Achintya Bheda Abheda
Achintya Bheda Abheda
Shastras and Sutras
Other Indian philosophies
Kundalini (Sanskrit: कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī,
pronunciation (help·info), "coiled one"), in the concept
of Dharma, refers to a form of primal energy (or shakti) said to be
located at the base of the spine. American comparative religions
Joseph Campbell describes the concept of
Kundalini as "the
figure of a coiled female serpent—a serpent goddess not of "gross"
but "subtle" substance—which is to be thought of as residing in a
torpid, slumbering state in a subtle center, the first of the seven,
near the base of the spine: the aim of the yoga then being to rouse
this serpent, lift her head, and bring her up a subtle nerve or
channel of the spine to the so-called "thousand-petaled lotus"
(Sahasrara) at the crown of the head...She, rising from the lowest to
the highest lotus center will pass through and wake the five between,
and with each waking, the psychology and personality of the
practitioner will be altogether and fundamentally transformed."
Kundalini awakening has been said to occur as a consequence of deep
meditation which sometimes results in a feeling of enlightenment and
Kundalini awakenings may happen through a variety
of methods. Many systems of yoga focus on awakening
meditation; pranayama breathing; the practice of asana and chanting of
Kundalini experience is frequently reported to be a
feeling of electric current running along the spine.
Gopi Krishna reports having experienced his first kundalini awakening
at age 34. In his book Kundalini: Questions And Answers he writes that
while meditating upon a lotus in full bloom his attention was drawn
towards the crown of his head. He began to experience a sensation of
light as if it was entering his brain which was at first distracting
but soon began to acquire an enrapturing condition. He felt it "like
liquid light through all my nervous system, in my stomach, in my
heart, in my lungs, in my throat, in my head, and taking control of
the whole body. That was a most marvelous experience for me, as if a
new life energy had now taken possession of my body."
He subsequently came to believe "As the ancient writers have said, it
is the vital force or prana which is spread over both the macrocosm,
the entire Universe, and the microcosm, the human body... The atom is
contained in both of these.
Prana is life-energy responsible for the
phenomena of terrestrial life and for life on other planets in the
Prana in its universal aspect is immaterial. But in the
Prana creates a fine biochemical substance which works in
the whole organism and is the main agent of activity in the nervous
system and in the brain. The brain is alive only because of
...The most important psychological changes in the character of an
enlightened person would be that he or she would be compassionate and
more detached. There would be less ego, without any tendency toward
violence or aggression or falsehood. The awakened life energy is the
mother of morality, because all morality springs from this awakened
energy. Since the very beginning, it has been this evolutionary energy
that has created the concept of morals in human beings.
3.1.1 Hatha yoga
Kundalini awakening while prepared or unprepared
4 Religious interpretations
4.1 Indian interpretations
5 Western significance
5.1 New Age
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
The concept of
Kundalini is mentioned in the
Upanishads (9th century
BCE – 3rd century BCE).[verification needed] The Sanskrit
adjective kuṇḍalin means "circular, annular". It is mentioned as a
noun for "snake" (in the sense "coiled", as in "forming ringlets") in
Rajatarangini chronicle (I.2). Kuṇḍa (a noun
meaning "bowl, water-pot" is found as the name of a Naga in
Mahabharata 1.4828). The 8th-century Tantrasadbhava
Tantra uses the
term kundalī ("ring, bracelet; coil (of a
The use of kuṇḍalī as a name for Goddess
Durga (a form of Shakti)
appears often in
Shaktism from as early as the 11th
century in the Śaradatilaka. It was adopted as a technical term in
Hatha yoga during the 15th century, and became widely used in the Yoga
Upanishads by the 16th century.
Eknath Easwaran has paraphrased the
term as "the coiled power", a force which ordinarily rests at the base
of the spine, described as being "coiled there like a serpent".
Numerous accounts describe the experience of
Kundalini awakening. When
Kundalini is said to rise up from the muladhara chakra,
through the central nadi (called sushumna) inside or alongside the
spine reaching the top of the head. The progress of
the different chakras leads to different levels of awakening and a
mystical experience, until
Kundalini finally reaches the top of the
Sahasrara or crown chakra, producing an extremely profound
transformation of consciousness.:5–6 Energy is said to accumulate
in the muladhara, and the yogi seeks to send it up to the brain
transforming it into 'Ojas', the highest form of energy.
There are many and various physical effects that some people believe
to be a sign of a
Kundalini awakening; however, there are also others
who contend that the undesirable side effects may point to an
undiagnosed problem, rather than a process. The following are
either common signs of an awakened
Kundalini or symptoms of a problem
associated with an awakening Kundalini:
Bliss, feelings of infinite love and universal connectivity,
transcendent awareness, seeing truth (third eye opening), euphoria
Heightened sense of smell, heightened hearing and sexual sensations
No longer controlled by desire/cravings
Sound heard in the pineal gland (pleasurable/enjoyable)
Change in the thyroid, sudden ability to sing in perfect pitch, change
Change in the sex organs, orgasms (heightened sensations)
Change in breathing
Energy rushes or feelings of electricity circulating the body
Involuntary jerks, tremors, shaking, itching, tingling, and crawling
sensations, especially in the arms and legs
Intense heat (sweating) or cold, especially as energy is experienced
passing through the chakras
Spontaneous pranayama, asanas, mudras and bandhas
Visions or sounds at times associated with a particular chakra
Diminished or conversely extreme sexual desire sometimes leading to a
state of constant or whole-body orgasm
Emotional upheavals or surfacing of unwanted and repressed feelings or
thoughts with certain repressed emotions becoming dominant in the
conscious mind for short or long periods of time.
Headache, migraine, or pressure inside the skull
Pains in different areas of the body, especially back and neck
Sensitivity to light, sound, and touch
Trance-like and altered states of consciousness
Disrupted sleep pattern (periods of insomnia or oversleeping)
Change in body odor (sweetness/natural/healthy)
Reports about the Sahaja
Yoga technique of
Kundalini awakening state
that the practice can result in a cool breeze felt on the fingertips
as well as the fontanel bone area. One study has measured a
drop in temperature on the palms of the hands.
In his article on
Kundalini in the
Yoga Journal, David Eastman
narrates two personal experiences. One man said that he felt an
activity at the base of his spine starting to flow, so he relaxed and
allowed it to happen. A feeling of surging energy began traveling up
his back. At each chakra, he felt an orgasmic electric feeling like
every nerve trunk on his spine beginning to fire. A second man
describes a similar experience but accompanied by a wave of euphoria
and happiness softly permeating his being. He described the surging
energy as being like electricity but hot, traveling from the base of
his spine to the top of his head. He said the more he analyzed the
experience, the less it occurred.
In his book Building a Noble World,
Shiv R. Jhawar
Shiv R. Jhawar describes his
Kundalini awakening experience at Muktananda's public program at Lake
Point Tower in Chicago on September 16, 1974, as follows:
"Baba [Swami Muktananda] had just begun delivering his discourse with
his opening statement: 'Today's subject is meditation. The crux of the
question is: What do we meditate upon?' Continuing his talk, Baba
Kundalini starts dancing when one repeats Om Namah Shivaya.'
Hearing this, I mentally repeated the mantra. I noticed that my
breathing was getting heavier. Suddenly, I felt a great impact of a
rising force within me. The intensity of this rising kundalini force
was so tremendous that my body lifted up a little and fell flat into
the aisle; my eyeglasses flew off. As I lay there with my eyes closed,
I could see a continuous fountain of dazzling white lights erupting
within me. In brilliance, these lights were brighter than the sun but
possessed no heat at all. I was experiencing the thought-free state of
"I am," realizing that "I" have always been, and will continue to be,
eternal. I was fully conscious and completely aware while I was
experiencing the pure "I am," a state of supreme bliss. Outwardly, at
that precise moment, Baba delightfully shouted from his
platform...mene kuch nahi kiya; kisiko shakti ne pakda (I didn't do
anything. The Energy has caught someone.)' Baba noticed that the
dramatic awakening of kundalini in me frightened some people in the
audience. Therefore, he said, 'Do not be frightened. Sometimes
kundalini gets awakened in this way, depending upon a person's
Several yogis consider that
Kundalini can be awakened by shaktipat
(spiritual transmission by a
Guru or teacher), or by spiritual
practices such as yoga or meditation.
There are two broad approaches to
Kundalini awakening: active and
passive. The active approach involves systematic physical exercises
and techniques of concentration, visualization, pranayama (breath
practice) and meditation under the guidance of a competent teacher.
These techniques come from any of the four main branches of yoga, and
some forms of yoga, such as Kriya yoga,
Kundalini yoga and Sahaja
The passive approach is instead a path of surrender where one lets go
of all the impediments to the awakening rather than trying to actively
awaken Kundalini. A chief part of the passive approach is shaktipat
where one individual's
Kundalini is awakened by another who already
has the experience.
Shaktipat only raises
Kundalini temporarily but
gives the student an experience to use as a basis.
According to the hatha yoga text, the Goraksasataka, or "Hundred
Verses of Goraksa", certain hatha yoga practices including mula
bandha, uddiyana bandha, jalandhara bandha and kumbhaka can awaken
Kundalini. Another hathayoga text, the Khecarīvidyā states that
kechari mudra enables one to raise
Kundalini and access various stores
of amrita in the head, which subsequently flood the body.
The spiritual teacher
Meher Baba emphasized the need for a master when
actively trying to awaken Kundalini:
Kundalini is a latent power in the higher body. When awakened, it
pierces through six chakras or functional centers and activates them.
Without a master, the awakening of the kundalini cannot take anyone
very far on the Path; and such indiscriminate or premature awakening
is fraught with dangers of self-deception as well as the misuse of
powers. The kundalini enables man to consciously cross the lower
planes and it ultimately merges into the universal cosmic power of
which it is a part, and which also is at times described as
kundalini ... The important point is that the awakened kundalini
is helpful only up to a certain degree, after which it cannot ensure
further progress. It cannot dispense with the need for the grace of a
Kundalini awakening while prepared or unprepared
The experience of
Kundalini awakening can happen when one is either
prepared or unprepared.
Hindu tradition, in order to be able to integrate this
spiritual energy, a period of careful purification and strengthening
of the body and nervous system is usually required beforehand.
Tantra propose that
Kundalini can be awakened by a guru
(teacher), but body and spirit must be prepared by yogic austerities,
such as pranayama, or breath control, physical exercises,
visualization, and chanting. The student is advised to follow the path
in an open-hearted manner.
Traditionally, people would visit ashrams in India to awaken their
dormant kundalini energy. Typical activities would include regular
meditation, mantra chanting, spiritual studies as well as a physical
asana practice such as kundalini yoga. However,
Kundalini is now
widely known outside of the
Hindu religion and many cultures globally
have created their own ways to awaken the kundalini energy within
people. Without explanation, an increasingly large percentage of
people are experiencing kundalini energy awakenings spontaneously,
which means it is not vital to follow a distinct set of instructions
or rules in order to awaken the energy.
Kundalini can also awaken spontaneously for no obvious reason, or
triggered by intense personal experiences such as accidents, near
death experiences, childbirth, emotional trauma, extreme mental
stress, and so on. Some sources attribute spontaneous awakenings to
the "grace of God", or possibly to spiritual practice in past
A spontaneous awakening in one who is unprepared or without the
assistance of a good teacher can result in an experience which has
been termed as "
Kundalini crisis", "spiritual emergency" or "Kundalini
syndrome". The symptoms are said to resemble those of Kundalini
awakening but are experienced as unpleasant, overwhelming or out of
control. Unpleasant side effects are also said to occur when the
practitioner has not approached
Kundalini with due respect and in a
narrow egotistical manner.
Kundalini has been described as a highly
creative intelligence which dwarfs our own.
therefore, requires surrender; it is not an energy which can be
manipulated by the ego.
Some writers use the term "
Kundalini syndrome" to refer to physical or
psychological problems arising from experiences traditionally
Kundalini awakening.
Kundalini is considered to occur in the chakra and nadis of the subtle
body. Each chakra is said to contain special characteristics and
with proper training, moving
Kundalini through these chakras can help
express or open these characteristics.
Kundalini is described as a sleeping, dormant potential force in the
human organism.[full citation needed] It is one of the components
of an esoteric description of the "subtle body", which consists of
nadis (energy channels), chakras (psychic centres), prana (subtle
energy), and bindu (drops of essence).
Kundalini is described as being coiled up at the base of the spine.
The description of the location can vary slightly, from the rectum to
Kundalini is said to reside in the triangular
shaped sacrum bone in three and a half coils.
Kundalini has been described as "a residual power of pure desire" by
Nirmala Srivastava and "a huge volume of energy" that is latent
within a person by Jaggi Vasudev.
Ramana Maharshi mentioned that
Kundalini is nothing but the natural
energy of the Self, where Self is the universal consciousness
(Paramatma) present in every being and that the individual mind of
thoughts cloaks this natural energy from unadulterated expression.
Advaita teaches self-realization, enlightenment, God-consciousness,
and nirvana. But initial
Kundalini awakening is just the beginning of
the actual spiritual experience. Self-inquiry meditation is considered
a very natural and simple means of reaching this goal.[citation
Swami Vivekananda describes
Kundalini briefly in his book Raja
According to the Yogis, there are two nerve currents in the spinal
column, called Pingalâ and Idâ, and a hollow canal called Sushumnâ
running through the spinal cord. At the lower end of the hollow canal
is what the Yogis call the "Lotus of the Kundalini". They describe it
as triangular in a form in which, in the symbolical language of the
Yogis, there is a power called the Kundalini, coiled up. When that
Kundalini awakens, it tries to force a passage through this hollow
canal, and as it rises step by step, as it were, layer after layer of
the mind becomes open and all the different visions and wonderful
powers come to the Yogi. When it reaches the brain, the
perfectly detached from the body and mind; the soul finds itself free.
We know that the spinal cord is composed in a peculiar manner. If we
take the figure eight horizontally (∞), there are two parts which
are connected in the middle. Suppose you add eight after eight, piled
one on top of the other, that will represent the spinal cord. The left
is the Ida, the right Pingala, and that hollow canal which runs
through the center of the spinal cord is the Sushumna. Where the
spinal cord ends in some of the lumbar vertebrae, a fine fiber issues
downwards, and the canal runs up even within that fiber, only much
finer. The canal is closed at the lower end, which is situated near
what is called the sacral plexus, which, according to modern
physiology, is triangular in form. The different plexuses that have
their centers in the spinal canal can very well stand for the
different "lotuses" of the Yogi.
Shakti is conceived as a goddess, then, when it rises
to the head, it unites itself with the Supreme Being of (Lord Shiva).
The aspirant then becomes engrossed in deep meditation and infinite
Paramahansa Yogananda in his book God Talks With Arjuna: The
Bhagavad Gita states:[page needed]
At the command of the yogi in deep meditation, this creative force
turns inward and flows back to its source in the thousand-petaled
lotus, revealing the resplendent inner world of the divine forces and
consciousness of the soul and spirit.
Yoga refers to this power
flowing from the coccyx to spirit as the awakened kundalini.
Paramahansa Yogananda also states:
The yogi reverses the searchlights of intelligence, mind and life
force inward through a secret astral passage, the coiled way of the
kundalini in the coccygeal plexus, and upward through the sacral, the
lumbar, and the higher dorsal, cervical, and medullary plexuses, and
the spiritual eye at the point between the eyebrows, to reveal finally
the soul's presence in the highest center (Sahasrara) in the
Sir John Woodroffe
Sir John Woodroffe (1865–1936) – also known by his pseudonym
Arthur Avalon – was a British Orientalist whose published works
stimulated a far-reaching interest in
Hindu philosophy and Yogic
practices. While serving as a High Court Judge in Calcutta, he studied
Hindu Philosophy, particularly as it related to Hindu
Tantra. He translated numerous original
Sanskrit texts and lectured on
Yoga and Tantra. His book, The Serpent Power: The
Secrets of Tantric and Shaktic
Yoga became a major source for many
modern Western adaptations of
Kundalini yoga practice. It presents an
academically and philosophically sophisticated translation of, and
commentary on, two key Eastern texts: Shatchakranirūpana (Description
and Investigation into the Six Bodily Centers) written by Tantrik
Pūrnānanda Svāmī (1526) and the Paduka-Pancakā from the Sanskrit
of a commentary by Kālīcharana (Five-fold Footstool of the Guru).
Sanskrit term "Kundali Shakti" translates as "Serpent Power".
Kundalini is thought to be an energy released within an individual
using specific meditation techniques. It is represented symbolically
as a serpent coiled at the base of the spine.
In his preface to The Serpent Power Woodroffe clarifies the concept of
Vivified by the “Serpent Fire”( Kundalini) they (chakras) become
gates of connection between the physical and “astral” bodies. When
the astral awakening of these centers first took place, this was not
known to the physical consciousness. But the sense body can now “be
brought to share all these advantages by repeating that process of
awakening with the etheric centers. This is done by the arousing
through will-force of the “Serpent Fire,” which exists clothed in
“etheric matter in the physical plane, and sleeps in the
corresponding etheric center—that at the base of the spine. When
this is done, it vivifies the higher centers, with the effect that it
brings into the physical consciousness the powers which are aroused by
the development of their corresponding astral centers. . . There mere
rousing of the Serpent Power does not, from the spiritual Yoga
standpoint, amount too much. Nothing, however, of real moment, from
the higher Yogi’s point of view, is achieved until the Ajna Cakra is
reached. Here, again, it is said that the Sadhaka whose Atma is
nothing but a meditation on the lotus “becomes the creator,
preserver and destroyer of the three worlds”…It is not until the
Tattvas of this center are also absorbed, and complete knowledge of
Sahasrara is gained, that the
Yogi attains that which is both his
aim and the motive of his labor, cessation from rebirth which follows
on the control and concentration of the Citta on the Siva-sthanam, the
Abode of Bliss.
In his book Artistic Form and
Yoga in the Sacred Images of India,
Heinrich Zimmer spoke highly of Woodroffe's works:
The values of the
Hindu tradition were disclosed to me through the
enormous life-work of Sir John Woodroffe, alias Arthur Avalon, a
pioneer and a classic author in Indie studies, second to none, who,
for the first time, by many publications and books made available the
extensive and complex treasure of late
Hindu tradition: the Tantras, a
period as grand and rich as the Vedas, the Epic, Puranas, etc.; the
latest crystallization of Indian wisdom, the indispensable closing
link of a chain, affording keys to countless problems in the history
Buddhism and Hinduism, in mythology and symbolism.
When Woodroffe later commented upon the reception of his work he
clarified his objective, "All the world (I speak of course of those
interested in such subjects) is beginning to speak of Kundalinî
Shakti." He described his intention as follows: "We, who are
foreigners, must place ourselves in the skin of the Hindu, and must
look at their doctrine and ritual through their eyes and not our
Western awareness of kundalini was strengthened by the interest of
Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Dr.
Carl Jung (1875–1961).
Jung's seminar on
Kundalini yoga presented to the Psychological Club
in Zurich in 1932 was widely regarded as a milestone in the
psychological understanding of
Eastern thought and of the symbolic
transformations of inner experience.
Kundalini yoga presented Jung
with a model for the developmental phases of higher consciousness, and
he interpreted its symbols in terms of the process of individuation,
with sensitivity towards a new generation's interest in alternative
religions and psychological exploration.
In the introduction to Jung's book The Psychology of
Sonu Shamdasani puts forth "The emergence of depth psychology was
historically paralleled by the translation and widespread
dissemination of the texts of yoga... for the depth psychologies
sought to liberate themselves from the stultifying limitations of
Western thought to develop maps of inner experience grounded in the
transformative potential of therapeutic practices. A similar alignment
of "theory" and "practice" seemed to be embodied in the yogic texts
that moreover had developed independently of the bindings of Western
thought. Further, the initiatory structure adopted by institutions of
psychotherapy brought its social organization into proximity with that
of yoga. Hence, an opportunity for a new form of comparative
psychology opened up.":xviii-xix
The American writer William Buhlman, began to conduct an international
survey of out-of-body experiences in 1969 in order to gather
information about symptoms: sounds, vibrations and other phenomena,
that commonly occur at the time of the OBE event. His primary interest
was to compare the findings with reports made by yogis, such as Gopi
Krishna (yogi) who have made reference to similar phenomenon, such as
the 'vibrational state' as components of their kundalini-related
spiritual experience. He explains:
There are numerous reports of full
Kundalini experiences culminating
with a transcendental out-of-body state of consciousness. In fact,
many people consider this experience to be the ultimate path to
enlightenment. The basic premise is to encourage the flow of Kundalini
energy up the spine and toward the top of the head—the crown
chakra—thus projecting your awareness into the higher heavenly
dimensions of the universe. The result is an indescribable expansion
of consciousness into spiritual realms beyond form and thought.
George King (1919–1997), founder of the Aetherius Society, describes
the concept of
Kundalini throughout his works and claimed to have
experienced this energy many times throughout his life while in a
"positive samadhic yogic trance state".
According to King,
It should always be remembered that despite appearances to the
contrary, the complete control of
Kundalini through the spinal column
is man's only reason for being on Earth, for when this is
accomplished, the lessons in this classroom and the mystical
examination is passed.
In his lecture entitled The Psychic Centers – Their
Significance and Development, he describes the theory behind the
Kundalini and how this might be done safely in the context
of a balanced life devoted to selfless service.
Sri Aurobindo was the other great authority scholar on Kundalini
parallel to Woodroffe with a somewhat different viewpoint, according
to Mary Scott (who is herself a latter-day scholar on
its physical basis) and was a member of the Theosophical Society.
In the early 1930s, two Italian scholars,
Tommaso Palamidessi and
Julius Evola, published several books with the intent of
re-interpreting alchemy with reference to yoga. Those works
influenced modern interpretations of
Alchemy as a mystical science. In
Kundalini is called an "Igneous Power" or "Serpentine
Other well-known spiritual teachers who have made use of the idea of
Kundalini include Aleister Crowley, whose
Gnostic Mass symbolically
incorporates the concept via various means including the entrance
procession ('circumambulation') of the Priest and Priestess; Albert
Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh
Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho), George Gurdjieff,
Paramahansa Yogananda, Sivananda Radha Saraswati, who produced an
English language guide to
Kundalini yoga methods, Muktananda, Bhagawan
Yogi Bhajan, Nirmala Srivastava, Samael Aun Weor.[citation
Kundalini references may be found in a number of New Age
presentations, and is a word that has been adopted by many new
Carl Jung "... the concept of
Kundalini has for us
only one use, that is, to describe our own experiences with the
unconscious ..." Jung used the
Kundalini system symbolically
as a means of understanding the dynamic movement between conscious and
unconscious processes. He cautioned that all forms of yoga, when used
by Westerners, can be attempts at domination of the body and
unconscious through the ideal of ascending into higher
According to Shamdasani, Jung claimed that the symbolism of Kundalini
yoga suggested that the bizarre symptomatology that patients at times
presented, actually resulted from the awakening of the Kundalini. He
argued that knowledge of such symbolism enabled much that would
otherwise be seen as the meaningless by-products of a disease process
to be understood as meaningful symbolic processes, and explicated the
often peculiar physical localizations of symptoms.:xxvi
Recently, there has been a growing interest within the medical
community to study the physiological effects of meditation, and some
of these studies have applied the discipline of
Kundalini yoga to
their clinical settings.[full citation needed][full citation
The popularization of eastern spiritual practices has been associated
with psychological problems in the west. Psychiatric literature notes
that "since the influx of eastern spiritual practices and the rising
popularity of meditation starting in the 1960s, many people have
experienced a variety of psychological difficulties, either while
engaged in intensive spiritual practice or spontaneously". Among
the psychological difficulties associated with intensive spiritual
practice we find "
Kundalini awakening", "a complex
physio-psychospiritual transformative process described in the yogic
tradition". Researchers in the fields of Transpersonal
psychology, and Near-death studies have described a complex
pattern of sensory, motor, mental and affective symptoms associated
with the concept of Kundalini, sometimes called the Kundalini
The differentiation between spiritual emergency associated with
Kundalini awakening may be viewed as an acute psychotic episode by
psychiatrists who are not conversant with the culture. The biological
changes of increased P300 amplitudes that occurs with certain yogic
practices may lead to acute psychosis. Biological alterations by Yogic
techniques may be used to warn people against such reactions.
Some modern experimental research seeks to establish links between
Kundalini practice and the ideas of
Wilhelm Reich and his
followers.[full citation needed]
Temporal lobe epilepsy
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Kundalini (1993 in German)
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Aun Weor, Samael (2009).
Kundalini Yoga. EDISAW.
Aun Weor, Samael (2009). O Matrimônio Perfeito. EDISAW.
Avalon, A. (1974). The Serpent Power: The Secrets of Tantric and
Shaktic Yoga. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-23058-9.
Karmokar, G. (2006). Kundalini – From Hell to Heaven. Zen Way
Center. ISBN 0-9777456-0-0.
Kripananda, S. (1995). The Sacred Power: A Seeker's Guide to
Yoga Publications. ISBN 0-911307-39-7.
Krishna, G. (1989). The Awakening of Kundalini. Institute for
Consciousness Research. ISBN 0-917776-06-2.
Krishna, G. (1993). Higher Consciousness and Kundalini. Institute for
Consciousness Research. ISBN 0-917776-05-4.
Krishna, G. (1993). Living with Kundalini. Shambhala.
Krishna, G. (1997). Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man.
Shambhala. ISBN 978-1-57062-280-9.
Mookerjee, A. (1981). Kundalini: The Arousal of the Inner Energy (2nd
ed.). Destiny Books. ISBN 0-89281-020-3.
Muktananda, S. (1995). Kundalini: The Secret of Life (erd ed.). U B S
Publishers' Distributors Ltd. ISBN 81-7476-038-5.
Petty, A. (2007).
Kundalini Rising: Exploring the Chakra/Asanas
Connection. Kitsune Books. ISBN 0-9792700-0-6.
Scott, Mary (2006). The
Kundalini Concept: Its Origin and Value. Jain
Pub Co. ISBN 978-0-89581-857-7.
Sannella, L. (1987). The
Kundalini Experience: Psychosis or
Transcendence. Integral Publications. ISBN 0-941255-29-8.
Springett, Tara (2014). Enlightenment Through the Path of Kundalini: A
Tibetan-Buddhist Guide to Safe Awakening and Overcoming Difficult
Symptoms. Higher Consciousness Publishing.
White, J. (1998). Kundalini, Evolution and Enlightenment. Paragon
House. ISBN 1-55778-303-9.
Yogananda, Paramahansa (1995). God Talks With Arjuna: The Bhagavad
Gita. Self-Realization Fellowship. ISBN 0-87612-030-3.
Kundalini at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
History of yoga
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga as exercise or alternative medicine
List of asanas
List of styles
styles and schools
Ananda Marga Yoga
Ashtanga vinyasa yoga
Bihar School of Yoga
Integral yoga (Satchidananda)
Indian Buddhist Tantra
Six Yogas of Naropa