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Lingnan
Lingnan
culture (Chinese: 嶺南文化; Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 man4 faa3), or Cantonese culture
Cantonese culture
(Chinese: 粵文化/廣府文化; Jyutping: Jyut6 man4 faa3/Gwong2 fu2 man4 faa3), refers to the regional Chinese culture
Chinese culture
of the Southern Chinese/ Lingnan
Lingnan
twin provinces of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi. Strictly speaking, the term " Lingnan
Lingnan
culture" has two definitions: (1) In a purely geographical sense, the term includes not only Cantonese culture, but also the cultures of minority groups (such as the Hakkas and Teochews, as well as the non-Han Zhuangs) within the Lingnan region; but (2) more typically, it is used to refer to Cantonese culture, the historically dominant cultural force in Guangdong
Guangdong
and the eastern half of Guangxi. In this article, " Lingnan
Lingnan
culture" is used in the latter definition - as the synonym of " Cantonese
Cantonese
culture". With the migration of Cantonese people
Cantonese people
to the neighboring Hong Kong and Macau, as well as many overseas Chinese communities, Lingnan/ Cantonese culture
Cantonese culture
has become an influential cultural force in the international community, and forms the foundation of the cultures of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau.

Contents

1 Brief history and overview

1.1 From Nanyue
Nanyue
to Sinicization 1.2 From 19th century onward 1.3 Overall characteristics

2 Traditional language

2.1 Cantonese

2.1.1 Written Cantonese

3 Architecture

3.1 Classical Lingnan
Lingnan
architecture 3.2 Tong lau 3.3 Lingnan
Lingnan
garden

4 Visual arts

4.1 Canton ivory carving 4.2 Canton jade carving 4.3 Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery 4.4 Teochew woodcarving 4.5 Lingnan
Lingnan
penjing 4.6 Lingnan
Lingnan
style of calligraphy 4.7 Canton porcelain

4.7.1 Gallery

4.8 Cantonese
Cantonese
furniture 4.9 Lingnan
Lingnan
school of painting 4.10 Others

5 Performing arts

5.1 Folk songs 5.2 Cantonese
Cantonese
opera 5.3 Gonggu 5.4 Guangdong
Guangdong
music

5.4.1 Musical instruments

5.5 Pop 5.6 Cinema

6 Literature

6.1 Poetry 6.2 Vernacular
Vernacular
Cantonese
Cantonese
literature

7 Food culture

7.1 Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine

7.1.1 Lou fo tong 7.1.2 Dishes in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine

7.2 Tea culture

7.2.1 Dim sum

7.3 Leung cha 7.4 Tong sui 7.5 Brewery 7.6 Fruits 7.7 Gallery

8 Martial arts

8.1 Gwongdung
Gwongdung
schools

9 Philosophy

9.1 Lingnan
Lingnan
scholarly school

10 Traditional celebrations

10.1 Cantonese
Cantonese
New Year customs 10.2 Han Chinese
Han Chinese
celebrations 10.3 Cantonese-specific celebrations

10.3.1 Birthdays of local deities

11 Religions

11.1 Mahayana Buddhism 11.2 Taoism 11.3 Culture of distance from Confucius 11.4 Others

12 Commercial tradition 13 Cultural symbols

13.1 Red cotton flower 13.2 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid 13.3 Sampan

14 See also

14.1 Cantonese
Cantonese
customs 14.2 Related cultures 14.3 Others

15 References

Brief history and overview[edit]

A statue from the ancient kingdom of Yue, before 200 BCE; At that time, the Lingnan
Lingnan
region was the territory of Baiyue
Baiyue
peoples, who were later sinicized.

From Nanyue
Nanyue
to Sinicization[edit] In 200 BCE, Gwongdung
Gwongdung
and Gwongsai
Gwongsai
( Cantonese
Cantonese
for "Guangdong" and "Guangxi"), alongside the land now known as Northern Vietnam, was controlled by the kingdom of Nanyue
Nanyue
(Jyutping: Naam4 jyut6 gwok3; Traditional Chinese: 南越國), inhabited primarily by the non-Han Nanyue
Nanyue
people. The kingdom was later conquered by the Han Empire and came under Han Chinese
Han Chinese
control at around year 100 BCE. However, large-scale sinicization didn't occur until 6th to 7th century, at which point the region was held by the Tang Empire. Later, between 10th to 13th century, there was a large influx of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
migrants from the north, which was at that time invaded by the Mongols
Mongols
and a few other non-Han ethnic groups. These resulted in large-scale intermixing of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Nanyue
Nanyue
people during that period[1] - reflected in the fact that modern Cantonese people
Cantonese people
are, genetically, the hybrid descendants of ancient Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Nanyue.[2] Modern Lingnan
Lingnan
culture also contains both Nanyue
Nanyue
and Han Chinese
Han Chinese
elements: the modern Cantonese
Cantonese
language, for instance, closely resembles Middle Chinese (the prestige language of the Tang Empire), but has retained some features of the long-extinct Nanyue
Nanyue
language. The sinicization of the Lingnan
Lingnan
region was largely complete by the time of late Southern Song Dynasty
Southern Song Dynasty
(12th to 13th century). During 15th to 18th century, Lingnan
Lingnan
(especially the area around Guangzhou) served as one of the main ports for the Ming Empire. Cantonese people
Cantonese people
were exposed to Western European
Western European
cultures and incorporated European elements into their own cultural artifacts. It was by that time when Lingnan
Lingnan
culture has largely attained its current form. From 19th century onward[edit] With Guangzhou
Guangzhou
being major a port for both the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
and the People's Republic of China, Cantonese people
Cantonese people
have often dominated Han Chinese immigration to the Western world, resulting in Cantonese historically being the lingua franca in most Western Chinatowns. They also helped establish the Chinese term for Chinatown: "Tong yan gai" (Jyutping: Tong4 jan4 gaai1; Traditional Chinese: 唐人街), known as "Tang ren jie" in Mandarin Chinese. This term literally means "Street of the Tang people". This is said to reflect the fact that the sinicization of Lingnan
Lingnan
was most prominent during the Tang Dynasty, which resulted in Cantonese
Cantonese
feeling an especially strong attachment to that dynasty.[3] On the other hand, since early 20th century, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(called "Heung Gong" in Cantonese), then under British colonial control, developed quickly in every aspect. The city's high level of development drew the envy of many people in the Lingnan
Lingnan
region. Many of them has been watching the TV dramas and movies produced by Hong Kong, resulting in the city having significant cultural influence in the region. For instance, many Cantonese
Cantonese
from mainland China write using Traditional Chinese characters, like Hongkongers do. Hong Kong, for its part, has experienced much cultural and economic exchanges with other East Asian nations. This in turn, made Hong Kong
Hong Kong
absorb the cultures of Korea, Japan
Japan
and to some extent, Taiwan. For instance, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Cantonese has many usages and vocabularies borrowed from Japanese. Overall characteristics[edit] Lingnan
Lingnan
culture is considered to be a commercial, oceanic culture that embodies the history of the region:[4] Its foundation consists of a mix of Nanyue
Nanyue
and Han Chinese
Han Chinese
(especially Tang dynasty's and Song dynasty's) influences, having preserved a considerable amount of Tang and Song cultural heritages not preserved in other branches of modern Han Chinese
Han Chinese
cultures. Lingnan
Lingnan
later became the Ming Empire's main contact point with Western Europeans via commerce, and thus came to include European ideas in its arts and philosophy. Also, with such a long history of being prominent merchants and craftsmen, the Cantonese people, amongst all the Han Chinese, are said to be marked by their pragmatism, fierce rebelliousness, and general openness to new and foreign ideas. Traditional language[edit] Cantonese[edit] Main article: Cantonese
Cantonese
language Traditionally, the Lingnan
Lingnan
region's dominant language is Cantonese (Chinese: 廣東話/廣州話; Jyutping: Gwong2 dung1 waa2/Gwong2 zau1 waa2), the prestige dialect of the Yue Chinese
Yue Chinese
subgroup of the broader Chinese language family. The vast majority of Lingnan's traditional operas, folk songs and poetry are expressed using Cantonese. This language can trace its root all the way back to the ancient Nanyue people: Their language did not belong to the Chinese language family though. However, with the large influx of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
migrants during 10th to 13th centuries, the language slowly sinicized and evolved into modern Cantonese.[5][6][7] Cantonese
Cantonese
has retained certain features of the Nanyue
Nanyue
language.[8] For instance, unlike most other Chinese languages, Cantonese
Cantonese
often put an adjective behind the noun it is describing. In Cantonese, "雞乸" (Jyutping: Gai1 naa2) is made of two words: "雞", which means "chicken", and "乸", which means "female", resulting in a compound word that means "hen". Nonetheless, among all extant languages, Cantonese
Cantonese
is, overall, the one that is "closest" to Middle Chinese (the prestige language of the Tang Era). This is reflected by the fact that most Tang poems will rhyme better if chanted in Cantonese.[9] Written Cantonese[edit] Main article: Written Cantonese In terms of writing system, Cantonese, like most people in East Asia (such as the Vietnamese for instance), traditionally preferred not to write their own language verbatim, and instead relied on classical Chinese in most forms of writing. Starting from the 2000s, however, a complete Cantonese
Cantonese
writing system has been developed in Hong Kong, utilizing both Chinese characters
Chinese characters
and Cantonese
Cantonese
characters, and become popularized. Architecture[edit] Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
architecture See also: Chinese architecture Classical Lingnan
Lingnan
architecture[edit]

The Chan Clan Temple is a good example of classical Lingnan architecture.

Lingnan architecture
Lingnan architecture
(Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 gin3 zuk1; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南建築) is the characteristic architectural style of the Lingnan
Lingnan
region,[10][11] mostly associated with Cantonese
Cantonese
people. It differs significantly from those found in other Han Chinese
Han Chinese
regions because of factors such as climates and availability of materials, both of which affected by the geographical features of Lingnan. Overall, classical Lingnan architecture
Lingnan architecture
tends to (1) use pale colors such as green and white, (2) avoid circular or cylindrical structures, (3) have many open structures like balconies, (4) be decorated with large numbers of relief carvings and sculptures, and (5) be built using materials resistant to moulds and moisture. The last point is obviously related to the hot and humid subtropical climate of Lingnan. The Chan Clan Temple in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is a representative example of classical Lingnan
Lingnan
architecture. The temple was built in late 19th century and served as an academy for Chan families in 72 counties of the Guangdong
Guangdong
province. It comprises all sorts of folk architectural and decorative arts, and is famous for its "three carvings" (stone, wood and brick carvings), "three sculptures" (ceramic sculpture, clay sculpture and colorful sculpture) and "one cast" (cast iron). As a result, it is called the best of all the clan buildings in the neighborhood. Tong lau[edit] Main article: Tong lau Tong lau
Tong lau
(Jyutping: Tong4 lau4; Traditional Chinese: 唐樓) is a style of architecture prevalent in Lingnan
Lingnan
(and also in some other areas by the South China Sea) starting from 19th century. Combining Southern Chinese architectural styles with Western European
Western European
ones, it is particularly prevalent in regions with more exposure to Western European cultures, such as Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau. Tong laus in Lingnan show influence from the classical Lingnan
Lingnan
style.

A row of tong laus in Hoiping, Gwongdung.

Tong laus are everywhere in Hong Kong.

Lingnan
Lingnan
garden[edit]

The pond of Yuyum Sanfong.

Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
garden Lingnan garden
Lingnan garden
(Jyutping: Ling5 naam5 jyun4 lam4; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南園林), or Cantonese
Cantonese
garden, is the style of garden design native to the Lingnan
Lingnan
region.[12] Geographically, Lingnan
Lingnan
has very different climate from China's heartland (i.e., Zhongyuan), resulting in her developing a different style in designing gardens. The most frequently cited traits of Lingnan
Lingnan
gardens are: (1) they tend to surround their plants with buildings to provide protection to the plants, due to the frequent rainfalls and storms in the region; (2) Lingnan
Lingnan
gardens usually use plant species native to the region, such as red cotton flowers and lychee trees; and (3) due to Lingnan
Lingnan
being far away from the center of power (i.e., Zhongyuan), gardens in the region have historically been less bounded by royal standards, resulting in a style that leans more towards the common people, e.g., Lingnan
Lingnan
gardens are decorated with a large amount of folk arts, ranging from sculptures to porcelains, and also tend to use smaller buildings. Visual arts[edit] The Nanyue
Nanyue
people were already making a lot of pottery and sculptures back at the time of the kingdom of Nanyue. After sinicization, the techniques of the people in the region only became even more polished. Nowadays, Cantonese
Cantonese
are accomplished craftsmen known for exporting many craft products, including various types of sculptures, embroidery, porcelain, paper cutting, kites, furniture, among many others. They have also produced several schools of fine arts. In sum, visual art styles invented primarily by Cantonese
Cantonese
include the following: Canton ivory carving[edit]

An ivory ball on show in the German Rautenstrauch-Joest Museum. It has 16 layers, which can spin.

Canton ivory woodcarving (Jyutping: Gwong2 zau1 ngaa4 diu1; Traditional Chinese: 廣州牙雕) is another well-known product from Lingnan. With a history of 2000 years, it traditionally uses ivory as raw material to make sculptures, with the Canton-style renowned for being particularly delicate and detailed without being brittle. The Cantonese people
Cantonese people
have also successfully produced the legendary craft product - Ivory
Ivory
ball. After the 1980s, however, international ivory trade has been banned. This results in the Cantonese people
Cantonese people
now trying to find substitute materials - materials that look and feel like but are actually not ivory - in their attempt to pass on this ancient art.[13]

A jade ware unearthed from the tomb of the king of Nanyue

Canton jade carving[edit] Canton jade carving (Jyutping: Gwong2 zau1 juk6 diu1; Traditional Chinese: 廣州玉雕) is the Cantonese
Cantonese
style of jade carving.[14][15] It has a history of more than two thousands years – with archaeologists unearthing jade carvings from the remains of the kingdom of Nanyue.[16] After sinicization, the people of Lingnan learnt jade carving from Tang Empire’s jade wares, and invented the technique of “lau sik” (Jyutping: Lau4 sik1; Traditional Chinese: 留色, literally “to retain the colors") – retaining the colors of the original materials, resulting in jade carvings that are very colorful yet natural. Nowadays, Canton jade carvings are frequently used in Cantonese
Cantonese
jewelry and decorations. Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery[edit] Main article: Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery (Jyutping: Jyut6 sau3; Traditional Chinese: 粵繡) is the Cantonese
Cantonese
style of embroidery, with considerable popularity in Lingnan
Lingnan
and its own subculture.[17] It could trace its root to at least the 9th century, where the Tang Empire had documented that the people in the area were making embroidery. Cantonese embroidery attained its current form at around 15th century and has its own set of techniques. Visually, it is known for being colorful and containing multiple images without feeling chaotic. Due to Gwongdung's historical role in trade between the Chinese empire and the outside world, Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery had been sold to many Western European people and become a popular type of items in European aristocrats' collections of oriental crafts. Teochew woodcarving[edit]

Teochew woodcarving
Teochew woodcarving
products are frequently painted gold.

Main article: Teochew woodcarving Teochew woodcarving
Teochew woodcarving
(Jyutping: Ciu4 zau1 muk6 diu1; Traditional Chinese: 潮州木雕) is a distinctive style of woodcarving that originated from the city of Teochew, which is geographically a part of Lingnan
Lingnan
but inhabited primarily by the Teochew people, who belong to the non- Cantonese
Cantonese
Min branch of Han Chinese. Despite this, this style of woodcarving is heavily incorporated into various forms of Cantonese crafts. It began in the 11th century and became popularized in late 16th century. Many Teochew woodcarving
Teochew woodcarving
products are plated with gold, commonly seen being decorations for Buddhist temples or ancestral halls. Lingnan
Lingnan
penjing[edit] Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
penjing Lingnan penjing
Lingnan penjing
(Jyutping: Ling5 naam5 pun4 ging2; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南盆景) is the style of penjing (called "Penjing" in Mandarin Chinese and "Pun-ging" in Cantonese) of the people of Lingnan. Despite being recognized only in early 20th century, it can trace its roots to at least 15th century. This style is noted for its emphasis on the match between "the natural" and "the artificial" parts of the penjing. For instance, artists of Lingnan penjing
Lingnan penjing
tend to spend much time choosing a pot that matches that plants. They also tend to trim their plants in such a way that the new growth from the trimmed parts will shadow the trails of trimming, resulting in the penjing looking very natural. Lingnan
Lingnan
style of calligraphy[edit] Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
style of calligraphy Lingnan
Lingnan
style of calligraphy (Jyutping: Ling5 naam5 syu1 fung1; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南書風) is the style of calligraphy unique to Lingnan. It is typically described by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
critics as "bold" and "romantic". Archaeological evidence suggests that the people of Lingnan
Lingnan
had been writing and producing calligraphy works since the collapse of the kingdom of Nanyue. However, due to the hot and humid climate of Lingnan, papers tend to decay very quickly, resulting in few such works having been preserved. It was not until 15th century, where Chan Bak-sa (Jyutping: Can4 baak6 saa1; Traditional Chinese: 陳白沙), became the first renowned Cantonese
Cantonese
calligrapher that the Lingnan
Lingnan
region got a recognized style of calligraphy. Since then, Cantonese
Cantonese
artists have produced several notable works of calligraphy, such as:

《袁崇煥督遼餞別圖詩》, literally "The picture poem of farewell to Yun Sung-wun"; It is the work of Kwong Lou, a Cantonese calligrapher from early 16th century; This work was made in his farewell to his good friend Yun Sung-wun, who had to leave Lingnan
Lingnan
due to an assignment from the then Ming emperor. It is a work of "poem painting" (a painting with a poem written on it; with both the picture and the poem having some sort of relations to each other). This work is now stored in Hong Kong. 《南園諸子送黎美周北上詩卷》, literally "The picture of various Southern gentlemen coming to say farewell"; It is the work of Zeung Kiu, a Cantonese
Cantonese
young woman from early 16th century, well-known for being both beautiful and very talented. Despite this, she died of an illness at the young age of 19 and her death was widely mourned as a great loss. This work of poem painting is one of her few works and now on show at the Gwongzau Art Gallery.

In the 21st century, the Cantonese people
Cantonese people
have begun to study the Lingnan
Lingnan
style of calligraphy in greater depth.[18]

Calligraphy
Calligraphy
of Gou Gim-fu

 

Canton porcelain[edit]

"Vase with floral scroll design", on show in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Museum of Art, is typically cited as a representative example of Canton porcelain.

Main article: Canton porcelain Canton porcelain
Canton porcelain
(Jyutping: Gwong2 coi2; Traditional Chinese: 廣彩, literally " Cantonese
Cantonese
colors"), also called Cantonese
Cantonese
porcelain, is the Cantonese
Cantonese
style of porcelain. It involves painting various colors on white porcelains and cementing the colors on the porcelain products afterwards through the use of low heat (less than 800 degree Celsius, which is low by porcelain standard). This style is renowned for its bright colors and detailed drawings. It originated in 16th century. At that time, the Cantonese people
Cantonese people
in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
imported white porcelains from Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen
(a city well known for making white porcelains), worked on them to produce colorful porcelains, and exported their products to Western Europe. Later, this art spread to the entire Lingnan
Lingnan
region. Hong Kong, for instance, started making Canton porcelain starting from 1930s and exported many of their products to the entire world, though nowadays, few Hongkongese work on this style of porcelain outside hobbyists, due to the fact that the city has shifted its focus to service and finance industries.[19] Gallery[edit]

"The Flames of the Eastern Battlefield" (Traditional Chinese: 東戰場的烈焰) from the 1930s; It is the work of Gou Gim-Fu, one of the founders of the Lingnan school of painting
Lingnan school of painting
and regularly cited as one of the representative early works of this school.

Cantonese
Cantonese
furniture[edit] See also: Chinese furniture § Four categories Cantonese
Cantonese
furniture (Jyutping: Gwong2 sik1 gaa1 si1; Traditional Chinese: 廣式傢俬) is the Cantonese
Cantonese
style of furniture.[20][21] It can be dated at least back to 17th century. This style generally uses the native timbers in the Lingnan
Lingnan
region, while borrowing elements from traditional furniture styles of the Tang Empire and the Song Empire and artistic styles imported from Western Europe. It is characterized by (1) its tendency to make each furniture item by working on one larger piece of wood, resulting in Cantonese
Cantonese
furniture not showing traces of being assembled; (2) taking elements from Baroque
Baroque
and Rococo
Rococo
style, especially in its use of curves; (3) using techniques from other Lingnan
Lingnan
crafts, such as Teochew woodcarving; and (4) heavy use of shells and marbles as decorations. Nowadays, Cantonese
Cantonese
furniture is being exported to many other Han Chinese communities and to foreign countries. Lingnan
Lingnan
school of painting[edit] Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
school of painting Lingnan school of painting
Lingnan school of painting
(Jyutping: Ling5 naam5 waa2 paai3; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南畫派), also called Cantonese
Cantonese
school of painting, is a distinctive style of painting invented primarily by Cantonese
Cantonese
artists.[22] It originated in 19th century, founded by Gou Gim-fu (a Cantonese) and several of his associates. This style combined the ink wash painting shared by all Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and watercolor painting, also with the influence from impressionism. It emphasizes leaving blank spaces and the use of bright colors, in stark contrast to less colorful ink wash painting. For example, "The Flames of the Eastern Battlefield" used watercolor to paint bright red colors in the background. This, alongside the blank spaces in the painting, gives potential alternative interpretations of the blank spaces, which could look like either smoke or clouds. Others[edit] Sekwan ware and Cochin ware
Cochin ware
are types of pottery with Cantonese origins. The former is still being produced by Cantonese, while the latter is more associated with Taiwan
Taiwan
these days. Performing arts[edit] See also: Music of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Music of Guangxi Cantonese people
Cantonese people
are involved in several types of operas and performing arts, including Tea-picking opera and Han opera, with Cantonese
Cantonese
opera being the most prominent one. They also have many types of traditional music. All of these are primarily sung and expressed using the Cantonese
Cantonese
language. Folk songs[edit]

A musician playing the Cheon Kum, a musical instrument in Cantonese music, in Chinatown, San Francisco.

The Cantonese
Cantonese
language has a very rich collection of folk songs,[23][24] many of which can be traced back to the ancient Nanyue people before sinicization of the region. These folk songs are widely sung and broadcast in the Lingnan
Lingnan
region even to this day. Broadly speaking, they can be divided into several categories:

"Saltwater songs" (Jyutping: Haam4 seoi2 go1; Traditional Chinese: 鹹水歌), which are popular around the Pearl River Delta, like this one; "Rooster-selling rhythms" (Jyutping: Maai6 gai1 diu6; Traditional Chinese: 賣雞調), which are traditionally sung in rooster-worshiping rituals and said to be related to the bird-worshiping totems of Baiyue
Baiyue
peoples; An example would be this; "Kerria songs" (Jyutping: Gou1 tong4 go1; Traditional Chinese: 高棠歌), which are often sung in weddings; "North Canton folk songs" (Jyutping: Jyut6 bak1 man4 go1; Traditional Chinese: 粵北民歌), popular in northern Gwongdung; " Cantonese
Cantonese
rhymes" (Jyutping: Jyut6 diu1; Traditional Chinese: 粵調), which consists of various subtypes based on pitches and rhythms and include the nam yum tradition. An example of Cantonese rhythms is this;

The lyrics of Nam Hoi Chiu (Jyutping: Naam4 hoi2 ciu4; Traditional Chinese: 南海潮, literally "Tides of the Southern Seas"), one of the best-known Cantonese
Cantonese
folk songs, regarded as "the unofficial provincial song of Gwongdung", in Jyutping
Jyutping
and Traditional Chinese characters respectively:

Hung4 haa4 mun5 saa2 jyut6 tin1 dong1 po3 hiu2, Zing1 zing1 jat6 soeng5 zeoi6 waa4 zoeng1, Hung4 min4 zi2 ging1 jau6 tim1 cin1 baak3 do3, Jan1 jan1 maan6 sai3 zoeng6. Ngo5 gin3 gong1 ciu4 ji1 jin4 teoi1 hei2 naa5 saan1 baan2, Koek3 si6 cyun1 gwo3 juk6 jyu5 king4 lau4 san1 leng3 ging2, Ngo5 giu3 hoi2 ciu4 bo1 tou4 bat1 jiu3 ze5 hung1 jung2, Gaak3 zyu6 jat1 pin3 maan6 lei5 daai6 joeng4 gwai1 sam1 cit3.

紅霞滿灑粵天東破曉, 蒸蒸日上序華章, 紅棉紫荊又添千百朶, 欣欣萬世象。 我見江潮依然推起那舢板, 卻是穿過玉宇瓊樓新靚景, 我叫海潮波濤不要這洶湧, 隔住一片萬里大洋歸心切。

English translation:

Red clouds are overtaking the sky of Canton at daybreak, The rising sun preludes an elegant prose; The red cotton trees (symbolizing Gwongzau) and Hong Kong orchid
Hong Kong orchid
trees (symbolizing Hong Kong) adds hundreds and thousands of blooms again, What a prosperous picture to last forever! I see river tides still pushing that "sampan", But it rafts through a refreshing scene of edifices of jade. I tell the ocean not to be so turbulent, Across from thousands of miles of ocean I am homesick.

Cantonese
Cantonese
opera[edit]

A Cantonese
Cantonese
opera performance in Vancouver. Most of the Chinese communities there are of Cantonese
Cantonese
ancestry, hence the presence of their style of opera.

Main article: Cantonese
Cantonese
opera Cantonese
Cantonese
opera (Jyutping: Daai6 hei3; Traditional Chinese: 大戲, literally "great drama") is the style of opera associated with the Cantonese
Cantonese
language and has been listed as one of intangible cultural heritage of the world.[25] Originated in late 13th century, Cantonese opera is a stage art that combines acrobatics, singing, martial arts, and acting. While sharing features with other Chinese-language opera styles, it does have several particular traits, including:

"Ching sik sing" (Jyutping: cing4 sik1 sing3; Traditional Chinese: 程式性) - formulaic, formalised. "Hui yi sing" (Jyutping: heoi1 ji5 sing3; Traditional Chinese: 虛擬性) - abstraction of reality, distancing from reality. "Sin ming sing" (Jyutping: sin1 ming4 sing3; Traditional Chinese: 鮮明性) - clear-cut, distinct, unambiguous, well-defined. "Zung hap ngai sut ying sik" (Jyutping: zung3 hap6 ngai6 seot6 jing4 sik1; Traditional Chinese: 綜合藝術形式) - a composite or synthetic art form. "Sei gung ng faat" (Jyutping: sei3 gung1 ng5 faat3; Traditional Chinese: 四功五法) - the four skills and the five methods.

Cantonese
Cantonese
opera also uses a different set of musical instruments. Some of these are used also in other oriental opera styles, such as Guzheng (Jyutping: Gu2 zaang1; Traditional Chinese: 古箏). Due to influence from Western opera, Cantonese
Cantonese
opera has also started adopting European instruments starting from 19th century, such as violin. Cantonese opera is also noted for its use of makeup and headdresses on the actors' parts. Makeups in Cantonese
Cantonese
opera are primarily white, and could vary in colors depending on the personalities of the characters, e.g., totally white makeups are often used to represent a villain. Headdresses are also used to represent the characters.

A female Cantonese
Cantonese
opera singer 

Headdresses used in Cantonese
Cantonese
opera 

Bangzi, a musical instrument used in Cantonese
Cantonese
opera 

Gonggu[edit] See also: Pingshu Gonggu (Jyutping: Gong2 gu2; Traditional Chinese: 講古, literally "to talk about the past") is a popular folk art in Lingnan. It involves artists telling stories from Chinese classics or Cantonese folklore using the Cantonese
Cantonese
language - while borrowing techniques from Cantonese
Cantonese
opera in order to be very rhythmic at that.[26] This art form originated in 16th century, when Cantonese
Cantonese
imported it from Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and several Cantonese
Cantonese
artists learnt from the then famous Wuyue storytellers. Since that time, Cantonese
Cantonese
Gonggu has seen steady development, with storytellers performing in their own stalls or Cantonese
Cantonese
teahouses. Starting from 20th century, the area around Gwongzau has even started erecting "storytelling stages" (Jyutping: Syut3 syu1 toi4; Traditional Chinese: 說書台, literally "stages where one talks about books") in certain parks and inviting artists to do Gonggu on radio shows. Partly as a result of this, Cantonese people
Cantonese people
have accumulated a considerable amount of folktales.[27] Guangdong
Guangdong
music[edit]

Ping Wu Chau Jyut

Sample of "Ping Wu Chau Jyut" (Traditional Chinese: 平湖秋月, literally "Autumn Moon On Calm Lake"). Composed by Lui Man-sing. Gou Wu solo played by Yu Qiwei, with guzheng accompaniment.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Main article: Guangdong
Guangdong
music (genre) Guangdong
Guangdong
music (Jyutping: Gwong2 dung1 jam1 ok6; Traditional Chinese: 廣東音樂) is a style of traditional Chinese instrumental music from Gwongzau and nearby areas, though nowadays it is found also in much of China.[28] Guangdong
Guangdong
music compositions are primarily based on tunes derived from Cantonese
Cantonese
opera and Cantonese
Cantonese
folk songs, especially before the 1920s. Stylistically, it is said to be marked by being loud, lively, and upbeat. Some pieces have seen influences from Western music (jazz in particular): they use syncopation and triple time, and incorporate instruments such as saxophone and violin. Musical instruments[edit]

The Gou Wu is a Cantonese
Cantonese
musical instrument, and commonly used in Cantonese
Cantonese
opera and music.

The set of musical instruments used in Cantonese
Cantonese
opera styles and music has much overlapping with those used by other Han Chinese groups. There are, however, instruments distinctly Cantonese, with the gaohu (gou wu) being the most representative. Aside from this, qinqin (cheon kum) and erxian (yi yun) are other musical instruments associated with Cantonese
Cantonese
music. Pop[edit] Main article: Canto-pop Canto-pop, also called HK-pop (Jyutping: Jyut6 jyu5 lau4 hang4 kuk1; Traditional Chinese: 粵語流行曲), is a genre of Cantonese
Cantonese
music made primarily in Hong Kong. It is a pop subgenre, with influences from jazz, rock and roll, R&B, electronic music, dance music and others. It is almost invariably sung in Cantonese, boasting an international fanbase across Gwongdung, Gwongsai, Southeast Asia and (to a lesser extent) Korea
Korea
and Japan. Cinema[edit] Main article: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
cinema Hong Kong cinema
Hong Kong cinema
(Jyutping: Gong2 caan2 pin3; Traditional Chinese: 港產片) is the cinema of Hong Kong. For a long time, it had been one of the largest movie industries in the world and still has influence to this day. Being produced by Hong Kong, these movies have been primarily expressed using Cantonese, although films from certain period were in Mandarin due to geopolitical reasons. Their genres may vary, although comedy and martial arts movies are particularly prominent. This style of cinema has a cult following even in the West. Literature[edit] Poetry[edit] Main article: Cantonese
Cantonese
poetry The Cantonese
Cantonese
language, with its 1000-year-long history, has a rich heritage of poetry and literature. The people of the Lingnan
Lingnan
region have been composing poems since the 7th century. Zeung Gau-ling (Jyutping: Zoeng1 gau2 ling4; Traditional Chinese: 張九齡), one of the most prolific poets of the Tang Empire, was born and raised in what is now Siugwan, Gwongdung. He was said to be very intelligent since he was a child, and later became the empire's minister. 12 of his poems were listed as the 300 best poems from the Tang Empire. Since then, the Lingnan
Lingnan
region has produced a steady stream of poets of varying levels of prominence. They were even given a label called Lingnan
Lingnan
school of poetry (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 si1 paai3; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南詩派), renowned for preserving pronunciations from the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
language and composing poems with imagery unique to Lingnan.[29] Like most regions in the Sinosphere, most of Lingnan's medieval literature was composed in classical Chinese (grammatically), rather than the people's spoken language. However, poets in the region have started composing poems using grammatically vernacular Cantonese
Cantonese
since the 19th century, with the work of Cantonese
Cantonese
poet Liu Yan-tou (Jyutping: Liu6 jan1 tou4; Traditional Chinese: 廖恩燾) being the most prominent.[30] Many of his works require Cantonese
Cantonese
characters (characters specifically invented to write Cantonese) to write down. This particular style of poetry has accumulated a large number of work. Starting from early 21st century, Cantonese people
Cantonese people
have started compiling works of past Cantonese
Cantonese
poets in a literature called "All Cantonese
Cantonese
Poems" (Jyutping: Cyun4 jyut6 si1; Traditional Chinese: 全粵詩), which has spanned 30 volumes and yet to be finished.[31] Vernacular
Vernacular
Cantonese
Cantonese
literature[edit] Like the rest of East Asia (including Vietnam, Korea
Korea
and Japan), Lingnan
Lingnan
traditionally used classical Chinese for writing, rather than the peoples' spoken languages. Despite the attempt to create vernacular forms of writing in late 19th century, the Greater China area still tend to use standard written Chinese, a writing system based on Mandarin, not Cantonese
Cantonese
(i.e., the native language of the Lingnan
Lingnan
region), in writing. Even in the cosmopolitan Hong Kong, the vast majority of the people's works of literature have been written in standard written Chinese. However, starting from 21st century, Hong Kong, as a cultural center in the region, has developed a complete writing system for Cantonese.[32] Some writers in the city now advocate composing literature in written Cantonese.[33] Food culture[edit] The Lingnan
Lingnan
region has a special geographical environment different from those of other Han Chinese
Han Chinese
regions. With its subtropical temperature and high humidity, it has a tendency to have good harvests whether in farming or fishing. As a result, cuisine in Lingnan
Lingnan
could use many different food materials. The book "New Comments on Gwongdung" (廣東新語), written by Wat Dai-gwan, said: 天下所有食貨,粵東幾盡有之,粵東所有之食貨,天下未必盡也。(Classical Chinese: Every ingredient that the world has, Gwongdung
Gwongdung
has it; Every ingredient that Gwongdung
Gwongdung
has, the rest of the world may not have it). Today, the cuisine of the Lingnan
Lingnan
region has fully developed into a distinct school of cuisine on its own. Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine[edit] Main article: Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine (Jyutping: Gwong2 dung1 coi3; Traditional Chinese: 廣東菜) is the style of cuisine unique to the Cantonese
Cantonese
people. Gwongzau, the cultural capital of the region, has long been a trading port. This resulted in many imported ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine. Besides pork, beef and chicken, Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine uses nearly every edible meat, including offal, chicken feet, duck's tongue, snakes, and snails. However, lamb and goat are rare. There is also a heavy use of seafood, due to proximity to the sea. This style of cuisine uses many cooking methods, with steaming and stir-frying being the most popular, largely due to relative convenience. Traditionally, Cantonese
Cantonese
cooks prefer their dishes to have well-balanced flavor and not be greasy. Spices are used in modest amounts at best to preserve the flavors of the primary ingredients, which in turn are expected to be at the peak of their freshness and quality. Cantonese
Cantonese
cooking tends not to use fresh herbs, contrary to Sichuan, European, Thai and Vietnamese cuisines, with garlic chives and coriander leaves being the notable exceptions. Lastly, due to the hot and humid weather of Lingnan
Lingnan
and the traditional beliefs that soups can "remove hotness" (Jyutping: Cing1 jit6 hei3; Traditional Chinese: 清熱氣), Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine tends to have liberal use of soups. Lou fo tong[edit] Main article: Lou fo tong Lou fo tong (Jyutping: Lou5 fo2 tong1; Traditional Chinese: 老火湯, literally "old fire soup") is a cuisine among common people in Lingnan. It refers to a set of clear broth made by simmering meat and other ingredients over a low heat for several hours. These ingredients may include meats, vegetables, seafood, fruits, and medicinal herbs. It originated in late 17th century to early 18th century. At that time, Gwongdung
Gwongdung
had difficulty extracting coals, which resulted in Cantonese people
Cantonese people
having to rely on firewood for fuels. This caused them to avoid using large fire (which cooking techniques such as stir-frying require) and instead use low heat to simmer their foods - resulting in lou fo tong. Nowadays, lou fo tong has been a fully developed style of soups and become an integral part of Cantonese cuisine. Dishes in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine[edit]

Fried bread (油炸鬼), shared by most Han Chinese
Han Chinese
groups, is common in breakfast.

Za leung (炸兩), another popular breakfast dish, is distinctly Cantonese.

Congee with lean pork and century egg (皮蛋瘦肉粥) is also a breakfast staple.

BBQ pork (叉燒) is a popular delicacy, with many variants in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine.

Deep-fried chicken
Deep-fried chicken
with sweet and sour sauce.

Beef chow fun
Beef chow fun
(牛肉炒飯) is a staple in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine.

White cut chicken
White cut chicken
(白切雞), one of the finest dishes in Cantonese cuisine.

Dace fish balls (鯪魚球) is popular in Hong Kong.

Roasted pigeons (燒乳鴿).

Pig Lung and Almond Soup (杏汁豬肺湯) is a common lou fo tong.

Tea culture[edit]

Yum cha
Yum cha
hour in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
City Hall.

Main article: Yum cha Yum cha
Yum cha
(Jyutping: Jam2 caa4; Traditional Chinese: 飲茶, literally "to drink tea") is a subculture within Cantonese
Cantonese
food culture. While it can be found in some other Han Chinese
Han Chinese
groups, it is far more prevalent among Cantonese
Cantonese
people, and also overseas Chinese, historically most of whom have been of Cantonese
Cantonese
ancestry. It has a specific set of terminologies among Cantonese. For instance, "to invite someone to go yum cha" is basically a way of expressing friendship. Traditionally, Cantonese
Cantonese
could go yum cha whether in the morning, afternoon, or evening. Morning tea is typically dominated by the elderly, although many younger people often accompany their grandparents for morning tea as a way of showing respect and affection. Cantonese
Cantonese
teahouses also have a set of food specifically designed for morning tea. Afternoon tea is similar in most aspects, except it is more common for entire families to go yum cha at this hour. Evening tea tends to attract large gatherings - and the foods ordered in such hours also tend to be more sophisticated. Regardless of hours, yum cha starts with the diners ordering a specific set of teas they would like to drink. After that, the waiters would bring the teas, which the diners will be drinking while enjoying the foods and engaging in all sorts of social interactions. Even after they have finished the foods, the diners still tend to stay for half an hour or so chatting. Dim sum[edit] Main article: Dim sum Dim sum
Dim sum
(Jyutping: Dim2 sam1; Traditional Chinese: 點心, literally "to touch the heart") is a characteristic of Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine, usually but not only eaten during yum cha. They are a set of small bite-sized portions of food served in small steam baskets or on small plates. In Cantonese
Cantonese
teahouses, carts with dim sum will be moving around the restaurant for the diners to order from without having to leave their seats. In Cantonese
Cantonese
traditions, the diners will often order dim sum at will while chatting and enjoying the endless serving of teas. In major cities in Lingnan, such as Gwongzau and Hong Kong, culinary schools usually offer courses specifically to train the preparation of dim sum. Leung cha[edit]

A herb tea shop in Stanley Street, Hong Kong.

Main article: Leung cha Leung cha
Leung cha
(Jyutping: Leong4 caa4; Traditional Chinese: 涼茶, literally "cool tea") is a kind of infusion made from traditional medicinal herbs, invented in Gwongzau and, due to the efforts of the governments of Gwongdung, Hong Kong, and Macau, now considered an intangible cultural heritage by the Chinese government. They are made from boiling medicinal herbs and then cooling them (thus the name "cool tea") before drinking. There are many types of such herb teas, depending on the herbs used. They are particularly popular in the Lingnan
Lingnan
region due to the region's hot, subtropical climate and the traditional belief that such teas could "remove hotness". In major cities such as Gwongzau and Hong Kong, "cool tea shops" specialized in selling herb teas are common sights. Tong sui[edit] Main article: Tong sui Tong sui
Tong sui
(Jyutping: Tong4 seoi2; Traditional Chinese: 糖水, literally "sugar water") is a characteristic dessert of Cantonese cuisine. It is a set of sweet, warm soups or custards served as dessert at the end of a meal in Cantonese
Cantonese
traditions. It is also common for Cantonese people
Cantonese people
to leave home to get some tong sui with a group of friends or family late in the evening, an activity they call "siu yeh" (Jyutping: Siu1 je6; Traditional Chinese: 消夜, literally to "kill the night"). Choices of types of tong sui vary depending on the season: hot black sesame soup, for instance, tends to be favored in winter. Brewery[edit] Lingnan
Lingnan
is also known for producing some notable liquors,[34] mostly of the rice wine variety. The brewery culture of Lingnan
Lingnan
can be traced all the way back to the kingdom of Nanyue, who apparently possessed containers of liquors. In late 11th century, Sou Sik (Jyutping: Sou1 sik1; Traditional Chinese: 蘇軾), one of the prominent poets and then minister of the Song Empire, got demoted and reassigned to Lingnan. Also well known for his love for cuisine, Sou Sik wrote a book on brewery not long after his reassignment to Lingnan, called "Sou Sik's Words on Liquors" (Jyutping: Dung1 bo1 zau2 ging1; Traditional Chinese: 東坡酒經), which became Lingnan's first book on brewery. Nowadays, rice wines produced in Lingnan
Lingnan
are sold across China and other Asian countries, with Yuk Bing Siu (Jyutping: Juk6 bing1 siu1; Traditional Chinese: 玉冰燒, literally "Jade, ice, and burn"), one of the "Ten Great Liquors of Gwongdung", being particularly renowned. Fruits[edit] "The Four Great Fruits of Lingnan" (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 sei3 daai6 ming4 gwo2; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南四大名果)[35] are four fruits locally produced in Lingnan
Lingnan
and frequently used in Cantonese cuisine and desserts. They are lychee, banana, pineapple, and papaya. Gallery[edit]

Cantonese
Cantonese
often run seafood restaurants by the sea, using fish tanks such as those pictured to keep the seafood. It is a common sight in Lingnan.

Cantonese
Cantonese
also like siu lap (Jyutping: Siu1 laap6; Traditional Chinese: 燒臘, literally "roasted delicacies").

Dried eggs are commonly used in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine.

Bean curd tong sui. (dau fu fa 豆腐花)

Cantonese-style hotpots typically involves much seafood. The one pictured, for instance, includes solenidae, crabs, prawns and fishballs.

Claypot rice
Claypot rice
is also a delicacy in Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine.

Bird's nest soups are popularly believed to be beneficial for health.

Cantonese
Cantonese
also have their own style of mooncake.

Martial arts[edit]

Butterfly sword
Butterfly sword
is a popular weapon among practitioners of Cantonese kung fu schools.[36]

Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
martial arts Cantonese people
Cantonese people
also have their own schools of kung fu.[37] Originally disorganized, the fighting techniques of Cantonese
Cantonese
people were grouped into different schools between 18th to 19th century. At that time, due to ineptitude of the Qing Empire's government, pirates and bandits were rampant in the empire's fringe regions such as Lingnan. This resulted in Cantonese
Cantonese
starting to want to protect themselves, and thus the proliferation of martial arts learning. It was when the Cantonese people
Cantonese people
organized their fighting techniques into schools, forming the martial arts schools seen among Cantonese today.[38] Martial arts folk heroes from that period, such as Wong Fei-hung, are now popular topics of Cantonese
Cantonese
films. Overall, Cantonese
Cantonese
martial arts are known for emphasis on striking in various different ways using punches while remaining a steady lower body posture. They often shout battle cries (for the purpose of unnerving the opponents), rarely jump, kick or do any elaborated large movements - a very pragmatic style focused on striking.[39] Kung fu schools invented and primarily practiced by Cantonese people
Cantonese people
include, but are not limited to: Gwongdung
Gwongdung
schools[edit]

Hung Ga Choy gar Mok Gar Wing Chun Choy Li Fut Chow Gar

Philosophy[edit]

The portrait of Chan Bak-sa ("Chen Baisha" in Mandarin)

Main article: Lingnan
Lingnan
Confucianism Lingnan
Lingnan
also has her own schools of Confucianism. Since 12th century, there have been a steady stream of Cantonese
Cantonese
Neo-Confucian thinkers, resulting in several schools of thoughts. Lingnan
Lingnan
scholarly school[edit] Lingnan
Lingnan
scholarly school (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 hok6 paai3; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南學派) is the most prominent of schools of Neo-Confucian thoughts in Lingnan. It was started by a group of Cantonese
Cantonese
Confucian scholars in 15th century, led by Chan Bak-sa.[40] Chan's writings have now been compiled in a document titled "Chan Bak-sa's Collection" (Jyutping: Can4 hin3 zoeng1 zaap6; Traditional Chinese: 陳獻章集).[41] In this series of writings, Chan expressed his opinions of Confucius's thoughts and reinterpreted them through the lens of Mahayana Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
and Taoism. His style of thoughts has a strong theme of humanism and individualism. It also appeared to have been influenced by Western style of thoughts in its belief in more rational ways of thinking than older Confucian thoughts. Traditional celebrations[edit]

Traditionally, Cantonese
Cantonese
buy flowers to give as gifts and decorate their homes during Lunar New Year, resulting in the proliferation of flower fairs before and during Lunar New Year. Gwongzau, the cultural capital of Lingnan, has even been called "the flower city".

New York city
New York city
Chinatown
Chinatown
has many overseas Chinese of Cantonese ancestry. In this picture, they were doing their own style of lion dance.

Cantonese people
Cantonese people
also have a distinct set of traditional celebrations.[42] Many of these celebrations are shared by other Han Chinese groups and even other East Asians. The Ghost Festival, for instance, is observed by Japanese and many Southeast Asians as well. However, Cantonese
Cantonese
often have their own unique customs. For instance, New Year flower fairs are seen only among Cantonese
Cantonese
and certain overseas Chinese communities of Cantonese
Cantonese
ancestry. The Lingnan
Lingnan
region also has certain celebrations unique to her. Cantonese
Cantonese
New Year customs[edit]

New Year flowermarket Cantonese
Cantonese
lion dance Nin Lai

Han Chinese
Han Chinese
celebrations[edit]

Lunar New Year First Full Moon Festival (also observed by Japanese, Koreans and Vietnamese) Buddha's Birthday Qingming Festival Dragon Boat Festival Birthday of Guanyin Ghost Festival
Ghost Festival
(also observed by Japanese, Koreans and Vietnamese) Mid-Autumn Festival
Mid-Autumn Festival
(also observed by Vietnamese) Double Ninth Festival

Cantonese-specific celebrations[edit]

Gwongdung
Gwongdung
Festival of Joy (Jyutping: Gwong2 dung1 fun1 lok6 zit3; Traditional Chinese: 廣東歡樂節); Cantonese
Cantonese
Temple Fair (Jyutping: Gwong2 fu2 miu2 wui6; Traditional Chinese: 廣府廟會); Futsan Autumn (Jyutping: Fat2 saan1 cau1 sik6; Traditional Chinese: 佛山秋色); Self-selling Festival (Jyutping: Maai6 san1 zit3; Traditional Chinese: 賣身節); Canton Lotus Festival (Jyutping: Joeng4 sing5 ho4 faa1 zit3; Traditional Chinese: 羊城荷花節); Kite
Kite
Festival (Jyutping: Fung1 zang1 zit3; Traditional Chinese: 風箏節); Flying Colors Parade (Jyutping: Piu1 sik1 ceon4 jau4; Traditional Chinese: 飄色巡遊);

Birthdays of local deities[edit]

Birthday of Hung Shing Birthday of Mazu Birthday of Yun-mou Birthday of Tam Kung Birthday of Lady Sin

Religions[edit] Traditionally, the Lingnan
Lingnan
region is dominated by two religions - Mahayana Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
and Taoism. Mahayana Buddhism[edit] Compared to worshiping Confucius, Cantonese
Cantonese
are traditionally more inclined towards worshiping Buddha
Buddha
or Bodhisattva. In particular, they are inclined towards the Mahayana branch of Buddhism, which is shared by most Han Chinese
Han Chinese
groups. Mahayana Buddhist temples are a common sight in Lingnan, and Buddhist celebrations such as Buddha's Birthday and the Birthday of Guanyin
Guanyin
are, traditionally, large events in the region. The Wan-mun sect of Mahayana Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
originated in Lingnan
Lingnan
and once spread across much of China during the Northern Song
Northern Song
Dynasty (10th to 12th century).[43] Taoism[edit] All Han Chinese
Han Chinese
groups traditionally adhere to some forms of Taoism, and Cantonese
Cantonese
are no exception. Cantonese
Cantonese
have a distinct set of Taoist deities. Cantonese
Cantonese
are, traditionally, worshipers of Wong Tai Sin, a Taoist god of healing. They are also strongly inclined to worship sea deities such as Hung Shing
Hung Shing
and Mazu
Mazu
- reflecting the Cantonese
Cantonese
tradition of doing trades overseas. Culture of distance from Confucius[edit] It has been noted that Cantonese culture
Cantonese culture
is traditionally marked by a "culture of distance from Confucius" (Jyutping: Jyun5 jyu4 man4 faa3; Traditional Chinese: 遠儒文化, literally "culture of distance from Confucius"),[44] which may be related to Lingnan
Lingnan
historically being a fringe region of the Chinese Empire and influence from Tang dynasty (who placed greater emphasis on Buddhism than Confucianism): While Confucian philosophy still has its influence on Cantonese
Cantonese
culture, Confucius
Confucius
Temples are much harder to find in Lingnan
Lingnan
than Buddhist or Taoist ones. Others[edit] Cantonese
Cantonese
have a long tradition of doing commerce with the outside world, including with Western Europeans starting from 15th century, which resulted in Christianity
Christianity
(mostly the Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant variants) gaining a foothold in the region. Earlier than that, Cantonese
Cantonese
also did trade with Arabs and Persians, thus the presence of Islam
Islam
in Lingnan. Commercial tradition[edit] Main article: Cantonese
Cantonese
merchants Cantonese
Cantonese
merchants (Jyutping: Jyut6 soeng1; Traditional Chinese: 粵商) are merchants of Cantonese
Cantonese
origins. In the past two thousands years, Lingnan
Lingnan
(especially the area around Gwongzau) has spent much of the time being the Chinese Empire's main port, resulting in a strong commercial tradition, formation of renowned Cantonese
Cantonese
trade organizations such as the Canton Factories, and even Cantonese developing their own business culture:[45] Cantonese
Cantonese
merchants are known for being pragmatic, preference for actual profits over fame, and avoidance of political matters and display of wealth. Nowadays, Cantonese people
Cantonese people
still inherit this commercial culture. Major Lingnan cities such as Gwongzau, Futsan, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
are regional (if not international) commercial centers. Hong Kong, for instance, scored 748 in 2016's Global Financial Centres Index, ranking fourth in the world and just below London
London
and New York city.[46] Cultural symbols[edit]

Symbols of Lingnan
Lingnan
culture

Red cotton flowers 

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid 

Gwongzau's sampan-filled harbor 

Red cotton flower[edit] Main article: Bombax ceiba Red cotton flower (Jyutping: Muk6 min4 faa1; Traditional Chinese: 木棉花, literally "wood cotton flower") is a species of flower common in Lingnan, and considered to symbolize Cantonese
Cantonese
culture. It was said that in 200 BCE, Ziu To (Jyutping: Ziu6 to4; Traditional Chinese: 趙陀), the king of the Nanyue
Nanyue
kingdom, once gave a red cotton tree to the Han Empire to express respect - meaning that at that time, the people of Lingnan
Lingnan
already used red cotton flowers to represent their homeland. Nowadays, red cotton flower frequently appears in the poems and songs composed by Cantonese
Cantonese
people. The folk song Nam Hoi Chiu, for instance, mentioned "紅綿" (Traditional Chinese for "red cotton flower") to represent Cantonese
Cantonese
people. Red cotton flower is currently the official symbol of Gwongzau, the cultural center of Lingnan, and also of Gwongdung
Gwongdung
as a whole. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid[edit] Main article: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid The Hong Kong orchid
Hong Kong orchid
is arguably the symbol of Hong Kong. It was discovered in 1880, and identified as a new species in 1908. It became Hong Kong's official symbol in 1965 and appears on the flag of Hong Kong after the 1997 handover. Since Hong Kong
Hong Kong
produced a large number of films, pop songs and soap operas to promote Cantonese
Cantonese
culture, Hong Kong, and by extension the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid, is widely held to be the symbol of modern Cantonese
Cantonese
culture. Nam Hoi Chiu, for instance, also mentioned "紫荊" (Traditional Chinese for " Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid") to symbolize Cantonese
Cantonese
people. The Golden Bauhinia Square
Golden Bauhinia Square
has a giant statue of the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
orchid and is one of the major landmarks of Hong Kong. Sampan[edit] Main article: Sampan Sampan
Sampan
is a type of flat-bottom boat frequently seen in the shores of South China Sea, used by Cantonese, Hoklo, Vietnamese, and many other Southeast Asian ethnic groups. They are usually three to four meters in length and have small shelters on broad. This makes it possible for fishermen to live on their own sampans. In major Cantonese
Cantonese
cities such as Gwongzau and Hong Kong, it is a common sight to see crowds of sampans docked at the harbor.[47] Thus, the image of sampan-filled harbor is strongly associated with Lingnan. Sampans also regularly show up in films and songs made by Cantonese. See also[edit]

According to legend, the area around nowadays' Gwongzau was blessed by gods to have rich harvest. The gods were said to have left five goats behind when they went back to heaven. Now Gwongzau has the nickname "City of the Goats".

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
portal China portal Culture portal

Index of Cantonese-related articles The Legend of Five Goats, a legend about how Gwongzau, the cultural capital of Cantonese, originated. Cantonese
Cantonese
folktales Eight Sights of Gwongzau Cantonese CCTV Nanhai Studio

Cantonese
Cantonese
customs[edit]

Cantonese
Cantonese
wedding Cantonese
Cantonese
pre-wedding customs Villain hitting Bone collecting

Related cultures[edit]

Chinese culture

Lingnan
Lingnan
culture:

Culture of Hong Kong Culture of Macau

Taishanese culture Hakka culture Teochew culture Hokkien culture Culture of Jiangxi Culture of Hunan Bashu culture Zhuang culture

Vietnamese culture Culture of Singapore Malaysian Chinese culture

Others[edit]

Lingnan Liangguang
Liangguang
("Leunggwong" in Cantonese), the collective term for Gwongdung
Gwongdung
and Gwongsai. Lingnan
Lingnan
University Baiyue Nanyue Stone dogs in the Leizhou Peninsula

References[edit]

^ 越人底色+移民——广府源流 ^ Wee, J. T., Ha, T. C., Loong, S. L., & Qian, C. N. (2010). Is nasopharyngeal cancer really a" Cantonese
Cantonese
cancer"?. Chinese journal of cancer, 29(5), 517-526. ^ 廣東唐人洋雜碎 ^ 嶺南文化的特點:集歷史與地理的特色 ^ Chen, M., & Newman, J. (1984). From Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
to Modern Cantonese
Cantonese
(Part 1). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 12(1), 148-97. ^ Chen, M. Y., & Newman, J. (1984). From Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
to Modern Cantonese
Cantonese
(Part 2). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 334-388. ^ Chen, M. Y., & Newman, J. (1985). From Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
to Modern Cantonese
Cantonese
(Part 3). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 122-170. ^ 〈粵語中的百越語成分問題〉 李敬忠著 刋載於《學術論壇(雙月刊)》 1991年第5期 第65-72頁 ISSN 1004-4434.0.1991-05-012 ^ 為什麼有時候普通話讀詩詞不押韻,而用粵語讀卻很有味道? ^ 淺談嶺南民居的嶺南建築特色 ^ Hao, X. I. E. (2010). Possibility of Lingnan
Lingnan
Architectural Design [J]. Interior Design, 1, 014. ^ 岭南园林的营造手法与艺术特色 ^ 張民輝:「以骨代牙」 廣州牙雕的輝煌與傳承 ^ 琢玉人用心雕刻精緻孤品 ^ 非遺|廣州玉雕,一種讓玉石煥彩生輝技藝 ^ 西汉南越王墓玉器(图) ^ The Fading Folk Memory ------ Cantonese
Cantonese
Embroidery, Cantonese
Cantonese
Enamel & Guangdong
Guangdong
Ivory
Ivory
Carving ^ 「墨舞廣州」好評如潮 嶺南詩書風骨浪漫 ^ Chan, P., Yi, C. Y., Yan, K. Y., & Man, L. S. CTL 4514 Project (2014-15) Preservation and promotion of Hong Kong's Canton-decorated porcelain and Evaluation of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
policies in safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage. ^ 廣式家具與嶺南文化 ^ 走在時尚潮流前端的家具——廣式家具 ^ Croizier, R. C. (1988). Art and Revolution in Modern China: the Lingnan
Lingnan
(Cantonese) school of painting, 1906-1951 (Vol. 29). Univ of California Press. ^ Hom, M. K. (1992). Songs of Gold Mountain: Cantonese
Cantonese
Rhymes from San Francisco Chinatown. Univ of California Press. ^ 嶺南民歌知多少? ^ Yung, B. (1989). Cantonese
Cantonese
opera: performance as creative process. Cambridge University Press. ^ 細數廣東最出名的10大講古佬 ^ 谭达先, 徐佩筠 (1980). 廣東民間故事. 香港世界出版社. ^ Leisure and Cultural Service Department (Hong Kong) - Guangdong music series ^ 嶺南詩派略論 ^ 粵典文庫-嬉笑集 ^ 《全粤诗》充分证明广东有文化 ^ Snow, D. (2004). Cantonese
Cantonese
as written language: The growth of a written Chinese vernacular (Vol. 1). Hong Kong
Hong Kong
University Press. ^ 啟蒙與革命 - 鄭貫公、黃世仲等人的粵語寫作 ^ 廣東最大酒文化博物館揭牌 豐富嶺南酒文化內涵 ^ 嶺南四大名果—《荔枝》 ^ 武舘嵗月 洪拳的起源 ^ Sensei/Renshi Nathan Chlumsky (2015). Inside Kungfu: Chinese Martial Arts Encyclopedia. Lulu.com. ISBN 13-2911-942-8.  ^ 武俠小說《武壇二虎 》自序裡的廣東十虎 ^ 岭南南派武术技术特征的文化研究 ^ Xia, L. I. (2009). Review of Research on Chen Bai-sha [J]. Journal of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
City Polytechnic, 4, 008. ^ 陳獻章. (1987). 陳獻章集 (Vol. 1). 中華書局. ^ 岭南文化(中国岭南地区文化) ^ 洗宗. (1989). 《 雲門宗》 簡介. 嶺南文史. ^ 刘益. (1997). 岭南文化的特点及其形成的地理因素. 人文地理, 1, 46. ^ Cheng, Y. H., & Huang, P. Y. (2008). A Review of the Research on the Culture of Cantonese
Cantonese
Merchants [J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Business Studies, 3, 013. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March 2016.  ^ Behrendt, S. (2010). Guangzhou. Northwest Review, 48(2), 80-82.

v t e

Guangdong
Guangdong
topics

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

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Sanyi
Sanyi
(Sam Yup) Sze Yup
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Pearl River (China) East River West River Nanling Mountains Pratas Islands Shamian Island

Education

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Guangzhou
Education Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Education Shenzhen
Shenzhen
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Guangzhou
University

Culture

Lingnan
Lingnan
culture Cantonese
Cantonese
people Cantonese
Cantonese
language Taishanese language Hailufeng dialect Lingnan
Lingnan
architecture Tong lau Lingnan
Lingnan
garden Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery Teochew woodcarving Lingnan
Lingnan
penjing Canton porcelain Lingnan
Lingnan
school of painting Music Cantonese
Cantonese
opera Nam Hoi Chiu Nam yum Cantonese
Cantonese
music Gou Wu Cantonese
Cantonese
poetry Yum cha Hung Ga Wing Chun Lingnan
Lingnan
Confucianism Flowermarket Cantonese
Cantonese
lion dance Wong Tai Sin Hung Shing Cantonese
Cantonese
merchants Red cotton flower Cantonese
Cantonese
folktales The Legend of Five Goats Villain hitting Hakka people Teochew people

Cuisine

Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine White boiled shrimp Chinese steamed eggs Beef chow fun Chow mein Char siu Roasted suckling pig Bird's nest soup Seafood birdsnest Cantonese
Cantonese
fried rice Dim sum Leung cha Tong sui Hakka cuisine Teochew cuisine

Visitor attractions

Danxia Mountain Seven Star Crags Dinghu Mountain Xinfengjiang Reservoir Zhongshan Park Guangdong
Guangdong
Provincial Museum Humen Pearl River Bridge Zhenhai Tower Guangji Bridge Canton Tower Chime-Long Paradise New South China Mall Kaiping
Kaiping
Diaolou Nanhua Temple Happy Valley Shenzhen Chung Ying Street Window of the World Minsk World Baiyun Mountain Foshan Ancestral Temple Dapeng Fortress Nanfeng Kiln Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall Sacred Heart Cathedral Chen Clan Ancestral Hall Huaisheng Mosque Temple of the Six Banyan Trees Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King Temple of Madam Xian

Category Commons

v t e

Guangxi
Guangxi
topics

Nanning
Nanning
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Nan Mountains Gulf of Tonkin Kitten Mountain

Education

Guangxi
Guangxi
University Guangxi
Guangxi
Normal University Guangxi
Guangxi
Medical University

Culture

Lingnan
Lingnan
culture Cantonese
Cantonese
people Zhuang customs and culture Zhuang people Varieties of Chinese
Varieties of Chinese
(Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
and Pinghua) Zhuang languages Mienic languages

Cuisine

Luosifen Tuotuorou

Visitor attractions

Longsheng Rice Terrace Li River Jingjiang Princes' City Yangshuo County Ban Gioc–Detian Falls Weizhou Island

Categ

.