HOME
The Info List - Mahmud II





Mahmud II
Mahmud II
(Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (Turkish: İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated into the Decree of Tanzimat
Tanzimat
("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I
Abdulmejid I
and Abdülaziz. Often described as " Peter the Great
Peter the Great
of Turkey",[1] Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary
Janissary
corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.[2]

Contents

1 Accession 2 Reign overview

2.1 War against the Saudi state 2.2 Greek War of Independence 2.3 The Auspicious Incident 2.4 Tanzimat
Tanzimat
Reforms

3 Reforms

3.1 Legal reforms 3.2 Military reforms 3.3 Other reforms

4 Family 5 In fiction 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 External links

Accession[edit] His mother was Nakşidil Valide Sultan. In 1808, Mahmud II's predecessor, and half-brother, Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV
ordered his execution along with his cousin, the deposed Sultan
Sultan
Selim III, in order to defuse the rebellion. Selim III
Selim III
was killed, but Mahmud was safely kept hidden by his mother and was placed on the throne after the rebels deposed Mustafa IV. The leader of this rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, later became Mahmud II's vizier. Western historians give Mahmud a bad reputation for simply being the Sultan
Sultan
during a time of deterioration of the Ottoman Empire.[3] There are many stories surrounding the circumstances of his attempted murder. A version by the 19th-century Ottoman historian Ahmed Cevdet Pasha
Pasha
gives the following account: one of his slaves, a Georgian girl named Cevri, gathered ashes when she heard the commotion in the palace surrounding the murder of Selim III. When the assassins approached the Harem chambers where Mahmud was staying, she was able to keep them away for a while by throwing ashes into their faces, temporarily blinding them. This allowed Mahmud to escape through a window and climb onto the roof of the Harem. He apparently ran to the roof of the Third Court where other pages saw him and helped him come down with pieces of clothes that were quickly tied together as a ladder. By this time one of the leaders of the rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha arrived with his armed men and upon seeing the dead body of Selim III proclaimed Mahmud as padishah. The slave girl Cevri Kalfa was awarded for her bravery and loyalty and appointed haznedar usta, the chief treasurer of the imperial Harem, which was the second most important position in the hierarchy. A plain stone staircase at the Altınyol (Golden Way) of the Harem is called Staircase of Cevri (Jevri) Kalfa, since the events apparently happened around there and are associated with her.[4] Reign overview[edit] The vizier took the initiative in resuming reforms that had been terminated by the conservative coup of 1807 that had brought Mustafa IV to power. However he was killed during a rebellion in 1808 and Mahmud II
Mahmud II
temporarily abandoned the reforms. Mahmud II's later reformation efforts were more successful. War against the Saudi state[edit] Main article: Emirate of Diriyah

Abdullah bin Saud.

During the early years of Mahmud II's reign, his governor of Egypt Mehmet Ali Paşa successfully reconquered the holy cities of Medina (1812) and Mecca
Mecca
(1813) from the First Saudi State. Abdullah bin Saud
Abdullah bin Saud
and the First Saudi State
First Saudi State
had barred Muslims from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from entering the holy shrines of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, his followers also desecrated the tombs of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hassan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Abdullah bin Saud
Abdullah bin Saud
and his two followers were publicly beheaded for their crimes against holy cities and mosques.[5] Greek War of Independence[edit] Main article: Greek War of Independence

The stylized signature of Mahmud II
Mahmud II
was written in an expressive calligraphy.

Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
attacks Missolonghi

His reign also marked the first breakaway from the Ottoman Empire, with Greece
Greece
gaining its independence following a revolution that started in 1821. During the Battle of Erzurum (1821), part of the Ottoman-Persian War (1821-1823), Mahmud II's superior force got routed by Abbas Mirza, resulting in a Qajar Persian victory which got confirmed in the Treaties of Erzurum.[6] Several years later, in 1827, the combined British, French and Russian navies defeated the Ottoman Navy at the Battle of Navarino; in the aftermath, the Ottoman Empire was forced to recognize Greece
Greece
with the Treaty of Constantinople
Constantinople
in July 1832. This event, together with the occupation of the Ottoman province of Algeria by France in 1830, marked the beginning of the gradual break-up of the Ottoman Empire. Non-Turkish ethnic groups living in the empire's territories, especially in Europe, started their own independence movements. The Auspicious Incident[edit] Main article: Auspicious Incident One of Mahmud II's most notable acts during his reign was the destruction of the Janissary
Janissary
corps in June 1826. He accomplished this with careful calculation using his recently reformed wing of the military intended to replace the Janissaries. When the Janissaries mounted a demonstration against Mahmud II's proposed military reforms, he had their barracks fired upon effectively crushing the formerly elite Ottoman troops and burned the Belgrade forest outside Istanbul to incinerate any remnants.[7][8][full citation needed] This permitted the establishment of a European-style conscript army, recruited largely from Turkish speakers of Rumelia and Asia Minor. Mahmud was also responsible for the subjugation of the Iraqi Mamluks by Ali Ridha Pasha
Pasha
in 1831. He ordered the execution of the renowned Ali Pasha
Pasha
of Tepelena. He sent his Grand Vizier
Vizier
to execute the Bosniak
Bosniak
hero Husein Gradaščević and dissolve the Bosnia Eyalet. Tanzimat
Tanzimat
Reforms[edit] Main article: Tanzimat

The mausoleum of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
during the period of 1860-1890.

In 1839, just prior to his death, he began preparations for the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
reform era which included introducing a Council of Ministers or the Meclis-i Vukela.[9]:49 The Tanzimat
Tanzimat
marked the beginning of modernization in Turkey, and had immediate effects on social and legal aspects of life in the Empire, such as European style clothing, architecture, legislation, institutional organization and land reform. He was concerned also for aspects of tradition. He made great efforts to revive the sport of archery. He ordered archery master Mustafa Kani to write a book about the history, construction, and use of Turkish bows, from which comes most of what is now known of Turkish archery.[10] Mahmud II
Mahmud II
died of tuberculosis, in 1839. His funeral was attended by crowds of people who came to bid the Sultan
Sultan
farewell. His son Abdülmecid succeeded him and would continue to implement Tanzimat reform efforts. Reforms[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Legal reforms[edit] Among his reforms are the edicts (or firmans), by which he closed the Court of Confiscations, and took away much of the power of the Pashas. Previous to the first of the Firmans the property of all persons banished or condemned to death was forfeited to the crown; and a sordid motive for acts of cruelty was thus kept in perpetual operation, besides the encouragement of a host of vile delators. The second firman removed the ancient rights of Turkish governors to doom men to instant death by their will; the Paşas, the Ağas, and other officers, were enjoined that "they should not presume to inflict, themselves, the punishment of death on any man, whether Raya or Turk, unless authorized by a legal sentence pronounced by the Kadi, and regularly signed by the judge." Mahmud also created an appeal system by a criminal to one of the Kazasker (chief military judge) of Asia or Europe, and finally to the Sultan
Sultan
himself, if the criminal chose to persist in his appeal. About the same time that Mahmud II
Mahmud II
ordained these changes, he personally set an example of reform by regularly attending the Divan, or state council, instead of secluding himself from the labors of state. The practice of the Sultan
Sultan
avoiding the Divan had been introduced as long ago as the reign of Suleiman I, and was considered as one of the causes of the decline of the Empire by a Turkish historian nearly two centuries before Mahmud II's time. Mahmud II
Mahmud II
also addressed some of the worst abuses connected with the vakıfs, by placing their revenues under state administration. However, he did not venture to apply this vast mass of property to the general purposes of the government. His modernizations included the relaxation of much of the restrictions on alcoholic beverages in the Empire, and the sultan himself was known to drink socially with his ministers.[1] By the end of his reign, his reforms had mostly normalized drinking among the upper classes and political figures in the Empire.[1] In his time the financial situation of the Empire was troubling, and certain social classes had long been under oppression under difficult taxes. In dealing with the complicated questions that therefore arose, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
is considered to have demonstrated the best spirit of the best of the Köprülüs. A Firman of February 22, 1834 abolished the vexatious charges which public functionaries, when traversing the provinces, had long been accustomed to take from the inhabitants. By the same edict all collection of money, except for the two regular half-yearly periods, was denounced as abuses. "No one is ignorant," said Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
in this document, "that I am bound to afford support to all my subjects against vexatious proceedings; to endeavour unceasingly to lighten, instead of increasing their burdens, and to ensure peace and tranquility. Therefore, those acts of oppression are at once contrary to the will of God, and to my imperial orders." The haraç, or capitation-tax, though moderate and exempting those who paid it from military service, had long been made an engine of gross tyranny through the insolence and misconduct of the government collectors. The Firman of 1834 abolished the old mode of levying it, and ordained that it should be raised by a commission composed of the Kadı, the Muslim governors, and the Ayans, or municipal chiefs of Rayas in each district. Many other financial improvements were effected. By another important series of measures, the administrative government was simplified and strengthened, and a large number of sinecure offices were abolished. Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
provided a valuable personal example of good sense, and economy, organising the imperial household, suppressing all titles without duties, and all salaried officials without functions. Military reforms[edit] Further information: Ottoman military reform efforts

Mahmudiye (1829), built by the Imperial Arsenal on the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
in Constantinople, was for many years the largest warship in the world. The 201 x 56 kadem (1 kadem = 37.887 cm) or 76.15 m × 21.22 m (249.8 ft × 69.6 ft) ship of the line was armed with 128 cannons on 3 decks and carried 1,280 sailors on board (kadem, which translates as "foot", is often misinterpreted as equal in length to one imperial foot, hence the wrongly converted dimensions of "201 x 56 ft, or 62 x 17 m" in some sources.) She participated in numerous important naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War.

Mahmud II
Mahmud II
dealt effectively with the military fiefs, the "Tımar"s and the "Ziamet"s. These had been instituted to furnish the old effective military force, but had long ceased to serve this purpose. By attaching them to the public domains, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
materially strengthened the resources of the state, and put an end to a host of corruptions. One of the most resolute acts of his ruling was the suppression of the Dere Beys, the hereditary local chiefs (with power to nominate their successors in default of male heirs), which, in one of the worst abuses of the Ottoman feudal system, had made themselves petty princes in almost every province of the empire. The reduction of these insubordinate feudatories was not effected at once, or without severe struggles and frequent insurrections. Mahmud II steadily persevered in this great measure and ultimately the island of Cyprus
Cyprus
became the only part of empire in which power not emanating from the Sultan
Sultan
was allowed to be retained by Dere Beys. One of his most notable achievement was the abolition (through use of military force, execution and exile, and banning of the Bektashi order) of the Janissary
Janissary
Corps, event known as The Auspicious Incident, in 1826 and the establishment of a modern Ottoman Army, named the Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye
Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye
(meaning 'Victorious Soldiers of Muhammad' in Ottoman Turkish). Following the loss of Greece
Greece
after the Battle of Navarino
Battle of Navarino
against the combined British-French-Russian flotilla in 1827, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
gave top priority to rebuilding a strong Ottoman naval force. The first steam ships of the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
were acquired in 1828. In 1829 the world's largest warship for many years, the 201 x 56 kadem (1 kadem = 37.887 cm) or 76.15 m × 21.22 m (249.8 ft × 69.6 ft) ship of the line Mahmudiye, which had 128 cannons on 3 decks and carried 1,280 sailors on board, was built for the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
at the Imperial Naval Arsenal (Tersâne-i Âmire) on the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
in Constantinople
Constantinople
(kadem, which translates as "foot", is often misinterpreted as equivalent in length to one imperial foot, hence the wrongly converted dimensions of "201 x 56 ft, or 62 x 17 m" in some sources.) Other reforms[edit]

Mahmud II
Mahmud II
before his clothing reform in 1826.

Mahmud II
Mahmud II
after his clothing reform in 1826.

During his reign Mahmud II
Mahmud II
also made sweeping reforms of the bureaucracy in order to reestablish royal authority and increase the administrative efficiency of his government. This was accomplished by abolishing old offices, introducing new lines of responsibility, and raised salaries in an attempt to end bribery. In 1838 he founded two institutions aimed towards training government officials. In 1831, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
also founded an official gazette, Takvim-i Vekayi (Calendar of Events). This was the first newspaper to be published in the Ottoman- Turkish language
Turkish language
and was required reading for all civil servants.[11][full citation needed] Clothing was also an important aspect of Mahmud II's reforms. He began by officially adopting the fez for the military after the Janissary eradication in 1826, which signified a break from the old style of military dress.[12] On top of this, he ordered civilian officials to also adopt a similar, but plain, fez to distinguish them from the military.[13] He planned for the population to adopt this as well, as he desired a homogeneous look for Ottoman society with an 1829 regulatory law.[13] Unlike past Sultanic clothing decrees and those of other societies, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
wanted all levels of government and civilians to look the same. He faced significant resistance to these measures specifically from religious groups, laborers, and military members because of traditional, religious, and practical reasons.[14][15] Mahmud II's portraits also give an important insight into his clothing mentality, as he switched to a more European-style and fez after 1826. On top of these reforms, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
was also critical in the establishment and flourishing of an Ottoman foreign affairs office. While he built upon Selim III's foundational elements of foreign diplomacy, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
was the first to create the title of Foreign Minister and Undersecretary in 1836.[16] He placed enormous importance on this position and equated salary and rank with the highest military and civilian positions.[17] Mahmud II
Mahmud II
also expanded the Language Office and Translation Office, and by 1833 it began to grow in both size and importance. After the reorganization of these offices, he also resumed Selim's efforts to create a system of permanent diplomatic representation in Europe. In 1834, permanent European embassies were established with the first in Paris.[17] Despite the difficulties that came along with these actions, the expansion of diplomacy increased the transmission of ideas that would have a revolutionary effect on the development of bureaucracy and Ottoman society as a whole. Family[edit]

Consorts

Mahmud had sixteen consorts:

Kamerfer Kadın (buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum); Mislinayab Kadın (buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum); Nevfidan Kadın (died 25 December 1855, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum), Baş Kadın;[18] Dilseza Kadın (died 1816, buried in Yahya Efendi cemetery), Üçüncü Kadın;[19] Hoşyar Kadın (died Mecca, 1859, buried there), İkinci Kadın;[20] Aşubcan Kadın (died 10 June 1870, buried in Mahmud II
Mahmud II
Mausoleum), Üçüncü Kadın;[21] Fülane Kadın (died 21 May 1818, buried in Nakşidil Sultan Mausoleum), Beşinci Kadın;[22] Nurtab Kadın (died 2 January 1886, buried in Mahmud II
Mahmud II
Mausoleum), Dördüncü Kadın;[18] Bezmiâlem Sultan[23] (died 2 May 1853, buried in Mahmud II
Mahmud II
Mausoleum, Divanyolu, Istanbul),[21] Beşinci Kadın; Ebrureftar Kadın (died 1825, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum), Altıncı Kadın;[24] Pervizifelek Kadın (died 21 September 1863, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum), Altıncı Kadın;[25] Hüsnümelek Hanım (died October 1886, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum), Baş İkbal;[26] Pertevniyal Sultan[27] (4 February 1883, buried in Pertevniyal Sultan Mausoleum),[28] İkinci İkbal;[29] Tiryal Hanım (died 1886, buried in Imperial ladies Mausoleum), Üçüncü İkbal;[26] Zernigar Hanım (died 1832, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum),[25] Dördüncü İkbal; Lebrizifelek Hanım (died 9 February 1865, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum), Dördüncü İkbal;[30]

The mausoleum (türbe) of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II, located at Divan Yolu street in Çemberlitaş, Eminönü, Istanbul.

Sons

Internal view of the mausoleum of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II.

Exterior view of the türbe of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II.

Mahmud had eighteen sons:

Sultan
Sultan
Abdülmecid I, with Bezmiâlem;[31] Sultan
Sultan
Abdülaziz
Abdülaziz
I, with Pertevniyal;[32] Şehzade Murad (25 December 1811 – 14 July 1812, buried in Abdul Hamid I Mausoleum, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Bayezid
Şehzade Bayezid
(27 March 1812 – 25 June 1812, buried in Abdul Hamid I Mausoleum, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Abdul Hamid (6 March 1813 – 20 April 1825, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul); Şehzade Osman (12 June 1813 – 10 April 1814, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Ahmed (25 July 1814 – 16 July 1815, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
(26 August 1814 – 28 October 1814, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
(born and died 4 August 1816, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Suleiman (29 August 1817 – 14 December 1819, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Ahmed (13 October 1819 – 24 December 1819, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Ahmed (25 December 1819 – 28 December 1819, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Abdullah
Şehzade Abdullah
(born and died 4 April 1820, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
(18 February 1822 – 23 September 1822, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Ahmed (6 July 1822 – 9 April 1823, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şehzade Ahmed (5 December 1823 – 1824); Şehzade Abdul Hamid (18 February 1827 – 15 November 1828, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul); Şehzade Nizameddin (6 December 1835 – 24 February 1838);

Daughters

Mahmud had eighteen daughters:

Cemile Sultan
Sultan
(died in infancy);[33] Fatma Sultan
Sultan
(4 February 1809 – 5 August 1809, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul);[30] Ayşe Sultan
Sultan
(5 July 1809 – February 1810, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul),[30] with Nevifidan; Fatma Sultan
Sultan
(30 April 1810 – 7 May 1825, buried in Nakşidil Sultan Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul);[34] Saliha Sultan
Sultan
(16 June 1811 – 19 February 1843, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum, Divanyolu, Istanbul), with Aşubcan;[35] Şah Sultan
Sultan
(22 May 1812 – September 1814, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul),[36], with Aşubcan; Mihrimah Sultan
Sultan
(10 June 1812 – 3 July 1838, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Sultan
Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul), with Hoşyar;[37] Emine Sultan
Sultan
(12 August 1812 – 28 June 1814,[37] buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul); Şah Sultan
Sultan
(14 October 1814 – 13 April 1817, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul),[37] with Hoşyar; Emine Sultan
Sultan
(7 January 1815 – 29 September 1816,[37] buried in Yahya Efendi cemetery, Beşiktaş, Istanbul); Zeynep Sultan
Sultan
(18 April 1815 – 8 January 1816, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul);[33] Hamide Sultan
Sultan
(4 July 1818 – 15 February 1819, buried in Nurosmaniye Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul);[33] Atiye Sultan
Sultan
(2 January 1824 – 11 August 1850, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum, Divanyolu, Istanbul), with Pervizifelek;[33] Münire Sultan
Sultan
(16 October 1824 – 23 May 1825,[38] buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul); Hatice Sultan
Sultan
(6 September 1825 – 19 December 1842, buried in Mahmud II Mausoleum, Divanyolu, Istanbul), with Pervizifelek;[38] Adile Sultan
Sultan
(23 May 1826 – 12 February 1899, buried in Adile Sultan Mausoleum, Eyüp, Istanbul), with Zernigar;[39] Fatma Sultan
Sultan
(10 August 1828 - 23 October 1830, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Sultan
Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul), with Pervizifelek;[40] Hayriye Sultan
Sultan
(12 January 1832 – 15 February 1833, buried in Nakşidil Sultan
Nakşidil Sultan
Mausoleum, Fatih
Fatih
Mosque, Istanbul).[40]

In fiction[edit] The 2006 historical detective novel The Janissary
Janissary
Tree, by Jason Goodwin, is set in 1836 Constantinople, with Mahmud II's modernising reforms (and conservative opposition to them) forming the background of the plot. The Sultan
Sultan
himself and his mother appear in several scenes. The 1989 film Intimate Power, also known as The Favorite, is adapted from an historical fiction novel by Prince Michael of Greece. It portrays a legend about Aimée du Buc de Rivéry
Aimée du Buc de Rivéry
as a young captured French girl who, after spending years in an Ottoman harem, outlives two Sultans and protects Mahmud as his surrogate mother. Mahmud is a minor role in the film but is portrayed as both an adult and a child. The film concludes with a variation of his dramatic succession. See also[edit]

Atçalı Kel Mehmet Efe Sened-i İttifak

References[edit]

^ a b c Eugene Rogan (4 October 2002). Outside In: Marginality in the Modern Middle East. I.B.Tauris. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-86064-698-0.  ^ Karpat, H. Kemal (1959). Turkey's Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-62623-9.  ^ A History of the Modern Middle East Cleveland, William L. & Burton, Martin; Fifth Edition; Westview Press; USA; 2015, p. 71. ISBN 978-0813348339. ^ Davis, Claire (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 214–217. ASIN B000NP64Z2.  ^ Dr. Abdullah Mohammad Sindi. "The Direct Instruments of Western Control over the Arabs: The Shining Example of the House of Saud" (PDF). Social sciences and humanities. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ George Childs Kohn (2013). Dictionary of Wars. Routledge. p. 506 ff. ISBN 1135954941.  ^ Engelhardt, Ed. (1882). La Turquie et le Tanzimat. Paris. p. 11.  ^ A history of the Modern Middle East, Cleveland and Bunton p. 79 ^ Shaw, Stanford J.; Shaw, Ezel Kural (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey
Turkey
Shaw. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521291668.  ^ Paul E Klopsteg. Turkish Archery and the Composite Bow. Chapter I, Background of Turkish Archery. Second edition, revised, 1947, published by the author, 2424 Lincolnwood Drive, Evanston, Ill. ^ A history of the Modern Middle East, Cleveland and Bunton p. 72 ^ Koçu. Türk Giyim,. pp. 113–114.  ^ a b Quataert, D. (1997). "Clothing Laws, State, and Society in the Ottoman Empire". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 29(3): 413.  ^ Slade, Adolphus (1854). Records of travel in Turkey, Greece, etc. London. p. 194.  ^ Demiral, II, Ömer (1989). Mahmud dönemide Sivas’ta esnaf teşkilâtı ve üretim-tüketim ilişkileri. Ankara. p. 81.  ^ Sturmer (30 November 1836). "HHS Turkei". Sturmer's no. 206A-B. v1/65.  ^ a b Findley, C. "The Foundation of the Ottoman Foreign Ministry". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 3(4): 405.  ^ a b Uluçay 1992, p. 123. ^ M S: Milli saraylar, tarih kültür sanat mimarlık, Issue 6. TBMM Milli Saraylar Daire Başkanlığı Yayını. 2010. p. 20.  ^ Uluçay 1992, p. 121. ^ a b Uluçay 1992, p. 120. ^ Kaya, Bayram Ali; Küçük, Sezai (2011). Defter-i Dervişan (Yenikapı Mevlevihanesi Günlükleri). Zeytinburnu Belediyesi. p. 347. ISBN 978-9-757-32133-0.  ^ Madeline Zilfi, Women and Slavery in the Late Ottoman Empire: The Design of Difference, (Cambridge University Press, 2010), 227. ^ Rıza Balıkhane Nazırı, Ali; Çoruk, Ali Şükrü (2001). Eski zamanlarda İstanbul hayatı - Book
Book
15. Kitabevi. p. 301. ISBN 978-9-757-32133-0.  ^ a b Uluçay 1992, p. 126. ^ a b Uluçay 1992, p. 127. ^ The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher: Voices from the Ottoman Harem, transl. Douglas Scott Brookes, (University of Texas Press, 2008), 288. ^ Uluçay 1992, p. 124. ^ Hochhut, Pia. The Pious Foundation of Pertev Niyal - Remarks on the Steam Mills at Paşa Limanı (Üsküdar).  ^ a b c Uluçay 1992, p. 128. ^ Madeline Zilfi, Women and Slavery in the Late Ottoman Empire: The Design of Difference, 227. ^ The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher: Voices from the Ottoman Harem, transl. Douglas Scott Brookes, 288. ^ a b c d Uluçay 1992, p. 134. ^ Uluçay 1992, p. 129. ^ Uluçay 1992, p. 130-1. ^ Uluçay 1992, p. 132. ^ a b c d Uluçay 1992, p. 133. ^ a b Uluçay 1992, p. 135. ^ Uluçay 1992, p. 135-8. ^ a b Uluçay 1992, p. 138.

Incorporates text from Edward Shepherd Creasy, History of the Ottoman Turks; From the beginning of their empire to the present time (1878).

Bibliography[edit]

M. Çağatay Uluçay (1992). Padişahların Kadınları ve Kızları. Ankara : Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevı. ISBN 978-9-751-60461-3. 

Further reading[edit]

Levy, Avigdor. "The Officer Corps in Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II's New Ottoman Army, 1826–39." International Journal of Middle East Studies (1971) 2#1 pp: 21-39. online Levy, Avigdor. "The Ottoman Ulema and the military reforms of Sultan Mahmud II." Asian and African Studies 7 (1971): 13-39. Levy, Avigdor. "The Ottoman Corps in Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
New Ottoman Army." International Journal of Middle East Studies 1 (1971): pp 39+ Palmer, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1992) ch 6

External links[edit] Media related to Mahmud II
Mahmud II
at Wikimedia Commons

Mahmud II House of Osman Born: 20 July 1785 Died: 1 July 1839

Regnal titles

Preceded by Mustafa IV Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire 15 Nov 1808 – 1 Jul 1839 Succeeded by Abdülmecid I

Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
titles

Preceded by Mustafa IV Caliph
Caliph
of Islam 15 Nov 1808 – 1 Jul 1839 Succeeded by Abdülmecid I

v t e

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs

Dynasty Family tree (detailed) Family tree (simplified) Line of succession

Osman I Orhan Murad I Bayezid I Interregnum Mehmed I Murad II Mehmed II Murad II Mehmed II Bayezid II Selim I Suleiman I Selim II Murad III Mehmed III Ahmed I Mustafa I Osman II Mustafa I Murad IV Ibrahim Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II Mustafa II Ahmed III Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II Abdulmejid I Abdülaziz Murad V Abdul Hamid II Mehmed V Mehmed VI Abdulmejid II
Abdulmejid II
( Caliph
Caliph
only)

§ First Ottoman caliph

Book Category

Related templates: Claimants Valide Sultans

v t e

Ottoman princes

1st generation

Alaeddin Pasha Orhan

2nd generation

Süleyman Pasha Murad I Şehzade Halil

3rd generation

Savcı Bey Bayezid I

4th generation

Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Mehmed I Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi

5th generation

Murad II Küçük Mustafa

6th generation

Mehmed the Conqueror

7th generation

Bayezid II Sultan
Sultan
Cem

8th generation

Şehzade Ahmet Şehzade Korkut Selim I

9th generation

Suleiman the Magnificent

10th generation

Şehzade Mustafa Şehzade Mehmed Şehzade Abdullah Selim II Şehzade Bayezid Şehzade Cihangir

11th generation

Murad III

12th generation

Mehmed III Sultan
Sultan
Yahya

13th generation

Şehzade Mahmud Ahmed I Mustafa I

14th generation

Osman II Murad IV Ibrahim

15th generation

Şehzade Ömer Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II

16th generation

Mustafa II Ahmed III

17th generation

Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I

18th generation

Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II

19th generation

Abdulmejid I Abdulaziz

20th generation

Abdul Hamid II Murad V Mehmed V Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin Mehmed VI Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Abdulmejid II

21st generation

Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selaheddin Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selim Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abdülkadir Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abid Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Ziyaeddin Şehzade Ömer
Şehzade Ömer
Hilmi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 35392079 LCCN: n88252103 ISNI: 0000 0001 1619 3415 GND: 124530877 SUDOC: 164516069 BNF: cb15630631f (data) MusicBrainz: 53bda8e1-048a-4d13-a242-

.