Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More
restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art
form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual
value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from
Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera:
letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts. The
concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken
or sung (oral literature), and non-written verbal art forms.
Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing
distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in
Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or
non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose. It can be further
distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story
or drama; and works are often categorized according to historical
periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or
3 Psychology and literature
5.1.3 Short story
5.3 Natural science
7 Other narrative forms
8 Literary techniques
9 Legal status
9.1 United Kingdom
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is a "culturally
relative definition". In
Western Europe prior to the 18th
century, literature denoted all books and writing. A more
restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in
which it began to demarcate "imaginative"
writing. Contemporary debates over what
constitutes literature can be seen as returning to older, more
inclusive notions; Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its
subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to
The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover
exclusively those writings that possess high quality or distinction,
forming part of the so-called belles-lettres ('fine writing')
tradition. This sort of definition is that used in the
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) when it
classifies literature as "the best expression of the best thought
reduced to writing." Problematic in this view is that there
is no objective definition of what constitutes "literature": anything
can be literature, and anything which is universally regarded as
literature has the potential to be excluded, since value judgments can
change over time.
The formalist definition is that "literature" foregrounds poetic
effects; it is the "literariness" or "poetic" of literature that
distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of writing (e.g.,
journalism). Jim Meyer considers this a useful
characteristic in explaining the use of the term to mean published
material in a particular field (e.g., "scientific literature"), as
such writing must use language according to particular
standards. The problem with the formalist definition is
that in order to say that literature deviates from ordinary uses of
language, those uses must first be identified; this is difficult
because "ordinary language" is an unstable category, differing
according to social categories and across history.
Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura
"learning, a writing, grammar," originally "writing formed with
letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this,
the term has also been applied to spoken or sung
Literary genre is a mode of categorizing literature. A French term for
"a literary type or class". However, such classes are
subject to change, and have been used in different ways in different
periods and traditions.
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History of literature
Berlin depicting a stack of books on which are
inscribed the names of great German writers.
Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name "Ramesses II",
from the Luxor Temple, New Kingdom
The history of literature follows closely the development of
civilization. When defined exclusively as written work, Ancient
Egyptian literature, along with Sumerian literature, are
considered the world's oldest literatures. The primary
genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt—didactic texts, hymns and
prayers, and tales—were written almost entirely in
verse; while use of poetic devices is clearly
recognizable, the prosody of the verse is
Sumerian literature is
apparently poetry, as it is written in
left-justified lines, and could contain line-based
organization such as the couplet or the stanza,
Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and
tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and
myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in
the pre-urban eras. The epics of Homer, dating from the early to
middle Iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly later
period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship,
surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods
before being written down.
Literature in all its forms can be seen as written records, whether
the literature itself be factual or fictional, it is still quite
possible to decipher facts through things like characters' actions and
words or the authors' style of writing and the intent behind the
words. The plot is for more than just entertainment purposes; within
it lies information about economics, psychology, science, religions,
politics, cultures, and social depth. Studying and analyzing
literature becomes very important in terms of learning about human
Literature provides insights about how society has evolved
and about the societal norms during each of the different periods all
throughout history. For instance, postmodern authors argue that
history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which
we make sense of the past. It is asserted that both of
these are "discourses, human constructs, signifying systems, and both
derive their major claim to truth from that identity."
Literature provides views of life, which is crucial in obtaining truth
and in understanding human life throughout history and its
periods. Specifically, it explores the possibilities of
living in terms of certain values under given social and historical
Literature helps us understand references made in more modern
literature because authors often reference mythology and other old
religious texts to describe ancient civilizations such as the Hellenes
and the Egyptians. Not only is there literature written on
each of the aforementioned topics themselves, and how they have
evolved throughout history (like a book about the history of economics
or a book about evolution and science, for example) but one can also
learn about these things in fictional works. Authors often include
historical moments in their works, like when Lord Byron talks about
the Spanish and the French in "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage: Canto
I" and expresses his opinions through his character Childe
Harold. Through literature we are able to continuously uncover new
information about history. It is easy to see how all academic fields
have roots in literature. Information became easier to
pass down from generation to generation once we began to write it
down. Eventually everything was written down, from things like home
remedies and cures for illness, or how to build shelter to traditions
and religious practices. From there people were able to study
literature, improve on ideas, further our knowledge, and academic
fields such as the medical field or trades could be started. In much
the same way as the literature that we study today continue to be
updated as we[who?] continue to evolve and learn more and
As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of
transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in early
civilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient
China, Ancient India, Persia and
Ancient Greece and Rome. Many works
of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or
didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit
Panchatantra or the
Metamorphoses of Ovid.
Drama and satire also developed as urban
culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for
Lyric poetry (as opposed to epic poetry) was
often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly
in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as
poems, the most notable being the Shijing or
Book of Songs. Over a
long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song
interpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary
In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on
philosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry.
China, the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing,
produced the world's first print cultures. Much of Chinese
literature originates with the
Hundred Schools of Thought
Hundred Schools of Thought period that
occurred during the Eastern
Zhou Dynasty (769‒269 BCE). The most
important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of
Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science (e.g. Sun
Tzu's The Art of War) and Chinese history (e.g. Sima Qian's Records of
the Grand Historian). Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis
on historiography, with often very detailed court records. An
exemplary piece of narrative history of ancient China was the Zuo
Zhuan, which was compiled no later than 389 BCE, and attributed to the
blind 5th-century BCE historian Zuo Qiuming.
In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were
originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama, fables,
sutras and epic poetry.
Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas,
dating back to 1500–1000 BCE, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics
of Iron Age India. The
Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The
Samhitas (vedic collections) date to roughly 1500–1000 BCE, and the
"circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date
to c. 1000‒500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the
mid-2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late
Bronze Age and the Iron
Age. The period between approximately the 6th to 1st
centuries BCE saw the composition and redaction of the two most
influential Indian epics, the
Mahabharata and the Ramayana, with
subsequent redaction progressing down to the 4th century AD. Other
major literary works are
Ramcharitmanas & Krishnacharitmanas.
In ancient Greece, the epics of Homer, who wrote the
Iliad and the
Odyssey, and Hesiod, who wrote
Works and Days
Works and Days and Theogony, are some
of the earliest, and most influential, of Ancient Greek literature.
Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography,
comedies and dramas.
Aristotle authored philosophical texts
that are the foundation of Western philosophy,
influential lyric poets, and
Thucydides were early Greek
historians. Although drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the
hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age,
only a limited number of plays by three authors still exist:
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The plays of
the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy,
the earliest form of Greek Comedy, and are in fact used to define the
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, one of the most prolific German writers
Roman histories and biographies anticipated the extensive mediaeval
literature of lives of saints and miraculous chronicles, but the most
characteristic form of the
Middle Ages was the romance, an adventurous
and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular appeal.
Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature
proliferated during the Renaissance as a result of the invention of
printing, while the mediaeval romance developed into a more
character-based and psychological form of narrative, the novel, of
which early and important examples are the Chinese Monkey and the
German Faust books.
In the Age of Reason philosophical tracts and speculations on history
and human nature integrated literature with social and political
developments. The inevitable reaction was the explosion of Romanticism
in the later 18th century which reclaimed the imaginative and
fantastical bias of old romances and folk-literature and asserted the
primacy of individual experience and emotion. But as the 19th century
went on, European fiction evolved towards realism and naturalism, the
meticulous documentation of real life and social trends. Much of the
output of naturalism was implicitly polemical, and influenced social
and political change, but 20th century fiction and drama moved back
towards the subjective, emphasizing unconscious motivations and social
and environmental pressures on the individual. Writers such as Proust,
Eliot, Joyce, Kafka and Pirandello exemplify the trend of documenting
internal rather than external realities.
Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in its 20th
century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the enquiries
of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science
fiction. The separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms (including
journalism) continued to blur during the period up to our own times.
William Burroughs, in his early works, and
Hunter S. Thompson
Hunter S. Thompson expanded
documentary reporting into strong subjective statements after the
second World War, and post-modern critics have disparaged the idea of
objective realism in general.
Psychology and literature
Theorists suggest that literature allows readers to access intimate
emotional aspects of a person's character that would not be obvious
otherwise. That literature aids the psychological
development and understanding of the reader, allowing someone to
access emotional states from which they had distanced themselves. D.
Mitchell, for example, explains how one author used young adult
literature to describe a state of "wonder" she had experienced as a
child. There are also those who focus on the significance
of literature in an individual's psychological development. For
example, language learning uses literature because it articulates or
contains culture, which is an element considered crucial in learning a
language. This is demonstrated in the case of a study that
revealed how the presence of cultural values and culturally familiar
passages in literary texts played an important impact on the
performance of minority students in English reading.
Psychologists have also been using literature as a tool or therapeutic
vehicle for people, to help them understand challenges and issues. An
example is the integration of subliminal messages in literary texts or
the rewriting of traditional narratives to help readers address their
problems or mold them into contemporary social
Hogan also explains that the time and emotion which a person devotes
to understanding a character's situation makes literature
"ecological[ly] valid in the study of emotion". That is
literature unites a large community by provoking universal emotions,
as well as allowing readers to access cultural aspects that they have
not been exposed to, and that produce new emotional
experiences. Theorists argue that authors choose literary
device according to what psychological emotion they are attempting to
Some psychologists regard literature as a valid research tool, because
it allows them to discover new psychological ideas.
Psychological theories about literature, such as Maslow's Hierarchy of
Needs have become universally recognized.
Psychologist Maslow's "Third Force Psychology Theory" helps literary
analysts to critically understand how characters reflect the culture
and the history to which they belong. It also allows them to
understand the author's intention and psychology. The
theory suggests that human beings possess within them their true
"self" and that the fulfillment of this is the reason for living. It
also suggests that neurological development hinders actualizing this
and a person becomes estranged from his or her true self.
Maslow argues that literature explores this struggle for
self-fulfillment. Paris in his "Third Force Psychology and
the Study of Literature" argues that "D.H. Lawrence's 'pristine
unconscious' is a metaphor for the real self". Literature,
it is here suggested, is therefore a tool that allows readers to
develop and apply critical reasoning to the nature of emotions.
Main article: Poetry
A calligram by Guillaume Apollinaire. These are a type of poem in
which the written words are arranged in such a way to produce a visual
Poetry is a form of literary art which uses the aesthetic qualities of
language (including music and rhythm) to evoke meanings beyond a prose
Poetry has traditionally been distinguished
from prose by its being set in verse; prose is cast in sentences,
poetry in lines; the syntax of prose is dictated by meaning, whereas
that of poetry is held across meter or the visual aspects of the
poem. This distinction is complicated by
various hybrid forms such as the prose poem and
prosimetrum, and more generally by the fact that prose
possesses rhythm. Abram Lipsky refers to it as an "open
secret" that "prose is not distinguished from poetry by lack of
Prior to the 19th century, poetry was commonly understood to be
something set in metrical lines; accordingly, in 1658 a definition of
poetry is "any kind of subject consisting of
Verses". Possibly as a result of Aristotle's influence
(his Poetics), "poetry" before the 19th century was usually less a
technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive
or rhetorical art. As a form it may pre-date literacy,
with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral
tradition; hence it constitutes the earliest
example of literature.
Prose and Literary fiction
Prose is a form of language that possesses ordinary syntax and natural
speech, rather than a regular metre; in which regard, along with its
presentation in sentences rather than lines, it differs from most
poetry. However, developments in
modern literature, including free verse and prose poetry have tended
to blur any differences, and American poet
T.S. Eliot suggested that
while: "the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the
distinction between poetry and prose is obscure".
On the historical development of prose, Richard Graff notes that "[In
the case of Ancient Greece] recent scholarship has emphasized the fact
that formal prose was a comparatively late development, an "invention"
properly associated with the classical period".
Philosophical, historical, journalistic, and scientific writings are
traditionally ranked as literature. They offer some of the oldest
prose writings in existence; novels and prose stories earned the names
"fiction" to distinguish them from factual writing or nonfiction,
which writers historically have crafted in prose.
Main article: Novel
A long fictional prose narrative. In English, the term emerged from
the Romance languages in the late 15th century, with the meaning of
"news"; it came to indicate something new, without a distinction
between fact or fiction. The romance is a closely related
long prose narrative.
Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious
narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon
marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events
are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern
state of society". Other European languages do not
distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der
Roman, il romanzo", indicates the proximity of the
Although there are many historical prototypes, so-called "novels
before the novel", the modern novel form emerges late in
cultural history—roughly during the eighteenth century.
Initially subject to much criticism, the novel has acquired a dominant
position amongst literary forms, both popularly and
Main article: Novella
In purely quantitative terms, the novella exists between the novel and
short story; the publisher Melville House classifies it as "too short
to be a novel, too long to be a short story". There is no
precise definition in terms of word or page count.
Literary prizes and publishing houses often have their own arbitrary
limits, which vary according to their particular
intentions. Summarizing the variable definitions of the novella,
William Giraldi concludes "[it is a form] whose identity seems
destined to be disputed into perpetuity". It has been
suggested that the size restriction of the form produces various
stylistic results, both some that are shared with the novel or short
story, and others unique to the
Main article: Short story
A dilemma in defining the "short story" as a literary form is how to,
or whether one should, distinguish it from any short narrative; hence
it also has a contested origin, variably suggested as the
earliest short narratives (e.g. the Bible), early short story writers
(e.g. Edgar Allan Poe), or the clearly modern short story writers
(e.g. Anton Chekhov). Apart from its distinct size,
various theorists have suggested that the short story has a
characteristic subject matter or structure;
these discussions often position the form in some relation to the
Main article: Essay
An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal
point of view, exemplified by works by
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne or by
Charles Lamb. Genres related to the essay may
include the memoir and the epistle.
As advances and specialization have made new scientific research
inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science
writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries. Now,
science appears mostly in journals. Scientific works of Aristotle,
Copernicus, and Newton still exhibit great value, but since the
science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for
scientific instruction. Yet, they remain too technical to sit well in
most programs of literary study. Outside of "history of science"
programs, students rarely read such works.
Philosophy has become an increasingly academic discipline. More of its
practitioners lament this situation than occurs with the sciences;
nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals.
Major philosophers through history—Plato, Aristotle, Socrates,
Augustine, Descartes, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche—have become as
canonical as any writers. Philosophical writing spans from humanistic
prose to formal logic, the latter having become extremely technical to
a degree similar to that of mathematics.
A significant portion of historical writing ranks as literature,
particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction, as can a great
deal of journalism, such as literary journalism. However, these areas
have become extremely large, and often have a primarily utilitarian
purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result,
the writing in these fields often lacks a literary quality, although
it often (and in its better moments) has that quality. Major
"literary" historians include Herodotus,
Thucydides and Procopius, all
of whom count as canonical literary figures.
Law offers more ambiguity. Some writings of
Plato and Aristotle, the
law tables of
Hammurabi of Babylon, or even the early parts of the
Bible could be seen as legal literature. Roman civil law as codified
Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of
Justinian I of the
Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature. The
founding documents of many countries, including Constitutions and Law
Codes, can count as literature.
Main article: Drama
Drama is literature intended for performance. The form is
often combined with music and dance, as in opera and musical theater.
A play is a subset of this form, referring to the written dramatic
work of a playwright that is intended for performance in a theater; it
comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at
dramatic or theatrical performance rather than at reading. A closet
drama, by contrast, refers to a play written to be read rather than to
be performed; hence, it is intended that the meaning of such a work
can be realized fully on the page. Nearly all drama took
verse form until comparatively recently.
Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have
substantial knowledge. Tragedy, as a dramatic genre, developed as a
performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically
enacting or developing upon well-known historical or mythological
themes. Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the
advent of newer technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have
been added to this form.
War of the Worlds (radio)
War of the Worlds (radio) in 1938 saw the
advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of
Drama have been adapted for film or television. Conversely,
television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or
Other narrative forms
Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works that
originate in digital environments.
Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which
often parallels the functionality of prose fiction.
Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination
of sequential artwork, dialogue and text.
Main article: List of narrative techniques
Literary technique and literary device are used by authors to produce
Literary techniques encompass a wide range of approaches: examples for
fiction are, whether a work is narrated in first-person, or from
another perspective; whether a traditional linear narrative or a
nonlinear narrative is used; the literary genre that is chosen.
Literary devices involves specific elements within the work that make
it effective. Examples include metaphor, simile, ellipsis, narrative
motifs, and allegory. Even simple word play functions as a literary
device. In fiction stream-of-consciousness narrative is a literary
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February
Literary works have been protected by copyright law from unauthorized
reproduction since at least 1710. Literary works are
defined by copyright law to mean any work, other than a dramatic or
musical work, which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly
includes (a) a table or compilation (other than a database), (b) a
computer program, (c) preparatory design material for a computer
program, and (d) a database.
Literary works are not limited to works of literature, but include all
works expressed in print or writing (other than dramatic or musical
Main article: List of literary awards
There are numerous awards recognizing achievement and contribution in
literature. Given the diversity of the field, awards are typically
limited in scope, usually on: form, genre, language, nationality and
output (e.g. for first-time writers or debut novels).
Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature was one of the six Nobel Prizes
established by the will of
Alfred Nobel in 1895, and is
awarded to an author on the basis of their body of work, rather than
to, or for, a particular work itself.[a] Other literary prizes
for which all nationalities are eligible include: the Neustadt
International Prize for Literature, the Man Booker International
Prize, Pulitzer Prize, Hugo Award, Guardian First
Book Award and the
Franz Kafka Prize.
Outline of literature and Index of literature articles
Philosophy and literature
List of authors
List of books
List of literary magazines
List of literary terms
List of women writers
List of writers
Childhood in literature
Cultural movement for literary movements.
Literature basic topics
^ However, in some instances a work has been cited in the explanation
of why the award was given.
^ a b Leitch et al., The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, 28
^ Ross, "The Emergence of "Literature": Making and Reading the English
Canon in the Eighteenth Century", 406
^ Eagleton 2008, p. 16.
^ a b Eagleton 2008, p. 9.
^ Biswas, Critique of Poetics, 538
^ Leitch et al., The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, 4
^ Eagleton 2008, p. 2-6.
^ a b Meyer, Jim (1997). "What is Literature? A Definition Based on
Prototypes". Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics,
University of North Dakota Session. 41 (1). Retrieved 11 February
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^ Eagleton 2008, p. 4.
^ "literature (n.)". Online
Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 February
^ Finnegan, Ruth (1974). "How Oral Is Oral Literature?". Bulletin of
the School of Oriental and African Studies. 37 (1): 52–64.
doi:10.1017/s0041977x00094842. JSTOR 614104. (subscription
^ Abrams, Meyer Howard (1999). Glossary of Literary Terms. New York:
Harcourt Brace College Publishers. p. 108.
^ Foster 2001, p. 19.
^ Black et al. The
Literature of Ancient Sumer, xix
^ Foster 2001, p. 7.
^ Foster 2001, p. 8.
^ Foster 2001, p. 9.
^ Michalowski p. 146[full citation needed]
^ Black p. 5
^ Black et al., Introduction
^ Michalowski p. 144[full citation needed]
^ a b Krause, Dagmar (2005). Timothy Findley's Novels Between Ethics
and Postmodernism. Wurzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. p. 21.
^ a b Weston, Michael (2001). Philosophy,
Literature and the Human
Good. London: Routledge. pp. xix, 133. ISBN 0415243378.
^ Schelling, F.W.J. (2007). Historical-critical Introduction to the
Philosophy of Mythology. New York: SUNY Press. p. 49.
^ Lord Byron, (2008) Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage: Canto I. Lord
Byron: The Major Works. ed. McGann, J.J. New York: Oxford University
^ English: a degree for the curious. (2013, September 16). UWIRE Text,
p. 1. Retrieved
^ A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of
Art/Princeton, 1971, nos 1–4. ISBN 0-691-00326-2
Gavin Flood sums up mainstream estimates, according to which the
Rigveda was compiled from as early as 1500 BCE over a period of
several centuries. Flood 1996, p. 37
^ Aristophanes: Butts K.J.Dover (ed), Oxford University Press 1970,
Intro. p. x.
^ Hogan 2011, p. 1.
^ Mitchell, Diana (2001). "From the Secondary Section: Young Adult
Literature and the English Teacher". The English Journal. 90 (3):
23–25. JSTOR 821301.
^ Oebel, Guido (2001). So-called "Alternative FLL-Approaches".
Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. ISBN 9783640187799.
^ Damon, William; Lerner, Richard; Renninger, Ann; Sigel, Irving
(2006). Handbook of Child Psychology, Child Psychology in Practice.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 90. ISBN 0471272876.
^ Makin, Michael; Kelly, Catriona; Shepher, David; de Rambures,
Dominique (1989). Discontinuous Discourses in Modern Russian
Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 122.
^ Cullingford, Cedric (1998). Children's
Literature and its Effects.
London: A&C Black. p. 5. ISBN 0304700924.
^ Hogan 2011, p. 10.
^ Hogan 2011, p. 11.
^ a b Nezami, S.R.A. (February 2012). "The use of figures of speech as
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