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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. Lobsters have long bodies with muscular tails, and live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of legs have claws, including the first pair, which are usually much larger than the others. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate.[2] Commercially important species include two species of Homarus
Homarus
(which looks more like the stereotypical lobster) from the northern Atlantic Ocean, and scampi (which looks more like a shrimp, or a "mini lobster") – the Northern Hemisphere genus Nephrops
Nephrops
and the Southern Hemisphere genus Metanephrops. Although several other groups of crustaceans have the word "lobster" in their names, the unqualified term "lobster" generally refers to the clawed lobsters of the family Nephropidae.[3] Clawed lobsters are not closely related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws (chelae), or to squat lobsters. The closest living relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobsters and the three families of freshwater crayfish.

Contents

1 Description 2 Longevity 3 Ecology 4 As food

4.1 History 4.2 Grading

5 Welfare 6 Fishery
Fishery
and aquaculture 7 Species 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Description[edit]

Lobster, Crab, and a Cucumber by William Henry Hunt (watercolour, 1826 or 1827)

Lobsters are invertebrates with a hard protective exoskeleton.[4] Like most arthropods, lobsters must moult to grow, which leaves them vulnerable. During the moulting process, several species change colour. Lobsters have 10 walking legs; the front three pairs bear claws, the first of which are larger than the others.[5] Although lobsters are largely bilaterally symmetrical like most other arthropods, some genera possess unequal, specialised claws.

Eyestalk
Eyestalk
of a lobster

Lobster
Lobster
anatomy includes the cephalothorax which fuses the head and the thorax, both of which are covered by a chitinous carapace, and the abdomen. The lobster's head bears antennae, antennules, mandibles, the first and second maxillae, and the first, second, and third maxillipeds. Because lobsters live in murky environments at the bottom of the ocean, they mostly use their antennae as sensors. The lobster eye has a reflective structure above a convex retina. In contrast, most complex eyes use refractive ray concentrators (lenses) and a concave retina.[6] The abdomen includes swimmerets and its tail is composed of uropods and the telson. Lobsters, like snails and spiders, have blue blood due to the presence of hemocyanin, which contains copper.[7] In contrast, vertebrates and many other animals have red blood from iron-rich hemoglobin. Lobsters possess a green hepatopancreas, called the tomalley by chefs, which functions as the animal's liver and pancreas.[8] Lobsters of the family Nephropidae are similar in overall form to a number of other related groups. They differ from freshwater crayfish in lacking the joint between the last two segments of the thorax,[9] and they differ from the reef lobsters of the family Enoplometopidae in having full claws on the first three pairs of legs, rather than just one.[9] The distinctions from fossil families such as the Chilenophoberidae are based on the pattern of grooves on the carapace.[9] Longevity[edit] Lobsters live up to an estimated 45 to 50 years in the wild, although determining age is difficult.[10] In 2012, a report was published describing how growth bands in calcified regions of the eyestalk or gastric mill in shrimps, crabs and lobsters could be used to measure growth and mortality in decapod crustaceans.[11] Without such a technique, a lobster's age is estimated by size and other variables; this new knowledge "could help scientists better understand the population and assist regulators of the lucrative industry".[12] Research suggests that lobsters may not slow down, weaken or lose fertility with age, and that older lobsters may be more fertile than younger lobsters. This longevity may be due to telomerase, an enzyme that repairs long repetitive sections of DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes, referred to as telomeres. Telomerase
Telomerase
is expressed by most vertebrates during embryonic stages, but is generally absent from adult stages of life.[13] However, unlike most vertebrates, lobsters express telomerase as adults through most tissue, which has been suggested to be related to their longevity.[14][15][16] Lobster longevity is limited by their size. Moulting requires metabolic energy and the larger the lobster, the more energy is needed; 10 to 15% of lobsters die of exhaustion during moulting, while in older lobsters, moulting ceases and the exoskeleton degrades or collapses entirely leading to death.[17][18] Lobsters, like many other decapod crustaceans, grow throughout life and are able to add new muscle cells at each moult.[19] Lobster longevity allows them to reach impressive sizes. According to Guinness World Records, the largest lobster ever caught was in Nova Scotia, Canada, weighing 20.15 kilograms (44.4 lb).[20][21] Ecology[edit] Lobsters are found in all oceans. They live on rocky, sandy, or muddy bottoms from the shoreline to beyond the edge of the continental shelf. They generally live singly in crevices or in burrows under rocks. Lobsters are omnivores and typically eat live prey such as fish, mollusks, other crustaceans, worms, and some plant life. They scavenge if necessary, and are known to resort to cannibalism in captivity. However, when lobster skin is found in lobster stomachs, this is not necessarily evidence of cannibalism – lobsters eat their shed skin after moulting.[22] While cannibalism was thought to be nonexistent among wild lobster populations, it was observed in 2012 by researchers studying wild lobsters in Maine. These first known instances of lobster cannibalism in the wild are theorized to be attributed to a local population explosion among lobsters caused by the disappearance of many of the Maine
Maine
lobsters' natural predators.[23] In general, lobsters are 25–50 cm (10–20 in) long, and move by slowly walking on the sea floor. However, when they flee, they swim backward quickly by curling and uncurling their abdomens. A speed of 5 m/s (11 mph) has been recorded.[24] This is known as the caridoid escape reaction. Symbiotic animals of the genus Symbion, the only member of the phylum Cycliophora, live exclusively on lobster gills and mouthparts.[25] Different species of Symbion have been found on the three commercially important lobsters of the North Atlantic Ocean – Nephrops norvegicus, Homarus
Homarus
gammarus, and Homarus
Homarus
americanus.[25] As food[edit]

The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

" Lobster
Lobster
claw" redirects here. For the species of flowering plants, see Lobster-claw.

Lobster
Lobster
served at the Fisherman's Wharf in Boston

Lobster
Lobster
served in Stokkseyri, Iceland

Lobster
Lobster
recipes include lobster Newberg and lobster Thermidor. Lobster is used in soup, bisque, lobster rolls, and cappon magro. Lobster
Lobster
meat may be dipped in clarified butter, resulting in a heightened flavour. Cooks boil or steam live lobsters. When a lobster is cooked, its shell's colour changes from blue to orange because the heat from cooking breaks down a protein called crustacyanin, which suppresses the orange hue of the chemical astaxanthin, which is also found in the shell.[26] According to the United States Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), the mean level of mercury in American lobster
American lobster
between 2005 and 2007 was 0.107 ppm.[27] History[edit] In North America, the American lobster
American lobster
did not achieve popularity until the mid-19th century, when New Yorkers and Bostonians developed a taste for it, and commercial lobster fisheries only flourished after the development of the lobster smack,[28] a custom-made boat with open holding wells on the deck to keep the lobsters alive during transport.[29] Prior to this time, lobster was considered a mark of poverty or as a food for indentured servants or lower members of society in Maine, Massachusetts, and the Canadian Maritimes. It has been suggested servants specified in employment agreements that they would not eat lobster more than twice per week, however there is no evidence for this.[30][31] Lobster
Lobster
was also commonly served in prisons, much to the displeasure of inmates.[32] American lobster
American lobster
was initially deemed worthy only of being used as fertilizer or fish bait, and until well into the 20th century, it was not viewed as more than a low-priced canned staple food.[33] Grading[edit] See also: Food grading Caught lobsters are graded as new-shell, hard-shell, or old-shell, and because lobsters which have recently shed their shells are the most delicate, an inverse relationship exists between the price of American lobster and its flavour. New-shell lobsters, have paper-thin shells and a worse meat-to-shell ratio, but the meat is very sweet. However, the lobsters are so delicate, even transport to Boston almost kills them, making the market for new-shell lobsters strictly local to the fishing towns where they are offloaded. Hard-shell lobsters with firm shells, but with less sweet meat, can survive shipping to Boston, New York, and even Los Angeles, so they command a higher price than new-shell lobsters. Meanwhile, old-shell lobsters, which have not shed since the previous season and have a coarser flavour, can be air-shipped anywhere in the world and arrive alive, making them the most expensive. One seafood guide notes that an $8 lobster dinner at a restaurant overlooking fishing piers in Maine
Maine
is consistently delicious, while "the eighty-dollar lobster in a three-star Paris restaurant is apt to be as much about presentation as flavor".[33] Welfare[edit] Further information: Pain in crustaceans

Lobsters in a tank at a fish market

Several methods are used for killing lobsters. The most common way of killing lobsters is by placing them live in boiling water, sometimes after having been placed in a freezer for a period of time. Another method is to split the lobster or sever the body in half lengthwise. Lobsters may also be killed or rendered insensate immediately before boiling by a stab into the brain (pithing), in the belief that this will stop suffering. However, a lobster's brain operates from not one but several ganglia and disabling only the frontal ganglion does not usually result in death.[34] The boiling method is illegal in some places, such as in Reggio Emilia, Italy, where offenders face fines up to €495.[35] Lobsters can be killed by electrocution prior to cooking, with one device, the CrustaStun, applying a 110-volt, 2 to 5 amp electrical charge to the animal.[36][37] The Swiss government banned boiling lobster live without stunning them first,[38] From March 2018, lobsters being prepared in Switzerland
Switzerland
will need to be knocked out before they're put to death, or killed instantly. They'll also get other protections while in transit.[39][40] The killing methods most likely to cause pain and distress are:[34]

Any procedures whereby the abdomen is separated from the thorax The removal of tissue, flesh, or limbs while the crustacean is alive and fully conscious Placing crustaceans in slowly heated water to the boiling point Placing crustaceans directly into boiling water Placing marine crustaceans in fresh water Unfocused microwaving of the body as opposed to focal application to the head

Fishery
Fishery
and aquaculture[edit] Main article: Lobster
Lobster
fishing Lobsters are caught using baited one-way traps with a colour-coded marker buoy to mark cages. Lobster
Lobster
is fished in water between 2 and 900 metres (1 and 500 fathoms), although some lobsters live at 3,700 metres (2,000 fathoms). Cages are of plastic-coated galvanised steel or wood. A lobster fisher may tend as many as 2,000 traps. Around year 2000, owing to overfishing and high demand, lobster aquaculture expanded.[41] As of 2008, no lobster aquaculture operation had achieved commercial success, mainly because lobsters eat each other (cannibalism) and the growth of the species is slow.[42] Species[edit]

Examples of Nephropidae

Acanthacaris
Acanthacaris
tenuimana

Metanephrops
Metanephrops
japonicus

Nephropsis
Nephropsis
rosea

The fossil record of clawed lobsters extends back at least to the Valanginian
Valanginian
age of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(140 million years ago).[43] This list contains all extant species in the family Nephropidae:[44]

Acanthacaris

Acanthacaris
Acanthacaris
caeca A. Milne-Edwards, 1881 Acanthacaris
Acanthacaris
tenuimana Bate, 1888

Dinochelus
Dinochelus
Ahyong, Chan & Bouchet, 2010

Dinochelus
Dinochelus
ausubeli Ahyong, Chan & Bouchet, 2010

Eunephrops
Eunephrops
Smith, 1885

Eunephrops
Eunephrops
bairdii Smith, 1885 Eunephrops
Eunephrops
cadenasi Chace, 1939 Eunephrops
Eunephrops
luckhursti Manning, 1997 Eunephrops
Eunephrops
manningi Holthuis, 1974

Homarinus
Homarinus
Kornfield, Williams & Steneck, 1995

Homarinus
Homarinus
capensis (Herbst, 1792) – Cape lobster

Homarus
Homarus
Weber, 1795

Homarus
Homarus
americanus H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 – American lobster Homarus gammarus
Homarus gammarus
(Linnaeus, 1758) – European lobster

Metanephrops
Metanephrops
Jenkins, 1972

Metanephrops
Metanephrops
andamanicus (Wood-Mason, 1892) – Andaman lobster Metanephrops
Metanephrops
arafurensis (De Man, 1905) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
armatus Chan & Yu, 1991 Metanephrops
Metanephrops
australiensis (Bruce, 1966) – Australian scampi Metanephrops
Metanephrops
binghami (Boone, 1927) – Caribbean lobster Metanephrops
Metanephrops
boschmai (Holthuis, 1964) – Bight lobster Metanephrops
Metanephrops
challengeri (Balss, 1914) – New Zealand scampi Metanephrops
Metanephrops
formosanus Chan & Yu, 1987 Metanephrops
Metanephrops
japonicus (Tapparone-Canefri, 1873) – Japanese lobster Metanephrops
Metanephrops
mozambicus Macpherson, 1990 Metanephrops
Metanephrops
neptunus (Bruce, 1965) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
rubellus (Moreira, 1903) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
sagamiensis (Parisi, 1917) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
sibogae (De Man, 1916) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
sinensis (Bruce, 1966) – China lobster Metanephrops
Metanephrops
taiwanicus (Hu, 1983) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
thomsoni (Bate, 1888) Metanephrops
Metanephrops
velutinus Chan & Yu, 1991

Nephropides
Nephropides
Manning, 1969

Nephropides
Nephropides
caribaeus Manning, 1969

Nephrops
Nephrops
Leach, 1814

Nephrops
Nephrops
norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine

Nephropsis
Nephropsis
Wood-Mason, 1872

Nephropsis
Nephropsis
acanthura Macpherson, 1990 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
aculeata Smith, 1881 – Florida lobsterette Nephropsis
Nephropsis
agassizii A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
atlantica Norman, 1882 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
carpenteri Wood-Mason, 1885 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
ensirostris Alcock, 1901 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
holthuisii Macpherson, 1993 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
malhaensis Borradaile, 1910 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
neglecta Holthuis, 1974 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
occidentalis Faxon, 1893 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
rosea Bate, 1888 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
serrata Macpherson, 1993 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
stewarti Wood-Mason, 1872 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
suhmi Bate, 1888 Nephropsis
Nephropsis
sulcata Macpherson, 1990

Thaumastocheles
Thaumastocheles
Wood-Mason, 1874

Thaumastocheles
Thaumastocheles
dochmiodon Chan & Saint Laurent, 1999 Thaumastocheles
Thaumastocheles
japonicus Calman, 1913 Thaumastocheles
Thaumastocheles
zaleucus (Thomson, 1873)

Thaumastochelopsis
Thaumastochelopsis
Bruce, 1988

Thaumastochelopsis
Thaumastochelopsis
brucei Ahyong, Chu & Chan, 2007 Thaumastochelopsis
Thaumastochelopsis
wardi Bruce, 1988

Thymopides
Thymopides
Burukovsky & Averin, 1977

Thymopides
Thymopides
grobovi (Burukovsky & Averin, 1976) Thymopides
Thymopides
laurentae Segonzac & Macpherson, 2003

Thymops
Thymops
Holthuis, 1974

Thymops
Thymops
birsteini (Zarenkov & Semenov, 1972)

Thymopsis Holthuis, 1974

Thymopsis nilenta
Thymopsis nilenta
Holthuis, 1974

See also[edit]

Crustaceans
Crustaceans
portal

Gerard de Nerval, French writer who kept a lobster as a pet Lobster
Lobster
War, an early-1960s diplomatic conflict between Brazil
Brazil
and France
France
over lobster fishing territories Pain in crustaceans

References[edit]

^ Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06.  ^ " Homarus
Homarus
americanus, American lobster" (PDF). Mc Gill
Gill
University. 27 June 2007.  ^ Thomas Scott (1996). "Lobster". ABC Biologie. Walter de Gruyter. p. 703. ISBN 978-3-11-010661-9.  ^ R. Quarmby, D.A. Nordens, P.F. Zagalsky, H.J. Ceccaldi, D. Daumas (1977). "Studies on the quaternary structure of the lobster exoskeleton carotenoprotein, crustacyanin". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry. 56 (1): 55–61. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Carlos Robles (2007). "Lobsters". In Mark W. Denny; Steven Dean Gaines. Encyclopedia of tidepools and rocky shores. University of California Press. pp. 333–335. ISBN 978-0-520-25118-2. Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ M. F. Land (1976). "Superposition images are formed by reflection in the eyes of some oceanic decapod Crustacea". Nature. 263 (5580): 764–765. doi:10.1038/263764a0. PMID 995187.  ^ " Copper
Copper
for life – Vital copper". Association for Science Education.  ^ Shona Mcsheehy & Zoltán Mester (2004). "Arsenic speciation in marine certified reference materials". Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 19 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1039/b314101b.  ^ a b c Dale Tshudy & Loren E. Babcock (1997). "Morphology-based phylogenetic analysis of the clawed lobsters (family Nephropidae and the new family Chilenophoberidae)". Journal of Crustacean
Crustacean
Biology. 17 (2): 253–263. doi:10.2307/1549275. JSTOR 1549275.  ^ T. Wolff (1978). "Maximum size of lobsters (Homarus) (Decapoda, Nephropidae)". Crustaceana. 34: 1–14. doi:10.1163/156854078X00510.  ^ Kilada, Raouf; Bernard Sainte-Marie; Rémy Rochette; Neill Davis; Caroline Vanier; Steven Campana. "Direct determination of age in shrimps, crabs, and lobsters". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. NRC Research Press, a division of Canadian Science Publishing. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ Canfield, Clarke (30 November 2012). " Lobster
Lobster
age shown by counting its rings like a tree, study reveals". The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ Cong YS (2002). "Human Telomerase
Telomerase
and Its Regulation". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 66 (3): 407–425. doi:10.1128/MMBR.66.3.407-425.2002. PMC 120798 . PMID 12208997.  ^ Wolfram Klapper; Karen Kühne; Kumud K. Singh; Klaus Heidorn; Reza Parwaresch; Guido Krupp (1998). "Longevity of lobsters is linked to ubiquitous telomerase expression". FEBS Letters. 439 (1–2): 143–146. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01357-X.  ^ Jacob Silverman. "Is there a 400 pound lobster out there?". howstuffworks.  ^ Wallace, David Foster (August 2004). "Consider the Lobster". Gourmet. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2018.  Reprinted as Wallace, David Foster (2005). "Consider the Lobster". Consider the Lobster and Other Essays. Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 0-316-15611-6.  ^ Koren, Marina (June 3, 2013). "Don't Listen to the Buzz: Lobsters Aren't Actually Immortal". Smithsonian.  ^ "biotemp". Archived from the original on 2015-02-11.  ^ C. K. Govind (1995). "Muscles and their innervation". In Jan Robert Factor. Biology of the Lobster
Lobster
Homarus
Homarus
americanus. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 291–312. ISBN 978-0-12-247570-2.  ^ "Heaviest marine crustacean". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on May 28, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2006.  ^ "Giant lobster landed by boy, 16". BBC News. June 26, 2006.  ^ " Homarus
Homarus
americanus, Atlantic lobster". MarineBio.org. Retrieved December 27, 2006.  ^ Jason McLure (December 3, 2012). "Cruel new fact of crustacean life: lobster cannibalism". Reuters. Retrieved December 5, 2012.  ^ "The American lobster
American lobster
– frequently asked questions". St. Lawrence Observatory, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. October 19, 2005. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010.  ^ a b M. Obst, P. Funch & G. Giribet (2005). "Hidden diversity and host specificity in cycliophorans: a phylogeographic analysis along the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea". Molecular Ecology. 14 (14): 4427–4440. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02752.x. PMID 16313603.  ^ "How It Works Magazine".  ^ "Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 20 November 2015.  ^ Colin Woodard (2004). The Lobster
Lobster
Coast. New York: Viking/Penguin. pp. 170–180. ISBN 0-670-03324-3.  ^ "The Lobster
Lobster
Institute: History". The Lobster
Lobster
Institute at the University of Maine. Archived from the original on 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2012-01-01). Lobster: A Global History. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8.  ^ Henderson, Mark (October 24, 2005). "How lobster went up in the world". The Times. London. Retrieved January 11, 2018. (Registration required (help)).  ^ "Lobster". All About Maine. Secretary of State of Maine. Retrieved July 29, 2013.  ^ a b Johnson, Paul (2007). "Lobster". Fish Forever: The Definitive Guide to Understanding, Selecting, and Preparing Healthy, Delicious, and Environmentally Sustainable Seafood. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 163–175. ISBN 978-0-7645-8779-5.  ^ a b Yue, S. (2008). "The welfare of crustaceans at slaughter". Humane Society of the United States.  ^ Bruce Johnston (March 6, 2004). "Italian animal rights law puts lobster off the menu". London: The Daily Telegraph.  ^ McSmith, A. (2009). "I'll have my lobster electrocuted, please". The Independent (Newspaper). Retrieved June 14, 2013.  ^ Anon. (2010). "CrustaStun: The 'humane' gadget that kills lobsters with a single jolt of electricity". MailOnline (Newspaper). Retrieved June 14, 2013.  ^ Tori Weldon. "Swiss ban against boiling lobster alive brings smiles — at first". CBC News.  ^ " Switzerland
Switzerland
bans crustacean cruelty". SWI swissinfo.ch.  ^ Francesca Street (12 January 2018). " Switzerland
Switzerland
bans boiling lobsters alive". CNN Travel.  ^ Asbjørn Drengstig, Tormod Drengstig & Tore S. Kristiansen. "Recent development on lobster farming in Norway – prospects and possibilities". UWPhoto ANS. Archived from the original on 2003-10-04.  ^ "Riddles, Trivia and More". Gulf of Maine
Maine
Research Institute. February 24, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.  ^ Dale Tshudy; W. Steven Donaldson; Christopher Collom; Rodney M. Feldmann; Carrie E. Schweitzer (2005). " Hoploparia
Hoploparia
albertaensis, a new species of clawed lobster (Nephropidae) from the Late Coniacean, shallow-marine Bad Heart Formation of northwestern Alberta, Canada". Journal of Paleontology. 79 (5): 961–968. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079[0961:HAANSO]2.0.CO;2.  ^ Tin-Yam Chan (2010). "Annotated checklist of the world's marine lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidea, Glypheidea, Achelata, Polychelida)" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 23: 153–181. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-16. 

Further reading[edit]

Corson, Trevor (2005). The Secret Life of Lobsters: How Fishermen and Scientists Are Unraveling the Mysteries of Our Favorite Crustacean (1st Harper Perennial ed.). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-055559-7.  Phillips, Bruce F., ed. (2006). Lobsters: Biology, Management, Aquaculture
Aquaculture
and Fisheries. Wiley. doi:10.1002/9780470995969. ISBN 978-1-4051-2657-1.  Townsend, Elisabeth (2012). Lobster: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-794-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nephropidae.

Lipke Holthuis
Lipke Holthuis
(1991). Marine Lobsters of the World. Food and Agriculture Organization.  Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster
Lobster
Science Centre

v t e

Genera of Nephropidae (clawed lobsters)

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Order Decapoda Infraorder Astacidea Family Nephropidae

Acanthacaris
Acanthacaris
(2 extant spp.) Dinochelus
Dinochelus
(1 extant sp.) Eunephrops Homarinus
Homarinus
(1 extant sp.) Homarus
Homarus
(2 extant spp.) Hoploparia
Hoploparia
Jagtia
Jagtia
Metanephrops
Metanephrops
(18 extant spp.) Nephropides
Nephropides
(1 extant sp.) Nephrops
Nephrops
(1 extant sp.) Nephropsis
Nephropsis
(15 extant spp.) Oncopareia † Palaeonephrops † Paraclythia † Pseudohomarus † Thaumastocheles
Thaumastocheles
(3 extant spp.) Thaumastochelopsis
Thaumastochelopsis
(2 extant spp.) Thymopides
Thymopides
(2 extant spp.) Thymops
Thymops
(1 extant sp.) Thymopsis (1 extant sp.)

v t e

Principal commercial fishery species groups

Wild

Large pelagic fish

Mackerel Salmon Saury Shark Swordfish Tuna

albacore bigeye Atlantic bluefin Pacific bluefin southern bluefin skipjack yellowfin

Forage fish

Anchovy Capelin Herring Ilish Menhaden Sardines Shad Sprat

european

Demersal fish

Catfish Cod

Atlantic Pacific Alaska pollock

Flatfish

flounder halibut plaice sole turbot

Haddock Mullet Orange roughy Pollock Rockfish Smelt-whitings Toothfish

Freshwater fish

Carp Sturgeon Tilapia Trout

Other wild fish

Eel Whitebait more...

Crustaceans

Crab Krill Lobster Shrimp more...

Molluscs

Abalone Mussels Octopus Oysters Scallops Squid more...

Echinoderms

Sea cucumbers Sea urchin more...

Farmed

Carp

bighead common crucian grass silver

Catfish Freshwater prawns Gilt-head bream Mussels Oysters Salmon

Atlantic salmon trout coho chinook

Scallops Seaweed Shrimp Tilapia

Commercial fishing World fish production Commercial species Fishing topics Fisheries glossary

v t e

Edible crustaceans

Shrimp/prawns

Acetes Crangon crangon Cryphiops caementarius Dried shrimp Indian prawn Litopenaeus setiferus Macrobrachium rosenbergii Palaemon serratus Pandalus borealis Penaeus esculentus Penaeus monodon Shrimp
Shrimp
paste Whiteleg shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri

Lobsters (incl. slipper & spiny)

American lobster Arctides guineensis California spiny lobster Homarus
Homarus
gammarus Ibacus peronii Japanese spiny lobster Jasus Jasus
Jasus
edwardsii Jasus
Jasus
lalandii Metanephrops
Metanephrops
challengeri Thenus
Thenus
orientalis Nephrops
Nephrops
norvegicus Palinurus elephas Panulirus argus Panulirus cygnus Panulirus echinatus Panulirus guttatus Panulirus homarus Panulirus longipes Panulirus ornatus Panulirus pascuensis Panulirus penicillatus Panulirus versicolor Parribacus japonicus Sagmariasus Scyllarides herklotsii Scyllarides latus Scyllarus arctus Thymops
Thymops
birsteini Tristan rock lobster

Crabs

Callinectes sapidus Callinectes similis Cancer irroratus Cancer bellianus Cancer pagurus Chaceon fenneri Chaceon quinquedens Chinese mitten crab Chionoecetes Declawing of crabs Dungeness crab Florida stone crab Gecarcinus ruricola Horsehair crab Hypothalassia acerba Jonah crab Maja squinado Menippe adina Orithyia sinica Ovalipes australiensis Pie crust crab Portunus pelagicus Portunus trituberculatus Ranina ranina Scylla paramamosain Scylla serrata

Crayfish

Acocil Astacus astacus Marron Paranephrops Procambarus clarkii Orconectes virilis Signal crayfish

Others

Austromegabalanus psittacus Coconut crab Galathea strigosa Glyptolithodes Goose barnacle King crab Krill Langostino Lysiosquillina maculata Mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria Paralithodes camtschaticus Red king crab Squat lobster Squilla mantis Tasmanian giant crab Thalassina

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Seafood

Fish

Anchovy Barramundi Billfish Carp Catfish Cod Eel Flatfish Flounder Herring Mackerel Salmon Sardine Shark Sturgeon Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Whitebait

Shellfish

Abalone Cockles Crab
Crab
meat Crayfish Geoduck Krill Lobster Mussels Oysters Scallops Shrimp Sea urchins Crustaceans Molluscs

Other seafood

Edible seaweed Jellyfish Marine mammals Octopus Sea cucumber Squid Whale meat Sea vegetables Algae List of seafoods more...

Processed seafood

Caviar Dried fish Canned fish Cod liver oil Cured fish Fermented fish Fish fillet Fish head Fish oil Fish sauce Fish paste Fish steak Fish stock Lutefisk Salted fish Salted seafood Salted squid Shark
Shark
liver oil Shrimp
Shrimp
paste Smoked fish Stockfish Surimi Roe more...

Seafood
Seafood
dishes

List of seafood dishes List of crab dishes List of fish dishes Bisque Chowder Fish and chips Fish pie Fish soup Fried fish Raw fish Seafood
Seafood
boil Shark
Shark
fin soup Sushi more...

Health hazards

Ciguatera Fish diseases and parasites Mercury in fish Metagonimiasis Scombroid food poisoning Shellfish
Shellfish
poisoning

Advisory services

Seafood
Seafood
mislabelling Sustainable seafood Sustainable seafood
Sustainable seafood
advisory lists and certification

Animal
Animal
welfare

Declawing of crabs Eyestalk
Eyestalk
ablation Eating live seafood Live fish trade Pain in fish Pain in crustaceans Shark
Shark
finning

Related topics

Fish preservation Fish processing Gathering seafood by hand History of seafood History of sushi List of seafood companies Raw bar Salmon
Salmon
cannery Seafood
Seafood
restaurant Umami

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Meat

Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood

Poultry
Poultry
and game

Alligator Bear Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison

Livestock
Livestock
and minilivestock

Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Buffalo Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak

Fish and seafood

Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Sardine Scallop Shark Shrimp/prawn Sole Swai Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Sea urchin Walleye Whale

Cuts and preparation

Aged Bacon Barbecued Braised Burger Charcuterie Chop Corned Cured Cutlet Dried Dum Fillet / Supreme Fried Ground Ham Kebab Liver Luncheon meat Marinated Meatball Meatloaf Offal Pickled Poached Roasted Salt-cured Salumi Sausage Smoked Steak Stewed Tandoor Tartare

List articles

Beef
Beef
dishes Chicken dishes Countries by meat consumption Fish dishes Food and drink prohibitions Goat dishes Lamb dishes Meatball
Meatball
dishes Pork
Pork
dishes

Ham
Ham
dishes

Sausage
Sausage
dishes Sausages Seafood
Seafood
dishes Smoked foods Steaks Veal
Veal
dishes

Related subjects

Animal
Animal
rights Bushmeat Butcher Cannibalism Carnism Christian vegetarianism Cultured meat Ethics of eating meat Factory farming Feed conversion ratio Environmental impact of meat production List of meat dishes Meat
Meat
cutter Meat
Meat
tenderness Pescetarianism Pink slime Plant-based diet Preservation Psychology of eating meat

Meat
Meat
paradox

Red meat Semi-vegetarianism Slaughter

Slaughterhouse

Veganism Vegetarianism White meat

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1038113 ADW: Nephropidae BugGuide: 541699 EoL: 7161 EPPO: 1NEPHF Fossilworks: 82350 GBIF: 4523 ITIS: 97307 NCBI:

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