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Karachi
Karachi
(Urdu: کراچی‬‎; ALA-LC: Karācī, IPA: [kəˈraːtʃi] ( listen); Sindhi: ڪراچي‎) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. It is the most populous city in Pakistan,[13][14] and third most populous city proper in the world.[15][16] Ranked as a beta world city,[17][18] the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre.[19] Karachi
Karachi
is also Pakistan's most cosmopolitan city.[20] Situated on the Arabian Sea, Karachi
Karachi
serves as a transport hub, and is home to two of Pakistan's two largest seaports, the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
and Port
Port
Bin Qasim, as well as the busiest airport in Pakistan. Though the Karachi
Karachi
region has been inhabited for millennia,[21] the city was founded as the fortified village of Kolachi[22] in 1729.[23] The settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British East India
India
company in the mid 19th century, who not only embarked on major works to transform the city into a major seaport, but also connected it with their extensive railway network.[22] By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh
Sindh
with an estimated population of 400,000.[20] Following the independence of Pakistan, the city's population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim
Muslim
refugees from India.[24] The city experienced rapid economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan
Pakistan
and South Asia.[25] Karachi
Karachi
is one of Pakistan's most secular and socially liberal cities.[26][27][28] It is also the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan.[20] With a population of 14.9 million recorded in the 2017
2017
Census of Pakistan,[6] Karachi is the world's 6th most populous metropolitan area.[29][30] Karachi
Karachi
is one of the world's fastest growing cities,[31] and has communities representing almost every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi
Karachi
is home to over 2 million Bangladeshi immigrants, 1 million Afghan refugees, and up to 400,000 Rohingyas from Myanmar.[32][33][34] Karachi
Karachi
is now Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre. The city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014[update].[35] Karachi
Karachi
collects over a third of Pakistan's tax revenue,[36] and generates approximately 20% of Pakistan's GDP.[37][38] Approximately 30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi,[39] while Karachi's ports handle approximately 95% of Pakistan's foreign trade.[40] Approximately 90% of the multinational corporations operating in Pakistan
Pakistan
are headquartered in Karachi.[40] Up to 70% of Karachi's workforce is employed in the informal economy,[41] which is typically not included in GDP calculations.[42] Known as the "City of Lights" in the 1960s and 1970s for its vibrant nightlife,[43] Karachi
Karachi
was beset by sharp ethnic, sectarian, and political conflict in the 1980s with the arrival of weaponry during the Soviet–Afghan War.[44] The city had become well known for its high rates of violent crime, but recorded crimes sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM political party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Rangers.[45] The city's murder rate in 2015 had decreased by 75% compared to 2013, and kidnappings decreased by 90%,[46] with the improved security environment triggering sharp increases in real-estate prices.[47]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Kolachi settlement 2.3 British Raj 2.4 Post-independence

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Cityscape

4 Economy

4.1 Employment 4.2 Finance and Banking 4.3 Media and Technology 4.4 Industry 4.5 Revenue collection

5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Ethnicity 5.3 Religion 5.4 Language

6 Transportation

6.1 Road 6.2 Rail 6.3 Public transport

6.3.1 Metrobus 6.3.2 Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway

6.4 Air 6.5 Sea

7 Civic administration

7.1 Historical background 7.2 Union Councils (2001–2011) 7.3 District Municipal Corporations

8 Municipal services

8.1 Water 8.2 Sanitation

9 Education

9.1 Primary and secondary 9.2 Higher

10 Healthcare 11 Art and culture

11.1 Museums and galleries 11.2 Theatre and cinema 11.3 Music 11.4 Tourist attractions

12 Social issues

12.1 Crime

12.1.1 Karachi
Karachi
Operation

12.2 Ethnic conflict 12.3 Poor infrastructure

13 Architecture 14 Sports 15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

Etymology Karachi
Karachi
was reputedly founded in 1729
1729
as the settlement of Kolachi.[23] The new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slain a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had already been killed by it.[23] The city's inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, and Karāchīwālā in Urdu. History Main articles: History of Karachi
History of Karachi
and Timeline of Karachi
Karachi
history Early history

The 15th–18th century Chaukhandi tombs
Chaukhandi tombs
are located 29 km (18 mi) east of Karachi.

Late Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
sites discovered by a team from Karachi University
Karachi University
on the Mulri Hills constitute one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in Sindh
Sindh
during the last 50 years. The earliest inhabitants of the Karachi
Karachi
region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites. A sea port called Barbarikon
Barbarikon
by the Greeks
Greeks
was situated in Karachi. The Karachi
Karachi
region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, as well as Morontobara which may possibly be Karachi's Manora neighbourhood. In 711 CE, Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
conquered the Sindh
Sindh
and Indus Valley. The Karachi
Karachi
region is believed to have been known to the Arabs as Debal, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim launched his forces into South Asia in 712 C.E.[48] Under Mirza Ghazi Beg, the Mughal administrator of Sindh, the development of coastal Sindh
Sindh
and the Indus delta was encouraged. Under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh. The Ottoman admiral, Seydi Ali Reis, mentioned Debal
Debal
and Manora Island in his book Mir'ât ül Memâlik in 1554. Kolachi settlement Karachi
Karachi
was founded in 1729
1729
as the settlement of Kolachi under the rule of the ethnically Baloch Talpur Mirs of Sindh.[23] The founders of the settlement are said to arrived from the nearby town of Karak Bandar after the harbour there silted in 1728 after heavy rains. The settlement was fortified, and defended with cannons imported by Sindhi sailors from Muscat, Oman. The name Karachee was used for the first time in a Dutch document from 1742, in which a merchant ship de Ridderkerk is shipwrecked near the original settlement.[49][50] The city continued to be ruled by the Talpur Mirs until it was occupied by forces under the command of John Keane in February 1839.[51] British Raj

Some of Karachi's most recognized structures, such as Frere Hall, date from the British Raj.

Karachi
Karachi
features several examples of colonial-era Indo-Saracenic architecture.

The former State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan
building was built during the colonial era.

Karachi
Karachi
Port
Port
Trust building

The British East India
India
Company captured Karachi
Karachi
on 3 February 1839 after the HMS Wellesley opened fire and quickly destroyed the local mud fort at Manora.[52] The town was annexed to British India
India
in 1843 after Sindh
Sindh
was captured by Major General Charles James Napier
Charles James Napier
in the Battle of Miani, with the city declared capital of the new British province. The city was recognized for its strategic importance, prompting the British to establish the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
in 1854. Karachi
Karachi
rapidly became a transportation hub for British India
India
owing to newly built port and rail infrastructure, as well as the increase in agricultural exports from the opening of productive tracts of newly irrigated land in Punjab and interior Sindh.[53] The British also developed the Karachi Cantonment
Karachi Cantonment
as a military garrison in order to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War.[54] During the Sepoy Mutiny
Sepoy Mutiny
of 1857, the 21st Native Infantry, then stationed in Karachi, mutinied and declared allegiance to rebel forces in September 1857, though the British were able to quickly defeat the rebels and reassert control over the city. Following the Rebellion, British colonial administrators continued to develop the city. In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from South Asia to England from Karachi.[55] Public building works were undertaken, including the construction of Frere Hall
Frere Hall
in 1865 and the later Empress Market. In 1878, the British Raj
British Raj
connected Karachi
Karachi
with the network of British India's vast railway system. By 1899, Karachi
Karachi
had become the largest wheat-exporting port in the East.[56] British development projects in Karachi
Karachi
resulted in an influx of economic migrants from several ethnicities and religions, including Anglo-British, Parsis, Marathis, and Goan Christians, among others. Karachi's newly arrived Jewish population established the city's first synagogue in 1893.[57] Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was born in Karachi's Wazir Mansion
Wazir Mansion
in 1876 to migrants from Gujarat. By the end of the 19th century, Karachi's population was estimated to be 105,000.[58] Under British rule, the city's municipal government was established. Known as the Father of Modern Karachi, mayor Seth Harchandrai Vishandas led the municipal government to improve sanitary conditions in the Old City, as well as major infrastructure works in the New Town after his election in 1911.[2] Post-independence At the dawn of Pakistan's independence in 1947, Karachi
Karachi
was Sindh's largest city with a population of over 400,000.[20] Despite communal violence across India
India
and Pakistan, Karachi
Karachi
remained relatively peaceful compared to cities further north in Punjab.[2] The city became the focus for the resettlement of Muslim
Muslim
Muhajirs migrating from India, leading to a dramatic expansion of the city's population. This migration lasted until the 1960s.[59] This immigration ultimately transformed the city's demographics and economy. Karachi
Karachi
was selected as the first capital of Pakistan
Pakistan
and served as such until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
in 1958.[60] While foreign embassies shifted away from Karachi, the city is host to numerous consulates and honorary consulates.[61] Between 1958 and 1970, Karachi's role as capital of Sindh
Sindh
was ceased due to the One Unit programme enacted by President Iskander Mirza.[2] Karachi
Karachi
of the 1960s was regarded as an economic role model around the world, with Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
borrowing from the city's second "Five-Year Plan."[62][63] The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi's industrial estates. The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of thousands of Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
from the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
into Karachi; who were in turn followed in smaller numbers by refugees escaping from post-revolution Iran.[64] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Karachi
Karachi
was rocked by political and conflict, while crime rates drastically increased with the arrival of weaponry from the War in Afghanistan.[44] Conflict between the MQM party, and ethnic Sindhis, Pashtuns, and Punjabis
Punjabis
was sharp. The party and its vast network of supporters were targeted by Pakistani security forces as part of the controversial Operation Clean-up
Operation Clean-up
in 1992 – an effort to restore peace in the city that lasted until 1994.[65] Anti- Hindu
Hindu
riots also broke out in Karachi
Karachi
in 1992 in retaliation for the demolition of the Babri Mosque
Babri Mosque
in India
India
by a group of Hindu nationalists earlier that year.[66] Karachi
Karachi
had become widely known for its high rates of violent crime, but recorded crimes sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Rangers.[45] Geography Main articles: Geography of Karachi
Geography of Karachi
and Environment of Karachi

Satellite view of Karachi

Karachi
Karachi
is located on the coastline of Sindh
Sindh
province in southern Pakistan, along a natural harbour on the Arabian Sea. Karachi
Karachi
is built on a coastal plains with scattered rocky outcroppings, hills and coastal marshlands. Coastal mangrove forests grow in the brackish waters around the Karachi
Karachi
Harbour, and farther southeast towards the expansive Indus River
Indus River
Delta. West of Karachi
Karachi
city is the Cape Monze, locally known as Ras Muari, which is an area characterised by sea cliffs, rocky sandstone promontories and undeveloped beaches. Within the city of Karachi
Karachi
are two small ranges: the Khasa Hills and Mulri Hills, which lie in the northwest and act as a barrier between North Nazimabad Town
North Nazimabad Town
and Orangi Town.[67] Karachi's hills are barren and are part of the larger Kirthar Range, and have a maximum elevation of 528 metres (1,732 feet). Between the hills are wide coastal plains interspersed with dry river beds and water channels. Karachi
Karachi
has developed around the Malir River and Lyari Rivers, with the Lyari shore being the site of the settlement for Kolachi. To the west of Karachi
Karachi
lies the Indus River flood plain.[68] Climate Main article: Climate of Karachi

The Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
influences Karachi's climate, providing the city with more moderate temperatures compared to interior Sindh
Sindh
province.

Karachi
Karachi
has an arid climate (Köppen: BWh) dominated by a long "Summer Season" while moderated by oceanic influence from the Arabian Sea. The city has low annual average precipitation levels (approx. 250 mm (9.8 in) per annum), the bulk of which occurs during the July–August monsoon season. While the summers are hot and humid, cool sea breezes typically provide relief during hot summer months, though Karachi
Karachi
is prone to deadly heat waves,[69] though a text-message based early warning system is now in place that helped prevent any fatalities during an unusually strong heatwave in October 2017.[70] The winter climate is dry and lasts between December and February. It is dry and pleasant relative to the warm hot season, which starts in March and lasts until monsoons arrive in June. Proximity to the sea maintains humidity levels at near-constant levels year-round. The city's highest monthly rainfall, 429.3 mm (16.90 in), occurred in July 1967.[71] The city's highest rainfall in 24 hours occurred on 7 August 1953, when about 278.1 millimetres (10.95 in) of rain lashed the city, resulting in major flooding.[72] Karachi's highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118 °F) which was recorded on 9 May 1938,[73] and the lowest is 0 °C (32 °F) recorded on 21 January 1934.[71]

Climate data for Karachi

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.8 (91) 36.1 (97) 41.5 (106.7) 44.4 (111.9) 47.8 (118) 47.0 (116.6) 42.2 (108) 41.7 (107.1) 42.8 (109) 43.3 (109.9) 38.5 (101.3) 34.5 (94.1) 47.8 (118)

Average high °C (°F) 25.8 (78.4) 27.7 (81.9) 31.5 (88.7) 34.3 (93.7) 35.2 (95.4) 34.8 (94.6) 33.1 (91.6) 31.7 (89.1) 32.6 (90.7) 34.7 (94.5) 31.9 (89.4) 27.4 (81.3) 31.7 (89.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 18.1 (64.6) 20.2 (68.4) 24.5 (76.1) 28.3 (82.9) 30.5 (86.9) 31.4 (88.5) 30.3 (86.5) 28.9 (84) 28.9 (84) 27.9 (82.2) 23.9 (75) 19.5 (67.1) 26.0 (78.8)

Average low °C (°F) 10.4 (50.7) 12.7 (54.9) 17.6 (63.7) 22.3 (72.1) 25.9 (78.6) 27.9 (82.2) 27.4 (81.3) 26.1 (79) 25.2 (77.4) 21.0 (69.8) 15.9 (60.6) 11.6 (52.9) 20.3 (68.5)

Record low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 3.3 (37.9) 7.0 (44.6) 12.2 (54) 17.7 (63.9) 22.1 (71.8) 22.2 (72) 20.0 (68) 18.0 (64.4) 10.0 (50) 6.1 (43) 1.3 (34.3) 0.0 (32)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 6.0 (0.236) 9.8 (0.386) 11.7 (0.461) 4.4 (0.173) 0.0 (0) 5.5 (0.217) 85.5 (3.366) 67.4 (2.654) 19.9 (0.783) 1.0 (0.039) 1.8 (0.071) 4.4 (0.173) 217.4 (8.559)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 270.7 249.4 271.6 277.4 299.1 231.8 155.0 147.7 218.8 283.5 273.3 272.0 2,950.3

Source #1: NOAA[74]

Source #2: PMD (extremes)[75]

Cityscape

Central Karachi
Karachi
features several buildings dating from the colonial era.

The city first developed around the Karachi
Karachi
Harbour, and owes much of its growth to its role as a seaport at the end of the 18th century,[76] contrasted with Pakistan's millennia-old cities such as Lahore, Multan, and Peshawar. Karachi's Mithadar
Mithadar
neighbourhood represents the extent of Kolachi prior to British rule. British Karachi
Karachi
was divided between the "New Town" and the "Old Town," with British investments focused primarily in the New Town.[54] The Old Town was a largely unplanned neighbourhood which housed most of the city's indigenous residents, and had no access to sewerage systems, electricity, and water.[54] The New Town was subdivided into residential, commercial, and military areas.[54] Given the strategic value of the city, the British developed the Karachi Cantonment
Karachi Cantonment
as a military garrison in the New Town in order to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War.[54]

Much of Karachi's skyline is decentralized, with some growth in traditionally suburban areas.

The city's development was largely confined to the area north of the Chinna Creek prior to independence, although the seaside area of Clifton was also developed as a posh locale under the British, and its large bungalows and estates remain some of the city's most desirable properties. The aforementioned historic areas form the oldest portions of Karachi, and contain its most important monuments and government buildings, with the I. I. Chundrigar Road
I. I. Chundrigar Road
being home to most of Pakistan's banks, including the Habib Bank Plaza
Habib Bank Plaza
which was Pakistan's tallest building from 1963 until the early 2000s.[2] Situated on a coastal plain northwest of Karachi's historic core lies the sprawling district of Orangi Town. North of the historic core is the largely middle-class district of Nazimabad, and upper-middle class North Nazimabad, which were developed in the 1950s. To the east of the historic core is the area known as Defence – an expansive upscale suburb developed and administered by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. Karachi's coastal plains along the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
south of Clifton were also developed much later as part of the greater Defence Housing Authority project. Karachi's city limits also include several islands, including Baba and Bhit Islands, Oyster Rocks, and Manora, a former island which is now connected to the mainland by a thin 12 kilometre long shoal known as Sandspit. The city has been described as one divided into sections for those able to afford to live in planned localities with access to urban amenities, and those who live in unplanned communities with inadequate access to such services.[77] Up to 60% of Karachi's residents live in such unplanned communities.[77] Economy Main article: Economy of Karachi

Karachi's financial heart is centered on I. I. Chundrigar Road

Karachi's colonial-era Empress Market
Empress Market
is located in Saddar.

Karachi
Karachi
is Pakistan's financial and commercial capital.[78] Since Pakistan's independence, Karachi
Karachi
has been the centre of the nation's economy, and remain's Pakistan's largest urban economy despite the economic stagnation caused by sociopolitical unrest during the late 1980s and 1990s. The city forms the centre of an economic corridor stretching from Karachi
Karachi
to nearby Hyderabad, and Thatta.[79] With an estimated GDP of $113 billion as of 2014[update],[35] Karachi
Karachi
contributes the bulk of Sindh's gross domestic product.[80][81][82][83] The city's competitiveness has declined relative to other Pakistani cities on account of poor infrastructure, corruption, and political instability.[79] Following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Rangers,[45] crime rates have dramatically fallen in the city,[46] triggering sharp increases in real-estate prices.[47] In addition to increased land values, upmarket restaurants and cafés are described by Reuters
Reuters
as "overflowing."[84] Employment Karachi
Karachi
accounts for approximately 20% of the total GDP of Pakistan.[37][38] The city has a large informal economy which is not typically reflected in GDP estimates.[85] The informal economy may constitute up to 36% of Pakistan's total economy, versus 22% of India's economy, and 13% of the Chinese economy.[86] The informal sector employs up to 70% of the city's workforce.[41] An estimated 63% of the city's workforce is employed in trade and manufacturing.[79] Finance and Banking Most of Pakistan's public and private banks are headquartered on Karachi's I. I. Chundrigar Road, which is known as "Pakistan's Wall Street",[2] with a large percentage of the cashflow in the Pakistani economy taking place on I. I. Chundrigar Road. Most major foreign multinational corporations operating in Pakistan
Pakistan
have their headquarters in Karachi. Karachi
Karachi
is also home to the Pakistan
Pakistan
Stock Exchange, which was rated as Asia's best performing stock market in 2015 on the heels of Pakistan's upgrade to emerging-market status by MSCI.[87] Media and Technology Main articles: Media in Karachi, Cinema in Karachi, List of television stations in Karachi, List of magazines in Karachi, and List of newspapers in Karachi Karachi
Karachi
has been the pioneer in cable networking in Pakistan
Pakistan
with the most sophisticated of the cable networks of any city of Pakistan,[88] and has seen an expansion of information and communications technology and electronic media. The city has become a software outsourcing hub for Pakistan.[citation needed] Several independent television and radio stations are based in Karachi, including Business Plus, AAJ News, Geo TV, KTN,[89] Sindh
Sindh
TV,[90] CNBC Pakistan, TV ONE, Express TV,[91] ARY Digital, Indus Television Network, Samaa TV, Abb Tak, BoL TV, and Dawn News, as well as several local stations. Industry

Mövenpick Hotel Karachi

Industry contributes a large portion of Karachi's economy, with the city home to several of Pakistan's largest companies dealing in textiles, cement, steel, heavy machinery, chemicals, and food products.[92] The city is home to approximately 30 percent of Pakistan's manufacturing sector,[39] and produces approximately 42 percent of Pakistan's value added in large scale manufacturing.[93] At least 4500 industrial units form Karachi's formal industrial economy.[94] Karachi's informal manufacturing sector employs far more people than the formal sector, though proxy data suggest that the capital employed and value added from such informal enterprises is far smaller than that offormal sector enterprises.[95] Karachi
Karachi
Export Processing Zone, SITE, Korangi, Northern Bypass Industrial Zone, Bin Qasim and North Karachi
Karachi
serve as large industrial estates in Karachi.[96] The Karachi Expo Centre
Karachi Expo Centre
also complements Karachi's industrial economy by hosting regional and international exhibitions.[97]

Name of estate Location Established Area in acres

SITE Karachi SITE Town 1947 4700[98]

Korangi Industrial Area Korangi Town 1960 8500[99]

Landhi Industrial Area Landhi Town 1949 11000[100]

North Karachi
Karachi
Industrial Area New Karachi
Karachi
Town 1974 725[101]

Federal B Industrial Area Gulberg Town 1987 [102]

Korangi Creek Industrial Park Korangi Creek Cantonment 2012 250[103]

Bin Qasim Industrial Zone Bin Qasim Town 1970 25000[104]

Karachi
Karachi
Export Processing Zone Landhi Town 1980[105] 315[106]

Pakistan
Pakistan
Textile City Bin Qasim Town 2004 1250[107]

West Wharf Industrial Area Keamari Town

430

SITE Super Highway
Super Highway
Phase-I Super Highway 1983 300[108]

SITE Super Highway
Super Highway
Phase-II Super Highway 1992 1000[108]

Revenue collection As home to Pakistan's largest ports and a large portion of its manufacturing base, Karachi
Karachi
contributes a large share of Pakistan's collected tax revenue. As most of Pakistan's large multinational corporations are based in Karachi, income taxes are paid in the city even though income may be generated from other parts of the country.[109] As home to the country's two largest ports, Pakistani customs officials collect the bulk of federal duty and tariffs at Karachi's ports, even if those imports are destined for one of Pakistan's other provinces.[110] Approximately 25% of Pakistan's national revenue is generated in Karachi.[37] According to the Federal Board of Revenue's 2006–2007 year book, tax and customs units in Karachi
Karachi
were responsible for 46.75% of direct taxes, 33.65% of federal excise tax, and 23.38% of domestic sales tax.[111] Karachi
Karachi
accounts for 75.14% of customs duty and 79% of sales tax on imports,[111] and collects 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports.[111][112] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Karachi, Ethnic groups in Karachi, and Religion in Karachi Karachi
Karachi
is the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan.[20] The city is a melting pot of ethno-linguistic groups from throughout Pakistan, as well as migrants from other parts of Asia. The city's inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite. The 2017
2017
census numerated Karachi's population to be 14,910,352, having grown 2.49% per year since the 1998
1998
census, which had listed Karachi's population at approximately 9.3 million.[113] Population At the end of the 19th century, Karachi
Karachi
had an estimated population of 105,000.[58] By the dawn of Pakistan's independence in 1947, the city had an estimated population of 400,000.[20] The city's population grew dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from the newly independent Republic of India.[24] Rapid economic growth following independence attracted further migrants from throughout Pakistan
Pakistan
and South Asia.[25] The 2017
2017
census numerated Karachi's population to be 14,910,352, having grown 2.49% per year since the 1998
1998
census, which had listed Karachi's population at approximately 9.3 million.[113] Lower than expected population figures from the census suggest that Karachi's poor infrastructure, law and order situation, and weakened economy relative to other parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
made the city less attractive to in-migration than previously thought.[113] The figure is disputed by all the major political parties in Sindh.[114][115][116] Karachi's population grew by 59.8% since the 1998
1998
census to 14.9 million, while Lahore
Lahore
city grew 75.3%[117] – though Karachi's census district had not been altered by the provincial government since 1998, while Lahore's had been expanded by Punjab's government,[117] leading to some of Karachi's growth to have occurred outside the city's census boundaries.[113] Karachi's population had grown at a rate of 3.49% between the 1981
1981
and 1998
1998
census, leading many analysts to estimate Karachi's 2017
2017
population to be approximately 18 million by extrapolating a continued annual growth rate of 3.49%. Some had expected that the city's population to be between 22 and 30 million,[113] which would require an annual growth rate accelerating to between 4.6% and 6.33%.[113] Political parties in the province have suggested the city's population has been underestimated in a deliberate attempt to undermine the political power of the city and province.[118] Senator Taj Haider from the PPP claimed he had official documents revealing the city's population to be 25.6 million in 2013,[118] while the Sindh Bureau of Statistics, part of by the PPP-led provincial administration, estimated Karachi's 2016 population to be 19.1 million.[119]

Population growth

Year Pop.

1729 250

1838 14,000

5500.0%

1842 15,000

7.1%

1850 16,773

11.8%

1856 22,227

32.5%

1861 56,859

155.8%

1881 73,560

29.4%

1891 105,199

43.0%

1901 136,297

29.6%

1911 186,771

37.0%

1921 244,162

30.7%

1931 300,779

23.2%

1941 435,887

44.9%

1951 1,137,667

161.0%

1961 2,044,044

79.7%

1972 3,606,744

76.5%

1981 5,437,984

50.8%

1986 7,443,663

36.9%

1998 9,802,134

31.7%

2017 14,910,352

52.1%

Source:[10][120][121][122] † Large population rise between 1941
1941
and 1951
1951
due to large-scale migration after independence in 1947.

Ethnicity The oldest portions of modern Karachi
Karachi
reflect the ethnic composition of the first settlement, with Balochis and Sindhis
Sindhis
continuing to make up a large portion of the Lyari neighbourhood,[26] though many of the residents are relatively recent migrants. Following Partition, large numbers of Hindus migrant Pakistan
Pakistan
for the newly-independent Dominion of India
India
(later the Republic of India), while a larger percentage of Muslim
Muslim
migrant from India
India
settled in Karachi. The city grew 150% during the ten period between 1941
1941
and 1951
1951
with the arrival of migrants from India,[123] who made up 57% of Karachi's population in 1951.[124] The city is now considered a melting pot of Pakistan, and is the country's most diverse city.[26] In 2011, an estimated 2.5 million foreign migrants lived in the city, mostly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.[125] Much of Karachi's citizenry descend from Urdu-speaking migrants from North India
India
who became known by the Arabic term for "Migrant" – Muhajir. The first Muhajirs of Karachi
Karachi
arrived in 1946 in the aftermath of the Great Calcutta Killings
Great Calcutta Killings
and subsequent 1946 Bihar riots.[126] The city's wealthy Hindus opposed the resettlement of refugees near their homes, and so many refugees were accommodated in the older and more congested parts of Karachi.[127] The city witnessed a large influx of Muhajirs following Partition, who were drawn to the port city and newly designated federal capital for its white-collar job opportunities.[128] Muhajirs continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the 1950s and early 1960s,[129] with Karachi
Karachi
remaining the primary destination of Indian Muslim
Muslim
migrants throughout those decades.[59] The Muhajir Urdu-speaking community in the 2017
2017
census forms slightly less than 45% of the city's population.[117] Muhajirs form the bulk of Karachi's middle class.[26] Muhajirs are regarded as the city's most secular community, while other minorities such as Christians and Hindus increasingly regard themselves as part of the Muhajir community.[26] Karachi
Karachi
is home to a wide array of non- Urdu
Urdu
speaking Muslim
Muslim
peoples from what is now the Republic of India. The city has a sizable community of Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani-speaking refugees.[26] Karachi is also home to a several-thousand member strong community of Malabari Muslims from Kerala
Kerala
in South India.[130] These ethno-linguistic groups are being assimilated in the Urdu-speaking community.[131] During the period of rapid economic growth in the 1960s, large numbers Pashtuns
Pashtuns
from the NWFP migrated to Karachi
Karachi
with Afghan Pashtun refugees settling in Karachi
Karachi
during the 80's.[132][133][134][135][136] By some estimates, Karachi
Karachi
is home to the world's largest urban Pashtun population,[137] with more Pashtun citizens than the FATA.[2][137][137] While generally considered to be one of Karachi's most conservative communities, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Karachi
Karachi
generally vote for the secular Awami National Party
Awami National Party
rather than religious parties.[2] Pashtuns
Pashtuns
from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are regarded as the most conservative community.[2] Pashtuns
Pashtuns
from Pakistan's Swat Valley, in contrast, are generally seen as more liberal in social outlook.[2] The Pashtun community forms the bulk of manual labourers and transporters.[138] Migrants from Punjab began settling in Karachi
Karachi
in large numbers in the 1960s, and now make up an estimated 14% of Karachi's population.[2] The community forms the bulk of the city's police force,[2] and also form a large portion of Karachi's entrepreneurial classes and direct a larger portion of Karachi's service-sector economy.[2] The bulk of Karachi's Christian community, which makes up 2.5% of the city's population, is Punjabi.[139] Despite being the capital of Sindh
Sindh
province, only 6–8% of the city is Sindhi.[2] Sindhis
Sindhis
form much of the municipal and provincial bureaucracy.[2] 4% of Karachi's population speaks Balochi as its mother tongue, though most Baloch speakers are of Sheedi
Sheedi
heritage – a community that traces its roots to Africa.[2] Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
and independence of Bangladesh, thousands of Urdu-speaking Biharis arrived in the city, preferring to remain Pakistani rather than live in the newly-independent country. Large numbers of Bengalis also migrated from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Karachi
Karachi
during periods of economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s. Karachi
Karachi
is now home to an estimated 2.5 to 3 million ethnic Bengalis living in Pakistan.[32][33] Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, who speak a dialect of Bengali and are sometimes regarded as Bengalis, also live in the city. Karachi
Karachi
is home to an estimated 400,000 Rohingya residents.[140][141] Large scale Rohingya migration to Karachi
Karachi
made Karachi
Karachi
one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas in the world outside of Myanmar.[142] Central Asian migrants from Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Kyrghyzstan
Kyrghyzstan
have also settled in the city.[143] Domestic workers from the Philippines
Philippines
are employed in Karachi's posh locales, while many of the city's teachers hail from Sri Lanka.[143] Expatriates from China
China
began migrating to Karachi
Karachi
in the 1940s, to work as dentists, chefs and shoemakers, while many of their decedents continue to live in Pakistan.[143][144] The city is also home to a small number of British and American expatriates.[145] During World War II, about 3,000 Polish refugees from the Soviet Union, with some Polish families who chose to remain in the city after Partition.[146][147] Post-Partition Karachi
Karachi
also once had a sizable refugee community from post-revolutionary Iran.[143] Religion

Religions in Karachi[148][149][150][151]

Religions

Percent

Islam

96.5%

Christianity

2.49%

Hinduism

0.86%

Others

0.4%

Abdullah Shah Ghazi, an 8th-century Sufi
Sufi
mystic, is considered to be the patron saint of Karachi.[152]

St. Patrick's Cathedral serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Karachi.

The Swaminarayan Temple is the largest Hindu temple
Hindu temple
in Karachi.

Karachi
Karachi
is one of Pakistan's most religiously diverse cities.[20] Karachiites adhere to numerous sects and sub-sects of Islam, as well as Protestant Christianity, and community of Goan Catholics. The city also is home to large numbers of Hindus, and a small community of Zoroastrians. Prior to Pakistan's independence in 1947, the population of the city was estimated to be 50% Muslim, 40% Hindu, with the remaining 10% primarily Christians (both British and native), with a small numbers of Jews. Following the independence of Pakistan, much of Karachi's Sindhi Hindu
Hindu
population left for India
India
while Muslim
Muslim
refugees from India
India
in turn settled in the city. The city continued to attract migrants from throughout Pakistan, who were overwhelmingly Muslim, and city's population nearly doubled again in the 1950s.[123] As a result of continued migration, over 96.5% of the city currently is estimated to be Muslim.[2] Karachi
Karachi
is overwhelmingly Muslim,[2] though the city is one of Pakistan's most secular cities.[26][27][28] Approximately 65% of Karachi's Muslims are Sunnis, while 35% are Shi'ites.[153][154][155] Sunnis primarily follow the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of jurisprudence, with Sufism
Sufism
influencing religious practices by encouraging reverence for Sufi
Sufi
saints such as Abdullah Shah Ghazi
Abdullah Shah Ghazi
and Mewa Shah. Shi'ites are predominantly Twelver, with a significant Ismaili minority which is further subdivided into Nizaris, Mustaalis, Dawoodi Bohras, and Sulaymanis. Approximately 2.5% of Karachi's population is Christian.[148][149][150] The city's Christian community is primarily composed of Punjabi Christians,[139] who converted from Sikhism to Christianity during the British Raj.[156] Karachi
Karachi
has a community of Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
who are typically better-educated and more affluent than their Punjabi co-religionists.[157] The Goan community dates from 1820 and has a population estimated to be 12,000–15,000 strong.[158] While most of the city's Hindu
Hindu
population left en masse for India following Pakistan's independence, Karachi
Karachi
still has a large Hindu community with an estimated population of 250,000 based on 2013 data.[159] Karachi's affluent and influential Parsis have lived in the region in the 12th century, though the modern community dates from the mid 19th century when they served as military contractors and commissariat agents to the British.[160] Further waves of Parsi immigrants from Persia
Persia
settled in the city in the late 19th century.[161] The population of Parsis in Karachi
Karachi
and throughout South Asia is in continuous decline due to low birth-rates and migration to Western countries.[162] Language Karachi
Karachi
has the largest number of Urdu
Urdu
speakers in Pakistan.[88] As per the 1998
1998
census, the linguistic breakdown of Karachi Division
Karachi Division
is:

Rank Language 1998
1998
census[163] Speakers 1981
1981
census[164] Speakers

1 Urdu 48.52% 4,497,747 54.34% 2,830,098

2 Punjabi 13.94% 1,292,335 13.64% 710,389

3 Pashto 11.42% 1,058,650 08.71% 453,628

4 Sindhi 07.22% 669,340 06.29% 327,591

5 Balochi 04.34% 402,386 04.39% 228,636

6 Saraiki 02.11% 195,681 00.35% 18,228

7 Others 12.44% 1,153,126 12.27% 639,560

All 100% 9,269,265 100% 5,208,132

The category of "others" includes Gujarati, Dawoodi Bohra, Memon, Marwari, Dari, Brahui, Makrani, Hazara, Khowar, Gilgiti, Burushaski, Balti, Arabic, Farsi and Bengali.[165] Transportation Main article: Transport in Karachi Road Main article: List of streets in Karachi

Karachi
Karachi
is served by a road network estimated to be approximately 9,500 kilometres (5,900 miles) in length,[166] serving approximately 3.1 million vehicles per day.[167] Karachi
Karachi
is served by three "Signal-Free Corridors" which are designed as urban express roads to permit traffic to transverse large distances without the need to stop at intersections and stop lights.[167] The first opened in 2007 and connects Shah Faisal Town
Shah Faisal Town
in eastern Karachi to the industrial-estates in SITE Town
SITE Town
10.5 kilometres (6.5 miles) away. The second corridor connects Surjani Town with Shahrah-e-Faisal over a 19 kilometre span, while the third stretch 28 kilometres (17 miles) and connects Karachi's urban centre to the Gulistan-e-Johar suburb. A fourth corridor is currently under construction that will link Karachi's centre to Karachi's Malir Town. Karachi
Karachi
will be the terminus of the under construction M-9 motorway, which will connect Karachi
Karachi
to Hyderabad. The road is being constructed as part of a much larger motorway network under construction as part of the expansive China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor. From Hyderabad, motorways have been built, or are being constructed, to provide high-speed road access to the northern Pakistani cities of Peshawar and Mansehra
Mansehra
1,100 kilometres (680 miles) to the north of Karachi. Karachi
Karachi
is also the terminus of the N-5 National Highway
N-5 National Highway
which connects the city to the historic medieval capital of Sindh, Thatta. It offers further connections to northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Afghan border near Torkham, as well as the N-25 National Highway which connects the port city to the Afghan border near Quetta. Within the city of Karachi, the Lyari Expressway
Lyari Expressway
is a controlled-access highway along the Lyari River
Lyari River
in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. As of 8th February 2018 Lyari Expressway's north-bound and south-bound sections are both complete and open for traffic.[168] This toll highway is designed to relieve congestion in the city of Karachi. To the north of Karachi
Karachi
lies the Karachi Northern Bypass (M10), which starts near the junction of the M9. It then continues north for a few kilometres before turning west, where it intersects the N25. Rail

Karachi's Cantonment Railway Station is one of the city's primary railway stations.

Main articles: Karachi Circular Railway
Karachi Circular Railway
and List of railway stations in Pakistan Karachi
Karachi
is linked by rail to the rest of the country by Pakistan Railways. The Karachi City Station
Karachi City Station
and Karachi Cantonment
Karachi Cantonment
Railway Station are the city's two major railway stations.[2] The city has an international rail link, the Thar Express which links Karachi Cantonment Station with Bhagat Ki Kothi station in Jodhpur, India.[169] The railway system also handles freight linking Karachi
Karachi
port to destinations up-country in northern Pakistan.[170] The city is the terminus for the Main Line-1 Railway which connects Karachi
Karachi
to Peshawar. Pakistan's rail network, including the Main Line-1 Railway is being upgraded as part of the China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor, allowing trains to depart Karachi
Karachi
and travel on Pakistani railways at an average speed of 160 kilometres per hour (99 miles per hour) versus the average 60 to 105 kilometres per hour (37 to 65 miles per hour) speed currently possible on existing track.[171] Public transport

A map of the Karachi Circular Railway
Karachi Circular Railway
route.

Karachi's public transport infrastructure is inadequate and constrained by low levels of investment.[172] Karachi
Karachi
is not currently served by any municipal public transit, and is instead serviced primarily by the private and informal sector.[173] Metrobus The Pakistani Government is developing the Karachi Metrobus project, which is a multi-line 112.9 kilometres (70.2 miles) bus rapid transit system currently under-construction that is expected to be partially operational in 2017.[174]The Metrobus project was inaugurated by the Prime Minister of Pakistan
Pakistan
Mian Nawaz Sharif on 25 February 2016. The Prime Minister stated that the "project will be more beautiful than Lahore
Lahore
Metro Bus."[175] The projects initial launch date was Feb 2017, but due to the slow pace of work, it is not yet operational.

Karachi's Jinnah International Airport
Jinnah International Airport
is the largest and busiest airport in Pakistan.

Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway Karachi
Karachi
was once served by numerous trams and the Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway, although both systems are no longer in operation. While the Japanese Government has expressed willingness to help fund the refurbishment of the Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway,[176] the project has not been finalized. Air Karachi's Jinnah International Airport
Jinnah International Airport
is the largest and busiest airport of Pakistan
Pakistan
with a total of 6.2 million passengers in 2015.[177] The current terminal structure was built in 1992, and is divided into international and domestic sections. Karachi's airport serves as a hub for the flag carrier, Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines (PIA), as well as for Air Indus, Shaheen Air, and airblue. The airport offers non-stop flights to destinations throughout East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Persian Gulf States, Europe and North America.[178][179]

The Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports.

Sea The largest shipping ports in Pakistan
Pakistan
are the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
and the nearby Port
Port
Qasim, the former being the oldest port of Pakistan. Port Qasim is located 35 kilometres (22 miles) east of the Port
Port
of Karachi on the Indus River
Indus River
estuary. These ports handle 95% of Pakistan's trade cargo to and from foreign ports. These seaports have modern facilities which include bulk handling, containers and oil terminals.[180] Civic administration Main articles: Politics of Karachi, List of mayors of Karachi, List of Union Councils of Karachi, and Commissioner of Karachi

Karachi's civic government operates from the British-era Karachi Municipal Corporation Building.

Historical background In response to a cholera epidemic in 1846, the Karachi
Karachi
Conservancy Board was organized by British administrators.[181][182] The board became the Karachi
Karachi
Municipal Commission in 1852, and the Karachi Municipal Committee the following year.[181] The City of Karachi Municipal Act of 1933 transformed the city administration into the Karachi Municipal Corporation with a mayor, a deputy mayor and 57 councillors.[181] In 1976, the body became the Karachi
Karachi
Metropolitan Corporation.[181] During the 1900s, Karachi
Karachi
saw its major beautification project under the mayoralty of Harchandrai Vishandas. New roads, parks, residential, and recreational areas were developed as part of this project. In 1948, the Federal Capital Territory of Pakistan
Pakistan
was created, comprising approximately 2,103 km2 (812 sq mi) of Karachi
Karachi
and surrounding areas, but this was merged into the province of West Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1961.[183] In 1996, the metropolitan area was divided into five districts, each with its own municipal corporation.[181] Union Councils (2001–2011) In 2001, five districts of Karachi
Karachi
were merged to form the city district of Karachi, with a three-tier structure. The two most local tiers are composed of 18 towns, and 178 union councils.[184] Each tier focused on elected councils with some common members to provide "vertical linkage" within the federation.[185] Naimatullah Khan was the first Nazim of Karachi
Karachi
during the Union Council period, while Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha was the first district co-ordination officer of Karachi. Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi
Karachi
to succeed Naimatullah Khan in 2005 elections, and Nasreen Jalil was elected as the City Naib Nazim. Each Union Council had thirteen members elected from specified electorates: four men and two women elected directly by the general population; two men and two women elected by peasants and workers; one member for minority communities; two members are elected jointly as the Union Mayor (Nazim) and Deputy Union Mayor (Naib Nazim).[186] Each council included up to three council secretaries and a number of other civil servants. The Union Council system was dismantled in 2011. District Municipal Corporations In 2011, City District Government of Karachi
City District Government of Karachi
was reverted its original constituent units known as District Municipal Corporations (DMC). The five original DMCs are: Karachi
Karachi
East, Karachi
Karachi
West, Karachi
Karachi
Central, Karachi South
Karachi South
and Malir. In November 2013, a sixth DMC, "Korangi" was carved out from District East.[187][188][189][190][191] The current City administrator is Muhammad Hussain Syed[192] and Municipal Commissioner of Karachi is Matanat Ali Khan.[193] The position of Commissioner of Karachi was created and Shoaib Ahmad Siddiqui was appointed as the Commissioner of Karachi.[194] There are six military cantonments, which are administered by the Pakistani Army, and are some of Karachi's most upscale neighbourhoods.

Karachi
Karachi
South

Lyari Town Saddar
Saddar
Town Karachi
Karachi
East

Jamshed Town Gulshan Town Karachi
Karachi
Central

Liaquatabad Town North Nazimabad Town Gulberg Town New Karachi
Karachi
Town Karachi
Karachi
West

Kemari Town SITE Town Baldia Town Orangi Town

Malir

Malir Town Bin Qasim Town Gadap Town Korangi

Korangi Town Landhi Town Shah Faisal Town

Cantonments A. Karachi
Karachi
Cantonment B. Clifton Cantonment C. Korangi Creek Cantonment D. Faisal Cantonment E. Malir Cantonment F. Manora Cantonment

Municipal services Water 76% of Karachi
Karachi
households have access to piped water as of 2015,[195] with private water tankers supplying much of the water required in informal settlements.[79] 18% of residents in a 2015 survey rated their water supply as "bad," or "very bad," while 44% expressed concern at the stability of water supply.[195] By 2015, an estimated 30,000 people were dying due to water-borne diseases annually.[196] The K-IV water project is under development at a cost of $876 million, that will provide 650 million gallons daily of potable water to the city, with the first phase expected to supply 260 million gallons by June 2018.[197][198] Sanitation 98% of Karachi's households are connected to the city's underground public sewerage system,[195] largely operated by the Karachi
Karachi
Water and Sewerage Board. Households in Orangi Town
Orangi Town
self-organized in order to set-up their own sewerage system under the Orangi Pilot Project,[199] a community service organization founded in 1980. 90% of Orangi streets are now connected to a sewer system built by local residents under the Orangi Pilot Project.[199] Residents of individual streets bear the cost of sewerage pipes, and provide volunteer labour to lay the pipe.[199] Residents also maintain the sewer pipes,[199] while the city municipal administration has built several primary and secondary pipes for the network.[199] As a result of OPP, 96% of Orangi residents have access to a latrine.[199] 72% reported in 2015 that Karachi's drainage system overflows or backs up,[195] – the highest percentage of all major Pakistani cities.[195] Parts of the city's drainage system overflows on average 2–7 times per month, flooding some city streets.[195] Karachi
Karachi
has the highest percentage of residents in Pakistan
Pakistan
who report that their streets are never cleaned – 42% of residents in Karachi report their streets are never cleaned, compared to 10% of residents in Lahore.[195] Only 17% of Karachi
Karachi
residents reporting daily street cleaning, compared to 45% in Lahore.[195] 69% of Karachi
Karachi
residents rely on private garbage collection services,[195] with only 15% relying on municipal garbage collection services.[195] 57% of Karachi residents in a 2015 survey reported that the state of their neighbourhood's cleanliness was either "bad" or "very bad".[195] compared to 35% in Lahore,[195] and 16% in Multan.[195] Education Main article: Education in Karachi

Bai Virbaijee Soparivala (B.V.S.) Parsi
Parsi
High School

Primary and secondary See also: List of schools in Karachi Karachi's primary education system is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. Karachi
Karachi
has both public and private educational institutions. Most educational institutions are gender-based, from primary to university level. Several of Karachi's schools, such as St Patrick's High School, and St Paul's English High School, are operated by Christian churches, and among Pakistan's most prestigious schools. Higher See also: List of colleges in Karachi and List of universities in Karachi

The D. J. Sindh
Sindh
Government Science College is one of Karachi's second oldest university, and dates from 1887.

Karachi
Karachi
is home to several major public universities. Karachi's first public university's date from the British colonial era. The Sindh Madressatul Islam
Islam
founded in 1885, was granted university status in 2012. Establishment of the Sindh
Sindh
Madressatul Islam
Islam
was followed by the establishment of the D. J. Sindh
Sindh
Government Science College in 1887, and the institution was granted university status in 2014. The Nadirshaw Edulji Dinshaw University of Engineering and Technology (NED), was founded in 1921, and is Pakistan's oldest institution of higher learning. The Dow University of Health Sciences
Dow University of Health Sciences
was established in 1945, and is now one of Pakistan's top medical research institutions. The University of Karachi, founded in 1951, is Pakistan's largest university with a student population of 24,000. The Institute of Business Administration (IBA), founded in 1955, is the oldest business school outside of North America and Europe, and was set up with technical support from the Wharton School
Wharton School
and the University of Southern California. The Dawood University of Engineering and Technology, which opened in 1962, offers degree programmes in petroleum, gas, chemical, and industrial engineering. The Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), operated by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy, is associated with the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in Islamabad. Karachi
Karachi
is also home to numerous private universities. The Aga Khan University, founded in 1983, is Karachi's oldest private educational institution, and is one of Pakistan's most prestigious medical schools. The Indus Valley
Indus Valley
School of Art and Architecture was founded in 1989, and offers degree programmes in arts and architectural fields. Hamdard University
Hamdard University
is the largest private university in Pakistan
Pakistan
with faculties including Eastern Medicine, Medical, Engineering, Pharmacy, and Law. The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES-FAST), one of Pakistan's top universities in computer education, operates two campuses in Karachi. Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology (SSUET) offers degree programmes in biomedical, electronics, telecom and computer engineering. Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Economics & Technology (KIET) has two campuses in Karachi. The Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), founded in 1995 by former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, operates a campus in Karachi.

Iqra University Habib University

Habib University
Habib University
is a liberal arts college in Karachi.

Dow University Jinnah Medical and Dental College Jinnah Sindh
Sindh
Medical University Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force – Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Economics and Technology United Medical and Dental College Liaquat National Medical College Institute of Cost & Management Accountants of Pakistan
Pakistan
(ICMAP)

Healthcare Main articles: List of hospitals in Karachi and Environment of Karachi

Aga Khan University's hospital.

Karachi
Karachi
is a centre of research in biomedicine with at least 30 public hospitals, 80 registered private hospitals and 12 recognized medical colleges,[200] including the Indus Hospital, Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Heart Diseases,[201] National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases,[202] Civil Hospital,[203] Combined Military Hospital,[204] PNS Rahat,[205] PNS Shifa,[206] Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
Hospital, Liaquat National Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre,[207] Holy Family Hospital[208] and Ziauddin Hospital. In 1995, Ziauddin Hospital was the site of Pakistan's first bone marrow transplant.[209] Karachi
Karachi
municipal authorities in October 2017
2017
launched a new early warning system that alerted city residents to a forecasted heatwave. Previous heatwaves had routinely claimed lives in the city, but implementation of the warning system was credited for no reported heat-related fatalities.[70] Art and culture Main articles: Culture of Karachi
Culture of Karachi
and List of Art Galleries of Karachi See also: Culture of Pakistan, Muhajir culture, and Sindhi culture Museums and galleries

The National Museum of Pakistan
Pakistan
is located in Karachi.

Built as a home for a wealthy Hindu
Hindu
businessman, the Mohatta Palace
Mohatta Palace
is now a museum open to the public.

Karachi
Karachi
is home to several of Pakistan's most important museums. The National Museum of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Mohatta Palace
Mohatta Palace
display artwork, while the city also has several private art galleries.[210] The city is also home to the Pakistan
Pakistan
Airforce Museum and Pakistan
Pakistan
Maritime Museum are also located in the city. Wazir Mansion, the birthplace of Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
has also been preserved as a museum open to the public. Theatre and cinema Karachi
Karachi
is home to some of Pakistan's important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts,[211] located in the former Hindu
Hindu
Gymkhana, offers diploma courses in performing arts that includes classical music and contemporary theatre. Karachi
Karachi
is home to groups such as Thespianz Theater, a professional youth-based, non-profit performing arts group, which works on theatre and arts activities in Pakistan.[212][213] Though Lahore
Lahore
is considered to be home of Pakistan's film industry, Karachi
Karachi
is home to Kara Film Festival annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries.[214] Music The All Pakistan
Pakistan
Music Conference, linked to the 45-year-old similar institution in Lahore, has been holding its annual music festival since its inception in 2004.[215] The National Arts Council (Koocha-e-Saqafat) has musical performances and mushaira. Tourist attractions Main article: List of beaches in Karachi

Vast stretches of beach are found along the coast west of Karachi, such as at Hawke's Bay.

Karachi
Karachi
is a tourist destination for domestic and international tourists. Tourist attractions near Karachi
Karachi
city include: Museums: Museums located in Karachi
Karachi
include the National Museum of Pakistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force Museum, and Pakistan
Pakistan
Maritime Museum. Parks: Parks located in Karachi
Karachi
include Bagh Ibne Qasim, Boat Basin Park, Mazar-e-Quaid, Karachi
Karachi
Zoo, Hill Park, Safari Park, Bagh-e-Jinnah, PAF Museum Park and Maritime Museum Park. Social issues Crime Sometimes stated to be amongst the world's most dangerous cities,[216] the extent of violent crime in Karachi
Karachi
is not as significant in magnitude as compared to other cities.[217] According to the Numbeo Crime Index 2014, Karachi
Karachi
was the 6th most dangerous city in the world. By the middle of 2016, Karachi's rank had dropped to 31 following the launch of anti-crime operations.[218] By 2018, Karachi’s ranking has dropped to 50.[219] The city's large population results in high numbers of homicides with a moderate homicide rate.[217] Karachi's homicide rates are lower than many Latin American cities,[217] and in 2015 was 12.5 per 100,000[220] – lower than the homicide rate of several American cities such as New Orleans
New Orleans
and St. Louis.[221] The homicide rates in some Latin American cities such as Caracas, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Acapulco, Mexico
Mexico
are in excess of 100 per 100,000 residents,[221] many times greater than Karachi's homicide rate. In 2016, the number of murders in Karachi
Karachi
had dropped to 471, which had dropped further to 381 in 2017.[222] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Karachi
Karachi
was rocked by political conflict while crime rates drastically increased with the arrival of weaponry from the War in Afghanistan.[44] Several of Karachi's criminal mafias became powerful during a period in the 1990s described as "the rule of the mafias."[223] Major mafias active in the city included land mafia, water tanker mafia, transport mafia and a sand and gravel mafia.[224][223][225][226] Karachi's highest death rates occurred in the mid 1990s when Karachi
Karachi
was much smaller. In 1995, 1,742 killings were recorded,[227] when the city had over 5 million fewer residents.[228] Karachi
Karachi
Operation Karachi
Karachi
had become widely known for its high rates of violent crime, but rates sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Rangers.[45] In 2015, 1,040 Karachiites were killed in either acts of terror or crime – an almost 50% decrease from the 2,023 deaths in 2014,[229] and an almost 70% decrease from the 3,251 deaths recorded in 2013 – the highest ever recorded number in Karachi
Karachi
history.[230] Despite a sharp decrease in violent crime, street crime remains high.[231] With 650 homicides in 2015, Karachi's homicide rate decreased by 75% compared to 2013.[46] In 2017, the number of homicides had dropped further to 381.[232] Extortion crimes decreased by 80% between 2013-15, while kidnappings decreased by 90% during the same period.[46] By 2016, the city registered a total of 21 cases of kidnap for ransom.[233] Terrorist incidents dropped by 98% between 2012 and 2017, according to Pakistan's Interior Ministry.[234] As a result of the Karachi's improved security environment, real-estate prices in Karachi
Karachi
rose sharply in 2015, [47] with a rise in business for upmarket restaurants and cafés.[235] Ethnic conflict Insufficient affordable housing infrastructure to absorb growth has resulted in the city's diverse migrant populations being largely confined to ethnically homogenous neighbourhoods.[79] The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi's industrial estates. Violence originated in the city's university campuses, and spread into the city.[236] Conflict was especially sharp between MQM party and ethnic Sindhis, Pashtuns, and Punjabis. The party and its vast network of supporters were targeted by Pakistani security forces as part of the controversial Operation Clean-up
Operation Clean-up
in 1992, as part of an effort to restore peace in the city that lasted until 1994.[65] Poor infrastructure The city's Human Development Index
Human Development Index
score is 0.69, compared to 0.71 for Lahore, and 0.87 for Islamabad.[195] Urban planning and service delivery have not kept pace with Karachi's growth, resulting in the city's low ranking on livability rankings.[79] The city has no cohesive transportation policy, and no official public transit system, though up to 1,000 new cars are added daily to the city's congested streets.[79] Unable to provide housing to large numbers of refugees shortly after independence, Karachi's authorities first issued "slips" to refugees beginning in 1950 – which allowed refugees to settle on any vacant land.[199] Such informal settlements are known as katchi abadis, and now approximately half the city's residents live in these unplanned communities.[79] Architecture

Jehangir Kothari Parade

Mazar-e-Quaid

Frere Hall

Khaliq Deena Hall

See also: Architecture of Karachi, Pakistani architecture, and List of tallest buildings in Karachi

The Hindu
Hindu
Gymkhana Building was built by Hindus who migrated after the independence of Pakistan, though the building was repurposed to house the National Academy of Performing Arts.

Karachi
Karachi
has a collection of buildings and structures of varied architectural styles. The downtown districts of Saddar
Saddar
and Clifton contain early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neo-classical KPT building to the Sindh
Sindh
High Court Building. Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when Frere Hall, Empress Market
Empress Market
and St. Patrick's Cathedral were completed. The Mock Tudor
Mock Tudor
architectural style was introduced in the Karachi
Karachi
Gymkhana and the Boat Club. Neo-Renaissance architecture
Neo-Renaissance architecture
was popular in the 19th century and was the architectural style for St. Joseph's Convent (1870) and the Sind Club (1883).[237] The classical style made a comeback in the late 19th century, as seen in Lady Dufferin Hospital (1898)[238] and the Cantt. Railway Station. While Italianate
Italianate
buildings remained popular, an eclectic blend termed Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
or Anglo-Mughal began to emerge in some locations.[239] The local mercantile community began acquiring impressive structures. Zaibunnisa Street in the Saddar
Saddar
area (known as Elphinstone Street in British days) is an example where the mercantile groups adopted the Italianate
Italianate
and Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style to demonstrate their familiarity with Western culture and their own. The Hindu
Hindu
Gymkhana (1925) and Mohatta Palace
Mohatta Palace
are examples of Mughal revival buildings.[240] The Sindh
Sindh
Wildlife Conservation Building, located in Saddar, served as a Freemasonic Lodge until it was taken over by the government. There are talks of it being taken away from this custody and being renovated and the Lodge being preserved with its original woodwork and ornate wooden staircase.[241] Indus Valley
Indus Valley
School of Art and Architecture is one of the prime examples of Architectural conservation and restoration where an entire Nusserwanjee building from Kharadar
Kharadar
area of Karachi
Karachi
has been relocated to Clifton for adaptive reuse in an art school. The procedure involved the careful removal of each piece of timber and stone, stacked temporarily, loaded on the trucks for transportation to the Clifton site, unloaded and re-arranged according to a given layout, stone by stone, piece by piece, and completed within three months.[242] Architecturally distinctive, even eccentric, buildings have sprung up throughout Karachi. Notable example of contemporary architecture include the Pakistan
Pakistan
State Oil Headquarters building. The city has examples of modern Islamic architecture, including the Aga Khan University hospital, Masjid e Tooba, Faran Mosque, Bait-ul Mukarram Mosque, Quaid's Mausoleum, and the Textile Institute of Pakistan. One of the unique cultural elements of Karachi
Karachi
is that the residences, which are two- or three-story townhouses, are built with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. I. I. Chundrigar Road
I. I. Chundrigar Road
features a range of extremely tall buildings. The most prominent examples include the Habib Bank Plaza, PRC Towers and the MCB Tower
MCB Tower
which is the tallest skyscraper in Pakistan.[243] Sports Main article: List of sports venues in Karachi

Match between Sindh
Sindh
& Australia in Karachi
Karachi
on 22 November 1935 was report by Daily Sydney Morning Herald

National Stadium

When it comes to sports Karachi
Karachi
has a distinction, because some sources cite that it was in 1877 at Karachi
Karachi
in (British) India, where the first attempt was made to form a set of rules of badminton[245] and likely place is said to Frere Hall. Cricket's history in Pakistan
Pakistan
predates the creation of the country in 1947. The first ever international cricket match in Karachi
Karachi
was held on 22 November 1935 between Sindh
Sindh
and Australian cricket teams. The match was seen by 5,000 Karachiites.[246] Karachi
Karachi
is also the place that innovated tape ball, a safer and more affordable alternative to cricket.[247] The inaugural first-class match at the National Stadium was played between Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
on 26 February 1955 and since then Pakistani national cricket team has won 20 of the 41 Test matches played at the National Stadium.[248] The first One Day International at the National Stadium was against the West Indies on 21 November 1980, with the match going to the last ball. The national team has been less successful in such limited-overs matches at the ground, including a five-year stint between 1996 and 2001, when they failed to win any matches. The city has been host to a number of domestic cricket teams including Karachi,[249] Karachi Blues,[250] Karachi
Karachi
Greens,[251] and Karachi
Karachi
Whites.[252] The National Stadium hosted two group matches ( Pakistan
Pakistan
v. South Africa
South Africa
on 29 February and Pakistan
Pakistan
v. England on 3 March), and a quarter-final match ( South Africa
South Africa
v. West Indies on 11 March) during the 1996 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup.[253] The city has hosted seven editions of the National Games of Pakistan, most recently in 2007.[254] In 2005, the city hosted the SAFF Championship
SAFF Championship
at this ground, as well as the Geo Super Football League 2007, which attracted capacity crowds during the games. The popularity of golf is increasing, with clubs in Karachi
Karachi
like Dreamworld Resort, Hotel & Golf Club, Arabian Sea Country Club, DA Country & Golf Club. The city has facilities for field hockey (the Hockey Club of Pakistan, UBL Hockey Ground), boxing (KPT Sports Complex), squash ( Jahangir Khan
Jahangir Khan
Squash Complex), and polo. There are marinas and boating clubs. National Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan
Sports Complex is First-class cricket venue and Multi-purpose sports facility in Karachi,

Professional Karachi
Karachi
teams

Club League Sport Venue Established

Karachi
Karachi
Kings Pakistan
Pakistan
Super League Cricket Dubai International Cricket
Cricket
Stadium 2015

Karachi
Karachi
Dolphins National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket National Stadium 2004

Karachi
Karachi
Zebras National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket National Stadium 2004

HBL FC Pakistan
Pakistan
Premier League Football Peoples Football Stadium 1975

K-Electric F.C. Pakistan
Pakistan
Premier League Football Peoples Football Stadium 1913

KPT F.C. Pakistan
Pakistan
Premier League Football KPT Football Stadium 1887

NBP F.C. Pakistan
Pakistan
Premier League Football KPT Football Stadium N/A

PIA F.C. Pakistan
Pakistan
Premier League Football KPT Football Stadium 1958

See also

Cinema in Karachi Cuisine of Karachi Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway List of Art Galleries of Karachi List of cemeteries in Karachi List of hospitals in Karachi List of magazines in Karachi List of newspapers in Karachi List of parks and gardens in Karachi List of people from Karachi List of streets of Karachi List of tallest buildings in Karachi List of television stations in Karachi Media in Karachi Sister cities of Karachi Transport in Karachi

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Sindh
Sindh
portal Karachi
Karachi
portal

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by the National Database and Registration Authority as well as large numbers of Afghan refugees, Bangladeshis, Indians, Nepalis and others (incl. Filipinos, Iranians, Iraqis, Burmese). ^ "The Urban Frontier—Karachi". NPR. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.  ^ a b Blood, Peter R. (1986). Pakistan: A Country Study. DIANE Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7881-3631-3.  ^ Hinnells, John (2005). The Zoroastrian
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Sindhi Hindus
and the Partition of India. Westland. pp. 39–40. ISBN 9789384030339. In June 1947, it was initially proposed to settle the muhajirs on a large plot of land in Bunder Road Extension, a well-heeled suburb of Karachi. This was, however, a residential area dominated by affluent Sindhi Hindus, who became nervous about such a large number of discontented lower class Muslim
Muslim
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Pakistan
struggled to establish itself in Karachi, a large number of Muslim
Muslim
refugees from northern India
India
came and settled down in the city ... Karachi
Karachi
became the preferred destination of northern Indian Urdu-speaking Muslims who hoped to find white-collar employment opportunities in the cosmopolitan commercial and port city.  ^ Khalidi, Omar (Autumn 1998). "From Torrent to Trickle: Indian Muslim Migration to Pakistan, 1947–97". Islamic Studies. Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad. 37 (3): 339–52. JSTOR 20837002.  ^ M R Narayan Swamy (5 October 2005). "Where Malayalees once held sway Latest News & Updates at". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Political and ethnic battles turn Karachi
Karachi
into Beirut of South Asia " Crescent". Merinews.com. Retrieved 24 November 2012.  ^ Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (17 July 2009). "Karachi's Invisible Enemy". PBS. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder". The National. 24 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "Columnists The Pakhtun in Karachi". Time. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-08.  ^ [3], thefridaytimes ^ "UN body, police baffled by minister's threat against Afghan refugees". Dawn Media Group. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 2012-01-24.  ^ a b c Jaffrelot, Christophe (2016). Pakistan
Pakistan
at the Crossroads: Domestic Dynamics and External Pressures. Columbia University. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-231-54025-4.  ^ Laurent Gayer 2014, pp. 44. ^ a b " Pakistan
Pakistan
Christian Post". www.pakistanchristianpost.com. Retrieved 5 August 2017.  ^ "From South to South: Refugees as Migrants: The Rohingya in Pakistan". Huffington Post. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "Bengali and Rohingya leaders gearing up for LG polls". The News. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ Rehman, Zia Ur (23 February 2015). "Identity issue haunts Karachi's Rohingya population". Dawn. Retrieved 26 December 2016. Their large-scale migration had made Karachi
Karachi
one of the largest Rohingya population centres outside Myanmar
Myanmar
but afterwards the situation started turning against them.  ^ a b c d "Conflicted Karachi". Dawn. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ Ramzi, Shanaz (9 July 2001), "The melting pot by the sea", Dawn, archived from the original on 15 July 2004, retrieved 26 July 2009  ^ "After Slayings, Americans in Karachi
Karachi
Weigh Choices". Los Angeles Times. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Warsaw Business Journal – Online Portal". wbj.pl. 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ The Exile Mission. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ a b "Religions in Pakistan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2013-07-09.  ^ a b Curtis, Lisa; Mullick, Haider (4 May 2009). "Reviving Pakistan's Pluralist Traditions to Fight Extremism". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 31 July 2011 ^ a b a b c "Religions: Islam
Islam
95%, other (includes Christian and Hindu, 2% Ahmadiyyah ) 5%". CIA. The World Factbook on Pakistan. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-28. ^ # ^ International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore: "Have Pakistanis
Pakistanis
Forgotten Their Sufi
Sufi
Traditions?" by Rohan Bedi April 2006 ^ Hasan, Arif (27 April 2014). "Karachi's Densification". Dawn. Retrieved 6 December 2016. The other site is the over 1,200-year-old tomb of Ghazi Abdullah Shah, a descendant of Imam Hasan. He has become the patron saint of Karachi
Karachi
and his urs is an important event for the city and its inhabitants.  ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-28.  ^ Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population (PDF). Pew Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-28.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
– International Religious Freedom Report 2008". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2010-08-28.  ^ Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: North Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p196 ^ "Who are Pakistan's Christians?". BBC. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Barbosa, Alexandre Moniz (5 September 2001). "A Dash of Goa in Pakistan". Times of India. Retrieved 17 November 2016. The city, however, has roughly between 12,000 and 15,000 'Goans', a number that has remained fairly constant for the past 190 years, since the first wave of migrating Goans in dhows washed up on its shores in 1820 and made it their home.  ^ "Population of Hindus in the World". pakistanhinducouncil.org. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ Hinnells, John. The Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Diaspora: Religion and Migration. Oxford University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-19-151350-3.  ^ Hinnells, John. The Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Diaspora: Religion and Migration. Oxford University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-19-151350-3.  ^ "Why is India's wealthy Parsi
Parsi
community vanishing?". BBC. 9 January 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Jonah Blank, Christopher Clary & Brian Nichiporuk 2014. ^ Stephen P. Cohen 2004. ^ "Karachi". Findpk.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "In Karachi, 16,562 more vehicles hit the roads each month". Pakistan
Pakistan
Today. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b Zubair, Salman (2015). "Impacts of Signal Free Corridors on the Incidence of Road Traffic Accidents in Karachi". Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 11: 245. Retrieved 2 December 2016.  ^ "After 15 years, Lyari Expressway
Lyari Expressway
finally becomes fully operational". Dawn.com. Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ " Thar Express escapes blast near Karachi". GEO.tv. 4 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ "Railways to upgrade waiting halls at 16 major stations". Daily Times. Retrieved 25 February 2016.  ^ "Karachi- Peshawar
Peshawar
railway line being upgraded under CPEC". Daily Times. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ Hashim, Asad (23 January 2015). "Karachi's public transport on the verge of collapse: report". Dawn. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ Hasan, Arif (July 2015). "Responding to the transport crisis in Karachi" (PDF). International Institute for Environment and Development. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
2007, pp. 165. ^ "Karachi's Green Line bus will be more beautiful than Lahore
Lahore
metro: PM Nawaz". DAWN.COM. 26 February 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-25.  ^ Ali, Sarfraz (25 November 2016). " Japan
Japan
to provide funding for Karachi
Karachi
Mass Transit Project". Daily Times. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ http://www.caapakistan.com.pk/AT/AT-EO-Stats.aspx ^ http://www.piac.com.pk/schedule/display_abc.asp?date=3:16:07%20AM ^ International Network Archived 26 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Robert Stimson & Kingsley E. Haynes 2012, p. 43. ^ a b c d e "CDGK History". City-District Government of Karachi. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "Culture, Religion and Lifestyle in Karachi". Karachi
Karachi
History. 14 August 2001. Retrieved 5 August 2017.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Provinces". Statoids.com. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "CDGK Towns". City District Government of Karachi. Retrieved 24 August 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ "Local Government". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "Composition of the Union Council". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ " Korangi notified as sixth district of Karachi".  ^ " Korangi made sixth district of Karachi".  ^ " Sindh
Sindh
back to 5 divisions after 11 years".  ^ Aligi, Irfan. "Changing hands: Karachi
Karachi
split into 5 districts – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Welcome to official website of Karachi
Karachi
Metropolitan Corporation". Kmc.gov.pk.sv2.premiumwebserver.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Administrator Karachi". Kmc.gov.pk.sv2.premiumwebserver.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Metropolitan Commissioner". Kmc.gov.pk.sv2.premiumwebserver.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Home Page – Commissioner Karachi". Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN ANNUAL REVIEW 2014–15" (PDF). SOCIAL POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE. 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2017.  ^ Yamini Narayanan 2015, p. 165. ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
to award Karachi
Karachi
water supply project to Frontier Works Organisation". Water Technology. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Ist phase of K-IV project to be completed in June: Gov". The Nation. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g "Fed up with no sewers, Pakistan's slum residents go DIY". Reuters. October 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Tahir, M. Zubair; Sobani, Zain A.; Quadri, S. A.; Ahmed, S. Nizam; Sheerani, Mughis; Siddiqui, Fowzia; Boling, Warren W.; Enam, Syed Ather (1 January 2012). "Establishment of a Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in Pakistan: Initial Experiences, Results, and Reflections". Epilepsy Res Treat. 2012: 547382. doi:10.1155/2012/547382. PMC 3420664 . PMID 22957232 – via PubMed Central.  ^ " Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD)". kihd.org. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ "National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases". nicvd.org. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ " Civil Hospital Karachi". chk.gov.pk. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ Issues in National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine 2013. ^ Endocrine System Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2013. ^ Zohra Zaidi & S.W Lanigan 2010. ^ Mohammad Aslam Uqaili & Khanji Harijan 2011. ^ HELEN RENAUX 2011. ^ Kenneth D. Miller M.D. & Miklos Simon MD 2015. ^ "10 Stunning Contemporary Art Galleries in Karachi, Pakistan". The Culture Trip. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ National Academy of Performing Arts. "Welcome to National Academy of Performing Arts". Retrieved 17 April 2006.  ^ "Thespianz Theater". Pakistan
Pakistan
Business Journal. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ Entertainment Desk. "Thespianz Theater brings string puppetry to PACC". Dawn. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ "Karawood film festival to kick start September 7". The Express Tribune. 5 September 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ "All Pakistan
Pakistan
Music Conference Established in 1959". All Pakistan Music Conference. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ Khan, Taimur (9 September 2013). "Cooking in Karachi". Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ a b c Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015). The Pakistan
Pakistan
Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Oxford University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-0-19-061330-3.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
is winning its war on terror". The Spectator. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.  ^ "Karachi, the 6th most dangerous city in the world previously, has jumped to 50th place". Daily Pakistan
Pakistan
Global. Retrieved 2018-02-13.  ^ " Karachi
Karachi
world's 'most dangerous megacity': Report". Times of India. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ a b "The 50 most violent cities in the world". Business Insider. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ "Karachi: Killing, extortion decreased in 2017
2017
- The Frontier Post". The Frontier Post. 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ a b Marcello Balbo 2005, p. 181. ^ Newsline 2006. ^ Mohammad Shahid Alam 1996, p. 49. ^ "Fair warning: KWSB installations at risk due to heavy excavation in Malir River". The Express Tribune. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ " Karachi
Karachi
target killings, highest in 15 years". The Express Tirbune. 29 October 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ See Demographics section above. ^ "'In 2015, Karachi
Karachi
the most violent region of Pakistan'". The News (Pakistan). 2 January 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016. With 1,040 deaths – down from 2,023 in 2014 – recorded in Karachi
Karachi
this past year, the metropolis saw...  ^ "Death toll rises: Over 3,200 killings in Karachi
Karachi
make 2013 deadliest year so far". The Tribune. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ "'52,552 Karachiites fell victim to street crime in 2016'". Express Tribune. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ "Karachi: Killing, extortion decreased in 2017
2017
- The Frontier Post". The Frontier Post. 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ " Karachi
Karachi
witnesses significant decrease in target killing, extortion cases in 2016". Dunya TV. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ drop in terrorism in Karachi, NAP implementation report shows "98pc drop in terrorism in Karachi, NAP implementation report shows" Check url= value (help). Dawn. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.  ^ "Despite rising economy, Pakistan
Pakistan
still hampered by image problem leftright 4/4leftright". Reuters. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016. A crime crackdown in Karachi, Pakistan's financial hub of 20 million people, has helped spur a real estate boom and new, upmarket seaside restaurants and cafés are overflowing.  ^ Gayer, Laurent (2014). Karachi: Ordered Disorder and the Struggle for the City. Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-023806-3.  ^ "Heritage Revisited". Historickarachi.com. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "Public Arch 5". Historickarachi.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ Laurent Gayer 2014, pp. 34. ^ "Public Architecture". Historickarachi.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "Culture department takes notice of Freemason Lodge Building". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2009.  ^ "Nusserwanjee Building (Relocation) Project". Daily Times. Retrieved 26 February 2013.  ^ "MCB Tower, the tallest skyscraper of Karachi". Mcb.com.pk. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2010.  ^ Karachi, MIS Dte, DHA. " Pakistan
Pakistan
Defence Officers Housing Authority, Karachi". dhakarachi.org. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ Downey, Jake (2003). Better Badminton for All. Pelham Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-7207-0228-3.  ^ "Match against Sindh". The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 November 1935 ^ Guardian Sport (19 July 2017), Have you heard of Tape Ball cricket?, retrieved 2017-07-23  ^ "Test matches played on National Stadium, Karachi". Cricket
Cricket
Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "First-Class matches played by Karachi". Cricket
Cricket
Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "First-Class matches played by Karachi
Karachi
Blues". Cricket
Cricket
Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "First-Class matches played by Karachi
Karachi
Greens". Cricket
Cricket
Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "First-Class matches played by Karachi
Karachi
Whites". Cricket
Cricket
Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "Fixtures". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "National Games". Pakistan
Pakistan
Sports Board. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2010. 

Bibliography See also: Bibliography of the history of Karachi

Laurent Gayer (1 June 2014), Karachi: Ordered Disorder and the Struggle for the City, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-023806-3  West Pakistan
Pakistan
(Pakistan). Transport Commission; Mian Anwer Ali (1970), Report: April 1969 – September 1969, Volume 2, West Pakistan Government Press  United Nations
United Nations
(2007), Review of Developments in Transport in the ESCAP Region ...: Asia and the Pacific, The Ohio State University, ISBN 978-92-1120-534-3  Amos Owen Thomas (3 October 2005), Imagi-Nations and Borderless Television: Media, Culture and Politics Across Asia, SAGE, ISBN 978-0-7619-3396-0  Hunt Janin; Scott A. Mandia (11 October 2012), Rising Sea Levels: An Introduction to Cause and Impact, McFarland & Company, ISBN 978-0-7864-5956-8  Sind Muslim
Muslim
College, Karachi
Karachi
(1965), Sind Muslim
Muslim
College Magazine, The University of Michigan  Sarina Singh
Sarina Singh
(2008), Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Karakoram Highway, Lonely Planet, ISBN 978-1-74104-542-0  Barbara A. Weightman (15 June 2011), Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-118-13998-1  N. H. Senzai (17 November 2015), Ticket to India, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-1-4814-2258-1  Yamini Narayanan (19 November 2015), Religion and Urbanism: Reconceptualising Sustainable Cities for South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-317-75542-5  Robert Stimson; Kingsley E. Haynes (1 January 2012), Studies in Applied Geography and Spatial Analysis: Addressing Real World Issues, Edward Elgar Publishing, ISBN 978-1-78100-796-9  Newsline Publications (2006), Newsline, Volume 18, The University of Michigan, ISBN 978-1-78100-796-9  Mohammad Shahid Alam (1996), Community Organizations and Urban Development: A Study of Selected Urban Settlements in Karachi, NGO Resource Centre  Marcello Balbo (2005), International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paulo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok, UN-HABITAT, ISBN 978-92-1131-747-3  Jonah Blank; Christopher Clary; Brian Nichiporuk (30 October 2014), Drivers of Long-Term insecurity and Instability in Pakistan: Urbanization, Rand Corporation, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-8330-8751-5  Stephen P. Cohen (2004), The Idea of Pakistan, Brookings Institution Press, p. 202, ISBN 0-8157-9761-3  Q. Ashton Acton (1 May 2013), Issues in National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine: 2013 Edition, ScholarlyEditions, p. 278, ISBN 978-1-4901-1294-7  Q. Ashton Acton (22 July 2013), Endocrine System Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition, ScholarlyEditions, p. 404, ISBN 978-1-4816-5848-5  Zohra Zaidi; S.W Lanigan (10 March 2010), Dermatology in Clinical Practice, Springer Science & Business Media, p. x, ISBN 978-1-84882-862-9  Mohammad Aslam Uqaili; Khanji Harijan (14 October 2011), Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, Springer Science & Business Media, p. 259, ISBN 978-3-7091-0109-4  HELEN RENAUX (2011), TRUE CHILDREN of the Raj, Trafford Publishing, p. 159, ISBN 978-1-4669-0177-3  Kenneth D. Miller M.D.; Miklos Simon MD (3 February 2015), Global Perspectives on Cancer: Incidence, Care, and Experience [2 volumes]: Incidence, Care, and Experience, ABC-CLIO, p. 414, ISBN 978-1-4408-2858-4 

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Geography

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Localities

Bahria Town Karachi Baldia Bin Qasim Cantonments Clifton Defence Housing Authority Gadap Gulberg Gulshan Jamshed Kiamari Korangi Landhi Liaquatabad Lyari Malir New Karachi North Nazimabad Orangi Saddar Shah Faisal SITE

Government

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Attractions

Abdullah Shah Ghazi
Abdullah Shah Ghazi
Mausoleum Bagh Ibne Qasim Bahria Icon Tower Beach View Park Empress Market Frere Hall Governor's House Habib Bank Plaza Jehangir Kothari Parade Karachi
Karachi
Expo Centre Karachi Municipal Corporation Building Karachi
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Education

Aga Khan University AES School for Girls Bahria University Barrett Hodgson University Bay View High School DHA Suffa University DJ Science College Dow University of Health Sciences Fatima Jinnah Dental College Fazaia Degree College, Faisal Habib University Happy Home School Ilma University Indus Valley
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Medical University Karachi
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Grammar School Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Economics and Technology Liaquat National Memorial Library Mohammad Ali Jinnah University National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences NED University of Engineering and Technology Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy Engineering College PIA Model Secondary School Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Sindh
Sindh
Madressatul Islam
Islam
University Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology University of Karachi Usman Institute of Technology White House Grammar School Ziauddin University

Hospitals

Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
Hospital, Karachi Indus Hospital Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Heart Diseases Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Civil Hospital, Karachi Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases PNS Rahat PNS Shifa Sindh
Sindh
Institute of Skin Diseases South City Hospital

Economy

HBL Pakistan I. I. Chundrigar Road Karachi
Karachi
Chamber of Commerce & Industry Karachi
Karachi
Cotton Exchange Karachi
Karachi
Port
Port
Trust Karachi
Karachi
Stock Exchange MCB Bank Limited Pakistan
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Mercantile Exchange Port
Port
Qasim Pakistan
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State Oil

Transport

Buses in Karachi Karachi Cantonment
Karachi Cantonment
railway station Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway Karachi
Karachi
City railway station Karachi
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Hotels and shopping centers

Marriott International Meena Bazaar Pearl-Continental Hotels & Resorts Sheraton Hotels and Resorts

Sports and culture

Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
Country Club Asghar Ali Shah Cricket
Cricket
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Hyderabad
Colony Karachi
Karachi
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Association Karachi
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cricket teams Karachi
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Dolphins Karachi
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Golf Club Karachi
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Literature Festival Karachi
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Zebras National Academy of Performing Arts National Bank of Pakistan
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Sports Complex National Stadium Pakistan
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Lists

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Towns of Karachi

Baldia Bin Qasim Gadap Gulberg Gulshan Jamshed Keamari Korangi Landhi

Liaquatabad Lyari Malir New Karachi North Nazimabad Orangi Saddar Shah Faisal SITE

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Neighbourhoods of Karachi

Baldia

Gulshan-e-Ghazi Islam
Islam
Nagar Ittehad Town Muhajir Camp Muslim
Muslim
Mujahid Colony Nai Abadi Naval Colony Rasheedabad Saeedabad

Bin Qasim

Cattle Colony Gaghar Gulshan-e-Hadeed Ibrahim Hyderi Landhi Colony Quaidabad Rehri

Gadap

Darsano Chana Gadap Gujro Manghopir Maymarabad Murad Memon Goth Sohrab Goth Songal Yousuf Goth

Gulberg

Aisha Manzil Ancholi Azizabad Karimabad Naseerabad Shafiq Mill Colony Water Pump Yaseenabad

Gulshan

Civic Centre Delhi
Delhi
Mercantile Society Eissa Nagri Gillani railway station Gulistan-e-Johar Gulshan-e-Iqbal I Gulshan-e-Iqbal II Gulzar-e-Hijri Jamali Colony Metroville
Metroville
Colony Pehlwan Goth P.I.B. Colony Safooran Goth Shanti Nagar

Jamshed

Akhtar Colony Azam Basti Central Jacob Lines Chanesar Goth Garden East Jamshed Quarters Jut Line Mahmudabad Manzoor Colony Pakistan
Pakistan
Quarters P.E.C.H.S. P.E.C.H.S. II Soldier Bazar

Keamari

Baba Bhit Bhutta Village Gabo Pat Kakapir Keamari Machar Colony Maripur Salehabad Shams Pir Shershah Sultanabad

Korangi

Bilal Colony Chakra Goth Gulzar Colony Hasrat Mohani Colony Hundred Quarters Korangi Sector 33 Mustafa Taj Colony Nasir Colony Zaman Town

Landhi

Awami Colony Bhutto Nagar Burmee Colony Dawood Chowrangi Khawaja Ajmeer Colony Korangi Landhi Moinabad Muslimabad Muzafarabad Sharafi Goth Sherabad

Liaquatabad

Abbasi Shaheed Bandhani Colony Commercial area Dak Khana Firdous Colony Mujahid Colony Nazimabad Qasimabad Rizvia Society Sharifabad Super Market

Lyari

Agra Taj Colony Allama Iqbal Colony Baghdadi Bihar Colony Chakiwara Daryaabad Nawabad Ragiwara Shah Baig Line Singo Line

Malir

Gharibabad Ghazi Brohi Goth Jafar-e-Tayyar Kala Board Khokhra Par Model Colony Saudabad Usmanabad Bahria Town Karachi

Naya Karachi

Abu Zar Ghaffari Faisal Colony Fatima Jinnah Colony Godhra Gulshan-e-Saeed Hakim Ahsan Kalyana Khamiso Goth Khawaja Ajmeer Nagri Madina Colony Mustufa Colony Shah Nawaz Bhutto Colony Sir Syed Colony

North Nazimabad

Buffer Zone Buffer Zone II Farooq-e-Azam Hyderi Khandu Goth Nusrat Bhutto Colony Pahar Ganj Paposh Nagar Sakhi Hassan Shadman Town

Orangi

Baloch Goth Bilal Colony Chisti Nagar Data Nagar Ghabool Town Ghaziabad Hanifabad Haryana Colony Iqbal Baloch Colony Madina Colony Mohammad Nagar Mominabad Mujahidabad

Saddar

City Railway Colony Civil Line Clifton Garden Gazdarabad Ghanchi Para Islam
Islam
Pura/Millat Nagar Kharadar Nanak Wara Old Haji Camp Saddar

Shah Faisal

Al-Falah Society Drigh Colony Moria Khan Goth Natha Khan Goth Pak Sadat Colony Rafa-e-Aam Society Raita Plot

SITE

Banaras Colony Bhawani Chali Frontier Colony Islamia Colony Jahanabad Metrovil Old Golimar Pak Colony Qasba Colony

Cantonments

Clifton (Defence) Faisal Karachi Korangi Creek Malir Manora

Industrial Zones

SITE Karachi Korangi Industrial Area Landhi Industrial Area North Karachi
Karachi
Industrial Area Federal B Industrial Area Korangi Creek Industrial Park Bin Qasim Industrial Zone Karachi
Karachi
Export Processing Zone Pakistan
Pakistan
Textile City West Wharf Industrial Area SITE Super Highway
Super Highway
Phase-I SITE Super Highway
Super Highway
Phase-II

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Districts of Sindh

Provincial capital: Karachi

Banbhore

Badin Thatta Sujawal

Hyderabad

Dadu Hyderabad Jamshoro Matiari Tando Allahyar Tando Muhammad Khan

Karachi

Karachi
Karachi
Central Karachi
Karachi
East Karachi
Karachi
South Karachi
Karachi
West Korangi Malir

Larkana

Jacobabad Kashmore Larkana Qambar Shahdadkot Shikarpur

Mirpur Khas

Mirpur Khas Tharparkar Umerkot

Sukkur

Ghotki Khairpur Sukkur

Shaheed Benazir Abad

Shaheed Benazir Abad Naushahro Feroze Sanghar

Disputed

Sir Creek
Sir Creek
(Rann of Kachchh)

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Pakistan
Pakistan
topics

Basic topics Alphabetical index of topics

History

Ancient

Stone age Soanian Mehrgarh Indus Valley Indo-Iranics Indo-Aryan Achaemenid Greco-Bactrian Maurya Gandhara Indo-Greek Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kushan Indo-Sassanid

Medieval

Indo-Hephthalite Kamboja Rai Dynasty Shahi Pala Solanki Muhammad bin Qasim Ghaznavid Ghurid Mamluk Khalji Tughlaq Sayyid Lodi Timurid

Modern

Pre-colonial

Mughal East India
India
Company Durrani Sikh Confederacy Sikh Empire First Anglo-Afghan War First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Rebellion

Colonial

British Raj Second Anglo-Afghan War Durand Line Third Anglo-Afghan War Aligarh Movement Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement

Muslim
Muslim
League Two nation theory Jinnah's 14 Points Lahore
Lahore
Resolution Direct Action Day

Partition Independence

Dominion

Dominion of Pakistan Princely states 1947 War Liaquat–Nehru Pact Baghdad Pact

Republic

Indus Treaty 1965 War 1971 War Project-706 Islamisation Baloch insurgency Kargil War Liberalization War in North-West Pakistan

Geography

Features

Beaches Deserts Glaciers Islands Lakes Mountains Passes Rivers Valleys Waterfalls Wetlands

Areas

Arabian Sea Gwadar
Gwadar
Bay Indus Plain Pothohar Plateau Salt Range Sistan Basin

Geology

Coal fields Gas fields Minerals Oil fields Tectonics Volcanoes Floods

Environment

Botanical gardens Ecoregions Environmental issues Forests Protected areas

national parks game reserves sanctuaries

Wildlife

flora fauna

Zoos

Other topics

Archaeological sites Climate

weather records

Borders Natural disasters

earthquakes floods

Subdivisions

provinces districts cities

World Heritage Sites

Governance

State

President National Security Council (C2NS ECC AEDB NCA)

Government

National government

Cabinet Ministries Prime Minister

Provincial governments

Governors Chief Ministers

Local government

Union councils

Legislative

Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)

Senate (upper house)

Chairman

National Assembly (lower house)

Speaker

Provincial assemblies Jirga
Jirga
(tribal assembly)

Judicial

Supreme Council Supreme Court

Chief Justice

Shariat Court High Courts District Courts

Politics

Elections Foreign relations Feudalism Intelligence community Political parties Martial law

Law

Constitution

LFO PPC WPB PCO

Human rights

Forced disappearance LGBT

LGBT history Law enforcement

Police Criminal Investigation (CID) Anti-Narcotics (ANF) Capital punishment

Terrorism

State terrorism

Military

History Army Air force Navy Marines Coast Guard Paramilitary Nuclear

Economy

Infrastructure

Electricity

Thermal Hydro nuclear solar wind

Foreign aid Fuel extraction Housing Planning Commission Post Poverty Tallest buildings Telecommunications

Pakistan
Pakistan
Remote Sensing Satellite

Transportation

bridges

Water management

Water supply and sanitation

Industry

Aerospace Agriculture Defence Automobile Fishery Forestry Husbandry Labour

child

Media Mining Pharmaceuticals Textiles

Silk

Tourism

Commerce

Banking

banks

Companies Investment board Rupee (currency) Securities and Exchange Commission Stock markets Trading Corporation

Policy programmes

Corporatisation Directive investment Industrialisation Military economisation Nationalisation Privatisation Public-private partnering Redundant Islamic economisation

Society and culture

Society

Crime Culture Education

institutions

Feudalism Gender discrimination Healthcare

hospitals

Human rights

LGBT

Marriage Media Naming Pakistanis
Pakistanis
(list) Prostitution Religion Time Urbanisation Women

Demographics

Diaspora Ethnicity Immigration Languages

Urdu

Arts

Architecture Cinema

films

Dance Festivals Folklore Literature

Mushaira

Music Philosophy Textiles Theatre

Lifestyle

Clothing

Shalwar kameez Mehndi

Cuisine Etiquette Gun culture Nationalism

flags public holidays songs symbols

Sports

Athletics Baseball Boxing Cricket Cycling Field hockey Football Gilli-danda Golf Kabaddi Motorsport Marathon (Lahore) Olympics Paralympics Polo Rugby Squash Swimming Tennis

Places

Botanical gardens Cemeteries Churches Forts Gurdwaras Hindu
Hindu
temples Libraries Mausolea and shrines Mosques Museums Parks Stadiums World Heritage Sites Zoos

Category Portal Commons

v t e

Capitals in Pakistan

Federal/national

Islamabad

Former (federal/national)

Karachi

Provincial

Karachi
Karachi
(Sindh) Lahore
Lahore
(Punjab) Peshawar
Peshawar
(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Quetta
Quetta
(Balochistan)

Territorial

Gilgit
Gilgit
(Gilgit–Baltistan) Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
(Azad Kashmir) Parachinar
Parachinar
(FATA)

v t e

Million-plus cities in Pakistan

Faisalabad Gujranwala Hyderabad Islamabad Karachi Lahore Multan Peshawar Quetta Rawalpindi Sargodha

v t e

Major cities in Pakistan

Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

Islamabad*

Punjab

Attock Bahawalpur Burewala Chakwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujar Khan Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Jhelum Kasur Kharian Lahore** Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Rawalpindi Sadiqabad Sahiwal Sargodha Sheikhupura Sialkot Taxila Toba Tek Singh

Sindh

Badin Hyderabad Jacobabad Karachi** Khairpur Larkana Mirpurkhas Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
& FATA

Abbottabad Bannu Battagram Chitral Charsada D.I.Khan Haripur Kohat Mansehra Mardan Nowshera Peshawar** Swat Swabi Timergara Tank

Balochistan

Chaman Gwadar Khuzdar Quetta** Ziarat

Azad Kashmir

Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad** Rawalakot

Gilgit–Baltistan

Gilgit Skardu

*Federal capital **Provincial/Territorial capitals

v t e

World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 160654448 GND: 4097647-6 BNF:

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