Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (French: [ʒɑnoɡyst dominik
ɛ̃ɡʁ]; 29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French
Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter
of history in the tradition of
Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis
David, it is Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that are
recognized as his greatest legacy.
Ingres was profoundly influenced by past artistic traditions, and
aspired to become the guardian of academic orthodoxy against the
ascendant Romantic style, exemplified by Eugène Delacroix. His
expressive distortions of form and space made him an important
precursor of modern art, influencing Picasso,
Matisse and other
Born into a modest family in Montauban, he travelled to
Paris to study
in the studio of David. In 1802 he made his Salon debut, and won the
Prix de Rome
Prix de Rome for his painting The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent
of Achilles. By the time he departed in 1806 for his residency in
Rome, his style—revealing his close study of Italian and Flemish
Renaissance masters—was fully developed, and would change little for
the rest of his life. While working in
Rome and subsequently Florence
from 1806 to 1824, he regularly sent paintings to the
where they were faulted by critics who found his style bizarre and
archaic. He received few commissions during this period for the
history paintings he aspired to paint, but was able to support himself
and his wife as a portrait painter and draughtsman.
He was finally recognized at the Salon in 1824, when his Raphaelesque
painting of the Vow of Louis XIII was met with acclaim, and Ingres was
acknowledged as the leader of the Neoclassical school in France.
Although the income from commissions for history paintings allowed him
to paint fewer portraits, his portrait of Louis-François Bertin
marked his next popular success in 1833. The following year, his
indignation at the harsh criticism of his ambitious composition The
Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian caused him to return to Italy, where he
assumed directorship of the French Academy in
Rome in 1835. He
Paris for good in 1841. In his later years he painted new
versions of many of his earlier compositions, a series of designs for
stained glass windows, several important portraits of women, and The
Turkish Bath, the last of his several Orientalist paintings of the
female nude, which he finished at the age of 83.
1 Early years:
Montauban and Toulouse
Rome and the French Academy (1806–1814)
Rome after the Academy and
5 Return to
Paris and retreat to
6 Director of the French Academy in
7 Last years (1841–1867)
9 Ingres and Delacroix
11 Influence on Modern Art
12 Violin d'Ingres
14 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
Montauban and Toulouse
Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France, the first of
seven children (five of whom survived infancy) of Jean-Marie-Joseph
Ingres (1755–1814) and his wife Anne Moulet (1758–1817). His
father was a successful jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of
miniatures, sculptor, decorative stonemason, and amateur musician; his
mother was the nearly illiterate daughter of a master wigmaker.
From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and
instruction in drawing and music, and his first known drawing, a study
after an antique cast, was made in 1789. Starting in 1786 he
attended the local school École des Frères de l'Éducation
Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil of the
French Revolution, and the closing of the school in 1791 marked the
end of his conventional education. The deficiency in his schooling
would always remain for him a source of insecurity.
In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young
Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de
Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he studied under the
sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, and the
neoclassical painter Guillaume-Joseph Roques. Roques' veneration of
Raphael was a decisive influence on the young artist. Ingres won
prizes in several disciplines, such as composition, "figure and
antique", and life studies. His musical talent was developed under
the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune, and from the ages of thirteen
to sixteen he played second violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de
From an early age he was determined to be a history painter, which, in
the hierarchy of artists established by the Royal Academy of Painting
and Sculpture under Louis XIV, and continued well into the 19th
Century, was considered the highest level of painting. He did not want
to simply make portraits or illustrations of real life like his
father; he wanted to represent the heroes of religion, history and
mythology, to idealize them and show them in ways that explained their
actions, rivaling the best works of literature and philosophy.
Male Torso (1800), Montauban, Musée Ingres
In March 1797, the Academy awarded Ingres first prize in drawing, and
in August he traveled to
Paris to study in the studio of Jacques-Louis
David, France's—and Europe's—leading painter during the
revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years.
Ingres followed his master's neoclassical example. In 1797 David
was working on his enormous masterpiece, The Intervention of the
Sabine Women, and was gradually modifying his style away from Roman
models of rigorous realism to the ideals of purity, virtue and
simplicity in Greek art. One of the other students of David,
Étienne-Jean Delécluze, who later became an art critic, described
Ingres as a student:
He was distinguished not just by the candor of his character and his
disposition to work alone ... he was one of the most studious ... he
took little part in the all the turbulent follies around him, and he
studied with more perseverance than most of his co-disciples ... All
of the qualities which characterize today the talent of this artist,
the finesse of contour, the true and profound sentiment of the form,
and a modeling with extraordinary correctness and firmness, could
already be seen in his early studies. While several of his comrades
and David himself signaled a tendency toward exaggeration in his
studies, everyone was struck by his grand compositions and recognized
He was admitted to the painting department of the École des
Beaux-Arts in October 1799. In 1800 and 1801, he won the grand prize
for figure painting for his paintings of male torsos. In 1800 and
1801 he also competed for the Prix de Rome, the highest prize of the
Academy, which entitled the winner to four years of residence at the
France in Rome. He came in second in his first attempt,
but in 1801 he took the top prize with The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in
the tent of Achilles. The figures of the envoys, in the right of the
painting, are muscular and solid as statues, in the style taught by
David, but the two main figures on the left,
Achilles and Patroclus,
are mobile, vivid and graceful, like figures in a delicate
The Envoys of Agamemnon, 1801, oil on canvas, École des Beaux Arts,
His residence in
Rome was postponed until 1806 due to shortage of
state funds. In the meantime he worked in
Paris alongside several
other students of David in a studio provided by the state, and further
developed a style that emphasized purity of contour. He found
inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan vase paintings, and
in the outline engravings of the English artist John Flaxman. His
Hermaphrodite and the Nymph
Salmacis showed a new stylized
ideal of female beauty, which would reappear later in his Jupiter et
Thetis and his famous nudes.
In 1802 he made his debut at the Salon with
Portrait of a Woman (the
current whereabouts of which is unknown). Between 1804 and 1806 he
painted a series of portraits which were striking for their extreme
precision, particularly in the richness of their fabrics and tiny
details. These included the
Portrait of Philipbert Riviére (1805),
Portrait of Sabine Rivière (1805–06),
Portrait of Madame Aymon
(also known as La Belle Zélie; 1806), and
Portrait of Caroline
Rivière (1805–06). The female faces were not at all detailed but
were softened, and were notable for their large oval eyes and delicate
flesh colours and their rather dreamlike expressions. His portraits
typically had simple backgrounds of solid dark or light colour, or of
sky. These were the beginning of a series that would make him among
the most celebrated portrait artists of the 19th century.
As Ingres waited to depart to Rome, his friend Lorenzo Bartolini
introduced him to Italian Renaissance paintings, particularly the
Bronzino and Pontormo, which Napoleon had brought back from his
campaign in Italy and placed in the Louvre. Ingres assimilated their
clarity and monumentality into his own portrait style. In the Louvre
were also masterpieces of Flemish art, including the Altarpiece of
Ghent by Jan Van Eyck, which the French army had seized during its
conquest of Flanders. The precision of Renaissance Flemish art became
part of Ingres's style. Ingres's stylistic eclecticism represented
a new tendency in art. The Louvre, newly filled with booty seized by
Napoleon in his campaigns in Italy and the Low Countries, provided
French artists of the early 19th century with an unprecedented
opportunity to study, compare, and copy masterworks from antiquity and
from the entire history of European painting. As art historian
Marjorie Cohn has written: "At the time, art history as a scholarly
enquiry was brand-new. Artists and critics outdid each other in their
attempts to identify, interpret, and exploit what they were just
beginning to perceive as historical stylistic developments." From
the beginning of his career, Ingres freely borrowed from earlier art,
adopting the historical style appropriate to his subject, and was
consequently accused by critics of plundering the past.
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne, 1806, oil on canvas, 260 x 163 cm,
Musée de l'Armée, Paris
In 1803 he received a prestigious commission, being one of five
artists selected (along with Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Robert Lefèvre,
Charles Meynier, and Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length
portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul. These were to be
distributed to the prefectural towns of Liège, Antwerp, Dunkerque,
Brussels, and Ghent, all of which were newly ceded to
France in the
1801 Treaty of Lunéville. Napoleon is not known to have granted
the artists a sitting, and Ingres's meticulously painted portrait of
First Consul appears to be modelled on an image of Napoleon
Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802.
In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to Marie-Anne-Julie
Forestier, a painter and musician, before leaving for
September. Although he had hoped to stay in
Paris long enough to
witness the opening of that year's Salon, in which he was to display
several works, he reluctantly left for Italy just days before the
Ingres painted a new portrait of Napoleon for presentation at the 1806
Salon, this one showing Napoleon on the Imperial Throne for his
coronation. This painting was entirely different from his earlier
portrait of Napoleon as First Consul; it concentrated almost entirely
on the symbols of power and the lavish imperial costume that Napoleon
had chosen to wear, and the symbols of power he held. The scepter of
Charles V, the sword of
Charlemagne the rich fabrics, furs and capes,
crown of gold leaves, golden chains and emblems were all presented in
extremely precise detail; the Emperor's face and hands were almost
lost in the majestic costume.
At the Salon, his paintings—Self-Portrait, portraits of the Rivière
family, and Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne—received a very chilly
reception. David delivered a severe judgement, and the critics
were hostile. Chaussard (Le Pausanias Français, 1806) praised "the
fineness of Ingres's brushwork and the finish", but condemned Ingres's
style as gothic and asked:
How, with so much talent, a line so flawless, an attention to detail
so thorough, has M. Ingres succeeded in painting a bad picture? The
answer is that he wanted to do something singular, something
extraordinary ... M. Ingres's intention is nothing less than to
make art regress by four centuries, to carry us back to its infancy,
to revive the manner of Jean de Bruges.
Rome and the French Academy (1806–1814)
The Grande Baigneuse, also called
The Valpinçon Bather
The Valpinçon Bather (1808), the
Newly arrived in Rome, Ingres read with mounting indignation the
relentlessly negative press clippings sent to him from
Paris by his
friends. In letters to his prospective father-in-law, he expressed his
outrage at the critics: "So the Salon is the scene of my
disgrace; ... The scoundrels, they waited until I was away to
assassinate my reputation ... I have never been so unhappy....I
knew I had many enemies; I never was agreeable with them and never
will be. My greatest wish would be to fly to the Salon and to confound
them with my works, which don't in any way resemble theirs; and the
more I advance, the less their work will resemble mine." He vowed
never again to exhibit at the Salon, and his refusal to return to
Paris led to the breaking up of his engagement. Julie Forestier,
when asked years later why she had never married, responded, "When one
has had the honor of being engaged to M. Ingres, one does not
On 23 November 1806, he wrote to Jean Forestier, the father of his
former fiancée, "Yes, art will need to be reformed, and I intend to
be that revolutionary." Characteristically, he found a studio on
the grounds of the
Villa Medici away from the other resident artists,
and painted furiously. Many drawings of monuments in
Rome from this
time are attributed to Ingres, but it appears from more recent
scholarship that they were actually the work of his collaborators,
particularly his friend the landscape artist François-Marius
Granet. As required of every winner of the Prix, he sent works at
regular intervals to
Paris so his progress could be judged.
Traditionally fellows sent paintings of male Greek or Roman heroes,
but for his first samples Ingres sent Baigneuse à mi-corps (1807), a
painting of the back of a young woman bathing, based on an engraving
on an antique vase, and La Grande Bagneuse (1808), a larger painting
of the back of a nude bather, and the first Ingres model to wear a
turban, a detail he borrowed from the Fornarina by his favourite
painter, Raphael. To satisfy the Academy in Paris, he also
dispatched Oedipus and the Sphinx to show his mastery of the male
nude. The verdict of the academicians in
Paris was that the
figures were not sufficiently idealized. In later years Ingres
painted several variants of these compositions; another nude begun in
1807, the Venus Anadyomene, remained in an unfinished state for
decades, to be completed forty years later and finally exhibited
Oedipus and the Sphinx (1808), the Louvre
During his time in
Rome He also produced numerous portraits: Madame
Duvauçay, François-Marius Granet, Edme-François-Joseph Bochet,
Madame Panckoucke, and that of Madame la Comtesse de Tournon, mother
of the prefect of the department of the Tiber. In 1810 Ingres's
pension at the
Villa Medici ended, but he decided to stay in
seek patronage from the French occupation government.
Jupiter and Thetis
Jupiter and Thetis (1811), Aix-en-Provence, Musée Granet
In 1811 Ingres completed his final student exercise, the immense
Jupiter and Thetis, a scene from the
Iliad of Homer: the goddess of
the Sea, Thetis, pleads with Zeus to act in favor of her son Achilles.
The face of the water nymph
Salmacis he had drawn years earlier
reappeared as Thetis. Ingres wrote with enthusiasm that he had been
planning to paint this subject since 1806, and he intended to "deploy
all of the luxury of art in its beauty". However, once again, the
critics were hostile. Ingres was stung; the public was
indifferent, and the strict classicists among his fellow artists
looked upon him as a renegade. Only
Eugène Delacroix and other pupils
of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin—the leaders of that romantic movement for
which Ingres throughout his long life always expressed the deepest
abhorrence—seem to have recognized his merits.
Although facing uncertain prospects, in 1813 Ingres married a young
woman, Madeleine Chapelle, recommended to him by her friends in Rome.
After a courtship carried out through correspondence, he proposed
without having met her, and she accepted. Their marriage was
happy; Madame Ingres's faith was unwavering. He continued to suffer
disparaging reviews, as Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword,
Raphael and the Fornarina (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University),
several portraits, and the Interior of the
Sistine Chapel met with
generally hostile critical response at the
Paris Salon of 1814.
Rome after the Academy and
Romulus' Victory Over Acron
Romulus' Victory Over Acron (1811), the Louvre
After he left the Academy, a few important commissions came to him.
The French governor of Rome, General Miollis, a wealthy patron of the
arts, asked him to decorate rooms of the
Monte Cavallo Palace, a
former papal residence, for an expected visit of Napoleon. Ingres
painted a large-scale
Romulus' Victory Over Acron
Romulus' Victory Over Acron (1811) for the salon
of the Empress and The Dream of Ossian (1813), based on a book of
poems that Napoleon admired, for the ceiling of the Emperor's
bedroom. General Miollis also commissioned Ingres to paint Virgil
Aeneid (1812) for his own residence, the villa
Aldobrandini. The painting showed the moment when
the death of Marcellus, the son of Livia, causing Livia to faint. The
interior was precisely depicted, following the archeological finds at
Pompeii. As usual, Ingres made several versions of the same scene: a
three-figure fragment cut from an abandoned version is in the Royal
Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels, and in 1832 he made a
drawing in vertical format as a model for a reproductive engraving by
Pradier. The General Miollis version was repurchased by Ingres in
the 1830s, reworked by assistants under Ingres's direction, and never
finished; The Dream of Ossian was likewise repurchased, modified, but
He traveled to Naples in the spring of 1814 to paint Queen Caroline
Murat. Joachim Murat, the King of Naples, had earlier purchased the
Dormeuse de Naples, a sleeping nude (the original is lost, but
several drawings exist, and Ingres later revisited the subject in
L'Odalisque à l'esclave). Murat also commissioned two historical
Raphael et la Fornarina and Paolo et Francesca, and what
later became one of Ingres's most famous works, La Grande Odalisque,
to accompany Dormeuse de Naples. Ingres never received payment, due to
the collapse of the Murat regime and execution of
Joachim Murat in
1815. With the fall of Napoleon's dynasty, he found himself
essentially stranded in
Rome without patronage.
Virgil reading The
Aeneid before Augustus, Octavia and Livia (1812,
later reworked), Toulouse, Musée des Augustins
He continued to produce masterful portraits, both in pencil and oils,
of almost photographic precision; but with the departure of the French
administration, the painting commissions were rare. During this low
point of his career, Ingres augmented his income by drawing pencil
portraits of the many wealthy tourists, in particular the English,
passing through postwar Rome. For an artist who aspired to a
reputation as a history painter, this seemed menial work, and to the
visitors who knocked on his door asking, "Is this where the man who
draws the little portraits lives?", he would answer with irritation,
"No, the man who lives here is a painter!" The portrait drawings
he produced in such profusion during this period rank today among his
most admired works. He is estimated to have made some five hundred
portrait drawings, including portraits of his famous friends. His
friends included many musicians including Paganini, and he regularly
played the violin with others who shared his enthusiasm for Mozart,
Haydn, Gluck, and Beethoven.
He also produced a series of small paintings in what was known as the
Troubador style, idealized portrayals of events in the Middle Ages and
Renaissance. In 1815 he painted
Aretino and Charles V's Ambassador
Aretino and Charles V's Ambassador as
well as Aretino and Tintoretto, an anecdotal painting whose subject, a
painter brandishing a pistol at his critic, may have been especially
satisfying to the embattled Ingres. Other paintings in the same
style included Henry IV Playing with His Children (1817) and the Death
Roger Delivrant Angelique (1819), The Louvre
In 1816 Ingres produced his only etching, a portrait of the French
ambassador to Rome, Monsignor Gabriel Cortois de Pressigny. The
only other prints he is known to have executed are two lithographs:
The Four Magistrates of Besançon, made as an illustration for Baron
Taylor's Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l'ancienne France,
and a copy of La Grande Odalisque, both in 1825.
In 1817 the Count of Blacas, who was ambassador of
France to the Holy
See, provided Ingres with his first official commission since 1814,
for a painting of
Christ Giving the Keys to Peter. Completed in 1820,
this imposing work was well received in
Rome but to the artist's
chagrin the ecclesiastical authorities there would not permit it to be
Paris for exhibition.
A commission came in 1816 or 1817 from the descendants of the Fernando
Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva, for a painting of the Duke receiving
papal honours for his repression of the Protestant Reformation. Ingres
loathed the subject—he regarded the Duke as one of history's
brutes—and struggled to satisfy both the commission and his
conscience. After revisions which eventually reduced the Duke to a
tiny figure in the background, Ingres left the work unfinished. He
entered in his diary, "J'etais forcé par la necessité de peindre un
pareil tableau; Dieu a voulu qu'il reste en ebauche." ("I was forced
by need to paint such a painting; God wanted it to remain a
La Grande Odalisque
La Grande Odalisque (1814), the Louvre
He continued to send works to the Salon in Paris, hoping to make his
breakthrough there. In 1819 he sent his reclining nude, La Grande
Odalisque, as well as a history painting, Philip V and the Marshal of
Berwick, and Roger Freeing Angelica, based on an episode in the
16th-century epic poem
Orlando Furioso by
Ariosto but his work was
once again condemned by critics as gothic and unnatural. The
critic Kératy complained that the Grande Odalisque's back was three
vertebrae too long. The critic Charles Landon wrote: "After a moment
of attention, one sees that in this figure there are no bones, no
muscles, no blood, no life, no relief, no anything which constitutes
imitation....it is evident that the artist deliberately erred, that he
wanted to do it badly, that he believed in bringing back to life the
pure and primitive manner of the painters of Antiquity; but he took
for his model a few fragments from earlier periods and a degenerate
execution, and completely lost his way."
In 1820 Ingres and his wife moved to
Florence at the urging of the
Florentine sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, an old friend from his years in
Paris. He still had to depend upon his portraits and drawings for
income, but his luck began to change. His history painting Roger
Freeing Angelica was purchased for the private collection of Louis
XVIII, and was hung in the
Musée du Luxembourg
Musée du Luxembourg in Paris, which was
newly devoted to the work of living artists. This was the first work
of Ingres to enter a museum.
In 1821 he finished a painting commissioned by a childhood friend,
Monsieur de Pastoret, The Entry into
Paris of the Dauphin, the Future
Charles V; de Pastoret also ordered a portrait of himself and a
religious work (Virgin with the Blue Veil). In August 1820, with the
help of de Pastoret, he received a commission for a major religious
painting for the Cathedral of Montauban. The theme was the
re-establishment of the bond between the church and the state.
The Vow of Louis XIII
The Vow of Louis XIII (1824), inspired by Raphael,
was purely in the Renaissance style, and depicted King Louis XIII
vowing to dedicate his reign to the Virgin Mary. This was perfectly in
tune with the doctrine of the new government of the Restoration. He
spent four years bringing the large canvas to completion, and he took
it to the
Paris Salon in October 1824, where it became the key that
finally opened the door of the
Paris art establishment and to his
career as an official painter.
Paris and retreat to
The Vow of Louis XIII
The Vow of Louis XIII (1824), Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Montauban
The Vow of Louis XIII
The Vow of Louis XIII in the Salon of 1824 finally brought Ingres
critical success. Although
Stendhal complained about "the sort of
material beauty which excludes the idea of divinity", most critics
praised the work. The journalist and future Prime Minister and French
Adolphe Thiers celebrated the breakthrough of a new style:
"Nothing is better than variety like this, the essential character of
the new style." In January 1825 he was awarded the Cross of the
Légion d'honneur by Charles X, and in June 1825 he was elected to the
Institute. His fame was extended further in 1826 by the publication of
Sudre's lithograph of La Grande Odalisque, which, having been scorned
by artists and critics alike in 1819, now became widely popular. The
1824 Salon also brought forward a counter-current to the neoclassicism
Eugène Delacroix exhibited Les Massacres de Scio, in a
romantic style sharply contrasting to that of Ingres.
The success of Ingres's painting led in 1826 to a major new
commission, The Apotheosis of Homer, a giant canvas which celebrated
all the great artists of history, intended to decorate the ceiling of
one of the halls of the Museum
Charles X at the Louvre. Ingres was
unable to finish the work in time for the 1827 Salon, but displayed
the painting in grisaille. The 1827 Salon became a confrontation
between the neoclassicism of Ingres's Apotheosis and a new manifesto
of romanticism by Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus. Ingres joined
the battle with enthusiasm; he called Delacroix "the apostle of
ugliness" and told friends that he recognized "the talent, the
honorable character and distinguished spirit" of Delacroix, but that
"he has tendencies which I believe are dangerous and which I must push
The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian
The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian (1834), Cathedral of Autun
Despite the considerable patronage he enjoyed under the Bourbon
government, Ingres welcomed the
July Revolution of 1830. That the
outcome of the Revolution was not a republic but a constitutional
monarchy was satisfactory to the essentially conservative and
pacifistic artist, who in a letter to a friend in August 1830
criticized agitators who "still want to soil and disturb the order and
happiness of a freedom so gloriously, so divinely won." Ingres's
career was little affected, and he continued to receive official
commissions and honors under the July Monarchy.
Ingres exhibited in the Salon of 1833, where his portrait of
Louis-François Bertin (1832) was a particular success. The public
found its realism spellbinding, although some of the critics declared
its naturalism vulgar and its colouring drab. In 1834 he finished
a large religious painting, The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian, which
depicted the first saint to be martyred in Gaul. The painting was
commissioned in 1824 by the Ministry of the Interior for the Cathedral
of Autun, and the iconography in the picture was specified by the
bishop. Ingres conceived the painting as the summation of all of his
work and skill, and worked on it for ten years before displaying it at
the 1834 Salon. He was surprised, shocked and angered by the response;
the painting was attacked by both the neoclassicists and by the
romantics. Ingres was accused of historical inaccuracy, for the
colours, and for the feminine appearance of the Saint, who looked like
a beautiful statue. In anger, Ingres announced that he would no longer
accept public commissions, and that he would no longer participate in
the Salon. He later did participate in some semi-public expositions
and a retrospective of his work at the 1855
Exposition, but never again took part in the Salon or submitted his
work for public judgement. Instead, at the end of 1834 he returned to
Rome to become the Director of the Academy of France.
Director of the French Academy in
L'Odalisque et l'esclave (1839), Fogg Art Museum
Ingres remained in
Rome for six years. He devoted much of his
attention to the training of the painting students, as he was later to
do at the
École des Beaux-Arts
École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He re-organized the Academy,
increased the size of the library, added many molds of classical
statues to the Academy collection, and assisted the students in
getting public commissions in both
Rome and Paris. He traveled to
Sienna (1835), and to
Urbino to study the
paleochristian mosaics, medieval murals and Renaissance art. He
devoted considerable attention to music, one of the subjects of the
academy; he welcomed
Franz Liszt and Fanny Mendelssohn. He formed a
long friendship with Liszt. The composer Charles Gounod, who was a
pensioner at the time at the Academy, described Ingres's appreciation
of modern music, including Weber and Berlioz, and his adoration for
Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and Gluck. He joined the music students and
Niccolò Paganini in playing Beethoven's violin works.
Gounod wrote that Ingres "had the tenderness of an infant and the
indignation of an apostle." When
Stendhal visited the Academy and
disparaged Beethoven, Ingres turned to the doorman, indicated
Stendahl, and told him, "If this gentleman ever calls again, I am not
His rancor against the
Paris art establishment for his failure at the
1834 Salon did not abate. In 1836 he refused a major commission from
the French Minister of the Interior, Adolphe Thiers, to decorate the
interior of the
Church of the Madeleine
Church of the Madeleine in Paris, because the
commission had been offered first to a rival, Paul Delaroche, who
refused it. He did complete a small number of works which he sent
to patrons in Paris. One was L'Odalisque et l'esclave, (1839), a
portrait of a blonde odalisque, or member of a harem, who reclines
languorously while a turbaned musician plays. This fit into the
popular genre of orientalism; his rival
Eugène Delacroix had created
a painting on a similar theme, Les Femmes d'Alger, for the 1834 Salon.
The setting was inspired by Persian miniatures and was full of exotic
detail, but the woman's long reclining form was pure Ingres. The
Théophile Gautier wrote of Ingres's work: "It is impossible to
better paint the mystery, the silence and the suffocating atmosphere
of the seraglio." In 1842 he painted a second version, nearly
identical to the first but with a landscape background (painted by his
student Paul Flandrin).
The Illness of Antiochus
The Illness of Antiochus (1840), Musée Condé, Chantilly
The second painting he sent, in 1840, was The Illness of Antiochus
(1840; also known as Aniochus and Stratonice) a history painting on a
theme of love and sacrifice, a theme once painted by David in 1800,
when Ingres was in his studio. It was commissioned by the Duc
d'Orleans, the son of King Louis Philippe I), and had very elaborate
architectural background designed by one of the Academy students,
Victor Baltard, the future architect of the
Paris market Les Halles.
The central figure was an ethereal woman in white, whose contemplative
pose with her hand on her chin recurs in some of Ingres's female
His painting of Aniochius and Stratonice, despite its small size, just
one meter, was a major success for Ingres. In August it was shown in
the private apartment of the duc d'Orléans in the Pavilion Marsan of
the Palais des Tuileries. The King greeted him personally at
Versailles and gave him a tour of the Palace. He was offered a
commission to paint a portrait of the Duke, the heir to the throne,
and another from the Duc de Lunyes to create two huge murals for the
Château de Dampierre. In April 1841 he returned definitively to
Last years (1841–1867)
The Source (1856), Musée d'Orsay, Paris
One of the first works executed after his return to
Paris was a
portrait of the duc d'Orléans. After the heir to the throne was
killed in a carriage accident a few months after the painting was
completed in 1842, Ingres received commissions to make additional
copies. He also received a commission to design seventeen stained
glass windows for the chapel on the place where the accident occurred,
and a commission for eight additional stained-glass designs for
Orléans chapel in Dreux. He became a professor at the Ecole des
Beaux-Arts in Paris. He took his students frequently to the
the see the classical and Renaissance art, instructing them to look
straight ahead and to avoid the works of Rubens, which he believed
deviated too far from the true values of art.
The Revolution of 1848, which overthrew Louis Philippe and created the
French Second Republic, had little effect on his work or his ideas. He
declared that the revolutionaries were "cannibals who called
themselves French", but during the Revolution completed his Vénus
Anadyoméne, which he had started as an academic study in 1808. It
represented Venus, rising from the sea which had given birth to her,
surrounded by cherubs. He welcomed the patronage of the new government
of Louis-Napoleon, who in 1852 became Emperor Napoleon III.
The Turkish Bath
The Turkish Bath (1862–63), The Louvre
In 1843 Ingres had begun the decorations of the great hall in the
Château de Dampierre
Château de Dampierre with two large murals, the Golden Age and the
Iron Age, illustrating the origins of art. He made more than five
hundred preparatory drawings, and worked on the enormous project for
six years. In an attempt to imitate the effect of Renaissance frescos,
he chose to paint the murals in oil on plaster, which created
technical difficulties. Work on the Iron Age never progressed
beyond the architectural background painted by an assistant.
Meanwhile, the growing crowd of nudes in the Golden Age discomfited
Ingres's patron, the Duc de Luynes, and Ingres suspended work on the
mural in 1847. Ingres was devastated by the loss of his wife, who died
on 27 July 1849, and he was finally unable to complete the work.
In July 1851, he announced a gift of his artwork to his native city of
Montauban, and in October he resigned as professor at the École des
However, in 1852, Ingres, then seventy-one years of age, married
forty-three-year-old Delphine Ramel, a relative of his friend Marcotte
d'Argenteuil. Ingres was rejuvenated, and in the decade that followed
he completed several significant works, including the portrait of
Princesse Albert de Broglie, née Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline
de Galard de Brassac de Béarn. In 1853 he began the Apotheosis of
Napoleon I, for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville, Paris.
(It was destroyed in May 1871 when the
Paris Commune set fire to the
building.) With the help of assistants, in 1854 he completed another
history painting, Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII. In
1855 A retrospective of his works was featured at the
Exposition of 1855, and in the same year
Napoleon III named him a
Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur. In 1862 he was awarded the
title of Senator, and made a member of the Imperial Council on Public
Instruction. Three of his works were shown in the London International
Exhibition, and his reputation as a major French painter was
confirmed once more.
Uffizi Gallery, Florence
He continued to rework and refine his classic themes. In 1856 Ingres
completed The Source (The Spring), a painting begun in 1820 and
closely related to his Venus Anadyoméne. He painted two versions
of Louis XIV and
Molière (1857 and 1860), and produced variant copies
of several of his earlier compositions. These included religious works
in which the figure of the Virgin from
The Vow of Louis XIII
The Vow of Louis XIII was
reprised: The Virgin of the Adoption of 1858 (painted for Mademoiselle
Roland-Gosselin) was followed by The Virgin Crowned (painted for
Madame la Baronne de Larinthie) and The Virgin with Child. In 1859 he
produced new versions of The Virgin of the Host, and in 1862 he
Christ and the Doctors, a work commissioned many years
before by Queen Marie Amalie for the chapel of Bizy. He painted small
replicas of Paolo and Francesca and Oedipus and the Sphinx. In
1862 he completed a small oil-on-paper version of The Golden Age.
The last of his important portrait paintings date from this period:
Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier, Seated (1856),
Portrait at the Age of Seventy-eight and Madame J.-A.-D. Ingres,
née Delphine Ramel, both completed in 1859. At the request of the
Uffizi Gallery of Florence, he made his own-self portrait in 1858. The
only colour in the painting is the red of his rosette of the Legion of
Near the end of his life, he made one of his best-known masterpieces,
The Turkish Bath. It reprised a figure and theme he had been painting
since 1828, with his Petite Baigneuse. Originally completed in a
square format in 1852 and sold to Prince Napoleon in 1859, it was
returned to the artist soon afterward—according to a legend,
Princess Clothilde was shocked by the abundant nudity. After
reworking the painting as a tondo, Ingres signed and dated it in 1862,
although he made additional revisions in 1863. The painting was
eventually purchased by a Turkish diplomat, Khalid Bey, who owned a
large collection of nudes and erotic art, including several paintings
by Courbet. The painting continued to cause a scandal long after
Ingres was dead. It was initially offered to the
Louvre in 1907, but
was rejected, before being given to the
Louvre in 1911.
Ingres died of pneumonia on 14 January 1867, at the age of eighty-six,
in his apartment on the Quai Voltaire in Paris. He is interred in the
Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery in
Paris with a tomb sculpted by his student
Jean-Marie Bonnassieux. The contents of his studio, including a number
of major paintings, over 4000 drawings, and his violin, were
bequeathed by the artist to the city museum of Montauban, now known as
the Musée Ingres.
Odalisque with Slave
Odalisque with Slave (1842), oil on canvas, 76 x 105 cm, Walters Art
Ingres's style was formed early in life and changed comparatively
little. His earliest drawings, such as the
Portrait of a Man (or
Portrait of an unknown, 3 July 1797, now in the Louvre)
already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the
parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his
paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his
often-quoted conviction that "drawing is the probity of art". He
believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing,
Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just
the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the
composition, the modelling. See what is left after that.
seven eighths of what makes up painting."
The art historian Jean Clay said Ingres "proceeded always from
certitude to certitude, with the result that even his freest sketches
reveal the same kind of execution as that found in the final
works." Abhorring the visible brushstroke, Ingres made no recourse
to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic
school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly modelled in
light by half tones. "Ce que l'on sait," he would repeat, "il faut le
savoir l'épée à la main." ("Whatever you know, you must know it
with sword in hand.") Ingres thus left himself without the means of
producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with crowded
compositions, such as the Apotheosis of
Homer and the Martyrdom of
Saint Symphorian. Among Ingres's historical and mythological
paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those depicting one or
two figures, such as Oedipus, The Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and
The Spring, subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect
In Roger Freeing Angelica, the female figure shows the finest
qualities of Ingres's work, while the effigy of Roger flying to the
rescue on his hippogriff sounds a jarring note, for Ingres was rarely
successful in the depiction of movement and drama. According to
Sanford Schwartz, the "historical, mythological, and religious
pictures bespeak huge amounts of energy and industry, but, conveying
little palpable sense of inner tension, are costume dramas ... The
faces in the history pictures are essentially those of models waiting
for the session to be over. When an emotion is to be expressed, it
comes across stridently, or woodenly."
Ingres was averse to theories, and his allegiance to classicism—with
its emphasis on the ideal, the generalized, and the regular—was
tempered by his love of the particular. He believed that "the
secret of beauty has to be found through truth. The ancients did not
create, they did not make; they recognized." In many of Ingres's
works there is a collision between the idealized and the particular
that creates what
Robert Rosenblum termed an "oil-and-water
sensation". This contradiction is vivid in Cherubini and the Muse
of Lyric Poetry (1842), for example, in which the detailed rendering
of the 81-year-old composer is juxtaposed with an idealized muse in
Ingres's choice of subjects reflected his literary tastes, which were
severely limited: he read and reread Homer, Virgil, Plutarch, Dante,
histories, and the lives of the artists. Throughout his life he
revisited a small number of favourite themes, and painted multiple
versions of many of his major compositions. He did not share his
age's enthusiasm for battle scenes, and generally preferred to depict
"moments of revelation or intimate decision manifested by meeting or
confrontation, but never by violence." His numerous odalisque
paintings were influenced to a great extent by the writings of Mary
Wortley Montagu, the wife of the ambassador to Turkey whose diaries
and letters, when published, fascinated European society.
Although capable of painting quickly, he often laboured for years over
a painting. Ingres's pupil Amaury-Duval wrote of him: "With this
facility of execution, one has trouble explaining why Ingres' oeuvre
is not still larger, but he scraped out [his work] frequently, never
being satisfied ... and perhaps this facility itself made him rework
whatever dissatisfied him, certain that he had the power to repair the
fault, and quickly, too." The Source, although dated 1856, was
painted about 1820, except for the head and the extremities;
Amaury-Duval, who knew the work in its incomplete state, professed
that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the
vigour and precision of touch that distinguished the original
execution of the torso.
Madame Rivière (1805–06), oil on canvas, 116.5 x 81.7 cm,
Portrait of Charles Marcotte (1810),
National Gallery of Art,
Portrait of Monsieur Bertin (1832), the Louvre
Portrait of Comtesse d'Haussonville (1845), Frick Collection, New York
Portrait of Baronne de Rothschild, (1848), Rothschild Collection,
While Ingres believed that history painting was the highest form of
art, his modern reputation rests largely upon the exceptional quality
of his portraits. By the time of Ingres's retrospective at the
Exposition Universelle in 1855, an emerging consensus viewed his
portrait paintings as his masterpieces. Their consistently high
quality belies Ingres's often-stated complaint that the demands of
portraiture robbed him of time he could have spent painting historical
Baudelaire called him "the sole man in
France who truly
makes portraits. The portraits of M. Bertin, M. Molé and Mme
d'Haussonville are true portraits, that is, the ideal reconstruction
of individuals....A good portrait seems to me always as a biography
dramatized." His most famous portrait is that of Louis-François
Bertin, the chief editor of the Journal des Debats, which was widely
admired when it was exhibited at the 1833 Salon. Ingres had originally
planned to paint Bertin standing, but many hours of effort ended in a
creative impasse before he decided on a seated pose. Édouard Manet
described the resulting portrait as "The Buddha of the Bourgeoisie".
The portrait quickly became a symbol of the rising economic and
political power of Bertin's social class.
For his female portraits, he often posed the subject after a classical
statue; the famous portrait of the Comtesse de'Haussonville may have
been modeled after a Roman statue called "Pudicity" ("modesty") in the
Vatican collection. Another trick that Ingres used was paint the
fabrics and details in the portraits with extreme precision and
accuracy, but to idealize the face. The eye of the viewer would
perceive the fabrics as realistic and would assume the face was
equally true. His portraits of women range from the warmly
sensuous Madame de Senonnes (1814) to the realistic Mademoiselle
Jeanne Gonin (1821), the Junoesque Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld,
Madame Moitessier (portrayed standing and seated, 1851 and 1856), and
the chilly Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de
Béarn, Princesse de Broglie (1853).
Study for the
Grande Odalisque (1814)
Niccolo Paganini (1819)
Study for the portrait of the Vicomtess d'Haussonville (circa 1844)
The Turkish Bath
The Turkish Bath (1859)
Drawing was the foundation of Ingres's art. In the Ecole des
Beaux-Arts he excelled at figure drawing, winning the top prizes.
During his years in
Rome and Florence, he made hundreds of drawings of
family, friends, and visitors, many of them of very high portrait
quality. He never began a painting without first resolving the
drawing, usually with a long series of drawing in which he refined the
composition. In the case of his large history paintings, each figure
in the painting was the subject of numerous sketches and studies as he
tried different poses. He demanded that his students at the Academy
Ecole des Beaux-Arts
Ecole des Beaux-Arts perfect their drawing before anything
else; a painting for him was simply a drawing with colour added. He
declared: "The drawing is the truth of art."
Victor Baltard and Her Daughter, Paule, 1836, pencil on paper,
30.1 x 22.3 cm
His portrait drawings, of which about 450 are extant, are today
among his most admired works. While a disproportionate number of them
date from his difficult early years in Italy, he continued to produce
portrait drawings of his friends until the end of his life. Agnes
Mongan has written of the portrait drawings:
Before his departure in the fall of 1806 from
Paris for Rome, the
familiar characteristics of his drawing style were well established,
the delicate yet firm contour, the definite yet discreet distortions
of form, the almost uncanny capacity to seize a likeness in the
precise yet lively delineation of features.
The preferred materials were also already established: the sharply
pointed graphite pencil on a smooth white paper. So familiar to us are
both the materials and the manner that we forget how extraordinary
they must have seemed at the time ... Ingres' manner of drawing
was as new as the century. It was immediately recognized as expert and
admirable. If his paintings were sternly criticized as "Gothic," no
comparable criticism was leveled at his drawings.
Raymond Balze described Ingres's working routine in
executing his portrait drawings, each of which required four hours, as
"an hour and a half in the morning, then two-and-a-half hours in the
afternoon, he very rarely retouched it the next day. He often told me
that he got the essence of the portrait while lunching with the model
who, off guard, became more natural." The resulting drawings,
according to John Canaday, revealed the sitters' personalities by
means so subtle—and so free of cruelty—that Ingres could "expose
the vanities of a fop, a silly woman, or a windbag, in drawings that
Ingres drew his portrait drawings on wove paper, which provided a
smooth surface very different from the ribbed surface of laid paper
(which is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to today as "Ingres
Drawings made in preparation for paintings, such as the many studies
for The Martyrdom of St. Symphorian and The Golden Age, are more
varied in size and treatment than are the portrait drawings. It was
his usual practice to make many drawings of nude models, in search of
the most eloquent gesture, before making another series of drawings
for the draperies. In his early years he sometimes had his model pose
behind a translucent veil that suppressed details and emphasized the
arabesque. He often used female models when testing poses for
male figures, as he did in drawings for Jesus Among the Doctors.
Nude studies exist even for some of his commissioned portraits, but
these were drawn using hired models.
Ingres drew a number of landscape views while in Rome, but he painted
only one pure landscape, the small tondo Raphael's Casino (although
two other small landscape tondos are sometimes attributed to
For Ingres, colour played an entirely secondary role in art. He wrote,
"Colour adds ornament to a painting; but it is nothing but the
handmaiden, because all it does is to render more agreeable the true
perfections of the art.
Rubens and Van Dyck can be pleasing at first
sight, but they are deceptive; they are from the poor school of
colourists, the school of deception. Never use bright colours, they
are anti-historic. It is better to fall into gray than to into bright
colours." The Institute in
Paris complained in 1838 that the
students of Ingres in
Rome "had a deplorable lack of knowledge of the
truth and power of colour, and a knowledge of the different effects of
light. A dull and opaque effect is found in all their canvases. They
seem to have only been lit by twilight." The poet and critic
Baudelaire observed: "the students of M. Ingres have very uselessly
avoided any semblance of colour; they believe or pretend to believe
that they are not needed in painting."
Ingres's own paintings vary considerably in their use of colour, and
critics were apt to fault them as too grey or, contrarily, too
jarring. Baudelaire—who said "M. Ingres adores colour like a
fashionable milliner"—wrote of the portraits of Louis-François
Bertin and Madame d'Haussonville: "Open your eyes, nation of
simpletons, and tell us if you ever saw such dazzling, eye-catching
painting, or even a greater elaboration of colour". Ingres's
paintings are often characterized by strong local colours, such as the
"acid blues and bottle greens"
Kenneth Clark professed to "perversely
enjoy" in La Grande Odalisque. In other works, especially in his
less formal portraits such as the Mademoiselle
Jeanne-Suzanne-Catherine Gonin (1821), colour is restrained.
Ingres and Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix became, in the mid-19th century, the most
prominent representatives of the two great competing schools of art in
France, neoclassicism and romanticism. Neo-classicism was based in
large part on the philosophy of Johann Joachim Winckelmann
(1717–1768), who wrote that art should embody "noble simplicity and
calm grandeur". Many painters followed this course, including Francois
Gerard, Antoine-Jean Gros, Anne-Louis Girodet, and Jacques-Louis
David, the teacher of Ingres. A competing school, romanticism, emerged
first in Germany, and moved quickly to France. It rejected the idea of
the imitation of classical styles, which it described as "gothic" and
"primitive". The Romanticists in French painting were led by Theodore
Gericault and especially Delacroix. The rivalry first emerged at the
Paris Salon of 1824, where Ingres exhibited The Vow of Louis XIII,
inspired by Raphael, while Delacroix showed The Massacre at Chios,
depicting a tragic event in the Greek Civil War. Ingres's painting was
calm, static and carefully constructed, while the work of Delacroix
was turbulent, full of motion, colour, and emotion.
The dispute between the two painters and schools reappeared at the
1827 Salon, where Ingres presented L'Apotheose d'Homer, an example of
classical balance and harmony, while Delacroix showed The Death of
Sardanapalus, another glittering and tumultuous scene of violence. The
duel between the two painters, each considered the best of his school,
continued over the years.
Paris artists and intellectuals were
passionately divided by the conflict, although modern art historians
tend to regard Ingres and other Neoclassicists as embodying the
Romantic spirit of their time.
At the 1855 Universal Exposition, both Delacroix and Ingres were well
represented. The supporters of Delacroix and the romantics heaped
abuse on the work of Ingres. The
Brothers Goncourt described "the
miserly talent" of Ingres: "Faced with history, M. Ingres calls vainly
to his assistance a certain wisdom, decency, convenience, correction
and a reasonable dose of the spiritual elevation that a graduate of a
college demands. He scatters persons around the center of the action
... tosses here and there an arm, a leg, a head perfectly drawn, and
thinks that his job is done..."
Baudelaire also, previously sympathetic toward Ingres, shifted toward
Delacroix. "M. Ingres can be considered a man gifted with high
qualities, an eloquent evoker of beauty, but deprived of the energetic
temperament which creates the fatality of genius."
Delacroix himself was merciless toward Ingres. Describing the
exhibition of works by Ingres at the 1855 Exposition, he called it
"ridiculous ... presented, as one knows, in a rather pompous fashion
... It is the complete expression of an incomplete intelligence;
effort and pretention are everywhere; nowhere is there found a spark
of the natural."
Ingres was a conscientious teacher and was greatly admired by his
students. The best known of them is Théodore Chassériau, who
studied with him from 1830, as a precocious eleven-year-old, until
Ingres closed his studio in 1834 to return to Rome. Ingres considered
Chassériau his truest disciple—even predicting, according to an
early biographer, that he would be "the Napoleon of painting". By
the time Chassériau visited Ingres in
Rome in 1840, however, the
younger artist's growing allegiance to the romantic style of Delacroix
was apparent, leading Ingres to disown his favourite student, of whom
he subsequently spoke rarely and censoriously. No other artist who
studied under Ingres succeeded in establishing a strong identity;
among the most notable of them were Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin, Henri
Lehmann, and Eugène Emmanuel Amaury-Duval.
Influence on Modern Art
Ingres's influence on later generations of artists was considerable.
One of his heirs was Degas, who studied under Louis Lamothe, a minor
disciple of Ingres. In the 20th century, his influence was even
Matisse were among those who acknowledged a debt
Matisse described him as the first painter "to use pure
colours, outlining them without distorting them." The composition
of paintings, bringing the figures to the foreground and eliminating
the traditional depth and perspective of 19th-century paintings, and
flattening the figures presenting them "like the figures in a deck of
cards", were new and startling effects, which were criticized in the
19th century but welcomed by the avant-garde in the 20th century.
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Pablo
Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906. Metropolitan Museum
of Art, New York
An important retrospective of works by Ingres was held at the Salon
Paris in 1905, which was visited by Picasso, Matisse, and
many other artists. The original and striking composition of "The
Turkish Bath", shown for the first time in public, had a visible
influence on the composition and poses of the figures in Picasso's Les
Demoiselles d'Avignon in 1907. The exhibit also included many of
his studies for the unfinished mural l'Age d'or, including a striking
drawing of women gracefully dancing in a circle.
Matisse produced his
own version on this composition in his painting La Danse in 1909.
The particular pose and colouring of Ingres's
Portrait of Monsieur
Bertin also made a reappearance in Picasso's
Portrait of Gertrude
Barnett Newman credited Ingres as a progenitor of abstract
expressionism, explaining: "That guy was an abstract painter ...
He looked at the canvas more often than at the model. Kline, de
Kooning—none of us would have existed without him."
Pierre Barousse, the curator of the Musée Ingres, wrote:
...One realizes in how many ways a variety of artists claim him as
their master, from the most plainly conventional of the nineteenth
century such as Cabanel or Bouguereau, to the most revolutionary of
our century from
Matisse to Picasso. A classicist? Above all, he was
moved by the impulse to penetrate the secret of natural beauty and to
reinterpret it through its own means; an attitude fundamentally
different to that of David ... there results a truly personal and
unique art admired as much by the Cubists for its plastic autonomy, as
by the Surrealists for its visionary qualities.
Ingres's well-known passion for playing the violin gave rise to a
common expression in the French language, "violon d'Ingres", meaning a
second skill beyond the one by which a person is mainly known.
Ingres was an amateur violin player from his youth, and played for a
time as second violinist for the orchestra of Toulouse. When he was
Director of the French Academy in Rome, he played frequently with the
music students and guest artists. Charles Gounod, who was a student
under Ingres at the Academy, merely noted that "he was not a
professional, even less a virtuoso". Along with the student musicians,
he performed Beethoven string quartets with Niccolò Paganini. In an
Franz Liszt described his playing as "charming", and
planned to play through all the Mozart and Beethoven violin sonatas
with Ingres. Liszt also dedicated his transcriptions of the 5th and
6th symphonies of Beethoven to Ingres on their original publication in
The American avant-garde artist
Man Ray used this expression as the
title of a famous photograph portraying
Alice Prin (aka Kiki de
Montparnasse) in the pose of the Valpinçon Bather.
Academic Study of a Male Torso, 1801, National Museum in Warsaw
Self-Portrait, 1804, revised c. 1850, Musée Condé, Chantilly
Madame Duvaucey, 1807, Musée Condé, Chantilly
Mademoiselle Jeanne-Suzanne-Catherine Gonin, 1821, Taft Museum of Art
Madame Félix Gallois, 1852, Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Princesse de Broglie, née Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de
Galard de Brassac de Béarn, 1853, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII, 1854, Louvre
Mme. Moitessier, 1856, National Gallery
Napoleon III style
Neoclassicism in France
List of Orientalist artists
^ Parker 1926.
^ a b Arikha 1986, p. 103.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 25, 280.
^ Prat 2004, p. 15.
^ a b c Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xix.
^ Jover 2005, p. 16.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 31.
^ Jover 2005, p. 20O.
^ Delécluze, Étienne-Jean, Louis David, son école et son temps
^ Jover, p. 24.
^ Jover 2005, p. 25.
^ Jover 2005, p. 29.
^ Jover 2005, pp. 36–51.
^ Jover 2005, p. 36.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 27.
^ a b c Condon et al. 1983, p. 13.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 46.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 48.
^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 22.
^ Jover 2005, pp. 48–51.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 68.
^ Quoted and translated in Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 70.
^ Jover 2005, p. 54.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 546.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 75.
^ Jover, p. 54.
^ Jover 2005, p. 56.
^ Jover 2005, pp. 58–59.
^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 38.
^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp 98–101.
^ a b Condon et al. 1983, p. 64.
^ Jover 2005, p. 68.
^ a b Arikha 1986, p. 104.
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^ Arikha 1986, p. 5.
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