43] this highway crossed through the 'green belt' villages of Sanabis, Jidhafs and Duraz.[43] To the south, a road was built that connected Manama
Manama
to Riffa. The discovery of oil accelerated the growth of the city's road network.[43] The four main islands and all the towns and villages are linked by well-constructed roads. There were 3,164 km (1,966 mi) of roadways in 2002, of which 2,433 km (1,512 mi) were paved. A causeway stretching over 2.8 km (2 mi), connect Manama
Manama
with Muharraq
Muharraq
Island, and another bridge joins Sitra
Sitra
to the main island. A four-lane highway atop a 24 km (15 mi) causeway, linking Bahrain
Bahrain
with the Saudi Arabian
Saudi Arabian
mainland via the island of Umm an-Nasan was completed in December, 1986, and financed by Saudi Arabia. In 2000, there were 172,684 passenger vehicles and 41,820 commercial vehicles. Bahrain's port of Mina Salman can accommodate 16 oceangoing vessels drawing up to 11 m (36 ft). In 2001, Bahrain
Bahrain
had a merchant fleet of eight ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 270,784 GRT. Private vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in the city. Buses[edit] Manama
Manama
has a recently reformed comprehensive bus service that launched on 1 April 2015, with a fleet of 141 MAN buses.[44] Regulated by the Ministry of Transportation, bus routes extend across Bahrain
Bahrain
and around Manama
Manama
with fares of a minimum 200 Fils (BD0.200) (around $0.50(USD); £0.30).[45] Air transport[edit] Bahrain
Bahrain
International Airport is located on the nearby Muharraq Island, approximately 7 km (4 mi) from the CBD. It is a premier hub airport in the Middle East. Strategically located in the Northern Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
between the major markets of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Iran, the airport has one of the widest range and highest frequency of regional services with connections to major international destinations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Bahrain See also: List of schools in Bahrain Quranic schools were the only source of education in Bahrain
Bahrain
prior to the 20th century; such schools were primarily dedicated to the study of the Qur'an.[46] The first modern school to open in the country was a missionary elementary school setup in 1892 (according to one account) in Manama
Manama
by the Reformed Church in America, with the school's syllabus comprising English, Mathematics and the study of Christianity. Leading merchants in the country sent their children to the school until it was closed down in 1933 due to financial difficulties.[47] The school reopened some years later under the name of Al Raja School where it operates till the present day. In addition to the American Mission School, another foreign private school was opened in 1910; Al-Ittihad school, funded by the Persian community of Bahrain.[48]

The Jafaria school in Manama, 1931.

Following the end of the First World War, Western ideas became more widespread in the country, culminating in the opening of the first public school of Bahrain, Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia Boys school, in the island of Muharraq
Muharraq
in 1919.[46] The school was founded by prominent citizens of Muharraq
Muharraq
and was endorsed by the Bahraini royal family. The country's first Education Committee was established by several leading Bahraini merchants, headed by Shaikh Abdulla bin Isa Al-Khalifa, the son of the then-ruler of Bahrain
Bahrain
Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa, who acted as the de facto Minister of Education. The Education Committee was also responsible for managing the Al-Hidaya Boys school.[46] The school was in fact the brainchild of Shaikh Abdulla, who suggested the idea after returning from post-World War I celebrations in England.[49] In 1926, a second public school for boys opened up in the capital city, Manama. Two years later, in 1928, the first public school for girls was established. Due to financial constraints suffered by the Education Committee, the Bahraini government took control of the schools in 1930.[46] Presently, Manama
Manama
has a wide range of private and public universities and colleges such as Ahlia University, Applied Science University, Arab Open University, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain
Bahrain
Institute of Banking
Banking
and Finance, Delmon University. Other notable primary and secondary schools situated in the city include the Bahrain
Bahrain
School, The Indian School, Bahrain
Bahrain
amongst others. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Bahrain The city is located in the north-eastern corner of Bahrain
Bahrain
on a small peninsula. As in the rest of Bahrain, the land is generally flat (or gently rolling) and arid.

A panoramic view of the skyline of Manama
Manama
from left to right:1. The twin towers of the Bahrain
Bahrain
WTC. 2. The twin towers of the Bahrain
Bahrain
Financial Harbor (BFH). 3. The NBB tower (short building next to BFH). 4. The Almoayyed Tower (tallest in the photo, center of image). 5. The Abraj Al Lulu
Abraj Al Lulu
residential project (three towers) under-construction on the far-right).

Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Bahrain Manama
Manama
has an arid climate. In common with the rest of Bahrain, Manama experiences extreme climatic conditions, with summer temperatures up to 45 °C (113 °F), and winter as low as 7 °C (45 °F) with even hail at rare occasions. Average temperatures of the summer and winter seasons are generally from 17 °C (63 °F) to about 45 °C (113 °F). The most pleasant time in Bahrain
Bahrain
is autumn when sunshine is comparatively low, coupled with warm temperatures tempered by soft breezes.

Climate data for Manama
Manama
( Bahrain
Bahrain
International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1902–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29.7 (85.5) 34.7 (94.5) 38.1 (100.6) 41.3 (106.3) 46.7 (116.1) 47.3 (117.1) 47.5 (117.5) 45.6 (114.1) 45.5 (113.9) 42.8 (109) 37.2 (99) 30.6 (87.1) 47.5 (117.5)

Average high °C (°F) 20.0 (68) 21.2 (70.2) 24.7 (76.5) 29.2 (84.6) 34.1 (93.4) 36.4 (97.5) 37.9 (100.2) 38.0 (100.4) 36.5 (97.7) 33.1 (91.6) 27.8 (82) 22.3 (72.1) 30.1 (86.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 17.2 (63) 18.0 (64.4) 21.2 (70.2) 25.3 (77.5) 30.0 (86) 32.6 (90.7) 34.1 (93.4) 34.2 (93.6) 32.5 (90.5) 29.3 (84.7) 24.5 (76.1) 19.3 (66.7) 26.5 (79.7)

Average low °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 14.9 (58.8) 17.8 (64) 21.5 (70.7) 26.0 (78.8) 28.8 (83.8) 30.4 (86.7) 30.5 (86.9) 28.6 (83.5) 25.5 (77.9) 21.2 (70.2) 16.2 (61.2) 23.0 (73.4)

Record low °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 7.9 (46.2) 10.9 (51.6) 10.8 (51.4) 18.7 (65.7) 18.4 (65.1) 25.3 (77.5) 21.8 (71.2) 18.9 (66) 18.8 (65.8) 11.7 (53.1) 6.4 (43.5) 2.7 (36.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.6 (0.575) 16.0 (0.63) 13.9 (0.547) 10.0 (0.394) 1.1 (0.043) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.5 (0.02) 3.8 (0.15) 10.9 (0.429) 70.8 (2.787)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 1.7 9.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 226.3 221.2 238.7 255.0 306.9 339.0 331.7 331.7 312.0 303.8 261.0 226.3 3,353.6

Source #1: NOAA,[50] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[51]

Source #2: Ministry of Transportation (Bahrain) [52]

Culture[edit]

Men sitting at a street cafe in the Manama
Manama
souq

Main article: Culture of Bahrain The country attracts a large number of foreigners and foreign influences, with just under one third of the population hailing from abroad.[53] Alcohol
Alcohol
is legal in the country, with bars and nightclubs operating in the city. Bahrain
Bahrain
gave women the right to vote in elections for the first time in 2002. Football is the most popular sport in Manama
Manama
(and the rest of the country), with 3 teams from Manama
Manama
participating in the Bahraini Premier League. The central areas of Manama
Manama
are the main location for Muharram processions in the country, attracting hundreds of thousands of people annually. Twin towns—sister cities[edit]

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Doha, Qatar Tunis, Tunisia
Tunisia
(1999) Tripoli, Lebanon
Lebanon
(1977) Chicago, United States
United States
(2004) Dubai, United Arab Emirates Chiang Mai, Thailand Amman, Jordan Ta'if, Saudi Arabia Singapore, Singapore

See also[edit]

List of islands of Bahrain List of tallest structures in Bahrain List of tourist attractions in Bahrain List of shopping malls in Bahrain Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage

Notes[edit] ^ These student protests were led by intellectuals and poets such as Qassim Haddad.[31] References[edit] Footnotes

^ Annual Population of Urban Agglomerations with 300,000 Inhabitants or More in 2014, by Country, 1950-2030 (thousands), World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 revision, Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Note: List based on estimates for 2015, from 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2017. ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 185. ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 186. ^ Manama
Manama
Capital of Arab Culture 2012 ^ Ministry of Culture: Manama
Manama
as the Bahraini Capital of Arab Culture ^ Room 1997, p. 223. ^ Al-Nabi 2012, p. 17. ^ a b c d e Dumper & Stanley 2007, p. 243. ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 184. ^ a b Al-Nabi 2012, p. 19. ^ Rice 2005, p. 128. ^ Al A'ali, Mohammed (24 August 2013). "Protecting Bahrain's Christian heritage..." Gulf Daily News. Retrieved 31 August 2013.  ^ a b c Dumper & Stanley 2007, p. 244. ^ a b Larsen 1983, p. 68. ^ a b c Fuccaro 2009, p. 18. ^ Fuccaro 2005, p. 42. ^ a b Fuccaro 2005, p. 43. ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 192. ^ a b Fuccaro 2005, p. 44. ^ a b Fuccaro 2009, p. 64. ^ a b Fuccaro 2009, p. 113. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 114. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 115. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 127-128. ^ a b Fuccaro 2009, p. 119. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 163. ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 201. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 185-186. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 116. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 226. ^ a b Fuccaro 2009, p. 227. ^ Fuccaro 2009, p. 229. ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 206. ^ a b c Fuccaro 2009, p. 230. ^ " Bahrain
Bahrain
Independent Commission of Inquiry". Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Development Team at BNA. " Bahrain
Bahrain
News Agency – ELECTION 2006 (retrieved 2 December 2006)". Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ CIA World Factbook – Bahrain
Bahrain
(retrieved 2 December 2006) ^ Al-Nabi 2012, p. 20. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 73.  ^ Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 202. ^ a b c Ben Hamouche 2008, p. 191. ^ "King of Bahrain
Bahrain
Appoints Jewish Woman to Parliament". Israel National News. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Elsheshtawy, Yasser (2011). The evolving Arab city: tradition, modernity and urban development. Routledge. p. 198. ISBN 1134128215.  ^ Al Omari, Ahmed (16 February 2015). "Clean, comfortable and punctual..." Gulf Daily News. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ "Ministry of Transportation - Public Buses". Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ a b c d "History". Ministry of Education - Bahrain. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.  ^ Shirawi 1987, p. 59. ^ Shirawi 1987, p. 60. ^ Shirawi 1987, p. 61. ^ " Bahrain
Bahrain
International Airport Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 5 April 2016.  ^ "Station Bahrain" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Bahrain/Manama". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ " Manama
Manama
Culture (retrieved 2 December 2006)". Trip Advisor. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

Bibliography Primary sources

^ Palgrave, W.G, Personal Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–1863), vol. II, Macmillan & Co., London, 1866.

Secondary sources

Room, Adrian (1997). Placenames of the world : origins and meanings of the names for over 5000 natural features, countries, capitals, territories, cities and historic sights. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 9780786418145.  Fuccaro, Nelida (2005). Mapping the transnational community: Persians and the space of the city in Bahrain, c. 1869–1937. Routledge. ISBN 9780415331357.  Ben Hamouche, Mustapha (2008). Manama: The Metamorphosis of an Arab Gulf City. Routledge. ISBN 9781134128211.  Al-Nabi, Mohammed Noor (2012). The History of Land Use and Development in Bahrain
Bahrain
(PDF). Information Affairs Authority. ISBN 9789995801298.  Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576079195.  Rice, Michael (2005). Traces of Paradise: The Archaeology of Bahrain, 2500 BC to 300 AD. .B.Tauris. ISBN 9781860647420.  Larsen, Curtis E. (1983). Life and Land Use on the Bahrain
Bahrain
Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 9780226469065.  Fuccaro, Nelida (2009). Histories of City and State in the Persian Gulf: Manama
Manama
Since 1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521514354.  Shirawi, May Al-Arrayed (1987). Education in Bahrain
Bahrain
- 1919-1986, An Analytical Study of Problems and Progress (PDF). Durham University. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manama.

Manama
Manama
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website

v t e

Governorates of Bahrain

Current divisions (governorates)

Capital Muharraq Northern Southern

Former divisions (regions)

Al Hidd Manama Western Region Central Governorate Central Region Northern Region Muharraq Rifa and Southern Region Jidd Haffs Hamad Town Isa Town Hawar Islands Sitra

ISO 3166-2:BH

v t e

Major cities of Bahrain

Al Hidd Hamad Town Isa Town Jidd Haffs Manama Muharraq Riffa Sitra

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait
Kuwait
City 2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 147299333 GND: 4100079-1 BNF: cb1196

.