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A madhhab (Arabic: مذهب‎ maḏhab, IPA: [ˈmaðhab], "way to act"; pl. مذاهب maḏāhib, [maˈðaːhɪb]) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). In the first 150 years of Islam, there were numerous madhahib, most of which have become extinct or merged with other schools. The Amman Message, which was endorsed in 2005 by prominent Islamic scholars around the world, recognized four Sunni
Sunni
schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali), two Shia
Shia
schools (Ja'fari, Zaidi), the Ibadi
Ibadi
school and the Zahiri
Zahiri
school.[1]

Contents

1 Development 2 Ancient schools of law 3 List of schools

3.1 Sunni 3.2 Shia 3.3 Ibadi

4 Amman Message 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Development[edit] It has been asserted that madhahib were consolidated in the 9th and 10th centuries as a means of excluding dogmatic theologians, government officials and non- Sunni
Sunni
sects from religious discourse.[2] Historians have differed regarding the times at which the various schools emerged. One interpretation is that Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
was initially[when?] split into four groups: the Hanafites, Malikites, Shafi'ites and Zahirites.[3] Later, the Hanbalites and Jarirites developed two more schools; then various dynasties effected the eventual exclusion of the Jarirites;[4] eventually, the Zahirites were also excluded when the Mamluk Sultanate established a total of four independent judicial positions, thus solidifying the Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi'i
Shafi'i
and Hanbali
Hanbali
schools.[2] The Ottoman Empire later reaffirmed the official status of these four schools as a reaction to Shi'ite Persia.[5] Some are of the view that Sunni
Sunni
jurisprudence falls into two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i ("people of opinions", emphasizing scholarly judgment and reason) and Ahl al-Hadith
Ahl al-Hadith
("people of traditions", emphasizing strict interpretation of scripture).[6] 10th century Shi'ite scholar Ibn al-Nadim named eight groups: Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi'i, Zahiri, Imami
Imami
Shi'ite, Ahl al-Hadith, Jariri
Jariri
and Kharijite.[4][7] In the 12th century Jariri
Jariri
and Zahiri
Zahiri
schools were absorbed by the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school.[8] Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
defined only three Sunni
Sunni
madhahib: Hanafi, Zahiri, and one encompassing the Shafi'i, Maliki
Maliki
and Hanbali
Hanbali
schools as existing initially,[9][10] noting that by the 14th-century historian the Zahiri
Zahiri
school had become extinct,[11][12] only for it to be revived again in parts of the Muslim world by the mid-20th century.[13][14][15] Historically, the fiqh schools were often in political and academic conflict with one another, vying for favor with the ruling government in order to have their representatives appointed to legislative and especially judiciary positions.[5] Geographer and historian Al-Muqaddasi
Al-Muqaddasi
once satirically categorized competing madhahib with contrasting personal qualities: Hanafites, highly conscious of being hired for official positions, appeared deft, well-informed, devout and prudent; Malikites, dull and obtuse, confined themselves to observance of prophetic tradition; Shafi'ites were shrewd, impatient, understanding and quick-tempered; Zahirites haughty, irritable, loquacious and well-to-do; Shi'ites, entrenched and intractable in old rancor, enjoyed riches and fame; and Hanbalites, anxious to practice what they preached, were charitable and inspiring.[16] While such descriptions were almost assuredly humorous in nature, ancient differences were less to do with actual doctrinal opinions than with maneuvering for adherents and influence.[citation needed] Ancient schools of law[edit]

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It is usually assumed that no regional school developed in Egypt (unlike in Syria, Iraq and the Hijaz). Joseph Schacht states that the legal milieu of Fustat
Fustat
(ancient Cairo) was a branch of the Medinan school of law.[17] Regarding judicial practices, the qadis (judges) of Fustat
Fustat
resorted to the procedure called "al-yamin ma'a l-shahid", that is, the ability of the judge to base his verdict on one single witness and the oath of the claimant, instead of two witnesses as was usually required. Such a procedure was quite common under the early Umayyads, but by the early Abbasid period it had disappeared in Iraq and it was now regarded as the 'amal ("good practice") of Medina. Up until the end of the 8th century, the qadis of Fustat
Fustat
were still using this "Medinan" procedure and differentiated themselves from Iraqi practices. From a doctrinal point of view, however, the legal affiliation of Egypt could be more complex. The principal Egyptian jurist in the second half of the 8th century is al-Layth b. Sa'd.[18] The only writing of his that has survived is a letter he wrote to Malik b. Anas, which has been preserved by Yahya b. Ma'in and al-Fasawi. In this letter, he proclaims his theoretical affiliation to the Medinan methodology and recognizes the value of the 'amal. Nevertheless, he distances himself from the Medinan School by opposing a series of Medinan legal views. He maintains that the common practice in other cities is also valuable, and thus implicitly defends the Egyptians’ adherence to their own local tradition. Thus it is possible that, even though it did not develop into a formal school of law, a specific Egyptian legal milieu was distinct of the Medinan School in the 8th century.[19] List of schools[edit] Generally, Sunnis have a single preferred madhhab from region to region, but also believe that ijtihad must be exercised by the contemporary scholars capable of doing so. Most rely on taqlid, or acceptance of religious rulings and epistemology from a higher religious authority in deferring meanings of analysis and derivation of legal practices instead of relying on subjective readings.[20][21] Experts and scholars of fiqh follow the usul (principles) of their own native madhhab, but they also study the usul, evidences, and opinions of other madhahib. Sunni[edit]

  Part of a series on

Sunni
Sunni
Islam

Beliefs

Monotheism Prophets and messengers Holy books Angels Judgement Day Predestination

Five Pillars

Declaration of Faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage

Rightly-Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Sunni
Sunni
schools of law

Hanafi Maliki Shafi'i Hanbali

Others

Zahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri

Sunni
Sunni
schools of theology

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalist

Others:

Mu'tazila Murji'ah

Contemporary movements

Ahl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement Wahhabism

Holy sites

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Lists

Literature

Kutub al-Sittah

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Sunni
Sunni
schools of jurisprudence are each named after the classical jurist who taught them. The four primary Sunni
Sunni
schools are the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki
Maliki
and Hanbali
Hanbali
rites. The Zahiri
Zahiri
school remains in existence but outside of the mainstream, while the Jariri, Laythi, Awza'i
Awza'i
and Thawri
Thawri
have become extinct. The extant schools share most of their rulings, but differ on the particular practices which they may accept as authentic and the varying weights they give to analogical reason and pure reason.

The Hanafi
Hanafi
school was founded by Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
an-Nu‘man. It is followed by Muslims in the Levant, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Western Lower Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, the Balkans
Balkans
and by most of Russia's Muslim community. There are movements within this school such as Barelvis and Deobandi, which are concentrated in South Asia. The Maliki
Maliki
school was founded by Malik ibn Anas. It is followed by Muslims in North Africa, West Africa, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, in parts of Saudi Arabia and in Upper Egypt. The Murabitun World Movement follows this school as well. In the past, it was also followed in parts of Europe under Islamic rule, particularly Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily. The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school was founded by Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi'i. It is followed by Muslims in Saudi Arabia, Eastern Lower Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, Jordan, Palestine, the Philippines, Singapore, Somalia, Thailand, Yemen, Kurdistan, and the Mappilas of Kerala
Kerala
and Konkani Muslims of India. It is the official school followed by the governments of Brunei and Malaysia. The Hanbali
Hanbali
school was founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal. It is followed by Muslims in Qatar, most of Saudi Arabia and minority communities in Syria
Syria
and Iraq. The majority of the Salafist movement claims to follow this school. The Zahiri
Zahiri
school was founded by Dawud al-Zahiri. It is followed by minority communities in Morocco and Pakistan. In the past, it was also followed by the majority of Muslims in Mesopotamia, Portugal, the Balearic Islands, North Africa and parts of Spain.

Shia[edit]

  Part of a series on

Shia
Shia
Islam

Beliefs and practices

Monotheism Holy Books Prophethood Succession to Muhammad Imamate Angels Judgment Day Mourning of Muharram Intercession Clergy The Four Companions Arba'een
Arba'een
Pilgrimage

Holy days

Ashura Arba'een Mawlid Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha Eid al-Ghadeer

History

The verse of purification Two things Mubahala Khumm Fatimah's house First Fitna Second Fitna Battle of Karbala

Branches of Shi‘i Islam

Zaydi Shia Imami
Imami
Shia

Twelvers

Ja'faris Batinis

Alevism Bektashism

Ghulat

Alawites Hurufism

Qizilbash

Ismāʿīlīs

Nizaris Taiyabi-Musta‘līs

Dawoodi Sulaymani Alavi

Batiniyya

Druze

Pamiris

Extinct sects

Ahl al-Kisa

Muhammad Ali Fatimah Hasan Hussein

Holy women

Fatimah Khadija bint Khuwaylid Umm Salama Zaynab bint Ali Umm Kulthum bint Ali Umm ul-Banin Fatimah bint Hasan Sukayna bint Husayn Rubab Shahrbanu Fātimah bint Mūsā Hakimah Khātūn Narjis Fatimah bint Asad Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim

Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Part of a series on Shia
Shia
Islam Twelvers

The Fourteen Infallibles

Muhammad Fatimah

The Twelve Imams

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim ar-Ridha al-Taqi al-Naqi al-Askari al-Mahdi

Principles

Monotheism Justice Prophethood Imamate Judgement Day

Other beliefs

Imamate of the Family Angels Mourning of Muharram Intercession Occultation Wilayat al-Faqih Usul al-fiqh Ijtihad Taqlid 'Aql Irfan

Practices

Salat Sawm Hajj Zakāt Khums Jihad Amr bi-l maʿrūf Nahy ani l-Munkar Tawalla Tabarra

Others

Mourning of Muharram Arba'een
Arba'een
Pilgrimage Intercession

Holy cities

Mecca Medina Najaf Karbala Mashhad Jerusalem Samarra Kadhimiya Qom

Groups

Usuli Akhbari Shaykhi Ni'matullāhī Safaviyya Qizilbash Alevism Alawism Bektashism and folk religion Malamatiyya–Qalandariyya

Hurufism–Bektashism Rifa'i–Galibi

Scholarship

Law Marja' (list) Hawza Ayatollah (list) Allamah   Hujjat al-Islam Ijtihad

Hadith collections

Peak of Eloquence The Psalms of Islam Book of Fundamentals The Book in Scholar's Lieu

Civilization of Laws The Certainty

Book of Sulaym ibn Qays Oceans of Light Wasā'il al-Shīʿa Reality of Certainty Keys of Paradise

Related topics

Criticism of Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism

Related portals

Shia
Shia
Islam Ashura

v t e

Twelvers (see also Imami)

Ja'fari: associated with Ja'far al-Sadiq. The time and space bound rulings of early jurists are taken more seriously in this school, likely due to the more hierarchical structure of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
which is ruled by the Shi'ite Imams. The Ja'fari
Ja'fari
school is also more flexible in that every jurist has considerable power to alter a decision according to his reasoning. The Jafari school uses the intellect instead of analogy when establishing Islamic laws, as opposed to common Sunni
Sunni
practice.

Usulism: forms the overwhelming majority within the Twelver
Twelver
Shia denomination. They follow a Marja-i Taqlid on the subject of taqlid and fiqh. They are concentrated in Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, and Lebanon. Akhbarism: similar to Usulis, however reject ijtihad in favor of hadith. Concentrated in Bahrain. Shaykhism: an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad
Shaykh Ahmad
in the early 19th century Qajar dynasty, Iran, now retaining a minority following in Iran
Iran
and Iraq. It began from a combination of Sufi and Shia
Shia
and Akhbari
Akhbari
doctrines. In the mid 19th-century many Shaykhis converted to the Bábí and Bahá'í religions, which regard Shaykh Ahmad highly.

The Batiniyyah school consists of Alevis
Alevis
and Nusayris, who developed their own fiqh system and do not pursue the Ja'fari
Ja'fari
jurisprudence.

Alawism
Alawism
is followed by Alawites, who are also called Nusayris, Nusairis, Namiriya or Ansariyya. Their madh'hab was established by Ibn Nusayr, and their aqidah is developed by Al-Khaṣībī. They follow Cillī aqidah of "Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" of the ‘Alawis.[22][23] Slightly over one million of them live in Syria
Syria
and Lebanon.[24] Alevism, sometimes categorized as part of Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
and sometimes as its own religious tradition, as it has markedly different philosophy, customs, and rituals. They have many Tasawwufī characteristics and express belief in the Qur'an
Qur'an
and The Twelve Imams, but reject polygamy and accept religious traditions predating Islam, like Turkish shamanism. They are significant in East-Central Turkey. They are sometimes considered a Sufi sect, and have an untraditional form of religious leadership that is not scholarship oriented like other Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
groups. They number around 24 million worldwide, of which 17 million are in Turkey, with the rest in the Balkans, Albania, Azerbaijan, Iran
Iran
and Syria.

Ismaili
Ismaili
Muslims who adhere to the Shi'a
Shi'a
Ismaili
Ismaili
Fatimid
Fatimid
fiqh, follow the Daim al-Islam, a book on the rulings of Islam. It describes manners and etiquette, including Ibadat
Ibadat
in the light of guidance provided by the Ismaili
Ismaili
Imams. The book emphasizes what importance Islam
Islam
has given to manners and etiquette along with the worship of God, citing the traditions of the first four Imams of the Shi'a Ismaili
Ismaili
Fatimid
Fatimid
school of thought.

Tāyyebī Mustā'līyyah: the Mustaali
Mustaali
group of Ismaili
Ismaili
Muslims differ from the Nizāriyya in that they believe that the successor-Imām to the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph, al-Mustansir, was his younger son al-Mustaʻlī, who was made Caliph by the Fatimad Regent Al-Afdal Shahanshah. In contrast to the Nizaris, they accept the younger brother al-Mustaʻlī over Nizār as their Imam. The Bohras are an offshoot of the Taiyabi, which itself was an offshoot of the Mustaali. The Taiyabi, supporting another offshoot of the Mustaali, the Hafizi
Hafizi
branch, split with the Mustaali
Mustaali
Fatimid, who recognized Al-Amir
Al-Amir
as their last Imam. The split was due to the Taiyabi
Taiyabi
believing that At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim
At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim
was the next rightful Imam
Imam
after Al-Amir. The Hafizi
Hafizi
themselves however considered Al-Hafiz
Al-Hafiz
as the next rightful Imam
Imam
after Al-Amir. The Bohras believe that their 21st Imam, Taiyab abi al-Qasim, went into seclusion and established the offices of the Da'i al-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق), Ma'zoon (مأذون) and Mukasir (مكاسر). The Bohras are the only surviving branch of the Mustaali and themselves have split into the Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra, and Alavi Bohra. Nizari: the largest branch (95%) of Ismā'īlī, they are the only Shia
Shia
group to have their absolute temporal leader in the rank of Imamate, which is currently invested in Aga Khan IV. Their present living Imam
Imam
is Mawlānā Shah Karim Al-Husayni
Shah Karim Al-Husayni
who is the 49th Imam. Nizārī
Nizārī
Ismā'īlīs believe that the successor-Imām to the Fatimid caliph Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah
Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah
was his elder son al-Nizār. While Nizārī
Nizārī
belong to the " Imami
Imami
jurisprudence" or Ja'fāriyya Madhab (school of Jurisprudence), believed by Shias to be founded by Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq they adhere to sumpremacy of "Kalam", in the interpretation of scripture, and believe in the temporal relativism of understanding, as opposed to fiqh (traditional legalism), which adheres to an absolutism approach to revelation.

Zaidi jurisprudence follows the teachings of Zayd ibn Ali. In terms of law, the Zaidi school is quite similar to the Hanafi
Hanafi
school from Sunni Islam.[25] This is likely due to the general trend of Sunni resemblance within Zaidi beliefs. After the passing of Muhammad, Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, Imam
Imam
Zayd ibn Ali, Imams Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
and Imam
Imam
Malik ibn Anas worked together in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
in Medina
Medina
along with over 70 other leading jurists and scholars. Jafar al-Sadiq
Jafar al-Sadiq
and Zayd ibn Ali did not themselves write any books. But their views are Hadiths in the books written by Imams Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
and Imam
Imam
Malik ibn Anas. Therefore, the Zaydis
Zaydis
to this day and originally the Fatimids, used the Hanafi jurisprudence, as do most Sunnis.[26][27][28]

Ibadi[edit] The Ibadi
Ibadi
school of Islam
Islam
is named after Abd-Allah ibn Ibadh, though he is not necessarily the main figure of the school in the eyes of its adherents. Ibadism is distinct from both Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'ite Islam
Islam
not only in terms of its jurisprudence, but also its core beliefs. Amman Message[edit] Main article: Amman Message

Some regions have a dominant or official madhhab; others recognize a variety.

In the modern era, Sadiq al-Mahdi, the former Prime Minister of Sudan, defined the recognized schools of Muslim jurisprudence as eight specific schools.[29] The Amman Message, a three-point ruling issued by 200 Islamic scholars from over 50 countries, officially recognizes those eight legal schools of thought.[30]

Hanafi
Hanafi
(Sunni) Maliki
Maliki
(Sunni) Shafi'i
Shafi'i
(Sunni) Hanbali
Hanbali
(Sunni) Ja`fari (inc. Mustaali- Taiyabi
Taiyabi
Ismaili)[31] (Shia) Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
(Shia) Ibadiyyah Zahiriyah

The Amman Message
Amman Message
has been criticized by Sunni
Sunni
Barelvi
Barelvi
groups.[32] CIFIA, a Sunni
Sunni
Barelvi
Barelvi
group based in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
regards the message as contrary to the teachings of Islam.[32] See also[edit]

Sharia
Sharia
(Islamic law) Islamic schools and branches Fiqh

References[edit]

^ "Amman Message".  ^ a b "Law, Islamic". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ Mohammad Sharif Khan and Mohammad Anwar Saleem, Muslim Philosophy And Philosophers, pg. 34. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1994. ^ a b Christopher Melchert, The Formation of the Sunni
Sunni
Schools of Law: 9th-10th Centuries C.E., pg. 178. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997. ^ a b Chibli Mallat, Introduction to Middle Eastern Law, pg. 116. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-923049-5 ^ Murtada Mutahhari, The Role of Ijtihad in Legislation, Al-Tawhid volume IV, No.2, Publisher: Islamic Thought Foundation ^ Devin J. Stewart, THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIHRIST: IBN AL-NADIM AS HISTORIAN OF ISLAMIC LEGAL AND THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS, International Journal of Middle East Studies, v.39, pg.369-387, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 2007 ^ Crone, Patricia (2013). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 498. Retrieved 13 May 2015.  ^ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 5. Trns. Wolfgang Behn, intro. Camilla Adang. Volume three of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419 ^ Meinhaj Hussain, A New Medina, The Legal System, Grande Strategy, January 5th, 2012 ^ Wolfgang, Behn (1999). The Zahiris. BRILL. p. 178. Retrieved 11 May 2015.  ^ Berkey, Jonathon (2003). The Formation of Islam. Cambrdige University Press. p. 216. Retrieved 11 May 2015.  ^ Daniel W. Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought: Vol. 5 of Cambridge
Cambridge
Middle East Studies, pgs. 28 and 32. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1996. ISBN 9780521653947 ^ M. Mahmood, The Code of Muslim Family Laws, pg. 37. Pakistan Law Times Publications, 2006. 6th ed. ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, pg. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 9781405178488 ^ Louis Massignon, The Passion of al-Hallaj: Mystic and Martyr of Islam. Trans. Herbert W. Mason. Pg. 130. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. ^ J. Schacht, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1950), p. 9 ^ R.G. Khoury, "Al-Layth Ibn Sa'd (94/713-175/791), grand maître et mécène de l’Egypte, vu à travers quelques documents islamiques anciens", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40, 1981, p. 189–202 ^ Mathieu Tillier, "Les “premiers” cadis de Fusṭāṭ et les dynamiques régionales de l’innovation judiciaire (750-833)", Annales Islamologiques, 45 (2011), p. 214–218 ^ [1] ^ On Islam, Muslims and the 500 most influential figures ^ "Muhammad ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī aqidah" of "Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" (Sūlaiman Affandy, Al-Bākūrat’ūs Sūlaiman’īyyah - Family tree
Family tree
of the Nusayri
Nusayri
Tariqat, pp. 14-15, Beirut, 1873.) ^ Both Muhammad ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī and Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim’at-Tabarānī were the murids of "Al-Khaṣībī", the founder of the Nusayri
Nusayri
tariqat. ^ John Pike. "Alawi Islam". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Article by Sayyid
Sayyid
' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين (A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites, 2005) ^ Islamic Finance.  ^ The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and ...  ^ The Iraq Effect.  ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, p. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8 ^ The Three Points of The Amman Message
Amman Message
V.1 ^ Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis, who are not recognized as a legal madh'hab (school of Islamic jurisprudence) are much closer to Batiniyyah- Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili rather than Ja'fari
Ja'fari
jurisprudence. ^ a b THE AMMAN MESSAGE, CIFIA 

Further reading[edit]

Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship, SUNY Press, 1996.

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad al-Baqir Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad Hamidullah Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh
Sheikh
Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia
Shia
Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia
Shia
sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami
Imami
Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami
Imami
Twelver

Theology of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazi

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