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The Indian Navy
Navy
(IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India
President of India
is the Supreme Commander
Commander
of the Indian Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff, a four-star Admiral, commands the navy. The Indian Navy
Navy
traces its origins back to the East India
India
Company's Marine which was founded in 1612 to protect British merchant shipping in the region. In 1793, the East India
India
Company established its rule over eastern part of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
i.e. Bengal, but it was not until 1830 that the colonial navy was titled as His Majesty's Indian Navy. When India
India
became a republic in 1950, the Royal Indian Navy
Navy
as it had been named since 1934 was renamed to Indian Navy. The primary objective of the navy is to safeguard the nation's maritime borders, and in conjunction with other Armed Forces of the union, act to deter or defeat any threats or aggression against the territory, people or maritime interests of India, both in war and peace. Through joint exercises, goodwill visits and humanitarian missions, including disaster relief, Indian Navy
Navy
promotes bilateral relations between nations. As of 1 July 2017[update], 67,228 personnel are in service with the Indian Navy.[5][6] As of March 2018[update], the operational fleet consists of one aircraft carrier, one amphibious transport dock, eight landing ship tanks, 11 destroyers, 13 frigates, one nuclear-powered attack submarine, one ballistic missile submarine, 14 conventionally-powered attack submarines, 22 corvettes, one mine countermeasure vessel, four fleet tankers and various other auxiliary vessels.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early maritime history 1.2 1612 origins to independence 1.3 Independence to the end of the 20th century 1.4 21st century onwards 1.5 Current role

2 Command and organisation

2.1 Organization 2.2 Facilities 2.3 Training 2.4 Rank structure 2.5 Officers 2.6 Enlisted personnel 2.7 Naval Air Arm 2.8 MARCOS

3 Equipment

3.1 Ships

3.1.1 Submarines

3.2 Weapon systems 3.3 Electronic warfare
Electronic warfare
and systems management 3.4 Naval satellite

4 Activities

4.1 Fleet reviews 4.2 Naval exercises 4.3 Exploration

5 Future of the Indian Navy 6 Accidents 7 Indian Naval Ensign 8 See also 9 Notes

9.1 Footnotes 9.2 Citations

10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Indian Navy Early maritime history[edit] Main article: Indian maritime history Further information: South-East Asia campaign of Rajendra Chola I Further information: Maratha Navy Further information: Maritime history
Maritime history
of Odisha

Three-mast sailship, c. 5th century

The maritime history of India
India
dates back to 6,000 years with the birth of art of the navigation and navigating during the Indus Valley Civilisation.[7] A Kutch mariner's log book from 19th century recorded that the first tidal dock India
India
has been built at Lothal
Lothal
around 2300 BC during the Indus Valley Civilisation, near the present day harbour of Mangrol on the Gujarat
Gujarat
coast. The Rig Veda, credits Varuna, the Hindu
Hindu
god of water and the celestial ocean,[8] with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes the use of ships having hundred oars in the naval expeditions by Indians. There are also references to the side wings of a ship called Plava, which stabilizes the vessel during storms. Plava is considered to be the precursor of modern-day stabilizers.[9] The first use of mariner's compass, called as Matsya Yantra, was recorded in 4 and 5 AD.[10]

Chola territories during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030

Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
during his conquest over India, built a harbour at Patala. His army retreated to Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
on the ships built at Sindh. In the later of his conquest, records show that the Emperor of Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya, as a part of war office, established an Admiralty Division under the Superintendent of Ships. Many historians from ancient India
India
recorded the Indian trade relations with many countries, and even with countries as far as Java
Java
and Sumatra. There were also references to the trade routes of countries in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. India
India
also had trade relations with the Greeks
Greeks
and the Romans. At one instance Roman historian Gaius Plinius Secundus mentioned of Indian traders carrying away large masses of gold and silver from Rome, in payment for skins, precious stones, clothes, indigo, sandalwood, herbs, perfumes, and spices.[9] During 5–10 AD, the Kalinga and the Vijayanagara Empires conquered Western Java, Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malaya. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands served as an important halt point for trade ships en route to these nations and as well as China. During 844–848 AD the daily revenue from these nations was expected to be around 200 maunds (8 tonnes (7.9 long tons; 8.8 short tons)) of gold. During 984–1042 AD, under the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
and Kulothunga Chola I, the naval expedition by Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
captured lands of Burma, Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and Malaya, and simultaneously repressing pirate activities by Sumatran warlords.[9][11]

Marco Polo's remark on Indian ships (1292 AD)

... built of fir timber, having a sheath of boards laid over the planking in every part, caulked with oakum and fastened with iron nails. The bottoms were smeared with a preparation of quicklime and hemp, pounded together and mixed with oil from a certain tree which is a better material than pith

[9]

During 14th and 15th centuries, Indian shipbuilding skills and their maritime ability was sophisticated enough to produce ships with a capacity to carry over hundred men. Ships also had compartments included in their design, so that even if one compartment was damaged, the ship would remain afloat. These features of were developed by Indians even before Europeans were aware of the idea.[9] However, by the end of thirteenth century Indian naval power had started to decline, and had reached its low by the time the Portuguese entered India. Soon after they set foot in India, the Portuguese started to hunt down all Asian vessels not permitting their trade. Amidst this, in 1529, a naval war at Bombay Harbour
Bombay Harbour
resulted in the surrender of Thane, Karanja, and Bandora. By 1534, the Portuguese took complete control over the Bombay Harbour. The Zamorin of Calicut challenged the Portuguese trade when Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
refused to pay the customs levy as per the trade agreement. This resulted in two major naval wars, the first one—Battle of Cochin, was fought in 1504, and the second engagement happened four years later off Diu. Both these wars, exposed the weakness of Indian maritime power and simultaneously helped the Portuguese to gain mastery over the Indian waters.[9] In the later seventeenth century Indian naval power observed remarkable revival. The alliance of the Moghuls and the Sidis of Janjira was marked as a major power on the west coast. On the southern front, the 1st Sovereign of the Maratha Empire, Shivaji
Shivaji
Bhosale, started creating his own fleet. His fleet was commanded by notable admirals like Sidhoji Gujar and Kanhoji Angre. The Maratha Navy
Navy
under the leadership of Angre kept the English, Dutch and Portuguese away from the Konkan coast. However, the Marathas witnessed remarkable decline in their naval capabilities following the death of Angre in 1729.[9] 1612 origins to independence[edit] Main article: Royal Indian Navy
Navy
(1612–1950)

Indian Navy

शं नो वरुणः "May the Lord of the Water be auspicious unto us"

Headquarters

New Delhi

History and traditions

History of the Indian Navy

Ships

Current Indian Navy
Navy
ships History of Indian Navy
Navy
ships

Installations

Indian Navy
Navy
bases

Deployments

Indian Naval Deployments

Personnel

Chief of the Naval Staff Naval ranks and insignia MARCOS
MARCOS
commandos

This box:

view talk edit

HMIS Bombay of Royal Indian Navy
Navy
in Sydney Harbour during World War II

The origins of the Indian Navy
Navy
date to 1612, when an English vessel under the command of Captain Best encountered the Portuguese. Although the Portuguese were defeated, this incident along with the trouble caused by the pirates to the merchant vessels, forced the British to maintain fleet near Surat, Gujarat. The British Honourable East India Company (HEIC) formed a naval arm, and the first squadron of fighting ships reached the Gujarat
Gujarat
coast on 5 September 1612. Their objective was to protect British merchant shipping off the Gulf of Cambay
Gulf of Cambay
and up the Narmada
Narmada
and Tapti
Tapti
rivers. As the HEIC continued to expand its rule and influence over different parts of India, the responsibility of Company's Marine increased too.[12] Over time, the British predominantly operated from Bombay, and in 1686, the HEIC's naval arm was renamed the Bombay Marine. At times the Bombay Marine engaged Dutch, French, Maratha, and Sidi vessels. Much later, it was also involved in the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824. In 1834, the Bombay Marine became Her Majesty's Indian Navy. The Navy
Navy
saw action in the First Opium War
First Opium War
of 1840 and in the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852. Due to some unrecorded reasons, the Navy's name reverted to the Bombay Marine from 1863 to 1877, after which it was named Her Majesty's Indian Marine. At that time, the Marine operated in two divisions—the Eastern Division at Calcutta under the Superintendent of Bay of Bengal, and the Western Division at Bombay Superintendent of Arabian Sea.[12] In 1892 the Marine was rechristened the Royal Indian Marine, and by the end of the 19th century it operated over fifty ships. The Marine participated in World War I
World War I
with a fleet of patrol vessels, troop carriers, and minesweepers. In 1928, D. N. Mukherji was the first Indian to be granted a commission, in the rank of an Engineer Sub-lieutenant. Also in 1928, the RIM was accorded combatant status, which entitled it to be considered a true fighting force and to fly the White Ensign
White Ensign
of the Royal Navy.[13] In 1934, the Marine was upgraded to a full naval force, thus becoming the Royal Indian Navy (RIN), and was presented the King's colours in recognition of its services to the British Crown.[12] During the early stages of World War II, the tiny Royal Indian Navy consisted of five sloops, one survey vessel, one depot ship, one patrol vessel and numerous assorted small craft; personnel strength was at only 114 officers and 1,732 sailors.[14] The onset of war led to an expansion in numbers of vessels and personnel. By June 1940, the navy had doubled its number in terms of both personnel and material, and expanded nearly six times of its pre-war strength by 1942.[15] The navy was actively involved in operations during the war around the world and was heavily involved in operations around the Indian Ocean, including convoy escorts, mine-sweeping and supply, as well as supporting amphibious assaults.[12] When hostilities ceased in August 1945, the Royal Indian Navy
Navy
had expanded to a personnel strength of over 25,000 officers and sailors. Its fleet comprised seven sloops, four frigates, four corvettes, fourteen minesweepers, sixteen trawlers, two depot ships, thirty auxiliary vessels, one hundred and fifty landing craft, two hundred harbour craft and several offensive and defensive motor launches.[16] During World War II
World War II
the Navy
Navy
suffered two hundred and seventy five casualties—twenty seven officers, two warrant officers and 123 ratings killed in action, two ratings missing in action and a further 14 officers, two warrant officers and 123 ratings wounded.[17] For their role in the war, the officers and ratings of the Navy
Navy
received the following honours and decorations—a KBE (Mil.), a knighthood, a CB (Mil.), 10 CIEs, two DSOs, a CBE, 15 DSCs, an OBE, 28 DSMs, eight OBIs, two IOMs, 16 BEMs, 10 Indian Defence Service Medals, a Royal Humane Society Medal, 105 mentions in dispatches and 118 assorted commendations.[18] Immediately after the war, the navy underwent a rapid, large-scale demobilisation of vessels and personnel. From the inception of India's naval force, some senior Indian politicians had voiced concerns about the degree of "Indianisation" of the Navy
Navy
and its subordination to the Royal Navy
Navy
in all important aspects.[19] On the eve of WWII, the RIN had no Indian senior line officers and only a single Indian senior engineer officer.[20] Even by the war's end, the Navy
Navy
remained a predominantly British-officered service; in 1945, no Indian officer held a rank above engineer commander and no Indian officer in the executive branch held substantive senior line officer rank.[21] This situation, coupled with inadequate levels of training and discipline, poor communication between officers and ratings, instances of racial discrimination and the ongoing trials of ex- Indian National Army
Indian National Army
personnel ignited the Royal Indian Navy
Navy
mutiny by Indian ratings in 1946.[22] A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the strike, which spread over much of India. After the strike began, the sailors received encouragement and support from the Communist Party in India; unrest spread from the naval ships, and led to student and worker hartals in Bombay. The strike ultimately failed as the sailors did not receive substantial support from either the Indian Army
Indian Army
or from political leaders in Congress or the Muslim League.[23] Independence to the end of the 20th century[edit] Main articles: 1961 Indian annexation of Goa
1961 Indian annexation of Goa
and Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Following independence and the partition of India
India
on 15 August 1947, the RIN's depleted fleet of ships and remaining personnel were divided between the newly independent Union of India
India
and Dominion of Pakistan. 21 percent of the Navy's officer cadre and 47 percent of its sailors opted to join the portion of the fleet which became the Royal Pakistan Navy. Effective from the same date, all British officers were compulsorily retired from the Navy
Navy
and its reserve components, with Indian officers being promoted to replace British senior officers.[24] However, a number of British flag and senior officers were invited to continue serving in the RIN.[25] After independence, the Indian share of the Navy
Navy
consisted of 32 vessels along with 11,000 personnel. Rear Admiral
Admiral
John Talbot Savignac Hall
John Talbot Savignac Hall
headed the Navy
Navy
as its first Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) post-Independence.[12] When India
India
became a republic on 26 January 1950, the Royal prefix was dropped and the name Indian Navy
Navy
was officially adopted. The prefix for naval vessels was changed from His Majesty's Indian Ship (HMIS) to Indian Naval Ship (INS).[12] At the same time, the imperial crown in insignia was replaced with the Lion Capital of Ashoka
Lion Capital of Ashoka
and the Union Jack in the canton of the White Ensign
White Ensign
was replaced with the Indian Tricolour.[26] By 1955, the Navy
Navy
had largely overcome its post-Independence personnel shortfalls.[24] During the early years following independence, many British officers continued to serve in the Navy
Navy
on secondment from the Royal Navy, due to the post-Independence retirement or transfer of many experienced officers to the Royal or the Pakistan navies.[24] The first C-in-C of the Navy
Navy
was Admiral
Admiral
Sir Edward Parry who took over from Hall in 1948 and handed over to Admiral
Admiral
Sir Charles Thomas Mark Pizey in 1951. Admiral
Admiral
Pizey also became the first Chief of the Naval Staff in 1955, and was succeeded by Vice Admiral
Admiral
Sir Stephen Hope Carlill the same year[12] The pace of "Indianising" continued steadily through the 1950s. By 1952, senior Naval appointments had begun to be filled by Indian officers,[27] and by 1955, basic training for naval cadets was entirely conducted in India.[28] In 1956, Ram Dass Katari became the first Indian flag officer, and was appointed the first Indian Commander
Commander
of the Fleet on 2 October.[29] On 22 April 1958, Vice Admiral
Admiral
Katari assumed the command of the Indian Navy
Navy
from Carlill as the first Indian Chief of Staff of the Indian Navy.[30] With the departure in 1962 of the last British officer on secondment to the Navy, Commodore David Kirke, the Chief of Naval Aviation, the Indian Navy
Navy
finally became an entirely Indian service.[31] The first engagement in action of the Indian Navy
Navy
was against the Portuguese Navy
Navy
during the liberation of Goa
Goa
in 1961. Operation Vijay followed years of escalating tension due to Portuguese refusal to relinquish its colonies in India. On 21 November 1961, Portuguese troops fired on the passenger liner Sabarmati near Anjadip Island, killing one person and injuring another. During Operation Vijay, the Indian Navy
Navy
supported troop landings and provided fire support. The cruiser INS Delhi sank one Portuguese patrol boat,[32] while frigates INS Betwa and INS Beas destroyed the Portuguese frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque.[33] The 1962 Sino-Indian War was largely fought over the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Navy
Navy
had only a defensive role in the war.[34]

INS Kursura, an Indian submarine which played a vital role in the 1971 Indo-Pak war

At the outbreak of Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Navy
Navy
had one aircraft carrier, two cruisers, nineteen destroyers and frigates, and one tanker. Of these twenty-ships ten were under refit. The others were largely involved coastal patrols. During the war, the Pakistani Navy
Navy
attacked the Indian coastal city of Dwarka, although there were no military resources in the area. While this attack was insignificant, India
India
deployed naval resources to patrol the coast and deter further bombardment.[35] Following these wars in the 1960s, India
India
resolved to strengthen the profile and capabilities of its Armed Forces.[36]

Aircraft carrier
Aircraft carrier
INS Vikrant during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The ship played a crucial role in enforcing the naval blockade on East Pakistan
East Pakistan
and ensuring India's victory during the war.

The dramatic change in the Indian Navy's capabilities and stance was emphatically demonstrated during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Under the command of Admiral
Admiral
Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda, the navy successfully enforced a naval blockade of West and East Pakistan.[37] Pakistan's lone long-range submarine PNS Ghazi was sunk following an attack by the destroyer INS Rajput off the coast of Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
in the midnight of 3–4 December 1971.[38][39] On 4 December, the Indian Navy
Navy
successfully executed Operation Trident, a devastating attack on the Pakistan Naval Headquarters of Karachi
Karachi
that sank a minesweeper, a destroyer and an ammunition supply ship. The attack also irreparably damaged another destroyer and oil storage tanks at the Karachi
Karachi
port.[40] To commemorate this, 4 December is celebrated as the Navy
Navy
Day.[41] This was followed by Operation Python on 8 December 1971, further deprecating the Pakistan Navy's capabilities.[40] Indian frigate INS Khukri, commanded by Captain M. N. Mulla was sunk by PNS Hangor, while INS Kirpan was damaged on the west coast.[42] In the Bay of Bengal, the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant was deployed to successfully enforce the naval blockade on East Pakistan. Sea Hawk and the Alizé aircraft from INS Vikrant sank numerous gunboats and Pakistani merchant marine ships.[43] To demonstrate its solidarity as an ally of Pakistan, the United States sent Task Force 74 centred around the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise into the Bay of Bengal. In retaliation, Soviet Navy
Navy
submarines trailed the American task force, which moved away from the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
towards Southeast Asia to avert a confrontation.[44] In the end, the Indian naval blockade of Pakistan choked off the supply of reinforcements to the Pakistani forces, which proved to be decisive in the overwhelming defeat of Pakistan.[45] Since playing a decisive role in the victory, the navy has been a deterrent force maintaining peace for India
India
in a region of turmoil. In 1983, the Indian Navy
Navy
planned for Operation Lal Dora to support the government of Mauritius
Mauritius
against a feared coup.[46] In 1986, in Operation Flowers are Blooming, the Indian Navy
Navy
averted an attempted coup in the Seychelles.[47] In 1988, India
India
launched Operation Cactus, to successfully thwart a coup d'état by PLOTE
PLOTE
in the Maldives. Naval maritime reconnaissance aircraft detected the ship hijacked by PLOTE rebels. INS Godavari and Indian marine commandos recaptured the ship and arrested the rebels.[48] During the 1999 Kargil War, the Western and Eastern fleets were deployed in the Northern Arabian Sea, as a part of Operation Talwar.[49] They safeguarded India's maritime assets from a potential Pakistani naval attack, as also deterred Pakistan from attempting to block India's sea-trade routes.[50] The Indian Navy's aviators flew sorties and marine commandos fought alongside Indian Army
Indian Army
personnel in the Himalayas.[51] In October 1999, the Navy
Navy
along with the Indian Coast Guard
Indian Coast Guard
rescued MV Alondra Rainbow, a pirated Japanese cargo ship.[52] 21st century onwards[edit]

Indian Navy
Navy
flotilla including aircraft carrier INS Viraat escorting INS Vikramaditya on its way home in 2014

Guard of honour
Guard of honour
at the INA, 2012.

In the 21st century, the Indian Navy
Navy
has played an important role in maintaining peace for India
India
on the maritime front, in spite of the state of foment in its neighbourhood. It has been deployed for humanitarian relief in times of natural disasters and crises across the globe, as well as to keep India's maritime trade routes free and open.[53] The Indian Navy
Navy
was a part of the joint forces exercises, Operation Parakram, during the 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff. More than a dozen warships were deployed to the northern Arabian Sea.[54] In October, the Indian Navy
Navy
took over operations to secure the Strait of Malacca, to relieve US Navy
Navy
resources for Operation Enduring Freedom.[55] The navy plays an important role in providing humanitarian relief in times of natural disasters, including floods, cyclones and tsunamis. In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
earthquake and tsunami, the Indian Navy
Navy
launched massive disaster relief operations to help affected Indian states as well as Maldives, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Indonesia. Over 27 ships, dozens of helicopters, at least six fixed-wing aircraft and over 5000 personnel of the navy were deployed in relief operations.[56] These included Operation Madad in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu, Operation Sea Waves in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Operation Castor in Maldives, Operation Rainbow in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Operation Gambhir in Indonesia.[57] Gambhir, carried out following the 2004 Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
tsunami, was one of the largest and fastest force mobilisations that the Indian Navy
Navy
has undertaken. Indian naval rescue vessels and teams reached neighbouring countries less than 12 hours from the time that the tsunami hit.[58] Lessons from the response led to decision to enhance amphibious force capabilities, including the acquisition of landing platform docks such as INS Jalashwa, as well as smaller amphibious vessels.[59]

From top to bottom: INS Ranjit, INS Jyoti and INS Mysore

During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, the Indian Navy
Navy
launched Operation Sukoon and evacuated 2,280 persons from 20 to 29 July 2006 including 436 Sri Lankans, 69 Nepalese and 7 Lebanese nationals from war-torn Lebanon.[60][61] In 2006, Indian naval doctors served for 102 days on board USNS Mercy to conduct medical camps in the Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia
Indonesia
and East Timor.[62] In 2007, Indian Navy
Navy
supported relief operations for the survivors of Cyclone Sidr
Cyclone Sidr
in Bangladesh.[63] In 2008, Indian Naval vessels were the first to launch international relief operations for victims of Cyclone Nargis
Cyclone Nargis
in Myanmar.[64][65] In 2008, the navy deployed INS Tabar and INS Mysore into the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
to combat piracy in Somalia.[66] Tabar prevented numerous piracy attempts, and escorted hundreds of ships safely through the pirate-infested waters.[67] The navy also undertook anti-piracy patrols near the Seychelles, upon that country's request.[68][69]

Sea King helicopters operating aboard INS Viraat

In February 2011, the Indian Navy
Navy
launched Operation Safe Homecoming and rescued Indian nationals from war torn Libya.[70] Between January–March, the navy launched Operation Island Watch to deter piracy attempts by Somali pirates off the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
archipelago. This operation has had numerous successes in preventing pirate attacks.[71][72][73] During the 2015 crisis in Yemen, the Indian Navy was part of Operation Raahat and rescued 3074 individuals of which 1291 were foreign nationals.[74] On 15 April 2016, a Poseidon-8I long-range patrol aircraft managed to thwart a piracy attack on the high seas by flying over MV Sezai Selaha, a merchant vessel, which was being targeted by a pirate mother ship and two skiffs around 800 nautical miles (1,500 km; 920 mi) from Mumbai.[75] Current role[edit] Currently, the principal roles of the Indian Navy
Navy
are:[76][77]

In conjunction with other Armed Forces of the union, act to deter or defeat any threats or aggression against the territory, people or maritime interests of India, both in war and peace; Project influence in India's maritime area of interest, to further the nation's political, economic and security objectives; In co-operation with the Indian Coast Guard, ensure good order and stability in India's maritime zones of responsibility. Provide maritime assistance (including disaster relief) in India's maritime neighbourhood.

Command and organisation[edit] Organization[edit]

Some of the uniforms of Indian Navy

While the President of India
President of India
serves as the Supreme Commander
Commander
of the Indian Armed Forces, the organizational structure of Indian Navy
Navy
is headed by the Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), who holds the rank of Admiral.[78] While the provision for the rank of Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet exists, it is primarily intended for major wartime use and honour. No officer of the Indian Navy
Navy
has yet been conferred this rank.[79] The CNS is assisted by the Vice Chief of Naval Staff (VCNS), a vice-admiral; the CNS also heads the Integrated Headquarters (IHQ) of the Ministry of Defence (Navy), based in New Delhi. The Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS), a vice-admiral, is a Principal Staff Officer, along with the Chief of Personnel (COP) and the Chief of Materiel (COM), both of whom are also vice-admirals.[78] The Director General Medical Services (Navy) is a Surgeon Vice-Admiral, heads the medical services of the Indian Navy.[80] The Indian Navy
Navy
operates three operational Commands. Each Command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the rank of vice-admiral.[81] The Eastern and Western Commands each have a Fleet commanded by a rear admiral, and each also have a Commodore commanding submarines.[82] The Southern Naval Command
Southern Naval Command
is home to the Flag Officer Sea Training.[83] Additionally, the Andaman and Nicobar Command
Andaman and Nicobar Command
is a unified Indian Navy, Indian Army, Indian Air Force, and Indian Coast Guard
Indian Coast Guard
theater command based at the capital, Port Blair.[84] Commander
Commander
in Chief Andaman and Nicobar (CINCAN) receives staff support from, and reports directly to the chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) in New Delhi. The Command was set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
in 2001.[85]

Equivalent ranks of Indian military

Indian Navy Indian Army Indian Air Force

Commissioned ranks

Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet Field Marshal Marshal of the Air Force

Admiral General Air Chief Marshal

Vice Admiral Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Air Marshal

Rear Admiral Major
Major
General Air Vice Marshal

Commodore Brigadier Air Commodore

Captain Colonel Group Captain

Commander Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel Wing Commander

Lt. Commander Major Squadron Leader

Lieutenant Captain Flight Lieutenant

Sub Lieutenant Lieutenant Flying Officer

Junior commissioned ranks

Master Chief Petty Officer 1st Class Subedar
Subedar
Major[Alt 1] Master warrant officer

Master Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class Subedar[Alt 2] Warrant officer

Chief Petty Officer Naib Subedar[Alt 3] Junior warrant officer

Non-commissioned ranks

Petty Officer Havildar Sergeant

Leading Seaman Naik Corporal

Seaman 1 Lance Naik Leading aircraftsman

Seaman 2 Sepoy Aircraftsman

Footnotes

^ Risaldar Major
Major
in cavalry and armoured regiments ^ Risaldar in cavalry and armoured regiments ^ Naib Risaldar in cavalry and armoured regiments. Called as Jemadar until 1965.

At Integrated Headquarters-Ministry of Defence (Navy) level[78]

Post Current Holder

Chief of Naval Staff Admiral
Admiral
Sunil Lanba, PVSM, AVSM, ADC[2]

Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Admiral
Admiral
Ajit Kumar, AVSM[86]

Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Vice Admiral
Admiral
G. Ashok Kumar, AVSM, VSM[87]

Chief of Personnel Vice Admiral
Admiral
A. K. Chawla, AVSM, VSM, NM[88]

Chief of Materiel Vice Admiral
Admiral
G. S. Pabby, AVSM, VSM[89]

Director General of Medical Services Surgeon Vice Admiral
Admiral
A. A. Pawar, VSM[90]

Director General of Naval Operations Vice Admiral
Admiral
S N Ghormade[91]

Director General of Naval Design Rear Admiral
Admiral
Anil Kumar Saxena, NM[92]

At operational command level[78]

Commands HQ Location Current FOC-in-C

Western Naval Command Mumbai Vice Admiral
Admiral
Girish Luthra, PVSM, AVSM, VSM, ADC[93]

Eastern Naval Command Visakhapatnam Vice Admiral
Admiral
Karambir Singh, PVSM, AVSM[94]

Southern Naval Command Kochi Vice Admiral
Admiral
AR Karve, PVSM, AVSM[95]

Andaman and Nicobar Command Port Blair Vice Admiral
Admiral
Bimal Verma, AVSM[96]

Facilities[edit] Main article: List of Indian Navy
Navy
bases Indian Navy
Navy
has its operational and training bases in Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Lakshadweep, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These bases are intended for various purposes such as logistics and maintenance support, ammunition support, air stations, hospitals, MARCOS
MARCOS
bases, coastal defence, missile defence, submarine and missile boat bases, forward operating bases etc.[97][98][99] Of these, INS Shivaji
Shivaji
is one of the oldest naval bases in India. Commissioned in February 1945 as HMIS Shivaji, it now serves as the premier Technical Training
Training
Establishment (TTE) of the Indian Navy.[100] In May 2005, the Indian Navy
Navy
commissioned INS Kadamba at Karwar, 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Goa.[101] Built under the first phase of the Project Seabird, it first exclusively controlled base by the Navy
Navy
without sharing port facilities with commercial shipping.[102] The Indian Navy
Navy
also has berthing rights in Oman and Vietnam.[103] The Navy
Navy
operates a monitoring station, fitted with radars and surveillance gear to intercept maritime communication, in Madagascar. It also plans to build a further 32 radar stations in Seychelles, Mauritius, Maldives
Maldives
and Sri Lanka.[104] According to Intelligence Online, published by a France-based global intelligence gathering organisation, Indigo Publications, the Navy
Navy
is believed to be operating a listening post in Ras al-Hadd, Oman. The post is located directly across from Gwadar Port in Balochistan, Pakistan, separated by approximately 400 kilometres (250 mi) of the Arabian Sea.[105] The navy operates INS Kattabomman, a VLF and ELF transmission facility at Vijayanarayanapuram near Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
in Tamil Nadu.[106] INS Abhimanyu and INS Karna are two bases dedicated for MARCOS.[107][108] Project Varsha is a highly classified project undertaken by the Navy
Navy
to construct a hi-tech base under the Eastern Naval Command. The base is said to house nuclear submarines and also a VLF facility.[109][110] Training[edit] Main article: Military academies in India Indian Navy
Navy
has a specialized training command which is responsible for organisation, conduct and overseeing of all basic, professional and specialist training throughout the Navy. The Commander
Commander
in Chief of Southern Command also serves as the Commander
Commander
in Chief of Training Command. The Chief of Personnel (CoP) at HQ of Indian Navy
Navy
is responsible for the framework of training, and exercises the responsibility through Directorate of Naval Training
Training
(DNT).[111] The training year of Indian Navy
Navy
is defined from 1 July to 30 June of the following year.[112] Officer training is conducted at Indian Naval Academy
Indian Naval Academy
(INA) at Ezhimala, on the coast of Kerala. Established in 2009, it is the largest naval academy in Asia. Cadets from National Defence Academy also move to INA for their later terms.[113] The Navy
Navy
also has specialized training establishments for gunnery, aviation, leadership, logistics, music, medicine, physical training, educational training, engineering, hydrography, submarines etc. at several naval bases[114] along the coastline of India.[115] Naval officers also attend National Defence College and Defence Services Staff College for various staff courses to higher staff appointments.[111] A dedicated wing for naval architecture under Directorate of Naval Architecture at IIT Delhi
IIT Delhi
is operated by the Navy.[116] Indian Navy
Navy
also trains officers and men from the navies of friendly foreign countries.[112] Rank structure[edit] Main article: Naval ranks and insignia of India As of 1 July 2017[update], the Navy
Navy
has a sanctioned strength of 11,827 officers (10,393 serving with 1,434 under strength), and 71,656 sailors (56,835 serving with 14,821 under strength).[5][6] This is inclusive of naval aviation, marine commandos and Sagar Prahari Bal personnel.[117] Officers[edit] India
India
uses the Midshipman
Midshipman
rank in its navy, and all future officers carry the rank upon entering the Indian Naval Academy. They are commissioned Sub-lieutenants upon finishing their course of study.[118][119] While the provision for the rank of Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet exists, it is primarily intended for major wartime use and honour. No officer of the Indian Navy
Navy
has yet been conferred this rank. Both the Army and Air Force have had officers who have been conferred with the equivalent rank – Field Marshals Sam Manekshaw
Sam Manekshaw
and Cariappa of the Army and Marshal of the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
(MIAF) Arjan Singh.[79] The highest ranked naval officer in organization structure is the Chief of Naval Staff, who holds the rank of admiral.[119]

Equivalent NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer

India (Edit)

Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet1 Admiral2 Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sublieutenant

Enlisted personnel[edit] In the Indian Navy, the sailors are initially listed as, Seaman 2nd class. As they grow through the ranks they attain the highest rank of enlisted personnel, Master chief petty officerIst Class. Sailors who possess leadership qualities and fulfill requisite conditions in terms of education, age etc. may be commissioned through Commission worthy and Special
Special
Duties (CW & SD) scheme.[118]

Equivalent NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer

India (Edit)

No equivalent

No equivalent

No insignia

Master Chief Petty Officer
Petty Officer
1st Class Master Chief Petty Officer
Petty Officer
2nd Class Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer Leading Seaman Ordinary Seaman

Naval Air Arm[edit] Main article: Indian Naval Air Arm

Indian Navy
Navy
P-8I Neptune aircraft deployed in Seychelles

MiG-29K
MiG-29K
operates from INS Vikramaditya

The naval air-arm of the Indian Navy
Navy
currently operates twenty-one air squadrons. Of these, ten operate fixed-wing aircraft, eight are helicopter squadrons and the remaining three are equipped with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Building on the legacy inherited from the Royal Navy
Navy
prior to Indian independence, the concept of naval aviation in India
India
started with the establishment of Directorate of Naval Aviation at Naval Headquarters (NHQ) in early 1948. Later that year officers and sailors from the Indian Navy
Navy
were sent to Britain for pilot training. In 1951, the Fleet Requirement Unit (FRU) was formed to meet the aviation requirements of the navy.[120] On 1 January 1953, the charge of Cochin
Cochin
airfield was handed over to the navy from the Directorate General of Civil Aviation. On 11 March, the FRU was commissioned at Cochin
Cochin
with ten newly acquired Sealand aircraft. The navy's first air station, INS Garuda, was commissioned two months later. From February 1955 to December 1958, ten Firefly aircraft were acquired. To meet the training requirements of the pilots, the indigenously developed HAL HT-2
HAL HT-2
trainer was inducted into the FRU. On 17 January 1959, the FRU was commissioned as Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS) 550, to be the first Indian naval air squadron.[120] Currently the air arm operates an aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya with ability to carry over thirty aircraft including MiG 29K, Kamov 31, Kamov 28, Sea King and domestic-built ALH-Dhruv and Chetak helicopters.[121][122] The Kamov-31 choppers also provide the airborne early warning cover for the fleet.[123] In the anti-submarine role, the Sea King, Ka-28, and the domestic built HAL Dhruv
HAL Dhruv
are used.[124][125] The MARCOS
MARCOS
also use Sea King and HAL Dhruv
HAL Dhruv
helicopters while conducting operations. Maritime patrol and reconnaissance operations are carried out by the Boeing P-8 Poseidon[126][127] and the Ilyushin 38.[128][129][130] The UAV arm consists of the IAI Heron and Searcher-IIs that are operated from both surface ships and shore establishments for surveillance missions.[131][132][133] The Indian Navy
Navy
also maintains an aerobatic display team, the Sagar Pawan. The Sagar Pawan team will be replacing their present Kiran HJT-16 aircraft with the newly developed HJT-36 aircraft.[134] MARCOS[edit] Main article: MARCOS

HAL Dhruv
HAL Dhruv
helicopter of the Indian Navy
Navy
extracting Marine Commandos MARCOS
MARCOS
on Navy
Navy
day 2013 at Kochi

The Marine Commando Force (MCF), also known as MARCOS, is a special forces unit that was raised by the Indian Navy
Navy
in 1987 for Amphibious warfare, Close Quarter Combat Counter-terrorism, Direct action, Special
Special
reconnaissance, Unconventional warfare, Hostage rescue, Personnel recovery, Combat search and rescue, Asymmetric warfare, Foreign internal defence, Counterproliferation, Amphibious reconnaissance including Hydrographic reconnaissance.[107] Since their inception MARCOS
MARCOS
proved themselves in various operations and wars, notable of them include Operation Pawan, Operation Cactus, UNOSOM II, Kargil War
Kargil War
and Operation Black Tornado.[135][136] They are also actively deployed on anti-piracy operations throughout the year.[137][138] Equipment[edit] Main article: List of active Indian Navy
Navy
ships See also: List of ships of the Indian Navy
Navy
for a list of Historical Ships of the Indian Navy. Ships[edit]

INS Vikramaditya

The names of all in service ships (and Naval Bases) of the Indian Navy are prefixed with the letters INS, designating Indian Naval Ship or Indian Navy
Navy
Station,[139] whereas the sail boats are prefixed with INSV (Indian Naval Sailing Vessel).[140] The fleet of the Indian Navy is a mixture of domestic built and foreign vessels, as of January 2018[update], the surface fleet comprises 1 aircraft carrier,[141][142] 1 amphibious transport dock,[143] 8 Landing ship tanks,[143][144] 11 destroyers,[141] 13 frigates,[145][146] 22 corvettes,[145][147][148][149] 1 mine countermeasure vessels,[150][151] 10 large offshore patrol vessels,[150] 4 fleet tankers,[152] 7 Survey ships,[153] 1 research vessel,[140] 3 training vessels[140] and various auxiliary vessels, Landing Craft Utility vessels,[144] and small patrol boats.[152][154] After INS Viraat
INS Viraat
was decommissioned on 6 March 2017, the Navy
Navy
is left with only one aircraft carrier in active service, INS Vikramaditya, which serves as the flagship of the fleet.[142] Vikramaditya (formerly Admiral
Admiral
Gorshkov) is a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier
Kiev-class aircraft carrier
procured at a total cost $2.3 billion from Russia in December 2013.[155] The Navy
Navy
has an amphibious transport dock of the Austin class, re-christened as INS Jalashwa in Indian service. It also maintains a fleet of landing ship tanks.[143]

INS Shakti, a Deepak-class fleet tanker

The navy currently operates three Kolkata, three Delhi and five Rajput-class guided-missile destroyers.[141] The ships of the Rajput class will be replaced in the near future by the next-generation Visakhapatnam-class destroyers (Project 15B) which will feature a number of improvements.[156] In addition to destroyers, the navy operates several classes of frigates such as three Shivalik (Project 17 class) and six Talwar-class frigates.[145] Seven additional Shivalik-class frigates (Project 17A class frigates) are on order. The older Godavari-class frigates will systematically be replaced one by one as the new classes of frigates are brought into service over the next decade.[157] Smaller littoral zone combatants in service are in the form of corvettes, of which the Indian Navy
Navy
operates the Kamorta, Kora, Khukri, Veer and Abhay-class corvettes.[145][147][148] Replenishment tankers such as the Jyoti-class tanker, INS Aditya and the new Deepak-class fleet tanker- help improve the navy's endurance at sea.[152] Submarines[edit]

INS Chakra, the nuclear attack submarine of the Indian Navy

As of December 2017[update], the Navy's sub-surface fleet includes 1 nuclear-powered attack submarine, 1 Ballistic missile submarine,[158] 14 conventionally-powered attack submarines.[159] The conventional attack submarines of the Indian Navy
Navy
consist of the Kalvari (French Scorpène-class submarine
Scorpène-class submarine
design), the Sindhughosh (Russian Kilo-class submarine design) and the Shishumar (German Type 209/1500 design) classes.[159][160][161] India
India
also possesses a single Akula-class nuclear-powered attack submarine named INS Chakra. She is under lease to India
India
for a period of ten years. Three hundred Indian Navy
Navy
personnel were trained in Russia for the operation of these submarines.[162] Negotiations are on with Russia for the lease of the second Akula-class submarine.[163] INS Arihant was launched on 26 July 2009 in Visakhapatnam, and was secretly commissioned into active service in August 2016.[164] The Navy
Navy
plans to have six nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines in service in the near future.[165] Arihant is both the first boat of the Arihant-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and the first nuclear-powered submarine to be built in India.[166] Weapon systems[edit] Main article: Weapon systems of the Indian Navy

Gun firing trials of INS Kochi[167]

Barak 8
Barak 8
missile fired from INS Kolkata

The Navy
Navy
use a mix of indigenously developed and foreign made missile systems. These include submarine-launched ballistic missiles, Ship Launched Ballistic Missile, cruise and anti-ship missiles, air to air missiles, surface to air missiles, torpedoes, air to air guns, main guns and anit-submarine rocket launchers. Its inventory comprises 100 mm (3.9 in) AK 190 gun with a range of 21.5 kilometres (13.4 mi), 130 kilometres (81 mi) KH-35E 4 Quad Uran, ASW RBU-2000 etc.[168] In the recent years BrahMos
BrahMos
has been one of the most advanced missile system adapted by the India
India
Navy. It has been jointly developed by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation
Defence Research and Development Organisation
(DRDO) and Russian NPO Mashinostroyeniya. BrahMos
BrahMos
is the world's fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation.[169] The BrahMos
BrahMos
has been tailored to meet Indian needs and features a large proportion of India-designed components and technology, including its fire control systems, transporter erector launchers, and its onboard navigational attack systems. The successful test of Brahmos from INS Rajput provides Indian Navy
Navy
with precision land attack capability.[170] India
India
has also fitted its P-8I Neptune reconnaissance aircraft with all-weather, active-radar-homing, over-the-horizon AGM-84L Harpoon Block II missiles and Mk 54 All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes.[171] Indian warships' primary air-defence shield is provided by Barak 1 surface-to-air missile while an advanced version Barak 8
Barak 8
is in development in collaboration with Israel.[172] India's next-generation Scorpène-class submarines will be armed with Exocet
Exocet
anti-ship missile system. Among indigenous missiles, ship-launched version of Prithvi-II is called Dhanush, which has a range of 350 kilometres (220 mi) and can carry nuclear warheads.[173] The K-15 Sagarika (Oceanic) submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), which has a range of at least 700 km (some sources claim 1000 km) forms part of India's nuclear triad and is extensively tested to be integrated with the Arihant class of nuclear submarines.[174][175] A longer range submarine launched ballistic missile called K-4 is under testing, to be followed by K-5 SLBM.[176] Electronic warfare
Electronic warfare
and systems management[edit] Sangraha is a joint electronic warfare programme between Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Indian Navy. The programme is intended to develop a family of electronic warfare suites, for use on different naval platforms capable of detecting, intercepting, and classifying pulsed, carrier wave, pulse repetition frequency agile, frequency agile and chirp radars. The systems are suitable for deployment on various platforms like helicopters, vehicles, and ships. Certain platforms, along with ESM (Electronic Support Measures) capabilities, have ECM (Electronic Countermeasure) capabilities such as multiple-beam phased array jammers.[177] The Indian Navy
Navy
also relies on information technology to face the challenges of the 21st century. The Indian Navy
Navy
is implementing a new strategy to move from a platform centric force to a network centric force by linking all shore-based installations and ships via a high-speed data networks and satellite(s).[178][179][180] This will help in increased operational awareness. The network is referred to as the Navy
Navy
Enterprise Wide Network (NEWN). The Indian Navy
Navy
has also provided training to all its personnel in Information Technology (IT) at the Naval Institute of Computer Applications (NICA) located in Mumbai. Information technology is also used to provide better training, like the usage of simulators and for better management of the force.[181] The Navy
Navy
has a dedicated cadre for matters pertaining to information technology cadre named as Information Technology Cadre,[182] under the Directorate of Information Technology (DRI). The cadre is responsible for implementation for enterprise wide networking and software development projects, development activities with respect to cyber security products, administration of shore and on-board networks, and management of critical Naval Networks and software applications.[183] Naval satellite[edit] India's first exclusive defence satellite GSAT-7
GSAT-7
was successfully launched by European space consortium Arianespace's rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana
French Guiana
in August 2013. GSAT-7
GSAT-7
was fabricated by the Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO) to serve for at least seven years in its orbital slot at 74°E, providing UHF, S-band, C-band and Ku-band
Ku-band
relay capacity. Its Ku-band
Ku-band
allows high-density data transmission, including both audio and video. This satellite also has a provision to reach smaller and mobile terminals.[184] GSAT-7
GSAT-7
approximately has a footprint of 3,500–4,000 kilometres (2,200–2,500 miles; 1,900–2,200 nautical miles) over the Indian Ocean region, including both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal region. This enables the Navy
Navy
to operate in a network-centric atmosphere having real-time networking of all its operational assets at sea and on land.[184] Activities[edit]

INS Mumbai
Mumbai
with Indian Navy
Navy
flag during International Fleet Review 2016

See also: List of Indian Naval Deployments Fleet reviews[edit] The President of India
President of India
is entitled to inspect his/her fleet, as he/she is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The first president's fleet review by India
India
was hosted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
on 10 October 1953. President's reviews usually take place once in the President's term. In all, ten fleet reviews have taken place, including in February 2006, when former president Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam took the review. The latest, on February 2016, by President Pranab Mukherjee.[185] The Indian Navy
Navy
also conducted an International fleet review named Bridges of Friendship in February 2001 in Mumbai. Many ships of friendly Navies from all around the world participated, including two from the US Navy.[186] The second international fleet review, the International Fleet Review 2016, was held off Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
coast in February 2016 where Indian Navy's focus was on improving diplomatic relations and military compatibility with other nations.[185] Naval exercises[edit]

Naval ships from 17 nations Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Naval Symposium participated in Milan exercise 2014

India
India
often conducts naval exercises with other friendly countries designed to increase naval cooperation and also to strengthen cooperative security relationship. Some such exercises take place annually like the Varuna
Varuna
with the French Navy,[187] Konkan with the Royal Navy,[188] Indra with Russian Navy,[189] Malabar with the US Navy,[190] Simbex with the Republic of Singapore Navy,[191] and IBSAMAR
IBSAMAR
with the Brazil and South African navies.[192] The Indian Navy also conducted exercise with the People's Liberation Army Navy
Navy
in 2003,[193] and also sent ships to the South China Sea to participate in the fleet review.[194] Apart from the Indian Ocean, India
India
has steadily gained influence in the Pacific Ocean. In 2007, Indian Navy conducted naval exercise with Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force
and U.S Navy
Navy
in the Pacific,[195] and also signed an agreement with Japan in October 2008 for joint naval patrolling in the Asia-Pacific region.[196] In 2007, India
India
conducted naval exercises with Vietnam,[197] Philippines,[198] and New Zealand.[199] In 2007, India
India
and South Korea conducted an annual naval exercise,[200] alongside India
India
participation in the South Korean International Fleet Review in 2008.[201] In the same year, India
India
held the first Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Naval Symposium (IONS) with an objective to provide a forum for all the littoral nations of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to co-operate on mutually agreed areas for better security in the region.[202][203] Since the past decade, the Indian naval ships have made goodwill port calls to Israel,[204][205] Turkey,[206] Egypt,[207] Greece,[208] Thailand,[209] Indonesia,[210] Australia,[211] New Zealand,[212] Tonga,[213] South Africa,[214] Kenya,[215] Qatar,[216] Oman,[217] United Arab Emirates,[218] Bahrain,[219] Kuwait,[220] and various other countries.

INS Satpura in the U.S for RIMPAC 2016

In 2006, the first TROPEX (Theatre-level Readiness Operational Exercises) was held during which Indian Navy
Navy
experimented the doctrine of influencing a land and air battle to support the Indian Army
Indian Army
and the Indian Air Force.[221] Since then, TROPEX has been conducted annually every year with an exception to 2016.[222] The first Atlantic Ocean deployment of the Indian Navy
Navy
happened in 2009. During this deployment, the Indian Naval fleet conducted exercises with the French, German, Russian and British Navies.[223] Indian Navy
Navy
also carried out a Joint Naval exercise with Sri Lanka Navy
Navy
code-named SLINEX-II from 19 to 24 September 2011. The exercise was aimed at increasing the capabilities of the two nations in carrying out anti-piracy operations and exchanging professional knowledge.[224] Once in two years navies from the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
region meet at the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
and the event is named as MILAN.[225] Exploration[edit]

The Indian Navy's all Woman INSV Tarini
INSV Tarini
crew at Lyttelton port (New Zealand), during their global circumnavigation expedition.

The Indian Navy
Navy
regularly conducts adventure expeditions. The sailing ship and training vessel INS Tarangini
INS Tarangini
began circumnavigating the world on 23 January 2003, intending to foster good relations with various other nations; she returned to India
India
in May 2004 after visiting 36 ports in 18 nations.[226] Lt. Cdr. M. S. Kohli
M. S. Kohli
led the Indian Navy's first successful expedition to Mount Everest
Mount Everest
in 1965;[227] the Navy's ensign was again flown atop Everest on 19 May 2004 by a similar expedition. Another Navy
Navy
team also successfully scaled Everest from the north face, a technically more challenging route.[228] The expedition was led by Cdr Satyabrata Dam of the submarine arm. Cdr. Dam is a mountaineer of international repute and has climbed many mountains including the Patagonias, the Alps
Alps
among others.[229] In 2017, to commemorate 50 years of the Navy's first expedition in 1965, a team set off to climb Mount Everest.[227] An Indian Navy
Navy
team comprising 11 members successfully completed an expedition to the Arctic pole. To prepare, they first traveled to Iceland, where they attempted to summit a peak.[230] The team next flew to eastern Greenland; in the Kulusuk
Kulusuk
and Angmassalik areas, they used Inuit
Inuit
boats to navigate the region's ice-choked fjords. They crossed northward across the Arctic Circle, reaching seventy degrees North on skis. The team scaled an unnamed peak of height 11,000 feet (3,400 m) and named it '’Indian Peak'’.[231] The Indian Naval ensign first flew in Antarctica
Antarctica
in 1981.[232] The Indian Navy
Navy
succeeded in Mission Dakshin Dhruv 2006 by traversing to the South Pole
South Pole
on skis. With this historic expedition, they have set the record for being the first military team to have successfully completed a ski traverse to the Geographic South Pole.[233] Also, three of the ten member team—the expedition leader—Cdr. Satyabrata Dam, leading medical assistants Rakesh Kumar and Vikas Kumar are now among the few people in the world to have visited the two poles and summited Mt. Everest.[234] Indian Navy
Navy
became the first organisation to reach the poles and Mt. Everest. Cdr. Dilip Donde completed the first solo circumnavigation by an Indian citizen on 22 May 2010.[235] Future of the Indian Navy[edit] Main article: Future of the Indian Navy

INS Vikrant under construction

The HAL Tejas
HAL Tejas
Naval Prototype-1 takes-off from the Shore Based Test Facility at Goa

By the end of the 14th Plan (2019), the Indian Navy
Navy
expects to have over 150 ships and close to 500 aircraft. In addition to the existing mission of securing both sea flanks in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Arabian sea, the navy would be able to respond to emergency situations far away from the main land. Marine assault capabilities will be enhanced by setting up a new amphibious warfare facility at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh.[236] The Indian Navy
Navy
has initiated Phase II expansion of INS Kadamba, the third largest naval base, near Karwar. Phase II will involve expansion of the berthing facilities to accommodate 40–45 more front-line warships, including the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, raise manpower to 300 officers and around 2,500 sailors, and build a naval air station with a 6,000-foot runway. This is to be followed by Phase IIA and IIB, at the end of which INS Kadamba
INS Kadamba
will be able to base 50 front-line warships.[237][238][239][240] The Indian Navy
Navy
is also in the process of constructing a new naval base, INS Varsha, at Rambilli for its Arihant Class submarines.[241] India
India
plans to construct a pair of aircraft carriers. The first, INS Vikrant, was launched in 2013 by Cochin
Cochin
Shipyard and undocked in June 2015. It is expected to be completed by 2017 and undergo extensive sea trials thereafter with commissioning planned for 2018.[242] Vikrant displaces 40,000 tonnes and will be capable of operating up to 40 aircraft, including 30 HAL Tejas
HAL Tejas
and MiG-29K
MiG-29K
fighters.[243] The second ship, INS Vishal (formerly known as Indigenous Aircraft Carrier-II), will displace around 65,000 tonnes and is expected to be delivered to the Indian Navy
Navy
by late 2030s. With the future delivery of Vishal, the Navy's goal to have three aircraft carriers in service, with two fully operational carriers and the third in refit, will be achieved.[244] As of November 2011, the Defence Acquisition Council launched the Indian Navy
Navy
Multi-Role Support Vessel programme. The Indian Navy
Navy
has subsequently sent out an international RFP for up to 4 large landing helicopter docks. The contenders are expected to tie up with local shipyards for construction of the ships.[245] In addition to aircraft carriers and large amphibious assault ships, the Indian Navy
Navy
is acquiring numerous surface combatants such as; the Visakhapatnam-class destroyers, the Project 17A-class frigates,[246] ASW shallow water corvettes,[247] ASuW corvettes,[248] and MCM vessels.[249] New submarine types include; the conventional Kalvari-class,[250] Project 75I,[251] and the nuclear Arihant-class.[252] New auxiliary ships include; five Replenishment Oilers, a Missile
Missile
Range Instrumentation Ship and an Ocean Surveillance Ship.[253] The Indian Navy
Navy
signed a deal with General Atomics for 22 Sea Guardian drones at an estimated cost of $2 billion in August 2017.[254] This is the first instance of General Atomics drones being sold to a non-NATO military.[254] Accidents[edit] Main article: List of Indian Naval accidents Accidents in the Indian navy have been attributed to ageing ships in need of maintenance, delayed acquisitions by the Ministry of Defence, and human error.[255] However naval commentators also argue that as India's large navy of 160 ships clocks around 12,000 ship-days at sea every year, in varied waters and weather, some incidents are inevitable.[256] Captains of erring ships are dismissed from their command following an enquiry.[257] The accident on board INS Sindhuratna (S59) led to the resignation of the then Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) Admiral
Admiral
D K Joshi on 26 February 2014, who owned moral responsibility.[258] The navy is envisaging a new 'Safety Organisation' to improve safety of its warships, nuclear submarines and aircraft in view of its planned increase in fleet strength over the next decade.[259] Indian Naval Ensign[edit] Main article: Indian Naval Ensign The Indian Navy
Navy
from 1950 to 2001 used a modified version of the British Naval jack, with the Union flag replaced with the Indian Tricolor in the canton. In 2001, this flag was replaced with a white ensign bearing the Indian Navy
Navy
crest, as the previous ensign was thought to reflect India's colonial past.[260] However complaints arose that the new ensign was indistinguishable as the blue of the naval crest easily merged with the sky and the ocean. Hence in 2004, the ensign was changed back to the St. George's cross
St. George's cross
design, with the addition of the emblem of India
India
in the intersection of the cross. In 2014, the ensign as well as the naval crest was further modified to include the Devanagari
Devanagari
script: सत्यमेव जयते (Satyameva Jayate) which means 'Truth Alone Triumphs' in Sanskrit.[261] See also[edit]

Military of India
India
portal

Indian Coast Guard Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Armed Forces National Maritime Foundation

Notes[edit] Footnotes[edit]

Citations[edit]

^ http://www.news18.com/news/india/20-sailor-shortage-in-navy-15-officer-posts-vacant-in-army-nirmala-sitharaman-tells-parliament-1616303.html ^ a b "Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS)". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.  ^ Cite error: The named reference Vice Chief of the Naval Staff (VCNS) was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff (DCNS) was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b "20% Sailor Shortage in Navy, 15% Officer Posts Vacant In Army, Nirmala Sitharaman Tells Parliament". News18. Retrieved 2017-12-28.  ^ a b "Armed forces facing shortage of nearly 60,000 personnel: Government". The Economic Times. 2017-12-27. Retrieved 2017-12-28.  ^ "Interesting facts about India". India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 6 December 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ Sen 1999, p. 48. ^ a b c d e f g "Early History of the Indian Navy". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "Ship Building & Navigation in Ancient India". Mystery of India. 2 May 2015. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ Findlay 2009, p. 67. ^ a b c d e f g "Genesis of Indian Navy". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Singh 1986, pp. 45–46. ^ Singh 1986, pp. 32–33. ^ Singh 1986, pp. 34. ^ Singh 1986, pp. 37. ^ Singh 1986, pp. 142–143. ^ Singh 1986, pp. 142. ^ Singh 1986, pp. 46–47. ^ The Navy
Navy
List for August 1939. HM Stationery Office. 1939. pp. 620–622.  ^ The Navy
Navy
List for August 1939. HM Stationery Office. 1939. pp. 2098–2101.  ^ Singh 1986, pp. 105–110. ^ Meyer, John M. (13 December 2016). "The Royal Indian Navy
Navy
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References[edit]

Brewster, David (2014), India's Ocean: The Story of India's Bid for Regional Leadership, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-317806-98-1  Findlay, Ronald (2009), Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-1-400831-88-3  Hiranandani, Gulab Mohanlal (2000), Transition to Triumph: History of the Indian Navy, 1965–1975, Lancer Publishers LLC, ISBN 978-1-897829-72-1  Navy, India
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(2016), Maritime Heritage of India, Notion Press-Indian Navy, ISBN 978-9-352069-17-0  Hiranandani, Gulab Mohanlal (2005), Transition to Eminence: The Indian Navy, 1976–1990, Lancer Publishers LLC, ISBN 978-8-170622-66-6  Hiranandani, Gulab Mohanlal (2009), Transition to Guardianship: The Indian Navy, 1991–2000, Lancer Publishers LLC, ISBN 978-1-935501-66-4  Ministry of Defence, India
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(2006), Annual Report, Government of India  Scott, David (2011), Handbook of India's International Relations, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-136811-31-9  Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999), Ancient Indian History and Civilization, New Age International, ISBN 978-8-122411-98-0  Shah, Dr. S K (2015), India
India
and China: The Battle between Soft and Hard Power, Vij Books India, ISBN 978-9-385505-28-7  Singh, Rear Admiral
Admiral
Satyindra (1986), Under two ensigns: the Indian Navy, 1945–1950, Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., ISBN 978-8-120400-94-8  Singh, Rear Admiral
Admiral
Satyindra (1992), Blueprint to Bluewater: the Indian Navy, 1951–65, Lancer International, ISBN 978-8-170621-48-5  Stewart, William (2009), Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present, McFarland, ISBN 978-0-786438-09-9 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indian Navy.

Official web site

v t e

Ship classes of the Indian Navy

Aircraft carriers

Vikrant (Majestic) + Viraat (Centaur) + Vikramaditya (Kiev) Vikrant *

Destroyers

Hunt + Q and R + Rajput Delhi Kolkata Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
*

Frigates

River + Blackwood + Whitby + Leopard + Nilgiri + Leander + Godavari Brahmaputra Talwar Shivalik Project 17A *

Corvettes

Bathurst + Arnala + Durg + Veer Abhay Khukri Kora Kamorta Abhay-class replacement * Next Generation Missile
Missile
Vessels *

Fast attack craft

Vidyut + Chamak +

Nuclear submarines

Attack

Charlie + Akula-II Indian SSN *

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Arihant

Conventional submarines

Kalvari (1967) + Vela + Sindhughosh Shishumar Kalvari Project 75I *

Midget submarines

Indian Navy
Navy
Swimmer Delivery Vehicle *

Amphibious warfare
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ships

Kumbhir Magar Shardul Jalashwa Indian MRSV *

Research and survey vessels

Makar Sandhayak Sagardhwani

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Seaward Sukanya Super Dvora Mk II Trinkat Bangaram Car Nicobar Saryu Project 21 *

Minesweeper

Bangor + Ton + Ham + Mahe + Pondicherry GSL Mine Counter-Measure Vessels *

Replenishment ship

Deepak Komandarm Fedko Aditya Ambika

Tugboats

Anand Anjan Arga Balram Bhim Gaj Madan Singh

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GSL Manoram Shalimar *

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Poshak Vipul * Modest * Corporated * Hooghly *

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Tir ABG-class Cadet Training
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Ship

+ Decommissioned * Under construction/procurement ** Proposed/Design phase List of active Indian Navy
Navy
ships Submarines of the Indian Navy List of ships of the Indian Navy Future of the Indian Navy

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300 303

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339

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342 343 344

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310 311

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322 350

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321

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551 552 561

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