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The Hurrians
Hurrians
(/ˈhʊəriənz/; cuneiform: 𒄷𒌨𒊑; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language called Hurrian
Hurrian
and lived in Anatolia
Anatolia
and Northern Mesopotamia. The largest and most influential Hurrian
Hurrian
nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, the Mitanni
Mitanni
perhaps being Indo-Iranian speakers who formed a ruling class over the Hurrians. The population of the Indo-European-speaking Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
in Anatolia included a large population of Hurrians, and there is significant Hurrian
Hurrian
influence in Hittite mythology. By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians
Hurrians
had been assimilated with other peoples. Their remnants were subdued by a related people that formed the state of Urartu. According to a hypothesis by I.M. Diakonoff and S. Starostin, the Hurrian
Hurrian
and Urartian languages shared a common ancestor and were related to the Northeast Caucasian languages. The present-day Armenians
Armenians
are an amalgam of the Indo-European groups with the Hurrians
Hurrians
and Urartians.[1]

Contents

1 Language 2 History

2.1 Middle Bronze Age

2.1.1 Urkesh 2.1.2 Yamhad

2.2 Late Bronze Age

2.2.1 Mitanni 2.2.2 Arrapha

2.3 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse 2.4 Urartu

3 Culture and society

3.1 Ceramic ware 3.2 Metallurgy 3.3 Horse culture 3.4 Music 3.5 Religion 3.6 Urbanism

4 Archaeology

4.1 Important sites

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Language

The Louvre lion and accompanying stone tablet bearing the earliest known text in Hurrian

Main article: Hurrian
Hurrian
language The Hurrians
Hurrians
spoke an ergative, agglutinative language conventionally called Hurrian, which is unrelated to neighbouring Semitic or Indo-European languages, and may have been a language isolate. The Iron Age Urartian language
Urartian language
is closely related to or a direct descendant of Hurrian. Several notable Russian linguists, such as S. A. Starostin and V. V. Ivanov, have claimed that Hurrian
Hurrian
and Hattic were related to the Northeast Caucasian languages.[2] From the 21st century BCE to the late 18th century BCE, Assyria controlled colonies in Anatolia, and the Hurrians, like the Hattians, adopted the Assyrian Akkadian cuneiform script for their own language about 2000 BCE. Texts in the Hurrian language
Hurrian language
in cuneiform have been found at Hattusa, Ugarit
Ugarit
(Ras Shamra), as well as in one of the longest of the Amarna letters, written by King Tushratta of Mitanni
Mitanni
to Pharaoh Amenhotep III. It was the only long Hurrian
Hurrian
text known until a multi-tablet collection of literature in Hurrian
Hurrian
with a Hittite translation was discovered at Hattusa
Hattusa
in 1983. History Middle Bronze Age Hurrian
Hurrian
names occur sporadically in northwestern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the area of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in modern Iraq
Iraq
by the Middle Bronze Age. Their presence was attested at Nuzi, Urkesh
Urkesh
and other sites. They eventually infiltrated and occupied a broad arc of fertile farmland stretching from the Khabur River valley in the west to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
in the east. I. J. Gelb and E. A. Speiser
E. A. Speiser
believed East Semitic speaking Assyrians/ Subarians
Subarians
had been the linguistic and ethnic substratum of northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
since earliest times, while Hurrians
Hurrians
were merely late arrivals.[3] Urkesh The Khabur River valley became the heart of the Hurrian
Hurrian
lands for a millennium. The first known Hurrian
Hurrian
kingdom emerged around the city of Urkesh
Urkesh
(modern Tell Mozan) during the third millennium BCE. There is evidence that they were initially allied with the east Semitic Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
of Mesopotamia, indicating they had a firm hold on the area by the reign of Naram-Sin of Akkad
Naram-Sin of Akkad
(c. 2254–2218 BCE). This region hosted other rich cultures (see Tell Halaf
Tell Halaf
and Tell Brak). The city-state of Urkesh
Urkesh
had some powerful neighbors. At some point in the early second millennium BCE, the Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
speaking Amorite kingdom of Mari to the south subdued Urkesh
Urkesh
and made it a vassal state. In the continuous power struggles over Mesopotamia, another Amorite
Amorite
dynasty had usurped the throne of the Old Assyrian Empire, which had controlled colonies in Hurrian, Hattian and Hittite regions of eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
since the 21st century BCE. The Assyrians then made themselves masters over Mari and much of north east Amurru (Syria) in the late 19th and early 18th centuries BCE. Shubat-Enlil (modern Tell Leilan), was made the capital of this Old Assyrian empire by Shamshi Adad I
Shamshi Adad I
at the expense of the earlier capital of Assur. Yamhad The Hurrians
Hurrians
also migrated further west in this period. By 1725 BCE they are found also in parts of northern Syria, such as Alalakh. The mixed Amorite– Hurrian
Hurrian
kingdom of Yamhad
Yamhad
is recorded as struggling for this area with the early Hittite king Hattusilis I around 1600 BCE. Hurrians
Hurrians
also settled in the coastal region of Adaniya
Adaniya
in the country of Kizzuwatna, southern Anatolia. Yamhad
Yamhad
eventually weakened vis-a-vis the powerful Hittites, but this also opened Anatolia
Anatolia
for Hurrian
Hurrian
cultural influences. The Hittites
Hittites
were influenced by both the Hurrian
Hurrian
and Hattian cultures over the course of several centuries. Late Bronze Age Mitanni Main article: Mitanni The Indo-European Hittites
Hittites
continued expanding south after the defeat of Yamhad. The army of the Hittite king Mursili I made its way to Babylon
Babylon
(by then a weak and minor state) and sacked the city. The destruction of the Babylonian kingdom, the presence of unambitious or isolationist kings in Assyria, as well as the destruction of the kingdom of Yamhad, helped the rise of another Hurrian
Hurrian
dynasty. The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni
Mitanni
(known also as Hanigalbat/Ḫanigalbat by the Assyrians, and to the Egyptians
Egyptians
as nhrn) around 1500 BCE. Mitanni
Mitanni
gradually grew from the region around the Khabur valley and was perhaps the most powerful kingdom of the Near East in c. 1475–1365 BCE, after which it was eclipsed and eventually destroyed by the Middle Assyrian Empire. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian
Hurrian
population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.[4] (See Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni) Arrapha Another Hurrian
Hurrian
kingdom also benefited from the demise of Babylonian power in the sixteenth century BCE. Hurrians
Hurrians
had inhabited the region northeast of the river Tigris, around the modern Kirkuk. This was the kingdom of Arrapha. Excavations at Yorgan Tepe, ancient Nuzi, proved this to be one of the most important sites for our knowledge about the Hurrians. Hurrian
Hurrian
kings such as Ithi-Teshup and Ithiya ruled over Arrapha, yet by the mid-fifteenth century BCE they had become vassals of the Great King of Mitanni. The kingdom of Arrapha
Arrapha
itself was destroyed by the Assyrians in the mid 14th century BCE and thereafter became an Assyrian city. Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse By the 13th century BCE all of the Hurrian
Hurrian
states had been vanquished by other peoples, with the Mitanni
Mitanni
kingdom destroyed by Assyria. The heartlands of the Hurrians, the Khabur river valley and south eastern Anatolia, became provinces of the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1366 - 1020 BCE) which came to rule much of the Near East and Asia Minor. It is not clear what happened to these early Hurrian
Hurrian
people at the end of the Bronze Age. Some scholars have suggested that Hurrians
Hurrians
lived on in the country of Nairi north of Assyria
Assyria
during the early Iron Age, before this too was conquered by Assyria. The Hurrian
Hurrian
population of northern Syria
Syria
in the following centuries seems to have given up their language in favor of the Assyrian dialect of Akkadian, and later, Aramaic. Urartu However, a power vacuum was to allow a new and powerful Hurrian
Hurrian
state whose rulers spoke Urartian, similar to old Hurrian, to arise. The Middle Assyrian Empire, after destroying the Hurri- Mitanni
Mitanni
Empire, the Hittite Empire, defeating the Phrygians
Phrygians
and Elamites, conquering Babylon, the Arameans
Arameans
of Syria, northern Ancient Iran
Ancient Iran
and Canaan
Canaan
and forcing the Egyptians
Egyptians
out of much of the near east, itself went into a century of relative decline from the latter part of the 11th century BCE. The Urartians
Urartians
were thus able to impose themselves around Lake Van and Mount Ararat, forming the powerful Kingdom of Urartu. During the 11th and 10th centuries BCE, the kingdom eventually encompassed a region stretching from the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
in the north, to the borders of northern Assyria
Assyria
and northern Ancient Iran
Ancient Iran
in the south, and controlled much of eastern Anatolia. Assyria
Assyria
began to once more expand from circa. 935 BCE, and Urartu
Urartu
and Assyria
Assyria
became fierce rivals. Urartu
Urartu
successfully repelled Assyrian expansionism for a time, however from the 9th to 7th century BCE it progressively lost territory to Assyria. It was to survive until the 7th century BCE, by which time it was conquered fully into the Neo Assyrian Empire (911–605 BCE). The Assyrian Empire collapsed from 620 to 605 BCE, after a series of brutal internal civil wars weakened it to such an extent that a coalition of its former vassals; the Medes, Persians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
were able to attack and gradually destroy it. Urartu
Urartu
was ravaged by marauding Indo-European speaking Scythian and Cimmerian raiders during this time, with its vassal king (together with the king of neighbouring Lydia) vainly pleading with the beleaguered Assyrian king for help. After the fall of Assyria, Urartu
Urartu
came under the control of the Median Empire
Median Empire
and then its successor Persian Empire
Persian Empire
during the 6th century BCE. During the 2nd millennium BC a new wave of Indo-European speakers migrated over the Caucasus into Urartian lands, these being the Armenians. It is argued on linguistic evidence that proto-Armenian came in contact with Urartian at an early date (2nd millennium BC), before the formation of the Urartian kingdom. In the 6th century BCE the region became part of the Armenian Orontid Dynasty. The Hurri- Urartians
Urartians
seem to have disappeared from history after this, almost certainly being absorbed into the Indo-European Armenian population. Culture and society Knowledge of Hurrian
Hurrian
culture relies on archaeological excavations at sites such as Nuzi
Nuzi
and Alalakh
Alalakh
as well as on cuneiform tablets, primarily from Hattusa
Hattusa
(Boghazköy), the capital of the Hittites, whose civilization was greatly influenced by the Hurrians. Tablets from Nuzi, Alalakh, and other cities with Hurrian
Hurrian
populations (as shown by personal names) reveal Hurrian
Hurrian
cultural features even though they were written in Akkadian. Hurrian
Hurrian
cylinder seals were carefully carved and often portrayed mythological motifs. They are a key to the understanding of Hurrian
Hurrian
culture and history. Ceramic ware The Hurrians
Hurrians
were masterful ceramists. Their pottery is commonly found in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and in the lands west of the Euphrates; it was highly valued in distant Egypt, by the time of the New Kingdom. Archaeologists use the terms Khabur ware
Khabur ware
and Nuzi
Nuzi
ware for two types of wheel-made pottery used by the Hurrians. Khabur ware
Khabur ware
is characterized by reddish painted lines with a geometric triangular pattern and dots, while Nuzi
Nuzi
ware has very distinctive forms, and are painted in brown or black. Metallurgy The Hurrians
Hurrians
had a reputation in metallurgy. The Sumerians borrowed their copper terminology from the Hurrian
Hurrian
vocabulary. Copper was traded south to Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the highlands of Anatolia. The Khabur Valley had a central position in the metal trade, and copper, silver and even tin were accessible from the Hurrian-dominated countries Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
and Ishuwa situated in the Anatolian highland. Gold was in short supply, and the Amarna letters
Amarna letters
inform us that it was acquired from Egypt. Not many examples of Hurrian
Hurrian
metal work have survived, except from the later Urartu. Some small fine bronze lion figurines were discovered at Urkesh. Horse culture The Mitanni
Mitanni
were closely associated with horses. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have had a substantial Hurrian population, meant "horse-land".[citation needed] A text discovered at Hattusa
Hattusa
deals with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian
Hurrian
called Kikkuli. The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words (Mayrhofer, 1974). Music Main article: Hurrian
Hurrian
song Among the Hurrian
Hurrian
texts from Ugarit
Ugarit
are the oldest known instances of written music, dating from c. 1400 BCE.[5] Among these fragments are found the names of four Hurrian
Hurrian
composers, Tapšiẖuni, Puẖiya(na), Urẖiya, and Ammiya.[6] Religion Main article: Hurrian
Hurrian
religion The Hurrian
Hurrian
culture made a great impact on the religion of the Hittites. From the Hurrian
Hurrian
cult centre at Kummanni in Kizzuwatna Hurrian
Hurrian
religion spread to the Hittite people. Syncretism merged the Old Hittite and Hurrian
Hurrian
religions. Hurrian
Hurrian
religion spread to Syria, where Baal
Baal
became the counterpart of Teshub. The later kingdom of Urartu
Urartu
also venerated gods of Hurrian
Hurrian
origin. The Hurrian
Hurrian
religion, in different forms, influenced the entire ancient Near East, except ancient Egypt and southern Mesopotamia.

Hurrian
Hurrian
incense container

The main gods in the Hurrian
Hurrian
pantheon were:

Teshub, Teshup; the mighty weather god. Hebat, Hepa; his wife, the mother goddess, regarded as the Sun goddess among the Hittites, drawn from the deified Sumerian queen Kubaba. Sharruma, or Sarruma, Šarruma; their son. Kumarbi; the ancient father of Teshub; his home as described in mythology is the city of Urkesh. Shaushka, or Shawushka, Šauska; was the Hurrian
Hurrian
counterpart of Assyrian Ishtar, and a goddess of fertility, war and healing. Shimegi, Šimegi; the sun god. Kushuh, Kušuh; the moon god. Symbols of the sun and the crescent moon appear joined together in the Hurrian
Hurrian
iconography. Nergal; a Babylonian deity of the netherworld, whose Hurrian
Hurrian
name is unknown. Ea; was also Babylonian in origin, and may have influenced Canaanite El, and also ים Yam, God of the Sea and River.

Hurrian
Hurrian
cylinder seals often depict mythological creatures such as winged humans or animals, dragons and other monsters. The interpretation of these depictions of gods and demons is uncertain. They may have been both protective and evil spirits. Some is reminiscent of the Assyrian shedu. The Hurrian
Hurrian
gods do not appear to have had particular "home temples", like in the Mesopotamian religion
Mesopotamian religion
or Ancient Egyptian religion. Some important cult centres were Kummanni in Kizzuwatna, and Hittite Yazilikaya. Harran
Harran
was at least later a religious centre for the moon god, and Shauskha had an important temple in Nineve, when the city was under Hurrian
Hurrian
rule. A temple of Nergal
Nergal
was built in Urkesh
Urkesh
in the late third millennium BCE. The town of Kahat was a religious centre in the kingdom of Mitanni. The Hurrian
Hurrian
myth "The Songs of Ullikummi", preserved among the Hittites, is a parallel to Hesiod's Theogony; the castration of Uranus by Cronus
Cronus
may be derived from the castration of Anu
Anu
by Kumarbi, while Zeus's overthrow of Cronus
Cronus
and Cronus's regurgitation of the swallowed gods is like the Hurrian
Hurrian
myth of Teshub
Teshub
and Kumarbi.[7] It has been argued that the worship of Attis
Attis
drew on Hurrian
Hurrian
myth.[8] The Phrygian goddess Cybele
Cybele
would then be the counterpart of the Hurrian
Hurrian
goddess Hebat. Urbanism The Hurrian
Hurrian
urban culture was not represented by a large number of cities. Urkesh
Urkesh
was the only Hurrian
Hurrian
city in the third millennium BCE. In the second millennium BCE we know a number of Hurrian
Hurrian
cities, such as Arrapha, Harran, Kahat, Nuzi, Taidu and Washukanni
Washukanni
– the capital of Mitanni. Although the site of Washukanni, alleged to be at Tell Fakhariya, is not known for certain, no tell (city mound) in the Khabur Valley much exceeds the size of 1 square kilometer (250 acres), and the majority of sites are much smaller. The Hurrian
Hurrian
urban culture appears to have been quite different from the centralized state administrations of Assyria
Assyria
and ancient Egypt. An explanation could be that the feudal organization of the Hurrian
Hurrian
kingdoms did not allow large palace or temple estates to develop. Archaeology Hurrian
Hurrian
settlements are distributed over three modern countries, Iraq, Syria
Syria
and Turkey. The heart of the Hurrian
Hurrian
world is bisected by the modern border between Syria
Syria
and Turkey. Several sites are situated within the border zone, making access for excavations problematic. A threat to the ancient sites are the many dam projects in the Euphrates, Tigris
Tigris
and Khabur valleys. Several rescue operations have already been undertaken when the construction of dams put entire river valleys under water. The first major excavations of Hurrian
Hurrian
sites in Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
began in the 1920s and 1930s. They were led by the American archaeologist Edward Chiera at Yorghan Tepe (Nuzi), and the British archaeologist Max Mallowan
Max Mallowan
at Chagar Bazar
Chagar Bazar
and Tell Brak. Recent excavations and surveys in progress are conducted by American, Belgian, Danish, Dutch, French, German and Italian teams of archaeologists, with international participants, in cooperation with the Syrian Department of Antiquities. The tells, or city mounds, often reveal a long occupation beginning in the Neolithic
Neolithic
and ending in the Roman period or later. The characteristic Hurrian
Hurrian
pottery, the Khabur ware, is helpful in determining the different strata of occupation within the mounds. The Hurrian
Hurrian
settlements are usually identified from the Middle Bronze Age to the end of the Late Bronze Age, with Tell Mozan (Urkesh) being the main exception. Important sites The list includes some important ancient sites from the area dominated by the Hurrians. Excavation reports and images are found at the websites linked. As noted above, important discoveries of Hurrian culture and history were also made at Alalakh, Amarna, Hattusa
Hattusa
and Ugarit.

Tell Mozan (ancient Urkesh)[9] Yorghan Tepe (ancient Nuzi)[10] Tell Brak (ancient Nagar)[11] Tell Leilan
Tell Leilan
(ancient Shehna and Shubat-Enlil)[12] Tell Barri
Tell Barri
(ancient Kahat)[13] Tell Beydar
Tell Beydar
(ancient Nabada)[14] Kenan Tepe [15]

Tell Tuneinir[16] Umm el-Marra (ancient Tuba?)[17] Tell Chuera[18] Hammam al Turkman (ancient Zalpa?)[19] Tell Sabi Abyad[20] Hamoukar[21] Chagar Bazar Tell el Fakhariya / Ras el Ayn (ancient Washukanni?) Tell Hamidiya (ancient Taidu?)[22]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hurrians.

Nairi Horites Kassites

References

^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q., eds. (1997). "Armenians". Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn.  ^ Jaimoukha, Amjad. The Chechens: A Handbook. ^ Gelb, Ignace J.(1963), The History of Writing (University of Chicago Press) ^ Manfred Mayrhofer, 'Welches Material aus dem Indo-arischen von Mitanni
Mitanni
verbleibt für eine selektive Darstellung?' In: E. Neu (Hrsh.), Investigationes philologicae et comparativae: Gedenkschrift für Heinz Kronasser (Wiesbaden, O. Harrassowitz 1982), 72–90. Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan Gods' of the Mitanni
Mitanni
Treaties, Journal of the American Oriental Society 80, 301–317 (1960). ^ A reconstruction by Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin of the only substantially complete hymn may be heard at the Urkesh
Urkesh
webpage, though this is only one of at least five "rival decipherments of the notation, each yielding entirely different results". West 1994, 161. In addition to West and Duchesne-Guillemin (1975, 1977, 1980, and 1984), competitors include Anne Draffkorn Kilmer (1965, 1971, 1974, 1976, & 1984), David Wulstan (1968), and Raoul Vitale (1982). ^ West 1994, 171. ^ Güterbock, Hans Gustav: "Hittite Religion"; in Forgotten Religions: Including Some Living Primitive Religions (ed. Vergilius Ferm) (NY, Philosophical Library, 1950), pp. 88–89, 103–104 ^ Suggested by Jane Lightfoot in the Times Literary Supplement 22 July 2005 p 27, in her account of Philippe Borgeaud, Mother of the Gods: from Cybele
Cybele
to the Virgin Mary, Johns Hopkins 2005 ISBN 0-8018-7985-X. ^ Urkesh
Urkesh
an overview ^ The Semitic Museum: Nuzi
Nuzi
and the Hurrians
Hurrians
Archived 10 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tell Brak Learning Sites ^ Yale Tell Leilan
Tell Leilan
Project Archived 18 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Missione Italiana archaeologica a Tell Barri
Tell Barri
Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ ESE Tell Beydar
Tell Beydar
Archived 9 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dodd, Lynn & Parker, Bradley J. (Jan 23, 2014). "The Upper Tigris
Tigris
Archaeological Research Project (UTARP): Research at Kenan Tepe during 2003 (draft)". Research Gate. Retrieved 2018-02-06. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Tell Tuneinir
Tell Tuneinir
St. Louis Archaeological Expeditions ^ The Johns Hopkins/University of Amsterdam Joint Expedition to Tell Umm el-Marra ^ Grabung Tell Chuera ^ Excavation Hammam al Turkman, Leiden University ^ Dutch Excavation at Tell Sabi Abyad ^ The Hamoukar
Hamoukar
Expedition University of Chicago ^ For the results of the Swiss excavations at Tell al-Hamidiya see Archived 2 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

Bibliography

Asimov, Isaac. The Near East: 10,000 Years of History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968. Chahin, M. The Kingdom of Armenia. London and New York: Croom Helm, 1987. Reprint, New York: Dorset Press, 1991. Second, revised edition, as The Kingdom of Armenia: A History. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9 Diakonov, Igor M., and Sergei Starostin. Hurro-Urartian as an Eastern Caucasian Language. Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft. Munich: R. Kitzinger, 1986. ISBN 3-920645-39-1 Duchesne-Guillemin, Marcelle. A Hurrian
Hurrian
Musical Score from Ugarit: The Discovery of Mesopotamian Music. Sources from the ancient near east, vol. 2, fasc. 2. Malibu, CA: Undena Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-89003-158-4 Gelb, Ignace J. Hurrians
Hurrians
and Subarians, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization No. 22. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944. Gurney, O. R., The Hittites, Hardmonsworth 1952. Güterbock, Hans Gustav, Musical Notation in Ugarit
Ugarit
in Revue d'Assyriologie 64 (1970): 45–52. Hawkes, Jacquetta, The First Great Civilizations: Life in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and Egypt, Knopf, 1973. Ivanov, Vyacheslav V., and Thomas Gamkrelidze. "The Early History of Indo-European Languages". Scientific American 262, no. 3, (March 1990): 110-116. Kilmer, Anne Draffkorn. "The Discovery of an Ancient Mesopotamian Theory of Music". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association 115, no. 2 (April 1971): 131–49. Kilmer, Anne Draffkorn. "The Cult Song with Music from Ancient Ugarit: Another Interpretation". Revue d'Assyriologie 68 (1974): 69–82. Kilmer, Anne Draffkorn, Richard L. Crocker, and Robert R. Brown. Sounds from Silence: Recent Discoveries in Ancient Near Eastern Music. Berkeley: Bit Enki
Enki
Publications, 1976. (booklet and LP record, Bit Enki
Enki
Records BTNK 101, reissued [s.d.] with CD). Kurkjian, Vahan M. A History of Armenia. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union, 1958. Mayrhofer, Manfred. Die Arier im Vorderen Orient—ein Mythos?. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischer Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1974. Movsisyan, Artak Erjaniki. The Sacred Highlands: Armenia in the Spiritual Geography of the Ancient Near East. Yerevan: Yerevan University Publishers, 2004. ISBN 5-8084-0586-6 Nersessian, Hovick. Highlands of Armenia. Los Angeles, 2000. Speiser, E. A., Introduction to Hurrian, New Haven, ASOR 1941. Vitale, Raoul. "La Musique suméro-accadienne: gamme et notation musicale". Ugarit-Forschungen 14 (1982): 241–63. Wilhelm, Gernot. The Hurrians. Aris & Philips Warminster, 1989. Wilhelm, Gernot (ed.). Nuzi
Nuzi
at Seventy-five (Studies in the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi
Nuzi
and the Hurrians). Bethesda: Capital Decisions, Ltd., 1999. Wegner, Ilse. Einführung in die hurritische Sprache, 2. überarbeitete Aufl. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007. ISBN 3-447-05394-1 West, M[artin] L[itchfield]. "The Babylonian Musical Notation and the Hurrian
Hurrian
Melodic Texts". Music and Letters 75, no. 2 (May 1994): 161–79. Wulstan, David. "The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp", Iraq
Iraq
30 (1968): 215–28.

External links

Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, "Comparative Notes on Hurro-Urartian, Indo-European, and Northern Caucasian" discusses the difficulties and disagreements faced by linguists working in this area, the term Alarodian being created especially for the Hurro-Urartian-Nakh-Avar languages as a family. The Indo-European Elements in Hurrian A bibliography on Hurrian A bibliography on Urartian The Rise of the Hurrians
Hurrians
(full text by Robert Antonio) The Hurrians
Hurrians
and the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
History (full text by Jeremiah Genest) Vahan Kurkjian, History of Armenia, Michigan, 1968, "The Hurri-Mitanni kingdom of Armenia"

Authority control

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