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Lahore
Lahore
(Urdu: لاہور‎, Punjabi: لہور; /ləˈhɔːr/) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.[3] The city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistan's Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore
Lahore
is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2014,[7][8] Lahore
Lahore
is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region,[9][10][11] and is one of Pakistan's most socially liberal,[12] progressive,[13] and cosmopolitan cities.[14] Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
by the medieval era. Lahore
Lahore
reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of Persian Emperor Nader Shah
Nader Shah
in 1739, and fell into a period of decay while being contested between different powers. Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in the early 19th century, and regained much of its lost grandeur.[15] Lahore
Lahore
was then annexed to the British Empire, and made capital of British Punjab.[16] Lahore
Lahore
was central to the independence movements of both India
India
and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore
Lahore
experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence.[17] Following independence in 1947, Lahore
Lahore
was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province, and is now the largest Punjabi city in the world.[18] Lahore
Lahore
exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan.[10] Lahore
Lahore
is a major centre for Pakistan's publishing industry, and remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is home to the annual Lahore
Lahore
Literary Festival, considered to be one of South Asia's premier cultural events.[19] The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan,[20] with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city.[21] Lahore
Lahore
is also home to Pakistan's film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali
Qawwali
music.[22] The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry,[22][23] with major attractions including the famed Walled City, numerous Sikh shrines, and the Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques. Lahore
Lahore
is also home to the Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[23]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early 2.2 Medieval

2.2.1 Ghaznavid 2.2.2 Mamluk 2.2.3 Tughluq 2.2.4 Late Sultanates

2.3 Mughal

2.3.1 Early Mughal 2.3.2 Akbar 2.3.3 Jahangir 2.3.4 Shah Jahan 2.3.5 Aurangzeb 2.3.6 Late Mughal

2.4 Durrani and Maratha 2.5 Sikh

2.5.1 Early 2.5.2 Ranjit Singh 2.5.3 Late

2.6 British 2.7 Partition 2.8 Modern

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Religion

5 Cityscape

5.1 Urban form 5.2 Architecture

5.2.1 Sikh
Sikh
period 5.2.2 British period

5.3 Parks and gardens

6 Economy 7 Transport

7.1 Public transportation 7.2 Intercity transportation 7.3 Airports 7.4 Roads

8 Government

8.1 Metropolitan Corporation

8.1.1 Mayor

8.2 Administrative subdivisions 8.3 Politics

9 Festivals 10 Tourism

10.1 Religious sites 10.2 Museums 10.3 Tombs 10.4 Shrines 10.5 Samadhis 10.6 Havelis 10.7 Other landmarks 10.8 Historic neighbourhoods

11 Education 12 Fashion 13 Sports 14 Twin towns and sister cities 15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

Etymology[edit] The origins of Lahore's name are unclear. Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim
Muslim
historians as Lōhar, Lōhār, and Rahwar.[24] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
referred to the city as Lohāwar in his 11th century work, Qanun,[24] while the poet Amir Khusrow, who lived during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, recorded the city's name as Lāhanūr.[25] Medieval Rajput
Rajput
sources recorded the city's name as Lavkot.[25] One theory suggests that Lahore’s name is a corruption of the word Ravāwar, as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from Sanskrit.[26] Ravāwar is the simplified pronunciation of the name Iravatyāwar - a name possibly derived from the Ravi River, known as the Iravati River in the Vedas.[26][27] Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar, meaning "blacksmith."[28] According to Hindu tradition,[29] Lahore's name derives from Lavpur or Lavapuri ("City of Lava"),[30] and is said to have been founded by Prince Lava,[31] the son of Sita
Sita
and Rama. The same account attributes the founding of nearby Kasur
Kasur
by his twin brother Prince Kusha,[32] Historic record shows, however, that Kasur
Kasur
was founded by Pashtun migrants in 1525.[33] History[edit] Main articles: History of Lahore
History of Lahore
and Timeline of Lahore Early[edit] Main article: Origins of Lahore No definitive records exist to elucidate Lahore's earliest history, and Lahore's ambiguous early history have given rise to various theories about its establishment and history. Hindu mythology, states that Keneksen, the founder of the mythological Suryavansha
Suryavansha
dynasty, is believed to have migrated out from the city.[34] Early records of Lahore
Lahore
are scant, but Alexander the Great's historians make no mention of any city near Lahore's location during his invasion in 326 BCE, suggesting the city had not been founded by the point, or was unimportant.[35] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated near the Chenab
Chenab
and Ravi River
Ravi River
which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city.[36] Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang
Xuanzang
gave a vivid description of a large and prosperous unnamed city when he visited the region in 630 CE that has been identified as Lahore.[37][38] The first document that mentions Lahore
Lahore
by name is the Hudud al-'Alam ("The Regions of the World"), written in 982 C.E.[39] in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards."[40][41] Few other references to Lahore
Lahore
remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
in the 11th century. Lahore
Lahore
appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under Anandapala of the Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
empire, who had moved the capital there from Waihind.[42] The capital would later be moved to Sialkot
Sialkot
following Ghaznavid incursions.[38] Medieval[edit] Main article: Early Muslim
Muslim
period in Lahore Ghaznavid[edit]

The Data Darbar
Data Darbar
shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
captured Lahore
Lahore
on an uncertain date, but under Ghaznavid rule, Lahore
Lahore
emerged effectively as the empire's second capital.[38] In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz
Malik Ayaz
to the Throne of Lahore
Lahore
- a governorship of the Ghaznavid Empire. The city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of Multan, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz
Malik Ayaz
in 1036.[43] With the support of Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi, Malik Ayaz
Malik Ayaz
rebuilt and repopulated the city which had been devastated after the Ghaznavid invasion. Ayaz erected city walls and a masonry fort built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one,[44] which had been demolished during the Ghaznavid invasion. A confederation of Hindu princes then unsuccessfully laid siege to Lahore
Lahore
in 1043-44 during Ayaz' rule.[38] The city became a cultural and academic centre, renowned for poetry under Malik Ayaz' reign.[45][46] Lahore
Lahore
was formally made the eastern capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1152,[15] under the reign of Khusrau Shah.[47] The city then became the sole capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1163 after the fall of Ghazni.[48] The entire city of Lahore
Lahore
during the medieval Ghaznavid era was probably located west of the modern Shah Alami, and north of the Bhatti Gate.[15] Mamluk[edit]

The tomb of Lahore's early 13th century governor, Qutbu l-Din Aibak, is located in the city's Anarkali
Anarkali
Bazaar.

In 1187, the Ghurids invaded Lahore,[38] ending Ghaznavid rule over Lahore. Lahore
Lahore
was made capital of the Mamluk Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate following the assassination of Muhammad of Ghor
Muhammad of Ghor
in 1206. Under the reign of Mamluk sultan Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Lahore
Lahore
attracted poets and scholars from as far away as Turkestan, Greater Khorasan, Persia, and Iraq. Lahore
Lahore
at this time had more poets writing in Persian than any city in Persia
Persia
or Khorasan.[49][50] Following the death of Aibak, Lahore
Lahore
came to be disputed among Ghurid officers. The city first came under control of the Governor of Multan, Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, before being briefly captured by the sultan of the Mamluks in Delhi, Iltutmish, in 1217.[38] In an alliance with local Khokhars in 1223, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
of the Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
of modern-day Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
captured Lahore
Lahore
after fleeing Genghis Khan's invasion of Khwarazm.[38] Jalal ad-Din's then fled from Lahore
Lahore
to capture the city of Uch Sharif
Uch Sharif
after Iltutmish's armies re-captured Lahore
Lahore
in 1228.[38] The threat of Mongol invasions and political instability in Lahore caused future Sultans to regard Delhi
Delhi
as a safer capital for medieval Islamic
Islamic
India,[51] though it had hitherto been considered a forward base, while Lahore
Lahore
had been widely considered to be the centre of Islamic
Islamic
culture in the subcontinent.[51] Lahore
Lahore
came under progressively weaker rule under Iltutmish's descendants in Delhi, to the point that governors in the city acted with great autonomy.[38] Under the rule of Kabir Khan Ayaz, Lahore
Lahore
was virtually independent from the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[38] Lahore
Lahore
was sacked and ruined by the Mongol army in 1241.[52] Lahore
Lahore
governor Malik Ikhtyaruddin Qaraqash fled the Mongols,[53] while the Mongols held the city for a few years under the rule of the Mongol chief Toghrul.[51] In 1266, Sultan Balban reconquered Lahore, but in 1287 under the Mongol ruler Temür Khan,[51] the Mongols again overran northern Punjab. Because of Mongol invasions, Lahore
Lahore
region had become a frontier, with its administrative centre shifted south to Dipalpur.[38] The Mongols again invaded northern Punjab in 1298, though their advance was eventually stopped by Ulugh Khan, brother of Sultan Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
of Delhi.[51] The Mongols again attacked Lahore in 1305.[54] Tughluq[edit]

Built in 1460, Neevin Mosque
Neevin Mosque
is one few remaining pre-Mughal structures in Lahore, and is notable for its unusual foundation below street-level.

The city briefly flourished again under the reign of Ghazi Malik of the Tughluq dynasty
Tughluq dynasty
between 1320 and 1325, though the city was again sacked in 1329, by Tarmashirin
Tarmashirin
of the Central Asian Chagatai Khanate, and then again by the Mongol chief Hülechü.[38] Khokhars seized Lahore
Lahore
in 1342,[55] but the city was retaken by Ghazi Malik's son, Muhammad bin Tughluq.[38] The weakened city then fell into obscurity, and was captured once more by the Khokhars in 1394.[43] By the time Timur
Timur
captured the city in 1398 from Shayka Khokhar, he did not loot it because it was no longer wealthy.[34] Late Sultanates[edit] Timur
Timur
gave control of the Lahore
Lahore
region to Khizr Khan, Governor of Multan, who later established the Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
in 1414 — the fourth dynasty of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[56] Lahore
Lahore
was briefly occupied by the Timurid Governor of Kabul in 1432-33.[51] Lahore
Lahore
began to be incurred upon yet again the Khokhar tribe, and so the city was granted to Bahlul Lodi
Bahlul Lodi
in 1441 by the Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
in Delhi, though Lodi would displace the Sayyids in 1451 by establishing himself upon the throne of Delhi.[38] Bahlul Lodi
Bahlul Lodi
installed his cousin, Tatar Khan, to be governor of the city, though Tatar Khan died in battle with Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
in 1485.[57] Governorship of Lahore
Lahore
was transferred by Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
to Umar Khan Sarwani, who quickly left management of this city to his son Said Khan Sarwani. Said Khan was removed from power in 1500 by Sikandar Lodi, and Lahore
Lahore
came under the governorship of Daulat Khan Lodi, son of Tatar Khan and former employer of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
- founder of the Sikh faith.[57] Mughal[edit] Main article: Mughal period in Lahore

Badshahi Mosque

Lahore
Lahore
Fort

Tomb of Jahangir

Shahi Hammam

The Begum Shahi Mosque
Begum Shahi Mosque
was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.

Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque
Wazir Khan Mosque
is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.[58]

Early Mughal[edit] Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, captured Lahore
Lahore
in 1524 after being invited to invade by Daulat Khan Lodi, the Lodi governor of Lahore.[38] The city became refuge to Humayun
Humayun
and his cousin Kamran Mirza when Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
rose in power on the Gangetic Plains, displacing Mughal power. Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
continued to rise in power, and seized Lahore
Lahore
in 1540, though Humayun
Humayun
reconquered Lahore
Lahore
in February 1555.[38] The establishment of Mughal rule eventually led to the most prosperous era of Lahore's history.[38] Lahore's prosperity and central position has yielded more Mughal-era monuments in Lahore than either Delhi
Delhi
or Agra.[59] By the time of rule of the Mughal empire's greatest emperors, a majority of Lahore's residents did not live within the walled city itself, but instead lived in suburbs that had spread outside of the city's walls.[15] Only 9 of the 36 urban quarters around Lahore, known as guzars, were located within the city's walls during the Akbar period.[15] During this period, Lahore
Lahore
was closely tied to smaller market towns known as qasbahs, such as Kasur, Eminabad, and Batala
Batala
in modern-day India, which in turn, linked to supply chains in villages surrounding each qasbah.[15] Akbar[edit] Beginning in 1584, Lahore
Lahore
became the Mughal capital when Akbar
Akbar
began re-fortifying the city's ruined citadel, laying the foundations for the revival of the Lahore
Lahore
Fort.[15] Akbar
Akbar
made Lahore
Lahore
one of his original twelve subah provinces,[15] and in 1585-86 relegated governorship of the city and subah to Bhagwant Das, brother of Mariam-uz-Zamani, who was commonly known as Jodhabhai.[60] Akbar
Akbar
also rebuilt the city's walls, and extended their perimeter east of the Shah Alami bazaar to encompass the sparsely populated Rarra Maidan.[15] The Akbari Mandi grain market was set up during this era, and continues to function until present-day.[15] Akbar
Akbar
also established the Dharampura neighbourhood in the early 1580s, which survives today.[61] The earliest of Lahore's many havelis date from the Akbari era.[15] Lahore's Mughal monuments were built under Akbar's reign of several emperors,[15] and Lahore
Lahore
reached its cultural zenith during this period, with dozens of mosques, tombs, shrines, and urban infrastructure developed during this period. Jahangir[edit] During the reign of Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
in the early 17th century, Lahore's bazaars were noted to be vibrant, frequented by foreigners, and stocked with a wide array of goods.[15] In 1606, Jehangir's rebel son Khusrau Mirza
Khusrau Mirza
laid siege to Lahore
Lahore
after obtaining the blessings of the Sikh
Sikh
Guru Arjan Dev.[62] Jehangir quickly defeated his son at Bhairowal, and the roots of Mughal- Sikh
Sikh
animosity grew.[62] Guru Arjan Dev was executed in Lahore
Lahore
in 1606 for his involvement in the rebellion.[63] Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
chose to be buried in Lahore, and his tomb was built in Lahore's Shahdara Bagh
Shahdara Bagh
suburb in 1637 by his wife Nur Jahan, whose tomb is also nearby. Shah Jahan[edit] Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, who reigned between 1628 and 1658, was born in Lahore
Lahore
in 1592. He renovated large portions of the Lahore
Lahore
Fort with luxurious white marble, and erected the iconic Naulakha Pavilion in 1633.[64] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
lavished Lahore
Lahore
with some of its most-celebrated and iconic monuments, such as the Shahi Hammam
Shahi Hammam
in 1635, and both the Shalimar Gardens and the extravagantly decorated Wazir Khan Mosque
Wazir Khan Mosque
in 1641. The population of pre-modern Lahore probably reached its zenith during his reign, with suburban districts home to perhaps 6 times as many compared to within the Walled City.[15] Aurangzeb[edit]

The iconic Alamgiri Gate
Alamgiri Gate
of the Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.

Shah Jahan's son, and last of the great Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb, further contributed to the development of Lahore. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
built the Alamgiri Bund embankment along the Ravi River
Ravi River
in 1662 in order to prevent its shifting course from threatening the city's walls.[15] The area near the embankment grew into a fashionable locality, with several pleasure gardens laid near the bund by Lahore's gentry.[15] The largest of Lahore's Mughal monuments was raised during his reign, the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
in 1673, as well as the iconic Alamgiri gate of the Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
in 1674.[65] Late Mughal[edit] Civil wars regarding succession to the Mughal throne following Aurangzeb's death in 1707 lead to weakening control over Lahore
Lahore
from Delhi, and a prolonged period of decline in Lahore.[66] Mughal preoccupation with the Marathas
Marathas
in the Deccan
Deccan
eventually resulted in Lahore
Lahore
being governed by a series of governors who pledged nominal allegiance to the ever weaker Mughal emperors of Delhi.[15] Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah I
died en route to Lahore
Lahore
as part of a campaign in 1711 to subdue Sikh
Sikh
rebels under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur.[38] His sons fought a battle outside Lahore
Lahore
in 1712 for succession to the Mughal crown, with Jahandar winning the throne.[38] Sikh
Sikh
rebels were defeated during the reign of Farrukhsiyar, when Abd as-Samad and Zakariyya Khan suppressed them.[38] Nader Shah's brief invasion of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in early 1739 wrested control away from Zakariyya Khan. Though Khan was able to win back control after the Persian armies had left,[38] Nader Shah's invasion shifted trade routes away from Lahore, and south towards Kandahar instead.[15] Indus ports near the Arabian Sea that served Lahore
Lahore
also silted up during this time, reducing the city's importance even further.[15] Struggles between Zakariyya Khan’s sons following his death in 1745 further weakened Muslim
Muslim
control over Lahore, thus leaving the city in a power vacuum, and vulnerable to marauders.[67] Durrani and Maratha[edit] Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire, captured Lahore
Lahore
in January 1748,[38] Following Durrani’s quick retreat, the Mughal crown entrusted Lahore
Lahore
to Mu’īn al-Mulk Mir Mannu.[38] Ahmad Shah Durrani again invaded in 1751, forcing Mir Mannu into signing a treaty that submitted Lahore
Lahore
to Afghan rule.[38] Delhi’s wazīr Ghazi Din Imad al-Mulk would seize Lahore
Lahore
in 1756, provoking Ahmad Shah Durrani to again invade in 1757, after which he placed the city under the rule of his son, Timur
Timur
Shah Durrani.[38] Durrani rule was briefly interrupted by the Maratha Empire's capture of Lahore
Lahore
in 1758 under Raghunathrao, who drove out the Afghans,[68] while a combined Sikh-Maratha defeated an Afghan assault in the 1759 Battle of Lahore.[69] Following a 1761 battle, Ahmad Shah Durrani defeated the Marathas
Marathas
and recaptured Lahore, though Sikh
Sikh
forces soon occupied the city after the Durrani quick withdrawal from the city.[38] The Durranis invaded two more times, while Sikhs
Sikhs
would re-occupy the city after each invasion.[38] Sikh[edit] Main article: Sikh
Sikh
period in Lahore

Samadhi of Ranjit Singh

Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Dera Sahib

Haveli
Haveli
of Nau Nihal Singh

Hazuri Bagh

Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das

The Tomb of Asif Khan
Tomb of Asif Khan
was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh
Sikh
period.[66][70]

Early[edit] Expanding Sikh
Sikh
Misls secured control over Lahore
Lahore
in 1767, when the Bhangi Misl
Misl
state captured the city.[37] In 1780, The city was divided among three rulers, Gujjar Singh, Lahna Singh, and Sobha Singh, while instability resulting from this arrangement allowed nearby Amritsar
Amritsar
to establish itself as the area's primary commercial centre.[15] Ahmad Shah Durrani’s grandson, Zaman Shah
Zaman Shah
invaded Lahore
Lahore
in 1796, and again in 1798-9.[38] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
negotiated with the Afghans for the post of subadar following the second invasion.[38] By the end of the 18th century, the city's population drastically declined, with its remaining resident's living within the city walls, while the extramural suburbs lay abandoned, forcing travelers to pass through abandoned and ruined suburbs for a few miles before reaching the city’s gates.[15] Ranjit Singh[edit]

The marble Hazuri Bagh
Hazuri Bagh
Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
diamond.[71]

Following Zaman Shah’s 1799 invasion of Punjab, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
of nearby Gujranwala
Gujranwala
to consolidate his position in the aftermath of the invasion. Singh was able to seize control of the region after a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl
Misl
chiefs who had seized Lahore
Lahore
in 1780.[38][72] His army marched to Anarkali, where the gatekeeper of the Lohari Gate, Mukham Din Chaudhry, opened the gates allowing Ranjit Singh's army to enter Lahore.[66] After capturing the Lahore, the Sikh army immediately began plundering the Muslim
Muslim
areas of the city until their actions were reined in by Ranjit Singh.[73] Ranjit Singh's rule restored much of Lahore's lost grandeur.[15] He established a mint in the city in 1800,[66] and moved into the Mughal palace at the Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
and re-purposed it for his own use in governing the Sikh
Sikh
Empire.[74] In 1801, he established the Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
to mark the site where Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
was born in 1534. Lahore
Lahore
became the empire's administrative capital, though nearby Amritsar
Amritsar
had been established as the empire's commercial and spiritual capital by 1802.[15] By 1812 Singh had mostly refurbished the city's defences by adding a second circuit of outer walls surrounding Akbar's original walls, with the two separated by a moat. Singh also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying gardens at Shalimar.[citation needed] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
built the Hazuri Bagh
Hazuri Bagh
Baradari in 1818 to celebrate his capture of the Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
diamond from Shuja Shah Durrani
Shuja Shah Durrani
in 1813.[71] He also erected the Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
to mark the site of Guru Arjan Dev's death in 1606. The Sikh
Sikh
royal court also endowed religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh
Sikh
gurdwaras, Hindu temples, and havelis.[75][76] While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's rule saw the re-establishment of Lahore's glory - though its Mughal monuments suffered during the Sikh
Sikh
period. Singh's armies plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
during his reign.[77] Monuments plundered for decorative materials include the Tomb of Asif Khan, the Tomb of Nur Jahan, and the Shalimar Gardens.[78][66] Ranjit Singh's army also desecrated the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
by converting it into an ammunition depot and a stable for horses.[79] The Sunehri Mosque in the Walled City of Lahore
Walled City of Lahore
was also converted to a gurdwara,[80] while the Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum
Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum
was repurposed into a gunpowder factory.[81] Late[edit] The Sikh
Sikh
royal court, or the Lahore
Lahore
Durbar, underwent a quick succession of rulers after the death of Ranjit Singh, as his son Kharak Singh
Kharak Singh
quickly died, and the next successor Nau Nihal Singh
Nau Nihal Singh
died in an accident at Lahore's Hazuri Bagh
Hazuri Bagh
on the day of his father's death on 6 November 1840.[66] Maharaja Sher Singh
Sher Singh
was selected as Maharajah in 1840, though his claim to the throne was quickly challenged by Chand Kaur, widow of Kharak Singh
Kharak Singh
and mother of Nau Nihal Singh, who quickly seized the throne.[66] Sher Singh
Sher Singh
raised an army that attacked Lahore
Lahore
on 14 January 1841, and mounted weaponry on the minarets of the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
in order to target Chand Kaur's forces in the Lahore
Lahore
Fort, destroying the fort's historic Diwan-e-Aam.[79] Kaur quickly ceded the throne, but Sher Sing was then assassinated in 1843 in Lahore's Chah Miran neighbourhood along with his Wazir Dhiyan Singh.[71] Dhyan Singh's son, Hira Singh, sought to avenge his fathers death by laying siege to Lahore, resulting in the capture of his father's murderer, Ajit Singh.[66] Duleep Singh
Duleep Singh
was then crowned Maharajah, with Hira Singh as his Wazir, but his power would be weakened by infighting among Sikh
Sikh
nobles.[66] After the conclusion of two Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
wars, the Sikh
Sikh
empire fell into disarray, resulting in the fall of the Lahore
Lahore
Durbar, and commencement of British rule.[66] British[edit]

University of the Punjab

Lahore
Lahore
Museum

Government College University (Lahore)
Government College University (Lahore)
was built in 1864

Lahore
Lahore
High Court

King Edward Medical University

Map of the Old City and environs.

The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890

The British East India
India
Company seized control of Lahore
Lahore
in February 1846 from the collapsing Sikh
Sikh
state, and occupied the rest of Punjab in 1848.[15] Following the defeat of the Sikhs
Sikhs
at the Battle of Gujrat, British troops formally deposed Maharaja Duleep Singh
Duleep Singh
in Lahore
Lahore
that same year.[15] Punjab was then annexed to the British Indian Empire in 1849.[15] At the commencement of British rule, Lahore
Lahore
was estimated to have a population of 120,000.[82] Prior to annexation by the British, Lahore's environs consisted mostly of the Walled City surrounded by plains interrupted by settlements to the south and east such as Mozang and Qila Gujar Singh, which have since been engulfed by Lahore. The plains between the settlements also contained the remains of Mughal gardens, tombs, and Sikh-era military structures.[83] The British viewed Lahore's Walled City as a bed of potential social discontent and disease epidemics, and so largely left the inner city alone, while focusing development efforts in Lahore's suburban areas, and Punjab's fertile countryside.[84] The British instead laid out their capital city in an area south of the Walled City that would come to be known as "Civil Station."[85] Under early British rule, formerly prominent Mughal-era monuments that were scattered throughout Civil Station were also re-purposed, and sometimes desecrated – including the Tomb of Anarkali, which the British had initially converted to clerical offices before re-purposing it as an Anglican church in 1851.[86] The Dai Anga Mosque was converted into railway administration offices during this time as well, while the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan was converted into a storehouse, and tomb of Mir Mannu was converted into a wine shop.[87] The British also used older structures to house municipal offices, such as the Civil Secretariat, Public Works Department, and Accountant General's Office.[88] The British built the Lahore Railway Station
Lahore Railway Station
just outside the Walled City shortly after the Mutiny of 1857, and so built the station in the style of a medieval castle to ward off any potential future uprisings, with thick walls, turrets, and holes to direct gun and cannon fire for defence of the structure.[89] Lahore's most prominent government institutions and commercial enterprises came to be concentrated in Civil Station in a half-mile wide area flanking The Mall, where unlike in Lahore's military zone, the British and locals were allowed to mix.[90] The Mall continues to serve as the epicentre of Lahore's civil administration, as well as one of its most fashionable commercial areas. The British also laid the spacious Lahore
Lahore
Cantonment to the southeast of the Walled City at the former village of Mian Mir, where unlike around The Mall, laws existed against the mixing of different races. Lahore
Lahore
was visited on 9 February 1870 by Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh - a visit in which he received delegations from the Dogras of Jammu, Maharajas of Patiala, the Nawab of Bahawalpur, and other rulers from various Punjabi states.[91] During the visit, he visited several of Lahore's major sights.[91] British authorities built several important structures around the time of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887 in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style. The Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum
and Mayo School of Industrial Arts were both established around this in this style.[92] The British carried out a census of Lahore
Lahore
in 1901, and counted 20,691 houses in the Walled City.[93] An estimated 200,000 people lived in Lahore
Lahore
at this time.[82] Lahore's posh Model Town was established as a "garden town" suburb in 1921, while Krishan Nagar
Krishan Nagar
locality was laid in the 1930s near The Mall and Walled City. Lahore
Lahore
played an important role in the independence movements of both India[94] and Pakistan. The Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929.[95] The Indian Swaraj flag
Swaraj flag
was adopted this time as well. Lahore's jail was used by the British to imprison independence activists such as Jatin Das, and was also where Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh
was hanged in 1931.[96] Under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
The All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League passed the Lahore Resolution
Lahore Resolution
in 1940, demanding the creation of Pakistan
Pakistan
as a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.[97] Partition[edit] The 1941 census showed that Lahore
Lahore
had a population of 671,659, of which was 64.5% Muslim, with the remainder being mostly Sikh
Sikh
and Hindu.[17][98] The population figure was disputed by Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs before the Boundary Commission that would draw the Radcliffe Line
Radcliffe Line
to demarcate the border of the two new states based on religious demography.[17] In a bid to have Lahore
Lahore
awarded to India, they argued that the city was only 54% Muslim, and that Hindu and Sikh
Sikh
domination of the city's economy and educational institutions should trump Muslim demography.[17] Two thirds of shops, and 80% of Lahore's factories belonged to the Hindu and Sikh
Sikh
community,[17] though the British ultimately were unconvinced that ownership of property equated with sovereignty.[17] As tensions grew over the city's uncertain fate, Lahore
Lahore
experienced Partition's worst riots.[17] Carnage ensued in which all three religious groups were both victims and perpetrators.[99] Early riots in March and April 1947 destroyed 6,000 of Lahore
Lahore
82,000 homes.[17] Violence continued to rise throughout the summer, despite the presence of armoured British personnel.[17] Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs
Sikhs
began to leave the city en masse as their hopes that the Boundary Commission to award the city to India
India
came to be regarded as increasingly unlikely. By late August 1947, 66% of Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs
Sikhs
had left the city.[17] The Shah Alami Bazaar, once a largely Hindu quarter of the Walled City, was entirely burnt down.[100] When Pakistan's independence was declared on August 14, 1947, the Radcliffe Line
Radcliffe Line
had not yet been announced, and so cries of Long live Pakistan
Pakistan
and God is greatest were heard intermittently with Long live Hindustan
Hindustan
throughout the night.[17] Upon independence, Lahore
Lahore
was made capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. The city's location near the Indian border meant that it received large numbers of refugees fleeing anti- Muslim
Muslim
pogroms in eastern Punjab and northern India, though it was able to accommodate them given the large stock of abandoned Hindu and Sikh
Sikh
properties that could be re-distributed to newly arrived refugees.[17] Modern[edit]

Minar-e-Pakistan

Islamic
Islamic
Summit Minar

Provincial Assembly of the Punjab

WAPDA House

Partition left Lahore
Lahore
with a much weakened economy, and a stymied social and cultural scene that had previously been invigorated by the city's Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs.[17] Industrial production dropped to one third of pre-Partition levels by end of the 1940s, and only 27% of its manufacturing units were operating by 1950, and usually well-below capacity.[17] Capital flight
Capital flight
further weakened the city's economy while Karachi
Karachi
industrialized and became more prosperous.[17] The city's weakened economy, and proximity to the Indian border, meant that the city was deemed unsuitable to be the Pakistani capital after independence. Karachi
Karachi
was chosen instead on account of its relative tranquility, stronger economy, and better infrastructure.[17] After the Partition period, Lahore
Lahore
slowly regained its significance as an economic and cultural centre of western Punjab. Reconstruction began in 1949 of the Shah Alami Bazaar, the former commercial heart of the Walled City until it was destroyed in the 1947 riots.[100] The Tomb of Allama Iqbal
Tomb of Allama Iqbal
was built in 1951 to honour the philosopher-poet who provided spiritual inspiration for the Pakistan
Pakistan
movement.[17] In 1955, Lahore
Lahore
was selected to be capital of all West Pakistan
Pakistan
during the single-unit period that lasted until 1970.[17] Lahore
Lahore
successfully repelled an Indian invasion during War of 1965, in which the city had been surrounding on three sides. Shortly afterwards, Lahore's iconic Minar-e-Pakistan
Minar-e-Pakistan
was completed in 1968 to mark the spot where the Pakistan
Pakistan
Resolution was passed.[17] With United Nations
United Nations
assistance, the government was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars of the communal violence of war and Partition were ameliorated. The second Islamic
Islamic
Summit Conference was held in the city in 1974.[101] In retaliation for the destruction of the Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
in India
India
by Hindu fanatics, riots erupted in 1992 in which several non- Muslim
Muslim
monuments were targeted, including most of the tomb of Maharaja Sher Singh.[71] In 1996, the International Cricket
Cricket
Council Cricket
Cricket
World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
in Lahore.[102] 8 people were killed in the March 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in Lahore. The Walled City of Lahore
Walled City of Lahore
restoration project began in 2009, when the Punjab government embarked on a major project to restore the Royal Trail from Akbari Gate
Akbari Gate
to the Lahore
Lahore
Fort with assistance from the World Bank.[103] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Lahore Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore
Lahore
is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur
Kasur
District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore
Lahore
city covers a total land area of 404 square kilometres (156 sq mi). Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Lahore

Lahore

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    23     20 7

    29     22 9

    41     26 11

    20     29 14

    22     31 17

    36     34 19

    202     36 20

    164     35 20

    61     33 19

    12     29 14

    4     24 12

    14     21 9

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Observatory[104]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.9     67 45

    1.1     72 48

    1.6     78 52

    0.8     83 58

    0.9     88 62

    1.4     93 67

    8     96 68

    6.5     96 68

    2.4     92 65

    0.5     84 57

    0.2     75 53

    0.6     70 48

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Lahore
Lahore
has a semi-arid climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BSh). The hottest month is June, when average highs routinely exceed 40 °C (104.0 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, and the wettest month is July,[104] with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudbursts. The coolest month is January with dense fog.[105] The city's record high temperature was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F), recorded on 30 May 1944.[106] 48 °C (118 °F) was recorded on 10 June 2007.[107][108] At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C (131 °F). The record low is −1 °C (30 °F), recorded on 13 January 1967.[109] The highest rainfall in a 24-hour period is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), recorded on 13 August 2008.[110] On 26 February 2011, Lahore
Lahore
received heavy rain and hail measuring 4.5 mm (0.18 in), which carpeted roads and sidewalks with measurable hail for the first time in the city's recorded history.[111][112]

Climate data for Lahore
Lahore
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.8 (82) 33.3 (91.9) 37.8 (100) 46.1 (115) 48.3 (118.9) 47.2 (117) 46.1 (115) 42.8 (109) 41.7 (107.1) 40.6 (105.1) 35.0 (95) 30.0 (86) 48.3 (118.9)

Average high °C (°F) 19.8 (67.6) 22.0 (71.6) 27.1 (80.8) 33.9 (93) 38.6 (101.5) 40.4 (104.7) 36.1 (97) 35.0 (95) 35.0 (95) 32.9 (91.2) 27.4 (81.3) 21.6 (70.9) 30.8 (87.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 15.4 (59.7) 20.5 (68.9) 26.8 (80.2) 31.2 (88.2) 33.9 (93) 31.5 (88.7) 30.7 (87.3) 29.7 (85.5) 25.6 (78.1) 19.5 (67.1) 14.2 (57.6) 24.32 (75.78)

Average low °C (°F) 5.9 (42.6) 8.9 (48) 14.0 (57.2) 19.6 (67.3) 23.7 (74.7) 27.4 (81.3) 26.9 (80.4) 26.4 (79.5) 24.4 (75.9) 18.2 (64.8) 11.6 (52.9) 6.8 (44.2) 17.8 (64)

Record low °C (°F) −2.2 (28) 0.0 (32) 2.8 (37) 10.0 (50) 14.0 (57.2) 18.0 (64.4) 20.0 (68) 19.0 (66.2) 16.7 (62.1) 8.3 (46.9) 1.7 (35.1) −1.1 (30) −2.2 (28)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 23.0 (0.906) 28.6 (1.126) 41.2 (1.622) 19.7 (0.776) 22.4 (0.882) 36.3 (1.429) 202.1 (7.957) 163.9 (6.453) 61.1 (2.406) 12.4 (0.488) 4.2 (0.165) 13.9 (0.547) 628.8 (24.757)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 218.8 215.0 245.8 276.6 308.3 269.0 227.5 234.9 265.6 290.0 259.6 222.9 3,034

Source #1: NOAA (1961-1990) [113]

Source #2: PMD[114]

Demographics[edit] Population[edit] The results of the 2017 Census determined the population to be at 11,126,285,[3] with an annual growth rate of 4.07% since 1998.[115] Gender-wise, 52.35% of the population is male, while 47.64% is female and transgenders make only 0.01% of the population.[115]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1881 138,878 —    

1891 159,947 +15.2%

1901 186,884 +16.8%

1911 228,687 +22.4%

1921 281,781 +23.2%

1931 400,075 +42.0%

1941 671,659 +67.9%

1951 1,130,000 +68.2%

1961 1,630,000 +44.2%

1972 2,590,000 +58.9%

1981 3,540,000 +36.7%

1998 6,320,000 +78.5%

2017 11,126,285 +76.0%

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Lahore The city has a Muslim
Muslim
majority and Christian
Christian
minority population.[116] There is also a small but longstanding Zoroastrian community. Additionally, Lahore
Lahore
contains some of Sikhism's holiest sites, and is a major Sikh
Sikh
pilgrimage site.[117][118] According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Muslim, up from 60% in 1941. Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population) and small numbers of Bahá'ís, Hindus, Ahmediya, Parsis and Sikhs. Lahore's first church was built during the reign of Emperor Akbar
Akbar
in the late 16th century, which was then leveled by Shah Jahan in 1632.[119] Cityscape[edit] Urban form[edit]

The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque
Wazir Khan Mosque
exemplifies the Walled City's urban form

Lahore's modern cityscape consists of the historic Walled City of Lahore
Lahore
in the northern part of the city, which contains several world and national heritage sites. Lahore's urban planning was not based on geometric design, but was instead built piecemeal, with small cul-de-sacs, katrahs and galis developed in the context of neighbouring buildings.[15] Though certain neighbourhoods were named for particular religious or ethnic communities, the neighbourhoods themselves typically were diverse, and were not dominated by the namesake group.[15] Lahore
Lahore
has more Mughal-era monuments than Delhi, India,[59] and structures from this era are now amongst the most iconic features of Lahore. By the end time of Sikh
Sikh
rule, most of Lahore's massive haveli compounds had been occupied by settlers. New neighbourhoods occasionally grew up entirely within the confines of an old Mughal haveli, such as the Mohallah Pathran Wali, which grew within the ruins of a haveli of the same name that was built by Mian Khan.[15] By 1831, all Mughal havelis in the Walled City had been encroached upon by the surrounding neighbourhood,[15] leading to the modern-day absence of any Mughal havelis in Lahore. Thirteen gates surrounded the history walled city. Some of the remaining gates include the Raushnai Gate, Masti Gate, Yakki Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Khizri Gate, Shah Burj Gate, Akbari Gate
Akbari Gate
and Lahori Gate. Southeast of the walled city is the spacious British-era Lahore Cantonment. Architecture[edit] Further information: Architecture
Architecture
of Lahore

Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore
Lahore
is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.

Lahore
Lahore
is home to numerous monuments from the Mughal Dynasty, Sikh Empire, and British Raj. The architectural style of the Walled City of Lahore
Lahore
has traditionally been influenced by Mughal and Sikh styles.[120] The leafy suburbs to the south of the Old City, as well as the Cantonment southwest of the Old City, were largely developed under British colonial rule, and feature colonial-era buildings built alongside leafy avenues. Sikh
Sikh
period[edit] By the arrival of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire, Lahore
Lahore
had decayed from its former glory as the Mughal capital. Rebuilding efforts under Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and his successors were influenced by Mughal practices, and Lahore
Lahore
was known as the 'City of Gardens' during the Ranjit Singh period.[121][122] Later British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-19th century show many walled private gardens which were confiscated from the Muslim
Muslim
noble families bearing the names of prominent Sikh
Sikh
nobles – a pattern of patronage which was inherited from the Mughals. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's army's plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire.[77] Monuments plundered of their marble include the Tomb of Asif Khan, Tomb of Nur Jahan, the Shalimar Gardens were plundered of much of its marble and costly agate.[78][66] The Sikh
Sikh
state also demolished a number of shrines and monuments laying outside the city's walls.[123] Sikh
Sikh
rule left Lahore
Lahore
with several monuments, and a heavily altered Lahore
Lahore
Fort. Ranjit Singh's rule had restored Lahore
Lahore
to much of its last grandeur,[15] and the city was left with a large number of religious monuments from this period. Several havelis were built during this era, though only a few still remain.[15] British period[edit]

A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.

Much of old Lahore
Lahore
features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.

As capital of British Punjab, British colonialists made a lasting architectural impression on the city. Structures were built predominantly in the Indo-Gothic
Indo-Gothic
style - a syncretic architectural style that blends elements of Victorian and Islamic
Islamic
architecture, or in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style. The British also built neoclassical Montgomery Hall, which today serves as the Quaid-e-Azam Library.[124] Lawrence Gardens were also laid near Civil Station, and were paid for by donations solicited from both Lahore's European community, as well as from wealth locals. The gardens featured over 600 species of plants, and were tended to by a horticulturist sent from London's Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.[125] The British authorities built several important structures around the time of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria
Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria
in 1887 in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style. The Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum
and Mayo School of Industrial Arts were both established around this in this style.[92] Other prominent examples of the Indo-Saracenic style in Lahore
Lahore
include Lahore's prestigious Aitchison College, the Punjab Chief Court (today the Lahore
Lahore
High Court), Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum
and University of the Punjab. Many of Lahore's most important buildings were designed by Sir Ganga Ram, who is sometimes called the "Father of modern Lahore."[126] Parks and gardens[edit] Main article: List of parks and gardens in Lahore

Lahore's Lawrence Garden
Lawrence Garden
was laid in 1862.

The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and were designed to mimic the Islamic
Islamic
paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Garden
Lawrence Garden
was established in 1862 and was originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th-century British Viceroy to India. The Circular Garden, which surrounds on the Walled City on three sides, was established by 1892.[66] The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, a man-made forest near Lahore
Lahore
in the Kasur
Kasur
district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.[127][not in citation given] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Lahore

Mozang Chugi at night

Emporium Mall

Kalma Underpass

As of 2008[update], the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore
Lahore
(having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008).[128] The contribution of Lahore
Lahore
to the national economy is estimated to be 11.5% and 19% to the provincial economy of Punjab.[129] As a whole Punjab has $115 billion economy making it first and to date only Pakistani Subdivision of economy more than $100 billion at the rank 144.[128] Lahore's GDP is projected to be 102 billion$ by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%.[128][130] A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore
Lahore
has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries.[131] Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services.[131] The city is Pakistan's largest software & hardware producing centre,[131] and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.[131] The city has always been a centre for publications where 80% of Pakistan's books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan.[20] The Lahore
Lahore
Expo Centre is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010.[132] Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore
Lahore
and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country.[133] Ferozepur Road of the Central business districts of Lahore
Lahore
contains high-rises and skyscrapers including Kayre International Hotel and Arfa Software Technology Park. Transport[edit] Public transportation[edit] Further information: List of bus routes in Lahore

Lahore
Lahore
Metrobus

Lahore's main public transportation system is operated by the Lahore Transport Company (LTC) and Punjab Mass Transit Authority (PMTA). The backbone of its public transport network is the PMTA's Lahore
Lahore
Metrobus and soon to be Orange Line of the Lahore
Lahore
Metro. LTC and PMTA also operates an extensive network of buses, providing bus service to many parts of the city and acting as a feeder system for the Metrobus. Intercity transportation[edit] Lahore
Lahore
Junction Station serves as the main rail hub for Lahore, and serves as a major hub for all Pakistan
Pakistan
Railway services in northern Pakistan. It includes services to Peshawar
Peshawar
and national capital Islamabad-Rawalpindi, and long distance services to Karachi
Karachi
and Quetta. Lahore Cantonment Station also operates a few trains. The Lahore Badami Bagh Bus Terminal
Lahore Badami Bagh Bus Terminal
serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Lahore, served by multiple bus companies providing a comprehensive network of services in Punjab and neighboring provinces. Airports[edit] Further information: Allama Iqbal International Airport
Allama Iqbal International Airport
and Walton Airport

Allama Iqbal International Airport

Pakistan's third busiest airport, Allama Iqbal International Airport (IATA: LHE), straddles the city's eastern boundary. The new passenger terminal was opened in 2003, replacing the old terminal which now serves as a VIP and Hajj lounge. The airport was named after the national poet-philosopher, Muhammad Iqbal.[134] and is a secondary hub for the national flag carrier, Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines.[135] Walton Airport in Askari provides general aviation facilities. In addition, Sialkot
Sialkot
International Airport (IATA: SKT) and Faisalabad International Airport (IATA: LYP) also serve as alternate airports for the Lahore
Lahore
area in addition to serving their respective cities. Roads[edit] See also: List of streets in Lahore There are a number of municipal, provincial and federal roads that serve Lahore.

Municipal roads

Canal Road (serves as the major North-South artery)

Provincial highways

Lahore
Lahore
Ring Road Lahore– Kasur
Kasur
Road (Ferozepur Road) Lahore– Raiwind
Raiwind
Road ( Raiwind
Raiwind
Road) Lahore–Sharaqpur Road (Sagianwala Bypass Road) Lahore– Wagah
Wagah
Road

Federal highways

M-2 motorway M-3 motorway N-5 National Highway
N-5 National Highway
( Multan
Multan
Road)

Government[edit] Metropolitan Corporation[edit] Under the Pakistan's administrative structure that was revised in 2001,[136] Lahore
Lahore
is a city district and under the authority of the Metropolitan Corporation Lahore.[137] Lahore
Lahore
City District is divided into 9 zones, each headed by a Deputy Mayor. The Metropolitan Corporation Lahore
Lahore
is a body of those 9 deputy, as well as the city's mayor - all of whom are elected in popular elections. The Metropolitan Corporation approves zoning and land use, urban design and planning, environmental protection laws, as well as provide municipal services. Mayor[edit] As per the Punjab Local Government Act 2013, the Mayor of Lahore is the leader of the Metropolitan Corporation of Lahore. The mayor is directly-elected in municipal elections every four years alongside 9 deputy town mayors. Mubashir Javed of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Muslim
Muslim
League (N) was elected mayor of Lahore
Lahore
in 2016. The mayor is responsible for the administration of government services, the composition of councils and committees overseeing Lahore City District departments and serves as the chairperson for meeting of Lahore
Lahore
Council. The mayor also functions to help devise long term development plans in consultation with other stakeholders and bodies to improve the condition, livability, and sustainability of urban areas. Administrative subdivisions[edit] Further information: List of towns in Lahore The Lahore
Lahore
City District is a subdivision of the Punjab province, and is further divided into 9 administrative towns.[138] Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils, which total to 274.[139]

Tehsils of Lahore
Lahore
District

Ravi Shalamar Wahga Aziz Bhatti Data Gunj Buksh Gulberg Samanabad Iqbal Nishtar A. Cantonment

Politics[edit] The 2015 Local Government elections for Union Councils in Lahore yielded the following results:

  PML(N) (84.5%)   Independents (9.9%)   PTI (4.4%)   PPP (0.4%)

[140]

MCL/Zones Parties

UC seats

Pakistan
Pakistan
Muslim
Muslim
League (N) 229

Independents 27

Pakistan
Pakistan
Tehreek-e-Insaf 12

Pakistan
Pakistan
Peoples Party 1

Awaiting results *5

Total 274

Festivals[edit] The people of Lahore
Lahore
celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha
Eid ul-Adha
are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Punjabi: داتا گنج بخش‬) or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs is held every year as a big festival. Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan
Pakistan
are centred in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.[141] Tourism[edit] Lahore
Lahore
remains a major tourist destination in Pakistan. The Walled City of Lahore
Lahore
was renovated in 2014 and is popular due to the presence of UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.[142] Among the most popular sights are the Lahore
Lahore
Fort, adjacent to the Walled City, and home to the Sheesh Mahal, the Alamgiri Gate, the Naulakha pavilion, and the Moti Masjid. The fort along with the adjoining Shalimar Gardens has been a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 1981.[143] The city is home to several ancient religious sites including prominent Hindu temples, the Krishna Temple and Valmiki Mandir. The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, also located near the Walled City, houses the funerary urns of the Sikh
Sikh
ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The most prominent religious building is the Badshahi Mosque, constructed in 1673; it was the largest mosque in the world upon construction. Another popular sight is the Wazir Khan Mosque[144], known for its extensive faience tile work and constructed in 1635.[145] Religious sites[edit] Other well-known religious sites in the City are:

Badshahi Mosque Suneri Mosque Masjid of Mariyam Zamani Neevin Mosque Dai Anga Mosque Shab Bhar Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque Moti Masjid ( Lahore
Lahore
Fort) Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Mosque Masjid Shuhada Oonchi Mosque Lohari Gate Mosque Shaheed Ganj Mosque Data Durbar Complex Grand Jamia Mosque, Lahore Valmiki Temple Krishna Mandir, Lahore Sacred heart cathedral, Lahore

Museums[edit]

Lahore
Lahore
Museum Fakir Khana Javed Manzil Shakir Ali Museum Islamic
Islamic
Summit Minar National Museum of Science and Technology Tollinton Market- Lahore
Lahore
City Heritage Museum

Tombs[edit]

Tomb of Ali Mardan
Mardan
Khan Tomb of Allama Iqbal Tomb of Anarkali Asif Khan Buddhu Cypress Tomb or Sarowala Maqbara Dai Anga Jahangir Kuri Bagh Mai Dai Mian Khan Nadira Begam Noor Jahan Nusrat Khan Prince Pervez Qutb-ud-din Aibak Saleh Kamboh Zafar Jang Kokaltash Zeb-un-Nisa Mir Niamat Khan Jani Khan Rasul Shahyun Gul Begam Malik Ayaz

Shrines[edit]

Ali Hujwiri Mian Mir Madho Lal Hussain Khawaja Tahir Bandgi Ghazi Ilm Din Shaheed Sheikh Musa Ahangar Khawaja Mehmud Nizam-ud-Din Siraj-ud-Din Gilani peer makki

Samadhis[edit]

Bhai Vasti Ram Ranjit Singh Sir Ganga Ram Bhai Taru Singh

Havelis[edit] There are many havelis inside the Walled City of Lahore, some in good condition while others need urgent attention. Many of these havelis are fine examples of Mughal and Sikh
Sikh
Architecture. Some of the havelis inside the Walled City include:

Mubarak Begum Haveli
Haveli
Bhatti Gate Chuna Mandi Havelis Haveli
Haveli
of Nau Nihal Singh Nisar Haveli Haveli
Haveli
Barood Khana Salman Sirhindi ki Haveli Dina Nath Ki Haveli Mubarak Haveli
Haveli
– Chowk Nawab Sahib, Mochi/Akbari Gate Lal Haveli
Haveli
beside Mochi Bagh Mughal Haveli
Haveli
(residence of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh) Haveli
Haveli
Sir Wajid Ali Shah (near Nisar Haveli) Haveli
Haveli
Mian Khan (Rang Mehal) Haveli
Haveli
Shergharian (near Lal Khou)

Other landmarks[edit]

Shahi Hammam

Historic neighbourhoods[edit]

Walled City of Lahore Anarkali Shahdara Bagh Mughalpura Begampura Baghbanpura Badami Bagh Mughalpura

Education[edit] Main article: Education in Lahore See also: List of educational institutions in Lahore, List of special schools in Lahore, and List of libraries in Lahore

King Edward Medical University

Lahore
Lahore
is known as Pakistan's educational capital,[citation needed] with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore
Lahore
is Pakistan's largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, nanotechnology and the only future hyper high-tech centre of Pakistan.[146] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The literacy rate of Lahore
Lahore
is 74%. Lahore
Lahore
hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes:

St. Francis High School, established in 1842 King Edward Medical University, established in 1860 Forman Christian
Christian
College, established in 1864 Government College University, Lahore, established in 1864 Convent of Jesus and Mary, established in 1867 University Law College, established in 1868 National College of Arts, established in 1875 University of the Punjab, established in 1882[147] University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, established in 1882 Central Model School, established in 1883 Aitchison College, established in 1886 Islamia College, established in 1892 St. Anthony's High School, established in 1892 Sacred Heart High School, established in 1906 Queen Mary College, established in 1908 Dayal Singh College, established 1910 Kinnaird College for Women University, established in 1913 University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, established in 1921 Lahore
Lahore
College for Women University, established in 1922 Hailey College of Commerce, established in 1927 De'Montmorency College of Dentistry, established in 1929 M.A.O College, established in 1933 Lady Willingdon Nursing School, established in 1933 University College of Pharmacy, established in 1944 Fatima Jinnah Medical University, established in 1948 Youth Group of Schools and Colleges established in 2017 Youth Academy established in 2017 Youth Institute of Technology established in 2017

Fashion[edit] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Fashion Design Council organised the Lahore
Lahore
Fashion Week 2010[148] as well as the PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore
Lahore
2011.[149] Sports[edit] Main article: List of sports venues in Lahore Lahore
Lahore
has successfully hosted many international sports events including the finals of the 1990 Men's Hockey World Cup
1990 Men's Hockey World Cup
and the 1996 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup. The headquarters of all major sports governing bodies are located here in Lahore
Lahore
including Cricket, Hockey, Rugby, Football etc. and also has the head office of Pakistan
Pakistan
Olympic Association.

Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
is the largest stadium of Pakistan
Pakistan
with a capacity of 60,000 spectators.

Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. Lahore
Lahore
is home to several golf courses. The Lahore
Lahore
Gymkhana Golf Course, the Lahore
Lahore
Garrison Golf and Country Club, the Royal Palm Golf Club and newly built DHA Golf Club are well maintained Golf Courses in Lahore. In nearby Raiwind
Raiwind
Road, a 9 holes course, Lake City, opened in 2011. The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is another addition to the city. It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more.The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan
Pakistan
and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on 30 January 2005, and again on 29 January 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on 14 January 2007.[150][not in citation given] Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River.[151][better source needed]

Professional sports teams from Lahore

Club League Sport Venue Established

Lahore
Lahore
Qalandars Pakistan
Pakistan
Super League Cricket Dubai International Cricket
Cricket
Stadium 2015

Lahore
Lahore
Lions National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket Gaddafi Stadium 2004

Lahore
Lahore
Eagles National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket Gaddafi Stadium 2006

WAPDA F.C. Pakistan
Pakistan
Premier League Football Punjab Stadium 1983

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] The following international cities have been declared twin towns and sister cities of Lahore.

Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
(1975)[152] Sariwon, North Korea
North Korea
(1988)[152] Xi'an, China
China
(1992)[152] Kortrijk, Belgium
Belgium
(1993)[152] Fez, Morocco
Morocco
(1994)[152] Bukhara, Uzbekistan[153] Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(1995)[152] Amol, Iran
Iran
(2010)[154] Isfahan, Iran
Iran
(2004)[152] Mashad, Iran
Iran
(2006–2012)[152] Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(2006)[152] Hounslow, England, United Kingdom[155] Chicago, Illinois, United States
United States
(2007)[156] Fresno, California, United States
United States
(2007)[152] Belgrade, Serbia
Serbia
(2007)[152] Kraków, Poland
Poland
(2007)[153] Coimbra, Portugal
Portugal
(2007)[153] Dushanbe, Tajikistan[153] Córdoba, Spain
Spain
(1994)[157] Bogota, Colombia[154]

See also[edit]

Lahore
Lahore
Fashion Week Lahore
Lahore
Knowledge Park Lahore
Lahore
Literary Festival Lahore
Lahore
Railway Station Lahori cuisine List of cemeteries in Lahore List of cities proper by population List of cities with the most high-rise buildings List of films set in Lahore List of hospitals in Lahore List of largest cities in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
member countries List of metropolitan areas in Asia List of people from Lahore List of streets in Lahore List of tallest buildings in Lahore List of towns in Lahore List of urban areas by population Sikh
Sikh
period in Lahore Transport in Lahore Walled City of Lahore

References[edit]

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India
Under the British Rule. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 54. ISBN 9788177551730.  ^ a b Kerr, Ian J. "LAHORE". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 3 April 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Bosworth, C. Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic
Islamic
World. Brill. ISBN 9047423836. Retrieved 26 December 2017.  ^ unknown author from Jōzjān (1937). Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World: A Persian Geography, 372 A.H. – 982 A.D. Translated by V. Minorsky. London: Oxford University Press.  ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic
Islamic
Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink ^ "Dawn Pakistan
Pakistan
– The 'shroud' over Lahore's antiquity". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic
Islamic
Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink PAGE 235 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 106. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ Andrew Petersen (1996). Dictionary of Islamic
Islamic
Architecture. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-06084-4.  ^ ":.GC University Lahore". Gcu.edu.pk. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ James L. Wescoat; Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (1 January 1996). Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-88402-235-0.  ^ Encyclopedia of Chronology: Historical and Biographical. Longmans, Green and Company. 1872. Retrieved 26 December 2017.  ^ "Lahore" Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Once upon a time". Apnaorg.com. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. "Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic
Islamic
World: A Historical Encyclopedia (2 volumes): A Historical Encyclopedia" ABC-CLIO, 22 July 2011 ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8 pp 269–270 ^ a b c d e f Jackson, Peter. The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521543290. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India ^ Indo-Persian Historiography Up to the Thirteenth Century ^ Neville, p.xiii ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 107. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ Ahmed, Farooqui Salma (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson India. ISBN 9788131732021.  ^ a b Dhillon, Dalbir Singh (1988). Sikhism
Sikhism
Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich (2003). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231038761.  ^ a b "Short Cuts". The Economist. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016. For centuries Lahore
Lahore
was the heart of Mughal Hindustan, known to visitors as the City of Gardens. Today it has a greater profusion of treasures from the Mughal period (the peak of which was in the 17th century) than India's Delhi
Delhi
or Agra, even if Lahore's are less photographed.  ^ Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 8124110662. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (2003). Agra
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historical and descriptive with an account of Akbar
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and his court and of the modern city of Agra. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120617096. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ a b Holt, P. M. (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 2A, The Indian Sub-Continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim
Muslim
West. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ Pashaura Singh (2006). Life and Work of Guru Arjan: History, Memory, and Biography in the Sikh
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Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 217–218. ISBN 978-0-19-567921-2.  ^ "International council on monuments and sites" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ " Lahore Fort
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Alamgiri Gate". Asian Historical Architecture. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Oxford University: New Imperial Press.  ^ Axworthy, Michael (2010). Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. I.B. Tauris. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-85773-347-4.  ^ Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8.  ^ Mehta, J.L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 2010-09-23. ^ "Tomb of Asif Khan" (PDF). Global Heritage Fund. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ a b c d Bansal, Bobby (2015). Remnants of the Sikh
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Empire: Historical Sikh
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Monuments in India
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& Pakistan. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 9384544930.  ^ Kakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R.Bakshi R. (1 January 2007). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. pp. 272–274. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1. Retrieved 12 June 2010.  ^ Singh, Bhagata (1990). Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and his times. Sehgal Publishers Service.  ^ K.S. Duggal (1989). "Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh
Sikh
Sovereign". Exoticindiaart.com. ISBN 8170172446. Retrieved 3 September 2015.  ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (1 January 2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3. ^ Masson, Charles. 1842. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, 3 v. London: Richard Bentley (1) 37 ^ a b Sidhwa, Bapsi (2005). City of Sin and Splendour: Writings on Lahore. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-303166-6.  ^ a b Marshall, Sir John Hubert (1906). Archaeological Survey of India. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing.  ^ a b City of Sin and Splendor: Writings on Lahore
Lahore
by Bapsi Sidhwa, p23 ^ "The Panjab Past and Present". 22. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjab University. 1988. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ Soomro, Farooq (13 May 2015). "A visual delight – Maryam Zamani and Wazir Khan Mosques". Dawn. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ a b Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. By the turn of the twentieth century, Lahore's population had nearly doubled from what it had been when the province was first annexed, growing from an estimated 120,000 people in 1849 to over 200,000 in 1901.  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. On the eve of annexation, Lahore's suburbs were made up of a flat, debris-strewn plain interrupted by a small number of populous abadis, the deserted cantonment and barracks of the former Sikh
Sikh
infantry (which, according to one British large buildings in various states of disrepair.  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. The inner city, on the other hand, remained problematic.Seen as a potential hotbed of disease and social instability, and notoriously difficult to observe and fathom, the inner districts of the city remained stubbornly resistant to colonial intervention. Throughout the British period of occupation in Punjab, for reasons we will explore more fully, the inner districts of its largest cities were almost entirely left alone. 5 The colonial state made its most significant investments in suburban tracts outside of cities... It should not surprise us that the main focus of imperial attention in Punjab was its fertile countryside rather than cities like Lahore.  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. .  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. What is more striking than the fact that the Punjab's new rulers (cost-effectively) appropriated the symbolically charged buildings of their predecessors is how long some of those appropriations lasted. The conversion of the Mughal-era tomb of Sharif un-Nissa, a noblewoman during Shah Jahan's reign, popularly known as Anarkali, was one such case (Figure 1.2).This Muslim
Muslim
tomb was first used as offices and residences for the clerical staff of Punjab's governing board. In 1851, however, the tomb was converted into the Anglican church  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. the mosque of Dai Anga, Emperor Shah Jahan's wet nurse, which the British converted first into a residence and later into the office of the railway traffic manager.Nearby was the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan, a highly placed member of Akbar's court, which the railway used as a storehouse... manager.Nearby was the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan, a highly placed member of Akbar's court, which the railway used as a storehouse. That same tomb had been acquired earlier by the railway from the army, who had used it as a theater for entertaining officers.The railway provided another nearby tomb free of charge to the Church Missionary Society, who used it for Sunday services. The tomb of Mir Mannu, an eighteenth-century Mughal viceroy of Punjab who had brutally persecuted the Sikhs
Sikhs
while he was in power, escaped demolition by the railway but was converted nevertheless into a private wine merchant's shop  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. with an abundance of abandoned large structures scattered throughout the civil station on nazul (state administered) property, the colonial government often chose to house major institutions in converted buildings rather than to build anew. These institutions included the Civil Secretariat, which, as we have seen, was located in Ventura's former house; the Public Works from Ranjit Singh's period; and the Accountant General's office, headquartered in a converted seventeenth century mosque near the tomb of Shah Chiragh, just off Mall Road.In  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. The Lahore
Lahore
station, built during a time when securing British civilians and troops against a future "native" uprising was foremost in the government's mind, fortified medieval castle, complete with turrets and crenellated towers, battered flanking walls, and loopholes for directing rifle and canon fire along the main avenues of approach from the city  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. We should remember that outside of colonial military cantonments, where rules encouraging racial separation were partially formalized in the residential districts of India's colonial cities. Wherever government institutions, commercial enterprises, and places of public congregation were concentrated, mixing among races and social classes was both legally accommodated and necessary.In Lahore
Lahore
these kinds of activities were concentrated in a half-mile-wide zone stretching along Mall Road from the Civil Secretariat, near Anarkali's tomb, at one end to the botanical gardens at the other (see.  ^ a b bahādur.), Muḥammad Laṭīf (Saiyid, khān (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcutta Central Press Company, limited.  ^ a b Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. As a gesture of loyalty, Punjab's "Princes, Chiefs, merchants, men of local note, and the public generally" formed a subscription to erect the "Victoria Jubilee Institute for the Promotion and Diffusion of Technical and Agricultural Education and Science" in Lahore, a complex that eventually formed the nucleus of the city's museum and the Mayo School of Art (completed in 1894).  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. According to the 1901 census, therefore, the inner city of Lahore
Lahore
contained exactly 20,691 "houses"  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. We should remember that outside of colonial military cantonments, where rules encouraging racial separation were partially formalized in the residential districts of India's colonial cities. Wherever government institutions, commercial enterprises, and places of public congregation were concentrated, mixing among races and social classes was both legally accommodated and necessary.In Lahore
Lahore
these kinds of activities were concentrated in a half-mile-wide zone stretching along Mall Road from the Civil Secretariat, near Anarkali's tomb, at one end to the botanical gardens at the other  ^ "Republic Day". The Tribune. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ "A memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says the governor of Lahore." Daily Times Pakistan. 2 September 2007. ^ Story of Pakistan
Pakistan
Lahore Resolution
Lahore Resolution
1940, Jin Technologies. Retrieved 19 September 2007. ^ Ahmed, Khalid (3 June 2017). "The City that wanted to know". Indian Express. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena; Loescher, Gil; Long, Katy; Sigona, Nando (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0191645885. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ a b de Jonge, Rene (1989). Urban planning in Lahore: a confrontation with real development. Peter Groote,. ISBN 9789036701839. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ "Second Islamic
Islamic
Summit Conference". Oic-oci.org. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ "Political History and Administrative History of the Punjab" (PDF).  ^ " Lahore
Lahore
– History of Lahore". thelahorecity.com. Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ a b "Climatological Normals of Lahore". Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Observatory. Retrieved 6 May 2010.  ^ http://nation.com.pk/columns/06-Nov-2016/smoke-not-smog ^ "QUETTA". Pakmet.com.pk. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ "Highest temperature in 78 years: Four die as city sizzles at 48o C". Daily Times. 10 June 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ "Heatwave to persist for 4–5 days", The Dawn, 10 June 2007. ^ [1] Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Daily Times – Citizens cheer as hail turns city white ^ " Lahore
Lahore
becomes Murree!". YouTube. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ " Lahore
Lahore
Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2013.  ^ "Extremes of Lahore". Pakistan
Pakistan
Meteorological Department. Retrieved February 2, 2015.  ^ a b "DISTRICT WISE POPULATION BY SEX AND RURAL/URBAN – CENSUS 2017 [PDF]" (PDF). Pakistan
Pakistan
Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ "Largest Christian
Christian
Community of Pakistan
Pakistan
resides in Lahore District". christiansinpakistan.com. Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ " Sikh
Sikh
pilgrims from India
India
arrive in Lahore". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ " Lahore
Lahore
– SikhiWikhi, free Sikh
Sikh
encyclopedia". sikhiwikhi.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ Chaudhry, Nazir Ahmad (2000). Lahore. Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 969351047X.  ^ " Architecture
Architecture
of Lahore.": The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Web. 19 August 2016. ^ http://nation.com.pk/columns/23-Sep-2010/Some-vanished-gardens-of-Lahore, The Nation newspaper, Published 23 September 2010, Retrieved 27 February 2017 ^ http://lahore.city-history.com/places/hazori-bagh/, Hazuri Bagh Baradari in Lahore
Lahore
on Lahore
Lahore
City History website, Retrieved 27 February 2017 ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Oxford University: New Imperial Press. (page 87) ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. Montgomery Hall faced inward, toward the main avenue of what would become a and reading room, a teak dance and "rinking"floor (skating rink), and room for the Gymkhana Club.Lawrence Hall was devoted to the white community in Lahore;the spaces and program of Montgomery Hall allowed for racial interaction between British civilians and officials and the elites of Lahori society.  ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore
Lahore
Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. Like Lawrence and Montgomery Halls, moreover, the garden's major elements were all financed through a combination of provincial, municipal, and private funds from both British carefully isolated space of controlled cultural interaction underwritten by elite collaboration. Both the botanical garden and the zoo in Lawrence Gardens drafted a controlled display of exotic nature to the garden's overall didactic program.The botanical garden exhibited over six hundred species of plants, trees, and shrubs, all carefully tended by a horticulturist sent out from the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.  ^ Gill, Anjum. "Father of modern Lahore
Lahore
remembered on anniversary." Daily Times (Pakistan). 12 July 2004. Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Lawrence Gardens at Garden Visit website. (Retrieved on 27 March 2007) ^ a b c "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  ^ "Lahore's Shahbaz growth rate". Express Tribune. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.  ^ "Richest cities in the world in 2020 by GDP". City Mayors. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2009.  ^ a b c d Asian Development Bank. "Rapid Mass Transit System Project" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  ^ "Expo Centre Lahore". LahoreExpo. Retrieved 1 July 2011.  ^ "Defence Raya Golf Resort, Lahore
Lahore
– By D.H.A Lahore". Homespakistan.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ "History of Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore". lahoreairport.com.pk. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines". Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2015.  ^ "The Local Government System 2001". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. 14 August 2001. Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2009.  ^ http://lahore.gop.pk/MunicipalCorporation.php ^ "City District Governments". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2009.  ^ "City District". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2009.  ^ "LG polls results: a nightmare for PTI". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 2016-08-31.  ^ "11 Dead at Pakistani Kite
Kite
Festival, Metal Kite
Kite
Strings, Stray Celebratory Gunfire Claim Lives at Annual Event, More Than 100 Injured". CBS News. 26 February 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.  ^ Reporter, The Newspaper's Staff (2 January 2016). "Ten-fold increase in foreign tourists for Lahore
Lahore
Walled City". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "Historical mosques of Lahore". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, Pakistan
- A Guide For Travelers - The Tourist". The Tourist. 2017-09-29. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ Blanshard Asher, Catherine (1992). Architecture
Architecture
of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.  ^ Raza, M. Hanif (1999). Portrait of Pakistan. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons, Ltd. p. 155. ISBN 969-0-01545-1.  ^ " University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab
– Introduction". University of the Punjab. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.  ^ Kiran Khalid (23 February 2010). "Pakistan's fashionistas: We aren't revolutionaries". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ " PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore
Lahore
2011, Lahore Fashion Week 2011". Fashioncentral.pk. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ " Lahore Marathon Website". Lahoremarathon.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ " Lahore
Lahore
soon to get a Sports City". Lahore
Lahore
Metblogs. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "No committee to develop ties with Lahore's twins". Daily Times of Pakistan. 2007-03-02. Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2008-02-08.  ^ a b c d Abbas, Zaffar, ed. (2016-01-05). " Islamabad
Islamabad
to get new sister city". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan
Pakistan
Herald Publications.  ^ a b Syed Shayan (February 2015). "Ground Realities 4". Akhbar Peela. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2015.  ^ Cumber, Robert (2010-12-17). "Council to revive links with Palestinian town". Hounslow, Heston & Whitton Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2010-12-23.  ^ " Lahore
Lahore
and Chicago
Chicago
declared sister cities". City District Government of Lahore. Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2008-02-08.  ^ Aslam, Talat, ed. (2007-04-27). "Musharraf for Lahore-Cordoba liaison to promote ties with Spain". The News International. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Group of Newspapers. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Lahore

Syad Muhammad Latif (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities, with an Account of Its Modern Institutions, Inhabitants, Their Trade, Customs Etc. New Imperial Press.  Pran Neville. Lahore : A Sentimental Journey. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-306197-7. 

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Old City

Delhi
Delhi
Gate (UC 27) Rang Mahal (UC 28) Bhati Gate
Bhati Gate
(UC 29) Taxali Gate
Taxali Gate
(UC 30: Heera Mandi) Akbari Gate Kashmiri Gate Lahori Gate Masti Gate Mochi Gate Mori Gate Roshnai Gate Shah-Alami Gate Shairanwala Gate Yakki Gate

Ravi

Kot Begum (UC 1) Kot Mohibbu (UC 2) Azizabad (UC 3) Faisal Bagh (UC 4) Qaiser (UC 5) Dhair (UC 6) Shahdara Bagh
Shahdara Bagh
(UC 7) Jia Musa (UC 8: Targarh) Qila Lachhman Singh (UC 9) Palmandi (UC 10) Siddiquepura (UC 11) Bangali Bagh (UC 12) Siddiqia (UC 13) Bhamman (UC 14)

Shalimar

Bhaghatpura (UC 15) Gujjarpura (UC 16) Rehmatpura (UC 17) Begampura (UC 18) Chah Miran (UC 19) Bilal Bagh (UC 20) Makhanpura (UC 21) Kot Khawaja Saeed (UC 22) Shad Bagh (UC 23) Wassanpura (UC 24) Faiz Bagh (UC 25) Farooqganj (UC 26) Crown Park (UC 33) Madhu Lal Hussain (UC 34) Muhammad (UC 35) Baghbanpura (UC 36) Angori Bagh (UC 46) Mujahidabad (UC 47)

Gulberg

Railway Colony (UC 31) Daras Barey Mian (UC 32) Bibi Pak Daman (UC 75) Garhi Shahu (UC 76) Al Hamra (UC 95) Zaman Park (UC 96: Mayo Gardens) Gulberg (UC 97) Makkah (UC 98) Naseerabad (UC 99: Askari) Garden Town (UC 126) Model Town (UC 127) Faisal Town (UC 128: Mochi Pura) Liaqatabad (UC 129) Kot Lakhpat (UC 130) Pindi Rajputan (UC 131)

Aziz Bhatti

Harbanspura (UC 41) Rashidpura (UC 43: Hameed Pura) Fatehgarh (UC 44) Nabipura (UC 45) Mughalpura (UC 48: Ramgarh) Mian Meer (UC 54) Mustafabad (Dharampura) (UC 55) Ghaziabad (UC 56) Tajbagh (UC 57) Tajpura (UC 58) Al Faisal (UC 59) Guldasht (UC 60) Bhangali (UC 61)

Data Gunj Buksh

Kasurpura (UC 67) Ameenpura (UC 68) Kareem Bagh (UC 69) Ganj Kalan (UC 70) Bilalganj (UC 71) Anarkali
Anarkali
(UC 72) Gawalmandi (UC 73) Sare Sultan (UC 74) Qila Gujar Singh (UC 77) Race Course Park (UC 78) Mozang (UC 79) Jinnah Hall (UC 80: Islampura, Krishan Nagar) Rizwan Bagh (UC 81) Islam Pura (UC 82) Chohan Bagh (UC 83) Sanda (UC 85) Sanda Khurd (UC 86) Shadman (UC 94)

Samanabad

Abu Bakar Siddique (UC 84) Shamnagar (UC 87) Gulgasht (UC 88) Gulshan-e-Ravi (UC 89) Babu Sabu (UC 90) Rizwan Park (UC 91) Sodiwal (UC 92) Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
(UC 93: Islamia Park) Ichhra
Ichhra
(UC 100) Naya Samanabad
Samanabad
(UC 101) Shah Jamal (UC 102) Pakki Thatti (UC 103) Kashmir (UC 104) Nawan Kot (UC 105) Samanabad
Samanabad
(UC 106) Rehmanpura (UC 107) Gulshan-e-Iqbal (UC 108) Sikandar (UC 109: Mustafa Town) Muslim
Muslim
Town (UC 115)

Iqbal

Awan Town
Awan Town
(UC 110: Hassan Town) Saidpur (UC 111) Sabzazar (UC 112) Canal (UC 113) Bakar Mandi (UC 114) Johar Town (UC 116) Hanjarwal (UC 117: Mansoorah, Education Town) Thokar Niaz Beg (UC 118) Shahpur (UC 119) Ali Raza Abad (UC 120: ACHS, Wapda) Chung (UC 121) Maraka (UC 122: Bahria, Sukh Chayn Gardens) Shamke Bhattian (UC 123) Sultanke (UC 124: Jati Umra) Manga (UC 125) Township (UC 132, UC 133) Paji (UC 148) Dholanwal (UC 149: Raiwind)

Wagha

Daroghawala (UC 42) Muhammad (UC 37) Sultan Mehmood (UC 38) Dograi Kalan (UC 51: Wagha) Muslimabad (UC 39) Salamatpura (UC 40) Lakhodher (UC 49) Bhaseen (UC 50: Batapur) Minhala (UC 53) Barki (UC 62) Hadiara (UC 65: Ghurki)

Nishtar

Kamahan (UC 63) Hair (UC 64) Dhaloke (UC 66) Bostan (UC 134) Ismailnagar (UC 135) Sitara (UC 136) Farid (UC 137) Keer Kalan (UC 138) Green Town (UC 139) Maryam (UC 140) Attari Saroba (UC 141) Dullo Khurd Kalan (UC 142) Chandrai (UC 143) Haloke (UC 144: Valancia, NFCHS) Gajju Matta (UC 145) Kahna Nau
Kahna Nau
(UC 146: LDA City) Jia Bagga (UC 147) Pandoke (UC 150: Ladheke)

Cantonment

Lahore Cantonment (UC 152: Defence, Cavalry Ground, Islamnagar)

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972°N 74.34361°E / 31.54972; 74.34361

v t e

Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Provincial capital: Lahore

Bahawalpur

Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan Layyah Muzaffargarh Rajanpur

Faisalabad

Chiniot Faisalabad Jhang Toba Tek Singh

Gujranwala

Gujranwala Gujrat Hafizabad Mandi Bahauddin Narowal Sialkot

Lahore

Kasur Lahore

Multan

Khanewal Lodhran Multan Vehari

Rawalpindi

Attock Chakwal Jhelum Rawalpindi

Sargodha

Bhakkar Khushab Mianwali Sargodha

Sahiwal

Sahiwal Okara Pakpattan

Sheikhupura

Sheikhupura Nankana Sahib

See also: Districts of Punjab, India

v t e

Major cities in Pakistan

Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

Islamabad*

Punjab

Attock Bahawalpur Burewala Chakwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujar Khan Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Jhelum Kasur Kharian Lahore** Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Rawalpindi Sadiqabad Sahiwal Sargodha Sheikhupura Sialkot Taxila Toba Tek Singh

Sindh

Badin Hyderabad Jacobabad Karachi** Khairpur Larkana Mirpurkhas Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
& FATA

Abbottabad Bannu Battagram Chitral Charsada D.I.Khan Haripur Kohat Mansehra Mardan Nowshera Peshawar** Swat Swabi Timergara Tank

Balochistan

Chaman Gwadar Khuzdar Quetta** Ziarat

Azad Kashmir

Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad** Rawalakot

Gilgit–Baltistan

Gilgit Skardu

*Federal capital **Provincial/Territorial capitals

v t e

Capitals in Pakistan

Federal/national

Islamabad

Former (federal/national)

Karachi

Provincial

Karachi
Karachi
(Sindh) Lahore
Lahore
(Punjab) Peshawar
Peshawar
(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Quetta
Quetta
(Balochistan)

Territorial

Gilgit
Gilgit
(Gilgit–Baltistan) Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
(Azad Kashmir) Parachinar
Parachinar
(FATA)

v t e

Million-plus cities in Pakistan

Faisalabad Gujranwala Hyderabad Islamabad Karachi Lahore Multan Peshawar Quetta Rawalpindi Sargodha

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130807590 LCCN: n79079

.