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War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014)

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The International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.[1][2] Its main purpose was to train the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and assist Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in rebuilding key government institutions, but was also engaged in the 2001–present war with the Taliban
Taliban
insurgency. ISAF was initially charged with securing Kabul
Kabul
and the surrounding areas from the Taliban, al Qaeda and factional warlords, to allow for the establishment of the Afghan Transitional Administration
Afghan Transitional Administration
headed by Hamid Karzai.[3] In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan,[4] and ISAF subsequently expanded the mission in four main stages over the whole of the country.[5] From 2006 to 2011, ISAF had become increasingly involved in more intensive combat operations in southern and eastern Afghanistan. Troop contributors included the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and other NATO
NATO
member states as well as a number of other countries. The intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varied greatly, with the United States
United States
sustaining the most casualties overall. In early 2010, there were at least 700 military bases inside Afghanistan. About 400 of these were used by American‑led NATO forces and 300 by ANSF.[6] ISAF ceased combat operations and was disbanded in December 2014, with some troops remaining behind in an advisory role as part of ISAF's successor organization, the Resolute Support Mission.

Contents

1 Jurisdiction 2 History

2.1 Stage 1: to the north – completed October 2004 2.2 Stage 2: to the west – completed September 2005 2.3 Stage 3: to the south – completed July 2006 2.4 Stage 4: ISAF takes responsibility for entire country – completed October 2006 2.5 ISAF after Stage 4: October 2006 to present 2.6 Security and reconstruction 2.7 ISAF and the illegal opium economy 2.8 Military and civilian casualties

3 ISAF command structure as of 2011

3.1 List of Commanders

4 Contributing nations

4.1 NATO
NATO
nations 4.2 Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) nations 4.3 Non- NATO
NATO
and non-EAPC nations

5 Financing 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

Jurisdiction[edit]

ISAF's military terminal at Kabul
Kabul
International Airport in September 2010.

For almost two years, the ISAF mandate did not go beyond the boundaries of Kabul. According to General Norbert Van Heyst, such a deployment would require at least ten thousand additional soldiers. The responsibility for security throughout the whole of Afghanistan was to be given to the newly reconstituted Afghan National Army. However, on 13 October 2003, the Security Council voted unanimously to expand the ISAF mission beyond Kabul
Kabul
with Resolution 1510. Shortly thereafter, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien
Jean Chrétien
said that Canadian soldiers (nearly half of the entire force at that time) would not deploy outside Kabul. On 24 October 2003, the German Bundestag
Bundestag
voted to send German troops to the region of Kunduz. Approximately 230 additional soldiers were deployed to that region, marking the first time that ISAF soldiers operated outside of Kabul. After the 2005 Afghan parliamentary election, the Canadian base Camp Julien
Camp Julien
in Kabul
Kabul
closed, and the remaining Canadian assets were moved to Kandahar
Kandahar
as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in preparation for a significant deployment in January, 2006. On 31 July 2006, the NATO‑led International Security Assistance Force assumed command of the south of the country, ISAF Stage 3, and by 5 October, also of the east of Afghanistan, ISAF Stage 4. ISAF was mandated by UN Security Council Resolutions 1386, 1413, 1444, 1510, 1563, 1623, 1659, 1707, 1776,[7] and 1917 (2010). The last of these extended the mandate of ISAF to 23 March 2011. The mandates given by the different governments to their forces varied from country to country.[citation needed] Some governments wished to take a full part in counter-insurgency operations;[citation needed] some were in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
for NATO
NATO
alliance reasons;[citation needed] some were in the country partially because they wished to maintain their relationship with the United States,[citation needed] and[original research?] some were there for domestic political reasons.[citation needed] This meant that ISAF suffered from a lack of united aims.[citation needed] History[edit]

This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (September 2009)

Geographic depiction of the four ISAF stages (January 2009).

The initial ISAF headquarters (AISAF) was based on 3rd UK Mechanised Division, led at the time by Major General John McColl. This force arrived in December, 2001. Until ISAF expanded beyond Kabul, the force consisted of a roughly division-level headquarters and one brigade covering the capital, the Kabul
Kabul
Multinational Brigade. The brigade was composed of three battle groups, and was in charge of the tactical command of deployed troops. ISAF headquarters served as the operational control center of the mission. Eighteen countries were contributors to the force in February, 2002, and it was expected to grow to 5,000 soldiers.[8] Turkey assumed command of ISAF in June, 2002 (Major General Hilmi Akin Zorlu). During this period, the number of Turkish troops increased from about 100 to 1,300. In November, 2002, ISAF consisted of 4,650 troops from over 20 countries. Around 1,200 German troops served in the force alongside 250 Dutch soldiers operating as part of a German-led battalion. Turkey relinquished command in February, 2003, and assumed command for a second time in February, 2005. Turkey's area of operations expanded into the rugged west of Afghanistan. The expansion of its zone of activities saw ISAF troops operating in 50 percent of Afghanistan, double its previous responsibility.[9] On 10 February 2003, Lieutenant General Norbert van Heyst, on behalf of Germany and the Netherlands, took command of ISAF. His Deputy was Brigadier General Bertholee of the Netherlands. The mission HQ was formed from HQ I. German/Dutch Corps (1GNC), including staff from the UK, Italy, Turkey, Norway, and others. In March, 2003, ISAF was composed of 4,700 troops from 28 countries. Service in ISAF by NATO personnel from 1 June 2003. onward earns the right to wear the NATO Medal if a service-member met a defined set of tour length requirements. In Kabul
Kabul
on 7 June 2003, a taxi packed with explosives rammed a bus carrying German ISAF personnel, killing four soldiers and wounding 29 others; one Afghan bystander was killed and 10 Afghan bystanders were wounded. The 33 German soldiers, after months on duty in Kabul, were en route to the Kabul
Kabul
International Airport for their flight home to Germany. At the time, Germans soldiers made up more than 40 percent of ISAF troops. ISAF command originally rotated among different nations every six months. However, there was tremendous difficulty securing new lead nations. To solve the problem, command was turned over indefinitely to NATO
NATO
on 11 August 2003. This marked NATO's first deployment outside Europe or North America.

In February, 2002, South Korea
South Korea
sent a medical contingent of 99 soldiers. Between February and July, 2002, Portugal
Portugal
sent a sanitary team and an air team to ISAF. A study by Care International
Care International
in the summer of 2003 reported that Kosovo
Kosovo
had one peacekeeper to 48 people, East Timor
East Timor
one for every 86, while Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has just one for every 5,380 people.

Stage 1: to the north – completed October 2004[edit]

On 11 August 2003, NATO
NATO
took command of ISAF, which consisted of 5,000 troops from more than 30 countries. About 90 percent of the force was contributed by NATO
NATO
nations. By far the largest single contingent, 1,950 were Canadian. About 2,000 German troops were involved, and Romania had about 400 troops at the time. The first ISAF rotation under the command of NATO
NATO
was led by Lieutenant General Goetz Gliemeroth, Germany, with Canadian Army Major General Andrew Leslie as his deputy. Canada originally had been slated to take over command of ISAF on 11 August 2003. 13 October 2003: Resolution 1510 passed by the UN opened the way to a wider role for ISAF to support the government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
beyond Kabul. In December, 2003, the North Atlantic Council
North Atlantic Council
authorized the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, General James Jones, to initiate the expansion of ISAF by taking over command of the German-led PRT in Kunduz. The other eight PRTs operating in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2003 remained under the command of Operation Enduring Freedom, the continuing U.S.‑led military operation in Afghanistan. On 31 December 2003, the military component of the Kunduz
Kunduz
PRT was placed under ISAF command as a pilot project and first step in the expansion of the mission. Six months later, on 28 June 2004, at the Summit meeting of the NATO
NATO
Heads of State and Government in Istanbul, NATO
NATO
announced that it would establish four other provincial reconstruction teams in the north of the country: in Mazar-i-Sharif, Meymana, Feyzabad and Baghlan. After the completion of Stage 1 the ISAF's area of operations then covered about 3,600 square kilometers in the north, and the mission was able to influence security in nine Northern provinces of the country.[10] As late as November, 2003, the entire ISAF force had only three helicopters. On 9 February 2004, Lieutenant General Rick Hillier
Rick Hillier
of Canada took command, with Major General Werner Korte of Germany as deputy. During this time-frame, Canada was the largest contributor to the ISAF force, providing 2,000 troops. In May, 2004, Turkey sent three helicopters and 56 flight and maintenance personnel to work in ISAF. In July, 2004, Portugal
Portugal
sent 24 soldiers and one C‑130 Hercules cargo plane to assist ISAF. On 7 August 2004, General Jean-Louis Py, commander of Eurocorps, took command of ISAF. Eurocorps
Eurocorps
contributors deploying to Afghanistan included France, Germany, Spain, Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg. Canada reduced its forces to about 800 personnel. In September, 2004, a Spanish battalion of about 800 personnel arrived to provide the ISAF Quick Reaction Force, and an Italian Army battalion of up to 1,000 troops arrived to provide the in‑theater Operational Reserve Force. With a force of 100, Georgia became the first Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
country to send an operational force to Afghanistan. Stage 1 (North) was completed in October, 2004, under the Regional Command of Germany.

Stage 2: to the west – completed September 2005[edit]

In February, 2005, General Ethem Erdagi of Turkey took command On 10 February 2005, NATO
NATO
announced that ISAF would be expanded into the west of Afghanistan. This process began on 31 May 2006, when ISAF took command of two additional Provincial Reconstruction Teams in the provinces of Herat
Herat
and Farah, and of a Forward Support Base (a logistic base) in Herat. At the beginning of September, two additional ISAF-led PRTs in the west became operational, one in Chaghcharan, capital of Ghor province, and one in Qala-e-Naw, capital of Baghdis province; this completed ISAF's expansion into the west. The extended ISAF mission led a total of nine PRTs in the north and the west, providing security assistance in 50 percent of Afghanistan's territory. As the area of responsibility was increased, ISAF also took command of an increasing number of PRTs, with the aim of improving security and facilitating reconstruction outside the capital. The first nine PRTs (and lead nations) were based at Baghlan
Baghlan
(Netherlands, then Hungary, in October, 2006), Chaghcharan
Chaghcharan
(Lithuania), Farah (U.S.), Fayzabad (Germany), Herat
Herat
(Italy), Kunduz
Kunduz
(Germany), Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
(U.K., then Denmark and Sweden, then Sweden and Finland), Maymana
Maymana
(U.K., then Norway), Qala‑e Naw (Spain). In May, 2005, ISAF Stage  2 took place, doubling the size of the territory for which ISAF was responsible. The new area was the former U.S. Regional Command West
Regional Command West
consisting of Badghis, Farah, Ghor, and Herat
Herat
Provinces. On 5 August 2005, Italian General Mauro del Vecchio assumed command of ISAF. During 2005, Italy commanded four multinational military operations: in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Albania. In September, 2005, ISAF Stage 2 was completed under the Regional Command of Italy. The Alliance also temporarily deployed 2,000 additional troops to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to support 18 September provincial and parliamentary elections.[10] On 27 January 2006, it was announced in the British Parliament that ISAF would replace U.S.  Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
troops in Helmand
Helmand
Province. The British 16th Air Assault Brigade
16th Air Assault Brigade
became the core of the force in Helmand
Helmand
Province. In February, 2006, the Netherlands
Netherlands
expanded its troop contribution with an extra 1,400 soldiers.[11] On 22 May 2006, a British Army
British Army
WAH-64
WAH-64
Apache gunship fired a Hellfire missile to destroy a French armored vehicle that had been disabled during a firefight with Taliban
Taliban
forces in North Helmand
Helmand
province the previous day, as it had been determined that attempting to recover the vehicle would have been too dangerous. This was the first time U.K. Apaches had opened fire in a hostile theater and was, after a fashion, the WAH-64's first "combat kill."

Stage 3: to the south – completed July 2006[edit] Further information: Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2006

On 8 December 2005, meeting at NATO
NATO
Headquarters in Brussels, the Allied Foreign Ministers endorsed a plan that paved the way for an expanded ISAF role and presence in Afghanistan. The first element of this plan was the expansion of ISAF to the south in 2006, also known as Stage 3. At the completion of this stage, the ISAF assumed command of the southern region of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from U.S.‑led Coalition forces, expanding its area of operations to cover an additional six provinces – Day Kundi, Helmand, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan
Uruzgan
and Zabul – and taking on command of four additional PRTs. The expanded ISAF led a total of 13 PRTs in the north, west and south, covering some three-quarters of Afghanistan's territory. The number of ISAF forces in the country also increased significantly, from about 10,000 prior to the expansion to about 20,000 after.[10] On 4 May 2006, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
General David Richards assumed command of the ISAF IX force in Afghanistan. The mission was led by the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps. On 31 July 2006, Stage 3 was completed; the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force also assumed command in six provinces of the south. Regional Command South
Regional Command South
was established at Kandahar. Led by Canada, 8,000 soldiers were positioned there. With the Taliban
Taliban
regrouping, especially in its birthplace of Kandahar province bordering Pakistan, NATO
NATO
launched its biggest offensive against the guerrillas at the weekend of 2 and 3 September 2006 (Operation Medusa). NATO
NATO
reported that it had killed more than 250 Taliban
Taliban
fighters, but the Taliban
Taliban
stated that NATO
NATO
casualty estimates were exaggerated. On 7 September 2006, a British soldier was killed and six were wounded when their patrol strayed into an unmarked minefield in Helmand, the major opium poppy-growing province west of Kandahar. On 28 September 2006, the North Atlantic Council
North Atlantic Council
gave final authorization for the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (NATO-ISAF) to expand its area of operations to 14 additional provinces in the east of Afghanistan, boosting NATO's presence and role in the country. With this further expansion, NATO-ISAF assisted the Government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in providing security throughout the entire country.[12] The expansion saw the NATO-ISAF controlling 32,000 troops from 37 countries, although by this stage, the alliance was struggling to find extra troops to hold off a spiraling Taliban-led insurgency in the volatile south.

Stage 4: ISAF takes responsibility for entire country – completed October 2006[edit]

On 5 October 2006, ISAF implemented the final stage of its expansion by t taking over command of the international military forces in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from the U.S.‑led Coalition. In addition to expanding the Alliance's area of operations, the revised operational plan also paved the way for a greater ISAF role in the country. This includes the deployment of ISAF Operational Mentoring and Liaison Teams (OMLTs) to Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
units at various levels of command.[10] 10,000 more coalition troops moved under NATO
NATO
command. 31,000 ISAF troops were now in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and 8,000 U.S. troops continued separate training and counter-terrorism activities. On 21 October 2006, the Canadian government expressed frustration over the unwillingness of some European NATO
NATO
members to deploy troops to help fight mounting Taliban
Taliban
resistance in the south.[citation needed]

ISAF after Stage 4: October 2006 to present[edit]

Anaconda Strategy vs the insurgents as of 2010-10-20.

In November, 2006, a study by the Joint Co-ordinating and Monitoring Board, made up of the Afghan government, its key foreign backers and the U.N, suggested that more than 3,700 people died from January to November, 2006. The majority of the dead appeared to be insurgents, but it was estimated that 1,000 civilians had been killed that year, along with members of the Afghan National Army, ISAF, and U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
forces.[13] On 28–29 November 2006, there was a NATO
NATO
summit at Riga, Latvia. Combat curbs were the most contentious issue at the two-day summit in Latvia, following tension over the reluctance of France, Germany, Spain, and Italy to send troops to southern Afghanistan. Countries agreeing to ease the restrictions on deployment against the Taliban insurgency included the Dutch, Romanians and smaller nations such as Slovenia and Luxembourg. France, Germany, Spain, and Italy agreed to send help to trouble zones outside their areas, but only in emergencies. The summit also saw several countries offer additional troops and training teams. France agreed to send more helicopters and aircraft. NATO
NATO
commanders said they believed they could move an additional 2,500 troops around the country after some smaller members relaxed their mission conditions.[14] On 15 December 2006, ISAF started a new offensive, Operation Baaz Tsuka (Falcon's Summit), against the Taliban
Taliban
in the Panjaway valley in Kandahar
Kandahar
province. On 4 February, U.S. General Dan K. McNeill
Dan K. McNeill
replaced British General David Richards as commander of ISAF. Analysts reported that he planned to place a heavier emphasis on fighting than on peace deals.[15] Meanwhile, observers and commanders were expecting a new Taliban
Taliban
"spring offensive," and NATO
NATO
commanders asked for more troops. On 6 March 2007, NATO-ISAF launched Operation Achilles, an offensive to bring security to northern Helmand
Helmand
and set the conditions for meaningful development that would fundamentally improve the quality of life for Afghans in the area. The operation eventually involved more than 4,500 NATO
NATO
troops and nearly 1,000 Afghan soldiers in Helmand province, according to the alliance. It focused on improving security in areas where Taliban
Taliban
extremists, narco-traffickers and other elements were trying to destabilize the government of Afghanistan, and on empowering village elders. The overarching purpose was to assist the government in improving its ability to begin reconstruction and economic development in the area. Strategically, the goal was also to enable the government to begin the Kajaki
Kajaki
hydro-energy project.[16] On 2 June 2008, General David D. McKiernan, U.S. Army, assumed command of ISAF.As of January 2009[update] its troops numbered around 55,100.[17] There were troops from 26 NATO, 10 partner and two non-NATO/non-partner countries,[17] On 6–7 February 2009, U.K, forces mounted Operation Diesel raid in Helmand
Helmand
province. On 27 April – 19 May 2009, ISAF launched Operations Zafar and Zafar 2 in the Helmand
Helmand
Province. Operation Zafar lasted one week and Operation Zafar 2 lasted four days. Both operations were in preparation for Operation Panther's Claw. On 29 May 2009, ISAF launched Operation Mar Lewe around the village of Yatimchay, six kilometers (3.7 mi) south of Musa Qaleh
Musa Qaleh
in Helmand Province. Operation Mar Lewe lasted three days. "Mar Lewe" is Pashto for "snake wolf."

SOF 90‑Day Accumulated effect (23 Sep 10).

On 15 June 2009, General Stanley A. McChrystal, U.S. Army, assumed command of NATO
NATO
forces. On 19 June 2009, ISAF launched Operation Panther's Claw
Operation Panther's Claw
to secure control of various canal and river crossings in Helmand Province
Helmand Province
and to establish a lasting ISAF presence in an area described by Lt. Col. Richardson as "one of the main Taliban
Taliban
strongholds" ahead of the 2009 Afghan presidential election. On 2 July 2009, ISAF launched Operation Strike of the Sword
Operation Strike of the Sword
or Operation Khanjar
Operation Khanjar
in Helmand
Helmand
Province. This operation was the largest U.S. Marine offensive since the battle of Fallujah, Iraq
Iraq
Operation Phantom Fury
Operation Phantom Fury
in 2004. Beginning 2010 the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Mission Network became the primary information sharing platform for all troops in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in support of General McChrystal's counterinsurgency campaign. On 23 June 2010, Lieutenant General Sir Nick Parker, British Army, former deputy commander of ISAF, assumed interim command after the resignation of General McChrystal. On 4 July 2010, General David Petraeus, U.S. Army, assumed command of NATO
NATO
forces; Petraeus was formally approved by the US Senate to replace McChrystal on 30 June 2010.[18]

Colombia
Colombia
had planned to deploy around 100 soldiers in Spring 2009.[19][20] These forces were expected to be de-mining experts.[21][22] General Freddy Padilla de Leon
Freddy Padilla de Leon
announced to CBS
CBS
News that operators of Colombia's Special
Special
Forces Brigade were scheduled to be deployed to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in either August or September, 2009.[23] However, the Colombians were not listed as part of the force as of June, 2011. Three NATO
NATO
states announced withdrawal plans beginning in 2010. Canada in 2011,[24] Poland, in 2012,[25] and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2010.[26] Between 1 July 2014, and August, Regional Command Capital and Regional Command West were re-designated Train Advise and Assist Command Capital (TAAC Capital) and TAAC West.[27] The United States
United States
ended combat operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in December, 2014. Sizable advisory forces would remain to train and mentor Afghan National Security Forces, and NATO
NATO
will continue operating under the Resolute Support Mission. ISAF Joint Command, in its final deployment provided by Headquarters XVIII Airborne Corps, ceased operations ahead of the end of the NATO
NATO
combat mission on 8 December 2014.[28] Security and reconstruction[edit] Further information: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) and Timeline of the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) From 2006, the insurgency by the Taliban
Taliban
intensified, especially in the southern Pashtun parts of the country, areas that were the Taliban's original power base in the mid‑1990s. After ISAF took over command of the south on 31 July 2006, British, Dutch, Canadian and Danish ISAF soldiers in the provinces of Helmand, Uruzgan, and Kandahar
Kandahar
came under almost daily attack. British commanders said that the fighting for them was the fiercest since the Korean War, 50 years previously. In an article, BBC
BBC
reporter Alistair Leithead, embedded with the British forces, called it "Deployed to Afghanistan's hell."[29] Because of the security situation in the south, ISAF commanders asked member countries to send more troops. On 19 October, for example, the Dutch government decided to send more troops because of increasing attacks by suspected Taliban
Taliban
on their Task Force Uruzgan, making it very difficult to complete the reconstruction work that they sought to accomplish.

Derogatory alternative acronyms for the ISAF were created by critics, including "I Saw Americans Fighting,"[30] "I Suck at Fighting," and "In Sandals and Flip Flops."[31] ISAF and the illegal opium economy[edit]

Opium production levels for 2005–2007

Regional security risks of opium poppy cultivation in 2007–2008.

Prior to October, 2008, ISAF had only served an indirect role in fighting the illegal opium economy in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
through shared intelligence with the Afghan government, protection of Afghan poppy crop eradication units and helping in the coordination and the implementation of the country's counter-narcotics policy. For example, Dutch soldiers used military force to protect eradication units that came under attack. Crop eradication often affects the poorest farmers who have no economic alternatives on which to fall back. Without alternatives, these farmers no longer can feed their families, causing anger, frustration, and social protest. Thus, being associated with this counterproductive drug policy, ISAF soldiers on the ground found it difficult to gain the support of the local population.[32] Though problematic for NATO, this indirect role allowed NATO
NATO
to avoid the opposition of the local population who depended on the poppy fields for their livelihood. In October 2008, NATO
NATO
altered its position in an effort to curb the financing of insurgency by the Taliban. Drug laboratories and drug traders became the targets, and not the poppy fields themselves.[33] In order to satisfy France, Italy and Germany, the deal involved the participation in an anti-drug campaign only of willing NATO
NATO
member countries; the campaign was to be short-lived and with the cooperation of the Afghans.[33] On 10 October 2008, during a news conference, after an informal meeting of NATO
NATO
Defense Ministers in Budapest, Hungary, NATO
NATO
Spokesman James Appathurai said:[34]

...with regard to counter-narcotics, based on the request of the Afghan government, consistent with the appropriate U.N. Security Council Resolutions, under the existing operational plan, ISAF can act in concert with the Afghans against facilities and facilitators supporting the insurgency, subject to the authorization of respective nations.... The idea of a review is, indeed, envisioned for an upcoming meeting.

Military and civilian casualties[edit]

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Main articles: Coalition casualties in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Civilian casualties of the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) ISAF military casualties, and the civilian casualties caused by the war and Coalition/ISAF friendly fire, became a major political issue, both in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and in the troop contributing nations. Increasing civilian casualties threatened the stability of President Hamid Karzai's government. Consequently, effective from 2 July 2009, coalition air and ground combat operations were ordered to take steps to minimize Afghan civilian casualties in accordance with a tactical directive issued by General Stanley A. McChrystal, USA, the commander of the International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
in Afghanistan.[35] Another issue over the years has been numerous 'insider' attacks involving Afghan soldiers opening fire on ISAF soldiers. While these diminished, in part due to the planned ending of combat operations on 31 December 2014, they continued to occur, albeit at a lower frequency. On 5 August 2014, a gunman believed to have been an Afghan soldier opened fire on a number of international soldiers, killing a U.S. general, Harold J. Greene, and wounding about 15 officers and soldiers, including a German brigadier general and several U.S. soldiers, at a training academy near Kabul.[36] ISAF command structure as of 2011[edit] See also: Afghan War order of battle 2012 Throughout the four different regional stages of ISAF the number of Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) grew. The expansion of ISAF, to November 2006, to all provinces of the country brought the total number of PRTs to twenty-five. The twenty-fifth PRT, at Wardak, was established that month and was led by Turkey. Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, at Brunssum, the Netherlands, was ISAF's superior NATO
NATO
headquarters.[37] The headquarters of ISAF was located in Kabul. In October 2010, there were 6 Regional Commands, each with subordinate Task Forces and Provincial Reconstruction Teams. The lower strength numbers of the ISAF forces were as 6 October 2008.[38] The numbers also reflected the situation in the country. The north and west were relatively calm, while ISAF and Afghan forces in the south and east came under almost daily attack. In December 2014 the force reportedly numbered 18,636 from 48 states.[39]

Kabul; Clock wise, Michael Mullen, David Petraeus, James Mattis, John Allen, Marvin L. Hill and German Army
German Army
Gen. Wolf Langheld inside the ISAF headquarters in Kabul.

Camp Marmal
Camp Marmal
in Mazar-i-Sharif, headquarters of Regional Command North.

Meeting of Italian and U.S. commanders at Regional Command West headquarters in Herat.

Tarin Kowt
Tarin Kowt
in Urozgan Province

Inside the Air traffic control
Air traffic control
tower at Bagram Airfield
Bagram Airfield
in Parwan Province

ISAF HQ at Kabul
Kabul
(Composite)

Commander ISAF directed three subordinate formations after a 2009 reorganisation. The Intermediate Joint Command (sometimes reported as ISAF Joint Command)[40] has been established to run the tactical battle, on the lines of Multi-National Corps Iraq. Lieutenant General James L. Terry
James L. Terry
commanded the IJC in 2009. V Corps was being deployed from Germany to provide the IJC headquarters. Commander ISAF also supervised the NATO
NATO
Training Mission- Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Special Operations Forces. The New Zealand Special Air Service
New Zealand Special Air Service
deployed in 2009[41] and remained there until March 2012,[42] after previous deployments as part of Operation Enduring Freedom.

Regional Command Capital (Kabul) (approx. strength: 5,420)

The command of this region rotated among Turkey, France, and Italy. In November 2009, Turkey was the leading nation in this region. The headquarters was in Kabul. On 31 October 2009 the Turkish Brigadier General Levent ÇOLAK took over command from a French Brigadier General. Most of the French forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are in RC‑C. Strength in 2010 was approximately 6,150, including three battalions in Kabul. Nearly all the more than forty contributors had troops deployed to Kabul. The city was under joint Afghan/coalition control from 2002 but came repeatedly under attacks of insurgent fighters. Kabul
Kabul
International Airport KAIA (Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Hungary from December 2010)

In October 2009, the Bulgarian Infantry Company, part of the Bulgarian contingent (Herat, Kandahar) provided the security of the outer perimeter of KAIA, the so‑called Ground Defence Area – GDA. The Bulgarian company was under the command of the Belgium
Belgium
Force Protection Group.

Regional Command North (approx. 4,400)

HQ RC(N), Camp Marmal, HQ Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh province RC‑N was led by Germany. On 30 November 2009 the German Brigadier General Frank Leidenberger took over command of RC‑North. Strength: appx. 5,750, to be raised. Other forces in RC‑N include units from the United States
United States
of America, Croatia, Norway, Belgium, Sweden, and Hungary et al. The situation within the Command deteriorated, and fighting included Kunduz
Kunduz
(the Kunduz
Kunduz
Province Campaign), as well as Faryab in the northwest. Manoeuvre battalions, including QRF Task Force 47 (special forces, see de:Task Force 47) PRT MAZAR-I-SHARIF in Balkh province
Balkh province
(Sweden and Finland) PRT FEYZABAD (DEU) in Badakhshan province
Badakhshan province
(Germany) PRT KONDUZ in Kunduz
Kunduz
province (Germany) PRT POL-E KHOMRI in Baghlan
Baghlan
Province (Hungary) PRT Meymaneh
PRT Meymaneh
in Faryab Province
Faryab Province
(Norway)

Regional Command West
Regional Command West
(approx. 2,980)

HQ RC(W) in Herat, Herat
Herat
province (Italy) Commander in May 2010 Brig.Gen. Claudio Berto (ITA).[43] Strength: appx 4,440 Forward Support Base HERAT (Spain) Manoeuvre elements, Task Force 45 (special forces task force see it:Task Force 45) PRT HERAT in Herat
Herat
province (Italy) Shindand Air Base, Herat
Herat
province PRT FARAH in Farah province
Farah province
(USA) PRT QALA-E-NOW in Badghis province
Badghis province
(Spain) Chaghcharan
Chaghcharan
Provincial Reconstruction Team
Provincial Reconstruction Team
(Ghor province) (Lithuania) (In June 2005, ISAF established in Chaghcharan, the capital of Ghor province, a Lithuanian PRT in which Danish, US and Icelandic troops also served.)[44]

Regional Command South
Regional Command South
(approx. 35,000)

HQ RC(S) at Kandahar
Kandahar
Airfield in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province Forward Support Base Kandahar
Kandahar
(Multinational) Combined Task Force Fury Combined Task Force Lancer Combined Task Force 4-2 (2012–13) Combined Team Uruzgan Kandahar
Kandahar
PRT in Kandahar
Kandahar
City (Canada)[45] Uruzgan
Uruzgan
PRT in Tarin Kowt, Uruzgan
Uruzgan
Province (United States, Australia)[46] Zabul
Zabul
PRT in Qalat, Zabul
Zabul
Province (USA, Romania)[47] Regional Command South
Regional Command South
also included the provinces of Nimruz and Daykundi

Regional Command East (HQ Bagram Airfield) (approx. 18,800)

Apart from additional manoeuvre elements, RC‑E headed 13 Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) in the eastern and central provinces of Afghanistan. The headquarters was located in Bagram. Other forces in RC‑E included units from France, Turkey, New Zealand, Poland, and the Czech Republic. The province was a staging ground for costly engagements. Hotspots included Kapisa, Nurestan, and Konar. The commander also directs the U.S. national force Combined Joint Task Force 1. Lead nation and main contributor was the United States. Strength: appx. 23,950, to be raised. Task Force White Eagle
Task Force White Eagle
(Polish forces' brigade in Ghazni Province) Task Force 49 (ISAF SOF) in Ghazni province (Poland) Task Force 50 (ISAF SOF) in Ghazni province, Paktika province
Paktika province
(Poland) Forward Support Base BAGRAM (USA) PRT KAPISA in Kapisa province at FOB Nijrab, a combined French/Afghan/American TF LaFayette PRT Logar
PRT Logar
in Logar province
Logar province
(Czech Republic) PRT SHARANA in Paktika province
Paktika province
(USA) PRT KHOST in Khost province
Khost province
(USA) PRT METHER LAM in Laghman province
Laghman province
(USA) Bamiyan
Bamiyan
Provincial Reconstruction Team, Bamiyan, Bamiyan
Bamiyan
Province (under New Zealand Defence Force
New Zealand Defence Force
command from 2003 – April 2013)[48] PRT PANJSHIR in Panjshir province
Panjshir province
(USA) PRT JALALABAD in Nangarhar province
Nangarhar province
(USA) PRT GHAZNI in Ghazni province (Poland, USA) PRT ASADABAD in Kunar Province
Kunar Province
(USA) PRT PARWAN (Republic of Korea) PRT NURISTAN in Parun
Parun
(USA) PRT WARDAK in Maidan Shar
Maidan Shar
(Turkey) PRT GARDEZ in Paktia province (USA)

Regional Command Southwest
Regional Command Southwest
(HQ Camp Leatherneck) (approx. 27,000)

Regional Command Southwest
Regional Command Southwest
was established in July 2010.[49] It was responsible for security in the Helmand
Helmand
and Nimroz
Nimroz
provinces in southwestern Afghanistan. Along with the Afghan government and security forces, seven other nations contributes to RC (SW) to bring security to the region. Those nations included the United States, the United Kingdom, Georgia, Denmark, Bahrain, and Estonia. Marine Major General Richard P. Mills, the commander of RC (SW), made history by being the first U.S. Marine to command a NATO
NATO
regional command in combat.[50] Task Force Helmand
Helmand
(U.K. forces in central and northeast Helmand Province)

A Danish battle group, operated with British forces in the Green Zone in the central part of Helmand
Helmand
Province. The battle group consisted of two mechanized infantry companies, a tank platoon and a flight of helicopters, plus combat support and support units.

Task Force Leatherneck
Task Force Leatherneck
(U.S. Marines in northern, southern, and western Helmand
Helmand
Province)[51] Helmand
Helmand
Provincial Reconstruction Team
Provincial Reconstruction Team
in Lashkar Gah, Helmand Province (UK, Denmark, Estonia)[52]

List of Commanders[edit] The command of ISAF has rotated between officers of the participating nations. The first American took command in February 2007 and only Americans have commanded ISAF since that time.[53]

Name Photo Term began Term ended Notes

1. Lt Gen John C. McColl, BA

10 January 2002 20 June 2002

2. Lt Gen Hilmi Akin Zorlu, TKK

20 June 2002 10 February 2003

3. Lt Gen Norbert van Heyst, DH

10 February 2003 11 August 2003

4. Lt Gen Götz Gliemeroth (de), DH

11 August 2003 9 February 2004

5. Lt Gen Rick J. Hillier, CAF

9 February 2004 9 August 2004

6. Lt Gen Jean-Louis Py (fr), AT

9 August 2004 13 February 2005

7. Lt Gen Ethem Erdağı, TKK

13 February 2005 5 August 2005 Former commander of 3rd Corps (Turkey)

8. Gen Mauro del Vecchio, EI

5 August 2005 4 May 2006

9. Gen Sir David J. Richards, BA

4 May 2006 4 February 2007

10. Gen Dan K. McNeill, USA

4 February 2007 3 June 2008

11. Gen David D. McKiernan, USA

3 June 2008 15 June 2009 Relieved from command by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates.[54]

12. Gen Stanley A. McChrystal, USA

15 June 2009 23 June 2010 Resigned and was relieved from command due to critical remarks directed at the Obama administration in a Rolling Stone Magazine article.[55]

13. Gen David H. Petraeus, USA

4 July 2010 18 July 2011 Nominated to become the fourth Director of the CIA.

14. Gen John R. Allen, USMC

18 July 2011 10 February 2013 Near the end of his term, General Allen became embroiled in an inappropriate communication investigation concerning his correspondences with Jill Kelley, and was later exonerated of any inappropriate activity.[56]

15. Gen Joseph F. Dunford, Jr., USMC

10 February 2013 26 August 2014 Nominated to become the 36th Commandant of the Marine Corps.

16. Gen John F. Campbell, USA

26 August 2014 28 December 2014

Contributing nations[edit]

Convoy of U.S. forces passing by in Kapisa Province.

All NATO
NATO
members have contributed troops to the ISAF, as well as some other partner states of the NATO. NATO
NATO
nations[edit]

A Bulgarian land forces
Bulgarian land forces
up-armored M1114 patrol in Kabul, July 2009

Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards
Canadian Grenadier Guards
in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province.

French units on duty with ISAF.

Norwegian soldiers in Faryab Province.

Polish forces in Afghanistan.

Romanian soldiers in southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2003.

Visiting politicians of Spain with soldiers of the Spanish army in 2010.

A Turkish Brigadier General during a food distribution in Afghanistan.

United Kingdom's Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Flight Lieutenant Luke Meldon explains the components of an Afghan Air Force
Afghan Air Force
(AAF) C-27 Spartan
C-27 Spartan
to five Thunder Lab students.

  Albania
Albania
– On 28 July 2010, Albania
Albania
sent 44 soldiers Albanian Special
Special
Operations Battalion
Battalion
to engage in combat operations in the province of Kandahar
Kandahar
alongside US and British special forces. The contingent was given the name "Eagle 1". On 25 January 2011, the second rotation consisting of 45 soldiers named "Eagle 2" was sent to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
following the return of the first, "Eagle 3" followed. On 16 January 2011, Albania
Albania
sent its fourth mission codenamed "Eagle 4" to Kandahar. However, the main contingent was composed of a company under Italian command in the province of Herat. Albania
Albania
also had a squad of soldiers under Turkish command in Kabul and a contribution to a joint medical team with the Czech contingent. The last contingent was composed of 222 soldiers of the 8th Regiment.[57]   Belgium
Belgium
– The Belgian mission was named BELU ISAF 21. Their main task was to provide security at Kabul
Kabul
International Airport, while detachments (KUNDUZ 16) assisted in the northern PRTs of Kunduz
Kunduz
and Mazar-i-Sharif. In September 2008, OGF 4 started: four F‑16s with about 140 support personnel deployed. They operated from Kandahar
Kandahar
Airport.[58] The Belgian Air Force operated in close cooperation with Dutch F-16
F-16
fighter jets already deployed there.[59]  Bulgaria – In December 2009, Bulgarian Minister of Defence Nikolay Mladenov
Nikolay Mladenov
said that the Bulgarian contingent in Afghanistan, which was divided between two military bases in Kabul
Kabul
and Kandahar with a total of 602 soldiers, would be consolidated in Kandahar
Kandahar
and that it could add an additional 100 troops in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2010.[60] In July 2011, Bulgaria sent 165 more soldiers bringing the total number to 767.[61] The government declared that it would withdraw its troops in 2014.[62]  Canada – Canadian Forces were actively engaged in fighting the Taliban
Taliban
in the south and suffered a high proportion of the allied casualties. In 2006, with the situation in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province turned increasingly violent, the Canadian Forces participated in several operations and battles from the beginning of the war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2001. The Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
had a major presence in Afghanistan, including three CC‑130 Hercules cargo planes, two CP‑140 surveillance planes,[63] six CH‑147 Chinook transport helicopters, six Mil Mi‑8 leased for one year from Skylink Aviation, eight CH‑146 Griffon utility helicopters and three CU‑170 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The Canadian Army increased their presence with main battle tanks, some ten Leopard C2 and twenty Leopard 2A6M CAN, approximately one hundred LAV III armoured vehicles and six 155 mm M777 howitzers. Canada has suffered 158 killed in Afghanistan. In 2011, all Canadian combat forces had withdrawn from Kandahar
Kandahar
and relocated the bulk of their forces in Kabul, with detachments in RC North and RC West.[citation needed] Canada completed its participation in March 2014.   Croatia
Croatia
– Croatian troops were involved in three locations. The Croatian parliament voted on extra troop numbers on 7 December[when?] with all parties supporting a troop increase, parliament also recognized that additional increases in troop numbers might be possible during 2011 and 2012 to help train local army and police units. Maximal number of Croatian soldiers in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was about 450.[64][65][66]   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
– Czech troops in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
were involved in four locations. In Czech combat units (special forces) in peak served 100-120 troops. In other non-combat military units, primarily engineering, medical, trainee, advisory or guard, served during all the tours about 4000 soldiers, medical staff, civilian engineers and other specialists. The largest unit was deployed as PRT Logar
PRT Logar
composed of 192 troops and 12 civilians in Logar Province, in place since 19 March 2008. Four BMP‑2 IFVs were part of PRT Logar, however they were only involved in guarding the Shank Base due to their weak IED protection. 4 Pandur II were also part of PRT Logar, which were actively used in operations. The Iveco LMV
Iveco LMV
wws the most commonly used vehicle by the Czech Armed Forces all over Afghanistan. The Field Hospital at Kabul
Kabul
Airport was deployed in March 2007 and consisted of 81 medical and 30 NBC protection personnel. Eight helicopter pilots and technicians were part of the Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team (OMLT). Also, four weather forecast specialists and two air traffic controllers were part of the Czech contingent deployed to Kabul
Kabul
International Airport. A third unit was sent to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
at the end of April 2007, and involved 350 members of the Czech Military Police Special
Special
Operations Group, who were attached to British forces in the Southern Helmand
Helmand
province. A fourth unit was deployed in July 2008 and was composed of 63 troops who were in charge of force protection at Dutch FOB Hadrain in Uruzgan
Uruzgan
Province. The Czechs also donated 6 Mi‑17 and 6 Mi‑24 helicopters to the Afghan National Army, flew 3 Mi‑17 helicopters in Pakitika Province and announced the deployment of one C‑295 in 2011. Nine Czech soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[67]  Denmark – In Kandahar, Royal Danish Air Force (RDAF) personnel helped man the Kandahar
Kandahar
Airfield Crisis Establishment (KAF CE), which ran the airfield. Danish troops were also deployed to other parts of Afghanistan. In northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
approximately twenty troops served in the German-led PRT in Feyzabad. In western Afghanistan
Afghanistan
ten troops served in the Lithuanian led PRT in Chagcharan. There was also a small contribution to ISAF headquarters in Kabul
Kabul
and to the staffing of Kabul
Kabul
International Airport. There was also a RDAF presence with the NATO
NATO
AWACS contingent in Mazar-i-Sharif. In Helmand
Helmand
Danish troops were involved in the worst fighting their armed forces have undertaken since the Second Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
of 1864. Denmark has lost 43 soldiers in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
since 2002. There was a Danish SOF Task Force operating in Lashkar Gar mentoring ANSF. A 2009 survey[68] has determined that Denmark has by far the highest count of casualties relative to population. Denmark completed its participation in May 2014.   Estonia
Estonia
– Most of the Estonian Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Contingent was deployed to PRT Lashkar-Gah in Helmand, together with the forces of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Denmark. 9 Estonian soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.  France – French forces deployed in the Surobi District and to the Kapisa Province
Kapisa Province
under the command of the Brigade La Fayette. Six French Dassault Mirage 2000D fighters and two C‑135F refueling aircraft were based at Dushanbe Airport
Dushanbe Airport
in Dushanbe, Tajikistan but relocated to Kandahar
Kandahar
on 26 September 2007. Two hundred naval, air force, and army special forces personnel were withdrawn from Southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in early 2007, but around 50 remained to train Afghan forces. On 26 February 2008 it was reported that Paris would deploy troops to the east to free up American soldiers, who would then be able to assist Canadian forces in Kandahar.[69] Shortly afterwards, 700 troops were deployed to reinforce Surobi and Kapisa. The deployment marked a significant change in French policy in Afghanistan. It was later announced that 100 additional troops and Aérospatiale Gazelle
Aérospatiale Gazelle
helicopters would be sent to the country. France decided to send Eurocopter Tiger attack helicopters to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the second quarter of 2009.[70] In April 2010, French president Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
ruled out sending additional troops to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the near future. 88 French troops have been killed in Afghanistan.[71] An additional OMLT of 250 arrived in October 2010, bringing the number of French forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to 4,000.[72][73] The remaining troops are to be withdrawn by the end of 2012.[74]  Germany – The Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
is currently the third-largest troop contributor to ISAF. Germany leads Regional Command North based in Mazar-i-Sharif. The task of the German forces is to assist the Afghan government with security and reconstruction in the four northern provinces of Kunduz, Takhar, Baghlan
Baghlan
and Badakhshan. Germany leads the Provincial Reconstruction Teams in the provinces of Kunduz
Kunduz
and Badakhshan. The mandate issued by the Bundestag
Bundestag
does not allow the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
to take part in combat operations against the Taliban insurgency in the south and east of Afghanistan, other than in exceptional circumstances. However, German troops together with allied forces of Regional Command North have conducted own combat operations in northern and northeast Afghanistan, inflicting as many as 650 casualties upon insurgents. Germany has agreed to send 850 additional troops in 2010, raising the mandate ceiling to 5,350 troops. 53 German troops and 3 police officers have been killed in Afghanistan.[75] 156 service members have been wounded in action.[76] In the 2006 German troops controversy, 23 German soldiers were accused of posing with human skulls in Afghanistan. Following the Kunduz
Kunduz
airstrike on two captured fuel tankers, which killed over 100 civilians, Germany reclassified the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
deployment in February 2010 as an "armed conflict within the parameters of international law", allowing German forces to act without risk of prosecution under German law.[77][78]  Greece – Some Greek troops were stationed at Kabul International Airport, while others manned various hospitals.[citation needed]  Hungary – The Hungarian infantry unit was situated in Kabul, however, on 1 October 2006, Hungary requisitioned its forces and took over responsibility from the Dutch for the Provincial Reconstruction Team in the town of Pul‑e Khumri, the capital of Baghlan
Baghlan
province. Since 1 October 2008, one of the tasks of the Hungarians is to provide security at Kabul
Kabul
International Airport. In 2008 Hungarian special forces deployed to South Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to special reconnaissance and patrol operations. In 2010 Budapest adds 200 soldiers to the 340 troops it already has in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
working in reconstruction and training. Six Hungarian soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[79]  Iceland – Icelandic personnel are stationed at ISAF HQ at Kabul
Kabul
International Airport.[80]  Italy – Italian troops currently lead Regional Command West and the PRT in Herat
Herat
Province. Although the mandate issued by the Parliament of Italy
Parliament of Italy
does not allow Italian forces to take part in the battle against the Taliban insurgency
Taliban insurgency
in the south and east of Afghanistan, other than in exceptional circumstances, the former Italian Minister of Defense Ignazio La Russa
Ignazio La Russa
has officially stated in July 2008 that such combat activities have indeed taken place over the last year in the Farah area.[81] An Italian contingent including 9 helicopters Agusta A129 Mangusta, 2 C‑27 Spartan, 1 C‑130, 3 AB‑212, 3 CH‑47. Additionally, in April 2008, 4 AMX International AMX reconnaissance jets and 3 helicopters AB‑412, with corresponding 250 personnel (also included), were deployed to Kabul
Kabul
in support of ISAF combat operations in the country. In February 2009 the Italian government decided to boost its contingent by 800 to help out with police training and economic development.[82] A thousand more soldiers were sent in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2010, for 3,800 in total. Italy has suffered 53 casualties in Afghanistan.  Latvia – Latvian troops were divided between Kabul
Kabul
and the PRTs in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
and Meymaneh
Meymaneh
as of December 2007. A number of special operations forces operate in the restive south. Three Latvian soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.  Lithuania  Luxembourg  Montenegro – Stationed at two bases, Pol-e-Khomri and Marmal.   Netherlands
Netherlands
– The Netherlands
Netherlands
deployed aircraft as part of the European Participating Air Force (EPAF) in support of ground operations in Afghanistan. The Netherlands
Netherlands
deployed further troops and helicopters to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2006 as part of a new operation in the south.[11] Dutch ground and air forces totaled almost 2,000 personnel during 2006, taking part in combat operations alongside British and Canadian forces in the south. The Netherlands
Netherlands
announced in December 2007 that it would begin withdrawing its troops, mainly in Uruzgan, in July 2010.[83] A handover to the United States
United States
and Australia took place on 1 August 2010, formally ending the Dutch combat phase. The return of vehicles and other equipment was planned to take five more months.[84]

  Norway
Norway
– Norwegian troops are divided between Meymaneh
Meymaneh
in Faryab province where they lead a Provincial Reconstruction Team, and Mazar-i-Sharif, where they operate alongside Swedish forces. Four Royal Norwegian Air Force
Royal Norwegian Air Force
F‑16s operated from Kabul
Kabul
during 2006.[85] Decisions have been made to reinforce the Norwegian contribution with 150 special forces, an aeromedical detachment of three Bell 412 helicopters and around 60 personnel from 339 Squadron to be based at Camp Meymaneh
Meymaneh
for 18 months from 1 April 2008,[86][87] and 50 troops tasked with training Afghan soldiers.[88] After the attack on the Serena Hotel on 14 January 2008, the decision was made to send a team of military explosives experts to Kabul.[89][90] Nine Norwegian soldiers have been killed while on duty.[91][92][93][94][95]   Poland
Poland
– The Polish brigade-level Task Force White Eagle
Task Force White Eagle
was responsible for the province of Ghazni. The task force is based in 5 different locations around the province: FOB Warrior, COP Qarabagh, FB Giro, FB Four Corners and FOB Ghazni. The Polish contingent operated 70 Rosomak
Rosomak
wheeled armoured vehicles and 40 Cougars on loan from the United States. Additionally, 4 Mil Mi‑24 and 4 Mil Mi‑17 were in use. In December 2009, the Polish Ministry of Defence
Polish Ministry of Defence
announced that as of April 2010 it would dispatch additional 60 Rosomaks, 5 Mi‑17 and 600 troops. The contingent would also include 400 backup troops based in Poland
Poland
who could be deployed in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
at short notice. In March 2010, the Polish MoND announced that one battalion of the American 101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
would be dispatched to Ghazni and would operate under Polish command. Thirty-seven Polish troops have been killed in Afghanistan. Two Polish special forces units, TF‑49 and TF‑50, are responsible for Special
Special
Operations in Ghazni Province and partially in Paktika Province.   Portugal
Portugal
– Portuguese participation in operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
began in February 2002. A military health detachment composed of the three branches of the Armed Forces remained in Kabul for 3 months in a British campaign hospital of the ISAF (International Security Assistance Force). Followed by a C‑130 Detachment who acted from Karachi (Pakistan), between April and July of that year. In May 2004, Portugal
Portugal
became involved with a C‑130 Detachment and supporting staff of the Portuguese Air Force, as meteorologists, firefighters, drivers, based at Kabul
Kabul
International Airport (KAIA). In August 2005, the Portuguese Air Force
Portuguese Air Force
took command of KAIA with several of its services (for a period of 3 months), but now without aircraft. Between June and August 2005, the Portuguese Army
Portuguese Army
began the task of ISAF Quick Reaction Force (QRF) with a light infantry company (alternated 4 Commandos companies and 2 of Paratroopers), and a TACP Detachment of the Air Force. Officers and sergeants of the three branches have served in the ISAF HQ and other regional structures, more or less discreetly. Between late July 2008 and mid-December, a detachment of the Portuguese Air Force, incorporating a C‑130 and support staff in various specialties, like maintenance and force protection, totaling some 40 soldiers, met the new mission from Kabul. In addition to one seriously injured and several light injuries, the Portuguese army have suffered two dead, on 18 November 2005 and on 24 November 2007. The Portuguese forces for 2012 were: a Military Intelligence Cell, an Army Military Advisor Team for Afghan Capital Division HQ, 2 Air Force Advisor Teams, one for Afghan Air Force Academy and the other for Kabul
Kabul
International Airport, one GNR (gendarmerie type police) Advisor Team at National Police Training Center, in Wardak, Army Police and Navy Marines in service with Kabul International Airport Force Protection and a Support Unit for Portuguese forces with a Protection Company (2 Commando Platoons) and a Logistic Platoon (Maintenance, Health and communications).  Romania – Romanian forces consist of a battalion in Qalat, Zabul
Zabul
Province. Additionally, a special forces squad (39 personnel) operates from Tagab in Kapisa Province, and a training detachment of 47 personnel is in Kabul
Kabul
under the U.S.‑led Operation Enduring Freedom. In January 2010, Romania announced plans to send 600 more troops to Afghanistan, boosting its military presence there to more than 1,600 soldiers. Romania suffered 76 casualties in Afghanistan, including 20 killed in action.[96][97]  Slovakia – In 2007, on request of NATO
NATO
command, Slovak forces were moved from Kabul
Kabul
to operate in southern Afghanistan. Currently there are 165 guard soldiers providing force protection at Kandahar Airbase. 57 personnel of Multirole engineer company located in Kandahar
Kandahar
Airport. Responsible for demining, building and repairing the airport. 53 soldiers of mechanized infantry are holding outpost in Tarin Kowt, Uruzgan
Uruzgan
Province. 15 personnel are in OMLT team, 4 explosives disposal specialists are part of EOD PALADIN‑S Team. 2 personnel are part of reconstruction team in Tarim Kowt. Twelve officers are members of commanding staff in – HQ ISAF IJC, RC-S, KAF a PALADIN. 15 personnel are part of the National Support Element (NSE) in Kandahar
Kandahar
Airport. In September 2011, 20 soldiers of 5th Special Forces Regiment were deployed to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to help with mentoring and training of Afghan National Police
Afghan National Police
personnel.[98]  Slovenia – Slovenian troops (including two civilians – CIMIC programme) perform OMLT (mentoring an Infantry Battalion
Battalion
in Bala Boluk and joint mentoring with Italian army of a Combat Support Battalion
Battalion
in Herat) and PRT tasks;[99] and also placing some commanding positions in Regional Command West
Regional Command West
and ISAF HQ.[100]  Spain – The collective Spanish military contribution to ISAF is known as ASPFOR. Spanish forces are divided between Herat
Herat
Province, where they form a quick-reaction company, an instructors team for Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
training and a Combat Search & Rescue unit; Kabul, and Badghis Province, where they lead PRT Qala-i-Naw.[101] The deployment involves engineers, infantry, a transport helicopters unit, and a logistics component. Spanish soldiers are constrained by caveats. The mandate issued by the Spanish Parliament does not allow Spanish forces neither to engage Taliban
Taliban
insurgents unless being directly attacked first, nor to move into the south and east of Afghanistan. 102 Spanish soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[102] Spain has rejected three times to lead the ISAF when its shift to do so has come.[103]  Turkey – Turkey's responsibilities included providing security in Kabul
Kabul
(it led RC Capital), as well as in Wardak Province, where it led PRT Maidan Shahr. Turkey was once the third largest contingent within the ISAF.[citation needed] Turkey's troops were not engaged in combat operations and Ankara long resisted pressure from Washington to offer more combat troops. In December 2009, Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan
Tayyip Erdogan
said that "Turkey has already done what it can do by boosting its contingent of soldiers there to 1,750 from around 700 without being asked".[citation needed]   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– Troops were deployed in Helmand
Helmand
Province under Operation Herrick.[104] The Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and Army Air Corps have a major presence in and around the country, including attack aircraft, C‑130 Hercules cargo planes, CH‑47 Chinook transport helicopters, Nimrod surveillance planes, Westland Lynx
Westland Lynx
utility helicopters and Westland WAH-64
WAH-64
Apache attack helicopters. They were officially there to help train Afghan security forces, facilitate reconstruction, and provide security. In 2006, the situation in the north of Helmand
Helmand
turned increasingly violent, with British troops involved in fierce firefights against the Taliban
Taliban
and anti-coalition militia, particularly in the towns of Sangin, Musa Qala, Kajaki
Kajaki
and Nawzad. According to the BBC, on 30 November 2009 Gordon Brown announced an increase in British troop numbers, which would bring the total to 10,000 personnel (500 extra ground troops, and 500 Special Forces); additionally more modified Merlin helicopters would be deployed. The deployment would mean British troop levels in the theatre would be the highest since the invasion in 2001. The United Kingdom contributed the most troops to the mission after the United States, and were involved in the fiercest fighting. As a result, 456 personnel were killed fighting in Afghanistan, and over 2000 wounded.   United States
United States
– Made up more than half of the total number of ISAF troops.

Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) nations[edit]

U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
visiting wounded Georgian LTC Alexandre Tugushi.

 Armenia – Armenia sent about 40 troops to serve under German command.[105] Additional 86 troops deployed since summer 2011.  Austria – Deployed in Kabul. In 2002, 75 soldiers were temporarily deployed in Kabul
Kabul
and in the year 2005 a contingent of 100 soldiers served in Afghanistan.[106]  Azerbaijan – The mission of the armed forces in Afghanistan began on 20 November 2002. 94 Azerbaijani soldiers, 2 military doctors and 2 engineering officers are still participating in the peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan.[107]  Bosnia and Herzegovina   Finland
Finland
– Stationed in four provinces around Mazar-i-Sharif, as all of Finnish troops serve in the PRT Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
since early 2009. Two Finnish soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[108]  Georgia – Predominantly tasked with peacekeeping and counterinsurgency operations in the volatile Helmand
Helmand
province, Georgia is the largest non-NATO, as well as largest per-capita, contributor to the ISAF. Since 2010, 31 Georgian servicemen have died,[109] all in the Helmand
Helmand
campaign, and 435 wounded, including 35 amputees, as of July 2014.[110][111] The first Georgian fatality occurred on 5 September 2010, when 28 years old Lieutenant Mukhran Shukvani was killed in an sniper attack and Corporal Alexandre Gitolendia was seriously wounded.[112] The most recent deaths occurred on 7 June 2013, when a suicide attack using a truck bomb struck a Georgian base in Helmand
Helmand
Province.[113] Previously, on 13 May 2013, 3 Georgian soldiers, Cpl Alexander Kvitsinadze, Lower Sergeant Zviad Davitadze and Cpl Vladimer Shanava, were killed after a terrorist incursion and an accompanying suicide attack on the 42nd Battalion
Battalion
military base, also in Helmand.[114]  Ireland – Ireland provided 7 troops on six month deployments from the Defence Forces, mainly as trainers, medical staff and experts from its bomb disposal units.[115]  Macedonia - The Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
began its participation in the NATO-led ISAF operation in August 2002, with the sending of two officers as part of the Turkish contingent. In March 2003, the Army of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
increased its contribution in the ISAF mission by sending one section from the composition of the 2nd Infantry Brigade as part of the German contingent. As a result of the successful carrying out of the mission and the high marks received for participation in ISAF, from August 2004 until the end of 2006, the ARM participated with one mechanized infantry platoon from the Leopard unit. At the same time, in August 2005 medical personnel was sent in ISAF as part of the Combined Medical Team in the A3 format (Macedonia, Albania, Croatia), which successfully carried out tasks at the Kabul airport, firstly in the composition of the Greek Field Hospital, and later in the composition of the Czech Field Hospital. In June 2006 sent also one mechanized infantry company, part of the first mechanized infantry brigade, in the composition of the British contingent in ISAF. In the second rotation of the company for securing the ISAF command, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
increased the participation from ninety to one hundred and twenty seven participants, and from January 2008 it sent three staff officers in the ISAF Command in Kabul. As a support to the efforts for self-sustainability of the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
National Army (ANA), beginning from March 2008, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
sent soldiers as part of the Combined Multinational Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT) in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
while, beginning from December 2008, in cooperation with the Kingdom of Norway, a Macedonian medical team is included through one Surgical team in the organizational structure of the surgical unit of the Norwegian Provincial Reconstruction Team
Provincial Reconstruction Team
(PRT) in Meymanah, Afghanistan.[116]   Switzerland – On 23 February 2008, the Swiss Ministry of Defence announced that its small deployment had concluded two weeks prior. Two officers had worked alongside German troops in the PRT responsible for the northeastern Kunduz
Kunduz
province. The stated reason for the withdrawal was the burden placed on other troops for their protection, which had begun to hinder operations. A total of 31 Swiss soldiers were sent to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
since the beginning of their country's participation in 2003.[117]  Sweden – Sweden leads the PRT Mazar-i-Sharif. The main force consists of three mechanized companies operating in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
and also includes helicopters for medical evacuation and an OMLT training Afghan soldiers. Six Swedish Soldiers have been killed in action and 20+ wounded since 2001. Over time, the Swedish force consisted of up to 891 troops, 9 CV9040, 20 Patria XA-203, 60+ BAE RG32M and 2 Super Puma Medevac helicopters.  Ukraine – Mostly military doctors serving in the Lithuanian-led PRT Chagcharan, while one officer works at the ISAF HQ in Kabul.

Non- NATO
NATO
and non-EAPC nations[edit]

An Australian Special
Special
Operations Task Group patrol in October 2009.

 Australia – Australia was one of the largest non-NATO contributors to the War in Afghanistan.[118] Called Operation Slipper, the core of the Australian contingent was based in the southern province of Uruzgan. Australia had joint command of Uruzgan
Uruzgan
Province with the United States
United States
(Combined Team Uruzgan). Australia provided the majority of combat forces in Uruzgan. This included an infantry based Battle Group known as the Mentoring Task Force, which also includes cavalry, engineer, artillery and other supporting assets. The Battle Group's main effort are Operational Mentoring and Liaison Teams (OMLT's), which are embedded with Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
units at remote Combat Outposts and Forward Operating Bases. The OMLT's conduct almost daily patrolling in the Green Zone with the Afghan National Army, and have been involved in the heaviest combat experienced by regular Australian Defence Force members since the Vietnam War. Australia also contributed a 300-strong Special
Special
Operations Task Group, code named Task Force 66, manned by the Special
Special
Air Service Regiment, 2nd Commando Regiment and 1st Commando Regiment. Task Force 66 operated in Uruzgan, Helmand, Zabul
Zabul
and other surrounding provinces, and had significant success in both capturing and inflicting large numbers of casualties against the Taliban. Australian Army CH-47D Chinook heavy-lift helicopters served in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as coalition heavy lift transport helicopters, and the Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
also committed C17 Globemaster and C130 Hercules transport aircraft, AP-3C Orion surveillance aircraft, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. 40 Australian soldiers were killed and another 256 have been wounded in action.[119]  Bahrain  El Salvador  Jordan – Jordanian troops were deployed in December 2001 to establish a 50‑bed medical facility in Mazar-i-Sharif. According to the US Department of Defense, the hospital provided care for up to 650 local patients a day, and as of February 2006, over 500,000 people had been treated by the Jordanians.[120]  Malaysia  New Zealand - New Zealand deployed an undisclosed number of NZSAS
NZSAS
and a number of regular troops to assist the U.S. The RNZAF deployed C-130 aircraft and Boeing 757
Boeing 757
transport aircraft and later in the deployment a quantity of NZLAV
NZLAV
armoured fighting vehicles were sent to supplement the force. 10 soldiers were killed during the deployment.  Mongolia – Mongolia sent troops to back the U.S. surge in the country.[121] Some soldiers protect Camp Eggers while others serve as trainers for the Afghan National Army.  Serbia – Serbia sent troops and police to Afghanistan. [122]  Singapore – The Singapore Armed Forces
Singapore Armed Forces
deployed close to 500 personnel to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
since My 2007 as part of Singapore's contributions to multinational stabilisation and reconstruction efforts there.[123] In May 2007, a five-man team was sent to central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to set up a dental clinic serving local citizens, while training Afghans in dentistry so that they could eventually assume responsibility.[124] Other contributions included a UAV team and a Weapons Locating Radar to provide rocket-launch warnings for Camp Holland.   South Korea
South Korea
– The first South Korean contingent had been withdrawn by 14 December 2007 due to the expiration of its mandate, despite American calls for its continued presence. The withdrawal had been one of the pledges made to the Taliban
Taliban
captors of 21 South Korean Christian missionaries in July 2007, in return for the hostages' release. The deployment consisted of 60 medics comprising the 'Dongeui' unit and 150 military engineers forming the 'Dasan' unit at Bagram Airbase, north of Kabul. They had been sent to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Afterwards Seoul took only the role of providing medical and vocational training by assisting the United States with only two dozen volunteers working inside Bagram Air Base, north of Kabul. According to an ISAF statement, on 30 June 2008 South Korea returned, operating a small hospital near the airbase in Bagram with military and civilian personnel. In December 2009, the South Korean defence ministry announced it would send 350 troops in 2010 to protect South Korean civilian engineers working on reconstruction. These troops would not engage in any fighting except to protect the base of the South Korean Provincial Reconstruction Team
Provincial Reconstruction Team
(PRT) and escort and protect the activities of the PRT members. The South Korean contingent would be based in Parwan
Parwan
province, just north of Kabul
Kabul
for 30 months from 1 July 2010.[125] This invoked threats from the Taliban. In a statement e‑mailed to international media, Taliban insurgents said Seoul must be ready to face "bad consequences" if the troops were deployed. The South Korean government said it made no promises to stay out of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
when it withdrew its troops in 2007.[126] South Korea
South Korea
redeployed its troops to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in July 2010, and was the PRT leading nation in Parwan
Parwan
Province. Korea also dispatched 4 UH‑60 Black Hawks, which came under tactical control of the 3rd US Infantry Division.  Tonga  United Arab Emirates – The UAE had 170 soldiers serving in Tarin Kowt
Tarin Kowt
province in March 2008.[127]

Financing[edit]

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Resolution 1386 of the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
established that the expense of the ISAF operation must be borne by participating states. For this purpose the resolution established a trust fund through which contributions could be channelled to the participating states or operations concerned, and encouraged the participating states to contribute to such a fund.[128] See also[edit]

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Mission Network Resolute Support Mission British Forces casualties in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
since 2001 Canadian Forces casualties in Afghanistan Coalition casualties in Afghanistan German Armed Forces casualties in Afghanistan NATO
NATO
logistics in the Afghan War Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom Role of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) List of ISAF installations in Afghanistan

Notes[edit]

^ United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 1386. S/RES/1386(2001) 31 May 2001. Retrieved 21 September 2007. ^ United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Document 1154. Annex I – International Security Force S/2001/1154 page 9. (2001) Retrieved 26 August 2008. ^ Official Documents System of the United Nations Archived 9 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "UNSC Resolution 1510, October 13, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ "ISAF Chronology". Nato.int. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ Turse, Nick (11 February 2010). "The 700 Military Bases of Afghanistan". Foreign Police in Focus (FPIF). Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ Russia
Russia
abstained from UNSCR 1776 due to the lack of clarity in the wording pertaining to ISAF's maritime interception component, which has not appeared in any of the Security Council's previous resolutions. United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Verbotim Report 5744. S/PV/5744 page 2. Mr. Churkin Russia
Russia
19 September 2007 at 17:20. Retrieved 21 September 2007. ^ ISAF in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Archived 12 June 2002 at the Wayback Machine. CDI, Terrorism Project – 14 February 2002. ^ "Turkey takes command of ISAF". ntv.com.tr. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ a b c d NATO's role in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Archived 8 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. NATO
NATO
ISAF missions – 3 September 2009. ^ a b "More Dutch troops for Afghanistan". BBC
BBC
News. 3 February 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ "International Security Assistance Force". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 20 September 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ "South Asia Afghan conflict deaths quadruple". BBC
BBC
News. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Europe Nato hails shift on Afghan combat". BBC
BBC
News. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ U.S. general in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
seen tough on Taliban
Taliban
REUTERS – 5 February 2007 ^ "ISAF and Afghan Forces launch major operation in the South". Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-13. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) NATO
NATO
Press release – 6 March 2007 and Nato in major anti-Taleban drive BBC
BBC
– 6 March 2007 ^ a b "Microsoft PowerPoint – JAN0912 – Updated ISAF Troops Placemat.ppt" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "Petraeus takes command in Afghanistan". CBC News. 4 July 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.  ^ HumbertoMay 26, 2009 – 02:58:54 (26 May 2009). " Colombia
Colombia
sends troops to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– first Latin American country". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "Tropas colombianas reforzarán a las fuerzas españolas en Afganistán". Elespectador.Com. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ " Colombia
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sends troops to Afghanistan". Thaindian.com. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ " Colombia
Colombia
To Aid U.S. In Taliban
Taliban
Fight". CBS. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009.  ^ Canada PM: Troops Home From Afghanistan
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in 2011[dead link] ^ Terence Neilan (1 August 2010). "Dutch Pullout From Afghanistan Leaves Some Nervous". Aolnews.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ Patrick Wintour in Toronto (25 June 2010). " Afghanistan
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withdrawal before 2015, says David Cameron". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/AfghanistanOrbat_August2014.pdf ^ Drew Brooks Military editor (8 December 2014). "US, NATO
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BBC
News. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ NATO, NATO
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Events: Informal Meeting of NATO
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International Security Assistance Force
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Zabul
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Afghanistan
to Prepare for Major Offensive in Kandahar". Wwono.com. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link] ^ Regional Command Southwest
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/ TF Leatherneck". Mnfwest.usmc.mil. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "About us". Ukinafghanistan.fco.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 January 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ About ISAF: History: ISAF Commanders Archived 3 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 20 March 2012 ^ Scott Tyson, Ann (12 May 2009). "Gen. David McKiernan Ousted as Top U.S. Commander in Afghanistan". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ Department of Defense, "General McChrystal Resignation Letter" Archived 3 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. 26 August 2014 ^ BBC
BBC
News, " David Petraeus
David Petraeus
CIA scandal engulfs US Gen John Allen", 13 November 2012 Last updated at 05:26 ET ^ "Shqipëria dërgoi kontingjentin e tetë në Afganistan". Koha. Retrieved 18 January 2011.  ^ Auteur: vdy (9 September 2008). "Het Nieuwsblad – Belgische F‑16's in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
zijn operationeel". Nieuwsblad.be. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "Geen gevechtsoperaties F-16s in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– België – Nieuws – Knack". Knack.be. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "Bulgaria could add up to 100 troops in Afghanistan: defense minister". Military-world.net. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ "Изпратихме още 165 военни на операция в Афганистан". DarikNews.bg. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ Bulgaria 2011 review – Defense, Novinite, 6 January 2012 ^ "405 Sqn Deploys to South West Asia ... Articles News & Events – News Room 14 Wing Greenwood Air Force DND/CF". Airforce.forces.gc.ca. 5 June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "Emisije na zahtjev: Dnevnik". Hrt.hr. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ "Hrvatska šalje još vojnika u Afganistan". Ezadar.hr. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ " Croatia
Croatia
to host three NATO
NATO
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Iraq
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Afghanistan
troop pullout faster than expected ^ "43 tote Bundeswehr-Soldaten in Afganistan". Mitteldeutsche Zeitung. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ "Grundlagen – Warum Bundeswehr?" (in German). Bundeswehr.de. Archived from the original on 28 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ Siobhán Dowling (11 February 2010). "New Evaluation on Afghanistan Long Overdue". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  ^ "Germany Comes to Terms With Its New War". TIME World. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ " NATO
NATO
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News. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ Marquand, Robert (22 February 2010). "Dutch government collapse: Will other European troops now leave Afghanistan?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ "Dutch troops end Afghanistan
Afghanistan
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Norway
to send troops to southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– People's Daily Online". English.people.com.cn. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ The Norway
Norway
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Taliban
threaten more attacks in Afghanistan Archived 28 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Fallen soldier comes home Archived 18 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Norwegian fatality in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Archived 11 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Soldier's body arrives home Archived 13 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ BBC
BBC
News: Four Norwegian soldiers killed in Afghanistan ^ "Romania To Send More Troops To Afghanistan; Germany Mulls Raising Number". Rferl.org. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ "Pierderile romanesti din Afganistan si pierderile aliatilor". adevarul.ro. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2012.  ^ "Ministry of Defence of Slovak Republic – ISAF mission, Afghanistan". Mod.gov.sk. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ "Delegacija Ministrstva za obrambo in Slovenske vojske na obisku pri slovenskih vojakih v Afganistanu". Ministry of Defense (Slovenia). July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ "Next week Slovenian soldiers start the training for new tasks in Afghanistan". Slovenskavojska.si. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.  ^ "Ejército de Tierra español". Ejercito.mde.es. 1 December 2001. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ "España concluye 13 años de misión en Afganistán, en la que han muerto 102 militares españoles - RTVE.es". RTVE.es. 2015-10-16. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ Treviño Martínez, Rafael: "Afganistán: ¿qué está fallando?", Fuerza Terrestre n.39, March 2007 ^ "Gordon Brown sparks anger by revealing SAS role in Afghanistan" The Telegraph. 30 November 2009 ^ "Armenian Troops Due in Afghanistan
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Further reading[edit]

Auerswald, David P. & Stephen M. Saideman, eds. NATO
NATO
in Afghanistan: Fighting Together, Fighting Alone (Princeton U.P. 2014) Maloney, Sean M. Enduring The Freedom: A Rogue Historian In Afghanistan.. Dulles: Potomac Books, Incorporated, 2005, ISBN 1-57488-953-2 Mattelaer, Alexander. "How Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has Strengthened NATO." Survival 53.6 (2011): 127–140. Morelli, Vincent. NATO
NATO
in Afghanistan: a test of the transatlantic alliance (Congressional Research Service) Suhrke, Astri. "A contradictory mission? NATO
NATO
from stabilization to combat in Afghanistan." International Peacekeeping 15.2 (2008): 214–236.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to International Security Assistance Force.

Wikinews has related news: NATO
NATO
to expand Afghanistan
Afghanistan
presence

Official website ISAF Youtube Videos ISAF's voice toward the Afghan people (English and Dari) Video of British ISAF Patrol in Action Official site of the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, Netherlands UK Defence News, operations in Afghanistan Peace Operations Monitor- Afghanistan BELU ISAF 12, the official ISAF site of Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(in Dutch) and (in French) The ISAF-site of the Czech Ministry of Defence (in English) Norwegian ISAF Photos 2004–2005 Official Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– ISAF site (in English) and (in Swedish) Infos about Commanders of other nations and APO's at ISAF

v t e

War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present)

Invasion and occupation

Order of battle Operations Logistics International Security Assistance Force Taliban
Taliban
insurgency Drone strikes in Pakistan Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan Resolute Support Mission

Casualties and losses

Afghan forces Civilian

Lists 2001–06 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Coalition

U.S. United Kingdom Canadian German Norwegian

Aviation incidents

Events and controversies

2001 –2006

2001

Dasht-i-Leili massacre Battle of Tarinkot Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif Siege of Kunduz Uprising in Herat Fall of Kabul Battle of Shawali Kowt Battle of Sayyd Alma Kalay Battle of Qala-i-Jangi Fall of Kandahar Battle of Tora Bora

2002

Guantanamo Bay 2002 Kabul
Kabul
bombing

2003 2004 2005

Bagram torture and prisoner abuse Salt Pit

2006

2007

Shinwar shooting Hyderabad airstrike Nangar Khel incident Helmand Province
Helmand Province
airstrikes 2007 Baghlan
Baghlan
sugar factory bombing 2007 Bagram Airfield
Bagram Airfield
bombing 2007 South Korean hostage crisis in Afghanistan

2008

Haska Meyna wedding party airstrike Azizabad airstrike Wech Baghtu wedding party airstrike 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul 2008 Kabul
Kabul
Serena Hotel attack Kidnapping of David Rohde Sarposa prison attack of 2008 2008 Kandahar
Kandahar
bombing Spin Boldak bombing

2009

Granai airstrike Kunduz
Kunduz
airstrike Narang night raid February 2009 Kabul
Kabul
raids 2009 Kabul
Kabul
Indian embassy attack 2009 Kandahar
Kandahar
bombing 2009 NATO
NATO
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
headquarters bombing Camp Chapman attack

2010

Khataba raid February 2010 Kabul
Kabul
attack Uruzgan
Uruzgan
helicopter attack Sangin
Sangin
airstrike Maywand District murders Tarok Kolache Nadahan wedding bombing May 2010 Kabul
Kabul
bombing 2010 Badakhshan massacre

2011

Mano Gai airstrike Pakistani border attack Bin Laden raid Sarposa Prison tunneling escape Helmand Province
Helmand Province
incident 2011 Logar province
Logar province
bombing 2011 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Ashura bombings 2011 Nimruz province bombing 2011 Zabul
Zabul
province bombing 2011 Chinook shootdown in Afghanistan

2012

Urination video Kapisa airstrike Quran burning protests April 2012 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
attacks Forward Operating Base Delhi massacre Kandahar
Kandahar
massacre September 2012 Camp Bastion raid Body pictures

2013

June 2013 Kabul
Kabul
bombings 2013 Afghan presidential palace attack 2013 attack on U.S. consulate in Herat 2013 Indian embassy attack

2014

Herat
Herat
Indian Consulate Attack 2014 Paktika car bombing 2014 Yahyakhel suicide bombing 2014 Kabul
Kabul
Serena Hotel attack Atiqullah Raufi assassination December 2014 Kabul
Kabul
bombings

2015

2015 Park Palace guesthouse attack 2015 Kabul
Kabul
Parliament attack Khost suicide bombing Jalalabad suicide bombing August 2015 Kabul
Kabul
attacks 10 August 2015 Kabul
Kabul
suicide attack 22 August 2015 Kabul
Kabul
suicide attack Ghazni prison escape Battle of Kunduz

Kunduz
Kunduz
hospital airstrike

Kandahar
Kandahar
Airport attack 2015 Spanish Embassy attack in Kabul

2016

February 2016 Kabul
Kabul
bombing Nangarhar Offensive (2016) 2016 Jalalabad suicide bombing Operation Omari Kabul
Kabul
NDS building Kunduz-Takhar highway hostage crisis Kabul
Kabul
Canadian Embassy convoy bombing Wardak Province
Wardak Province
bombing Kabul
Kabul
Hazara protest bombing Kabul
Kabul
Northgate Hotel bombing Jani Khel offensive Kabul
Kabul
American University siege Kabul
Kabul
Defense Ministry bombing Battle of Tarinkot (2016) Battle of Kunduz
Kunduz
(2016) Battle of Boz Qandahari Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
German consulate attack Bagram Airfield
Bagram Airfield
bombing Kabul
Kabul
Shia mosque bombing

2017

10 January 2017 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
bombings February 2017 Afghanistan's Supreme Court in Kabul
Kabul
attack 2017 Sangin
Sangin
airstrike March 2017 Kabul
Kabul
attack 2017 Nangarhar airstrike 2017 Camp Shaheen attack May 2017 Kabul
Kabul
attack June 2017 Kabul
Kabul
attack 2017 Herat
Herat
bombing June 2017 Kabul
Kabul
mosque attack 2017 Lashkargah bombing 2017 attack on the Iraqi embassy in Kabul 2017 Herat
Herat
mosque attack December 2017 Kabul
Kabul
suicide bombing

2018

2018 Inter-Continental Hotel Kabul
Kabul
attack 2018 Save The Children Jalalabad attack 2018 Kabul
Kabul
ambulance bombing March 2018 Kabul
Kabul
suicide bombing

Reactions

Afghan War documents leak International public opinion Opposition Protests

Memorials

London

Category Multimedia Wikinews

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism

.