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The Hominidae
Hominidae
(/hɒˈmɪnɪdiː/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo
Homo
erectus.[1] Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. Its original meaning referred only to humans (Homo) and their closest extinct relatives. That restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. Usage still varies, however, and some scientists and laypersons still use "hominid" in the original restrictive sense; the scholarly literature generally shows the traditional usage until around the turn of the 21st century.[4] Within the taxon Hominidae, a number of extant and known extinct, that is, fossil, genera are grouped with the humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas in the subfamily Homininae; others with orangutans in the subfamily Ponginae
Ponginae
(see classification graphic below). The most recent common ancestor of all Hominidae
Hominidae
lived roughly 14 million years ago,[5] when the ancestors of the orangutans speciated from the ancestral line of the other three genera.[6] Those ancestors of the family Hominidae
Hominidae
had already speciated from the family Hylobatidae (the gibbons), perhaps 15 million to 20 million years ago.[6][7]

Contents

1 Evolution and taxonomy

1.1 Taxonomic history

1.1.1 Terminology 1.1.2 Extant and fossil relatives of humans

1.2 Phylogeny

1.2.1 Extant 1.2.2 Fossil

2 Physical description 3 Legal status 4 Conservation 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Evolution and taxonomy[edit] See also: Human
Human
evolution

Sumatran orangutan
Sumatran orangutan
(Pongo abelii)

In the early Miocene, about 22 million years ago, there were many species of arboreally adapted primitive catarrhines from East Africa; the variety suggests a long history of prior diversification. Fossils at 20 million years ago include fragments attributed to Victoriapithecus, the earliest Old World monkey. Among the genera thought to be in the ape lineage leading up to 13 million years ago are Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Dendropithecus, Limnopithecus, Nacholapithecus, Equatorius, Nyanzapithecus, Afropithecus, Heliopithecus, and Kenyapithecus, all from East Africa. At sites far distant from East Africa, the presence of other generalized non-cercopithecids, that is, non-monkey primates, of middle Miocene
Miocene
age—Otavipithecus from cave deposits in Namibia, and Pierolapithecus
Pierolapithecus
and Dryopithecus
Dryopithecus
from France, Spain and Austria—is further evidence of a wide diversity of ancestral ape forms across Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the relatively warm and equable climatic regimes of the early and middle Miocene. The most recent of these far-flung Miocene
Miocene
apes (hominoids) is Oreopithecus, from the fossil-rich coal beds in northern Italy and dated to 9 million years ago. Molecular evidence indicates that the lineage of gibbons (family Hylobatidae), the lesser apes, diverged from that of the great apes some 18–12 million years ago, and that of orangutans (subfamily Ponginae) diverged from the other great apes at about 12 million years. There are no fossils that clearly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a still-unknown South East Asian hominoid population; but fossil proto-orangutans, dated to around 10 million years ago, may be represented by Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
from India and Griphopithecus from Turkey.[8]

A reconstruction of a female Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis
(National Museum of Natural History)

Species
Species
close to the last common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
found in Greece. Molecular evidence suggests that between 8 and 4 million years ago, first the gorillas (genus Gorilla), and then the chimpanzees (genus Pan) split off from the line leading to the humans. Human
Human
DNA
DNA
is approximately 98.4% identical to that of chimpanzees when comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms (see human evolutionary genetics).[9] The fossil record, however, of gorillas and chimpanzees is limited; both poor preservation—rain forest soils tend to be acidic and dissolve bone—and sampling bias probably contribute most to this problem. Other hominins probably adapted to the drier environments outside the African equatorial belt; and there they encountered antelope, hyenas, elephants and other forms becoming adapted to surviving in the East African savannas, particularly the regions of the Sahel
Sahel
and the Serengeti. The wet equatorial belt contracted after about 8 million years ago, and there is very little fossil evidence for the divergence of the hominin lineage from that of gorillas and chimpanzees—which split was thought to have occurred around that time. The earliest fossils argued by some to belong to the human lineage are Sahelanthropus
Sahelanthropus
tchadensis (7 Ma) and Orrorin
Orrorin
tugenensis (6 Ma), followed by Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus
(5.5–4.4 Ma), with species Ar. kadabba and Ar. ramidus. Taxonomic history[edit] Further information: Human
Human
taxonomy Terminology[edit]

Humans are one of the four extant hominid genera.

The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades; these revisions have led to a varied use of the word "hominid" over time. The original meaning of the term referred to only humans and their closest relatives—what is now the modern meaning of the term "hominin". The meaning of the taxon Hominidae changed gradually, leading to a different (modern) usage of "hominid" that today includes all the great apes including humans. The term hominid is easily confused with a number of very similar words:

A hominoid, commonly called an ape, is a member of the superfamily Hominoidea: extant members are the gibbons (lesser apes, family Hylobatidae) and the hominids. A hominid is a member of the family Hominidae, the great apes: orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. A hominine is a member of the subfamily Homininae: gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans (excludes orangutans). A hominin is a member of the tribe Hominini: chimpanzees and humans. A homininan, following a suggestion by Wood and Richmond (2000), would be a member of the subtribe Hominina
Hominina
of the tribe Hominini: that is, modern humans and their closest relatives, including Australopithecina, but excluding chimpanzees.[10] A human is a member of the genus Homo, of which Homo
Homo
sapiens is the only extant species, and within that Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens is the only surviving subspecies.

A cladogram indicating common names (c.f. more detailed cladogram below):

Hominoidea (hominoids, apes)

Hylobatidae
Hylobatidae
(gibbons)

Hominidae (hominids, great apes)

Ponginae

Pongo (orangutans)

Pongo abelii

Pongo tapanuliensis

Pongo pygmaeus

Homininae (hominines)

Gorillini

Gorilla (gorillas)

Gorilla
Gorilla
gorilla

Gorilla
Gorilla
beringei

Hominini (hominins)

Panina

Pan (chimpanzees)

Pan troglodytes

Pan paniscus

Hominina (homininans)

Homo
Homo
(humans)

Extant and fossil relatives of humans[edit]

A model of a modern human hominid skull (or hominin skull)

A fossil hominid exhibit at The Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

As mentioned, Hominidae
Hominidae
was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups—this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini
Hominini
and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae
Homininae
(see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the chimpanzees and the gorillas to the genus Homo
Homo
along with humans.) [11][12][13] But, it is those fossil relatives more closely related to humans than the chimpanzees that represent the especially close members of the human family, and without necessarily assigning subfamily or tribal categories.[14] Many extinct hominids have been studied to help understand the relationship between modern humans and the other extant hominids. Some of the extinct members of this family include Gigantopithecus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Kenyanthropus, and the australopithecines Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and Paranthropus.[15] The exact criteria for membership in the tribe Hominini
Hominini
under the current understanding of human origins are not clear, but the taxon generally includes those species that share more than 97% of their DNA with the modern human genome, and exhibit a capacity for language or for simple cultures beyond their 'local family' or band. The theory of mind concept—including such faculties as empathy, attribution of mental state, and even empathetic deception—is a controversial criterion; it distinguishes the adult human alone among the hominids. Humans acquire this capacity after about four years of age, whereas it has not been proven (nor has it been disproven) that gorillas or chimpanzees ever develop a theory of mind.[16] This is also the case for some New World monkeys outside the family of great apes, as, for example, the capuchin monkeys. However, even without the ability to test whether early members of the Hominini
Hominini
(such as Homo
Homo
erectus, Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis, or even the australopithecines) had a theory of mind, it is difficult to ignore similarities seen in their living cousins. Orangutans
Orangutans
have shown the development of culture comparable to that of chimpanzees,[17] and some[who?] say the orangutan may also satisfy those criteria for the theory of mind concept. These scientific debates take on political significance for advocates of great ape personhood. Phylogeny[edit] Below is a cladogram with extinct species.[18] It is indicated approximately how many million years ago (Mya) the clades diverged into newer clades.[19]

Hominidae (18)

Ponginae (14)

Kenyapithecus
Kenyapithecus
(†13 Mya)

Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
(†9)

Crown Ponginae

Ankarapithecus
Ankarapithecus
(†9)

Giganthopithecus
Giganthopithecus
(†0.1)

Khoratpithecus
Khoratpithecus
(†7)

(13)

(12)

Pierolapithecus
Pierolapithecus
(†11)

Hispanopithecus (†10)

Lufengpithecus (†7)

Homininae

Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
(†8)

Crown Homininae (10)

Hominini (7)

Homo

Pan

Gorilla

Crown Gorilla

Chororapithecus (†)

Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
(†10)

Samburupithecus
Samburupithecus
(†9)

Taxonomy of Hominoidea
Hominoidea
(emphasis on family Hominidae): after an initial separation from the main line by the Hylobatidae
Hylobatidae
(gibbons) some 18 million years ago, the line of Ponginae
Ponginae
broke away, leading to the orangutan; later, the Homininae
Homininae
split into the tribes Hominini (led to humans and chimpanzees) and Gorillini (led to gorillas).

Model of the phylogeny of Hominidae, with adjacent branches of Hominoidea, over the past 20 million years.

Extant[edit]

All extant species

There are eight living species of great ape which are classified in four genera. The following classification is commonly accepted:[1]

Family Hominidae: humans and other great apes; extinct genera and species excluded[1]

Subfamily
Subfamily
Ponginae

Tribe Pongini

Genus
Genus
Pongo

Bornean orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus

Pongo pygmaeus
Pongo pygmaeus
pygmaeus Pongo pygmaeus
Pongo pygmaeus
morio Pongo pygmaeus
Pongo pygmaeus
wurmbii

Sumatran orangutan, Pongo abelii Tapanuli orangutan, Pongo tapanuliensis[20]

Subfamily
Subfamily
Homininae

Tribe Gorillini

Genus
Genus
Gorilla

Western gorilla, Gorilla
Gorilla
gorilla

Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla
Gorilla
gorilla gorilla Cross River gorilla, Gorilla
Gorilla
gorilla diehli

Eastern gorilla, Gorilla
Gorilla
beringei

Mountain gorilla, Gorilla
Gorilla
beringei beringei Eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla
Gorilla
beringei graueri

Tribe Hominini

Subtribe Panina

Genus
Genus
Pan

Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee
(common chimpanzee), Pan troglodytes

Central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes
Pan troglodytes
troglodytes Western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes
Pan troglodytes
verus Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes
Pan troglodytes
ellioti Eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes
Pan troglodytes
schweinfurthii

Bonobo
Bonobo
(pygmy chimpanzee), Pan paniscus

Subtribe Hominina

Genus
Genus
Homo

Human, Homo
Homo
sapiens

Anatomically modern human, Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens

Fossil[edit]

A reconstruction of Pierolapithecus
Pierolapithecus
catalaunicus

Replica of the skull sometimes known as "Nutcracker Man", found by Mary Leakey.

In addition to the extant species and subspecies, archaeologists, paleontologists, and anthropologists have discovered and classified numerous extinct great ape species as below, based on the taxonomy shown.[21] Family Hominidae

Ouranopithecus)†

Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
macedoniensis

Otavipithecus†

Otavipithecus namibiensis

Morotopithecus†

Morotopithecus
Morotopithecus
bishopi

Subfamily
Subfamily
Ponginae[22]

Tribe Lufengpithecini †

Lufengpithecus

Lufengpithecus lufengensis Lufengpithecus keiyuanensis Lufengpithecus hudienensis

Tribe Sivapithecini†

Ankarapithecus

Ankarapithecus
Ankarapithecus
meteai

Sivapithecus

Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
brevirostris Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
punjabicus Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
parvada Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
sivalensis Sivapithecus
Sivapithecus
indicus

Gigantopithecus

Gigantopithecus
Gigantopithecus
bilaspurensis Gigantopithecus
Gigantopithecus
blacki Gigantopithecus
Gigantopithecus
giganteus

Tribe Pongini

Khoratpithecus†

Khoratpithecus
Khoratpithecus
ayeyarwadyensis Khoratpithecus
Khoratpithecus
piriyai Khoratpithecus
Khoratpithecus
chiangmuanensis

Pongo (orangutans)

Pongo hooijeri†

Subfamily
Subfamily
Homininae[23][24]

Pierolapithecus†

Pierolapithecus
Pierolapithecus
catalaunicus

Udabnopithecus†

Udabnopithecus garedziensis

Tribe Dryopithecini
Dryopithecini

Oreopithecus
Oreopithecus
(placement disputed)

Oreopithecus
Oreopithecus
bambolii

Nakalipithecus

Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
nakayamai

Anoiapithecus

Anoiapithecus brevirostris

Hispanopithecus

Hispanopithecus laietanus Hispanopithecus crusafonti

Dryopithecus

Dryopithecus
Dryopithecus
wuduensis Dryopithecus
Dryopithecus
fontani Dryopithecus
Dryopithecus
brancoi Dryopithecus
Dryopithecus
laietanus Dryopithecus
Dryopithecus
crusafonti

Rudapithecus†

Rudapithecus hungaricus

Samburupithecus†

Samburupithecus
Samburupithecus
kiptalami

Tribe Gorillini

Chororapithecus
(placement debated)

Chororapithecus abyssinicus

Tribe Hominini

Graecopithecus
Graecopithecus
†[25]

Graecopithecus
Graecopithecus
freybergi

Sahelanthropus†

Sahelanthropus
Sahelanthropus
tchadensis

Orrorin†

Orrorin
Orrorin
tugenensis

Subtribe Hominina

Ardipithecus†

Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus
ramidus Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus
kadabba

Kenyanthropus†

Kenyanthropus
Kenyanthropus
platyops

Praeanthropus†[26]

Praeanthropus
Praeanthropus
bahrelghazali Praeanthropus
Praeanthropus
anamensis Praeanthropus
Praeanthropus
afarensis

Australopithecus†

Australopithecus
Australopithecus
africanus Australopithecus
Australopithecus
garhi Australopithecus
Australopithecus
sediba Australopithecus
Australopithecus
deyiremeda

Paranthropus†

Paranthropus
Paranthropus
aethiopicus Paranthropus
Paranthropus
robustus Paranthropus
Paranthropus
boisei

Homo
Homo
– close relatives of modern humans

Homo
Homo
gautengensis† Homo
Homo
rudolfensis† Homo
Homo
naledi† Homo
Homo
habilis† Homo
Homo
georgicus
(thought by some to be an early subspecies of Homo erectus) Homo
Homo
floresiensis† Homo
Homo
erectus† Homo
Homo
ergaster
(considered by some to be an early subspecies of Homo erectus) Homo
Homo
antecessor† Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis
(sometimes called Archaic Homo
Homo
sapiens) Homo
Homo
cepranensis† Homo
Homo
helmei† Homo
Homo
palaeojavanicus† Homo
Homo
tsaichangensis† Denisovans (scientific name not yet assigned)† Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis
(sometimes called Homo
Homo
sapiens neanderthalensis) Homo
Homo
rhodesiensis† Homo
Homo
sapiens

Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu† Archaic Homo
Homo
sapiens† Red Deer Cave people
Red Deer Cave people

(scientific name has not yet been assigned; perhaps a race of modern humans or a hybrid[27] of modern humans and Denisovans[28])

Physical description[edit] The great apes are large, tailless primates, with the smallest living species being the bonobo at 30–40 kilograms in weight, and the largest being the eastern gorillas, with males weighing 140–180 kilograms. In all great apes, the males are, on average, larger and stronger than the females, although the degree of sexual dimorphism varies greatly among species. Although most living species are predominantly quadrupedal, they are all able to use their hands for gathering food or nesting materials, and, in some cases, for tool use.[29] Most species are omnivorous,[citation needed] but fruit is the preferred food among all but some human groups. Chimpanzees
Chimpanzees
and orangutans primarily eat fruit. When gorillas run short of fruit at certain times of the year or in certain regions, they resort to eating shoots and leaves, often of bamboo, a type of grass. Gorillas have extreme adaptations for chewing and digesting such low-quality forage, but they still prefer fruit when it is available, often going miles out of their way to find especially preferred fruits. Humans, since the neolithic revolution, consume mostly cereals and other starchy foods, including increasingly highly processed foods, as well as many other domesticated plants (including fruits) and meat. Hominid teeth are similar to those of the Old World monkeys and gibbons, although they are especially large in gorillas. The dental formula is 2.1.2.32.1.2.3. Human
Human
teeth and jaws are markedly smaller for their size than those of other apes, which may be an adaptation to eating cooked food since the end of the Pleistocene.[30][31]

Gorilla

Gestation in great apes lasts 8–9 months, and results in the birth of a single offspring, or, rarely, twins. The young are born helpless, and require care for long periods of time. Compared with most other mammals, great apes have a remarkably long adolescence, not being weaned for several years, and not becoming fully mature for eight to thirteen years in most species (longer in humans). As a result, females typically give birth only once every few years. There is no distinct breeding season.[29] The gorillas and the common chimpanzee live in family groups of around five to ten individuals, although much larger groups are sometimes noted. Chimpanzees
Chimpanzees
live in larger groups that break up into smaller groups when fruit becomes less available. When small groups of female chimpanzees go off in separate directions to forage for fruit, the dominant males can no longer control them and the females often mate with other subordinate males. In contrast, groups of gorillas stay together regardless of the availability of fruit. When fruit is hard to find, they resort to eating leaves and shoots. Because gorilla groups stay together, the male is able to monopolize the females in his group. This fact is related to gorillas' greater sexual dimorphism than chimpanzees'. In both chimpanzees and gorillas, the groups include at least one dominant male, and females leave the group at maturity. Legal status[edit] Due to the close genetic relationship between humans and other great apes, certain animal rights organizations, such as the Great Ape Project, argue that nonhuman great apes are persons and should be given basic human rights. Some countries have instituted a research ban to protect great apes from any kind of scientific testing. On June 25, 2008, the Spanish parliament supported a new law that would make "keeping apes for circuses, television commercials or filming" illegal.[32] On September 8, 2010, the European Union
European Union
banned the testing of great apes.[33] Conservation[edit] The following table lists the estimated number of great ape individuals living outside zoos.

Species Estimated number Refs

Sumatran orangutan 6,667 [34]

Bornean orangutan 61,234 [34]

Tapanuli orangutan 800 [35]

Western gorilla 200,000 [36]

Eastern gorilla 6,000 [36]

Common chimpanzee 100,000 [37]

Bonobo 10,000 [37]

Human 7,405,745,000 [38]

See also[edit]

Bili ape Dawn of Humanity (2015 PBS film) Great ape
Great ape
language Great ape
Great ape
research ban Great Apes Survival Partnership Kinshasa Declaration on Great Apes List of human evolution fossils List of individual apes Oldest apes Prehistoric Autopsy
Prehistoric Autopsy
(2012 BBC documentary) Primate
Primate
cognition The Mind of an Ape Timeline of human evolution

Notes[edit]

^ "Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage, even by the same author. The term may or may not include humans, as when Dawkins writes "Long before people thought in terms of evolution ... great apes were often confused with humans"[2] and "gibbons are faithfully monogamous, unlike the great apes which are our closer relatives."[3]

References[edit]

^ a b c d Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 181–184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Dawkins, R. (2005). The Ancestor's Tale (p/b ed.). London: Phoenix (Orion Books). p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7538-1996-8.  ^ Dawkins (2005), p. 126. ^ Morton, Mary. "Hominid vs. hominin". Earth Magazine. Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ Andrew Hill; Steven Ward (1988). "Origin of the Hominidae: The Record of African Large Hominoid Evolution Between 14 My and 4 My". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 31 (59): 49–83. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330310505.  ^ a b Dawkins R (2004) The Ancestor's Tale. ^ "Query: Hominidae/Hylobatidae". TimeTree. Temple University. 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ Srivastava (2009). Morphology Of The Primates And Human
Human
Evolution. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 87. ISBN 978-81-203-3656-8. Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ Chen, Feng-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsiung (2001-01-15). "Genomic Divergences between Humans and Other Hominoids
Hominoids
and the Effective Population Size of the Common Ancestor of Humans and Chimpanzees". American Journal of Human
Human
Genetics. 68 (2): 444–456. doi:10.1086/318206. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1235277 . PMID 11170892.  ^ Wood and Richmond; Richmond, BG (2000). " Human
Human
evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology". Journal of Anatomy. 197 (Pt 1): 19–60. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107 . PMID 10999270. . In this suggestion, the new subtribe of Hominina
Hominina
was to be designated as including the genus Homo
Homo
exclusively, so that Hominini
Hominini
would have two subtribes, Australopithecina
Australopithecina
and Hominina, with the only known genus in Hominina
Hominina
being Homo. Orrorin (2001) has been proposed as a possible ancestor of Hominina
Hominina
but not Australopithecina.Reynolds, Sally C; Gallagher, Andrew (2012-03-29). African Genesis: Perspectives on Hominin
Hominin
Evolution. ISBN 9781107019959. . Designations alternative to Hominina have been proposed: Australopithecinae (Gregory & Hellman 1939) and Preanthropinae (Cela-Conde & Altaba 2002); Brunet, M.; et al. (2002). "A new hominid from the upper Miocene
Miocene
of Chad, central Africa". Nature. 418: 145–151. doi:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880.  Cela-Conde, C.J.; Ayala, F.J. (2003). "Genera of the human lineage". PNAS. 100 (13): 7684–7689. doi:10.1073/pnas.0832372100. PMC 164648 . PMID 12794185.  Wood, B.; Lonergan, N. (2008). "The hominin fossil record: taxa, grades and clades" (PDF). J. Anat. 212: 354–376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00871.x. PMC 2409102 . PMID 18380861.  ^ Pickrell, John (20 May 2003). "Chimps Belong on Human
Human
Branch of Family Tree, Study Says". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 4 August 2007.  ^ Relationship Humans-Gorillas. ^ Watson, E. E.; et al. (2001). " Homo
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genus: a review of the classification of humans and the great apes". In Tobias, P. V.; et al. Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millennia. Florence: Firenze Univ. Press. pp. 311–323.  ^ Schwartz, J.H. (1986) Primate
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hominidae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Hominidae

The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Hominidae

The Animal
Animal
Legal and Historical Center at Michigan State University College of Law, Great Apes and the Law Renderings of Hominid Exemplars at the Smithsonian Additional information on great apes NPR News: Toumaï the Human
Human
Ancestor Hominid Species
Species
at TalkOrigins Archive For more details on Hominid species, including excellent photos of fossil hominids New Scientist 19 May 2003 – Chimps are human, gene study implies Scientific American magazine (April 2006 Issue) Why Are Some Animals So Smart? A new mediterranean hominoid-hominid link discovered, Anoiapithecus brevirostris, "Lluc": A unique Middle Miocene
Miocene
European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade Link to graphical reconstruction Human
Human
Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016).

v t e

Extant primate families

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Eutheria Superorder Euarchontoglires

Strepsirrhini

Lorisoidea

Lorisidae Galagidae

Lemuroidea

Daubentoniidae

Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae

Haplorhini

Tarsiidae

Simian

Platyrrhini

Cebidae Callitrichidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae

Catharrhini

Cercopithecidae

Hominoidea

Hylobatidae Hominidae

v t e

Extant species of family Hominidae
Hominidae
(great apes)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Haplorhini

Hominidae

Ponginae

Pongo (Orangutans)

Bornean orangutan
Bornean orangutan
(P. pygmaeus) Sumatran orangutan
Sumatran orangutan
(P. abelii) Tapanuli orangutan
Tapanuli orangutan
(P. tapanuliensis)

Homininae

Gorilla (Gorillas)

Western gorilla
Western gorilla
(G. gorilla) Eastern gorilla
Eastern gorilla
(G. beringei)

Hominini

Pan (Chimpanzees)

Common chimpanzee
Common chimpanzee
(P. troglodytes) Bonobo
Bonobo
(P. paniscus)

Homo (Humans)

Human

H. s. sapiens

Category

v t e

Ape-related articles

Extant ape species

Human
Human
( Homo
Homo
sapiens) Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee
(Pan spp.) Bonobo
Bonobo
(Pan paniscus) Common chimpanzee
Common chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes) Gorilla
Gorilla
( Gorilla
Gorilla
spp.) Western gorilla
Western gorilla
( Gorilla
Gorilla
gorilla) Eastern gorilla
Eastern gorilla
( Gorilla
Gorilla
beringei) Orangutan
Orangutan
(Pongo spp.) Bornean orangutan
Bornean orangutan
(Pongo abelii) Sumatran orangutan
Sumatran orangutan
(Pongo pygmaeus) Tapanuli orangutan
Tapanuli orangutan
(Pongo tapanuliensis) Gibbon
Gibbon
(family: Hylobatidae)

Study of apes

Ape
Ape
language Dian Fossey Birutė Galdikas Jane Goodall Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee
genome project Human
Human
genome project Neanderthal
Neanderthal
genome project Willie Smits Lone Drøscher Nielsen Ian Redmond Elgin Center Iowa Primate
Primate
Learning Sanctuary Borneo Orangutan
Orangutan
Survival

Legal and social status

Personhood Research ban Kinshasa Declaration Great Ape
Ape
Project Survival Project International Primate
Primate
Day

See also

List of individual apes
List of individual apes
(non-human) Apes in space (non-human) Bigfoot Bushmeat Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor List of fictional primates (non-human) Great apes Human
Human
evolution Monkey Day Mythic humanoids Yeren Yeti

Authority control

GND: 4169430-2

Anthropology portal Evolutionary biology portal Science portal

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q635162 ADW: Hominidae EoL: 1653 EPPO: 1HOMXF Fossilworks: 40899 GBIF: 5483 ITIS: 180090 MSW: 1

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