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Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev, [hejdær ælirzɑ oɣlu ælijɪf]; Russian: Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев, romanized: Geydar Aliyevich Aliyev, [gʲɪjˈdar ɐˈlʲiʲɪvɪtɕ ɐˈlʲiʲɪf]; 10 May 1923[2] – 12 December 2003) was an Azerbaijani politician who served as the third President of Azerbaijan
President of Azerbaijan
from October 1993 to October 2003. As national president he held constitutional powers, but his influence on Azerbaijani politics had begun years earlier. As a young man he had joined the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR People's Commissariat for State Security
People's Commissariat for State Security
(NKGB) and quickly rose to the rank of Major-General. The regime established by Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has been described as dictatorial,[3][4][5][6][7][8] authoritarian,[9][10][11][12] and repressive.[13] Political commentators highlight that Aliyev ran a heavy-handed police state, that he rigged elections and muzzled the media[14][15] whereas others emphasize that his balanced policy brought stability to Azerbaijan.[16][17]

Contents

1 Career in the Soviet era

1.1 Early life 1.2 Early career 1.3 Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan

2 From KGB
KGB
to leader of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR 3 Fall and re-invention 4 Presidency

4.1 Inauguration 4.2 Domestic policy

4.2.1 Constitutional reform 4.2.2 Abolition of Death Penalty 4.2.3 Establishment of Ombudsman Institution 4.2.4 Agrarian and land reform

4.3 Foreign policy 4.4 Oil strategy

5 Death and successor 6 Honours 7 Honours and awards 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Career in the Soviet era[edit] Early life[edit] According to his website, he was born in Nakhchivan City. After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941 Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Oil Academy), where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR Ministry of State Security Higher School in Leningrad. Aliyev's official biography also stated that he studied at Baku
Baku
State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957.[18] According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad, graduating in 1944.[19] He also attended senior staff professional development courses at the Dzerzhinsky Higher School of the KGB
KGB
in Moscow
Moscow
in 1966.[20] In 1948,[citation needed] he married Zarifa Aliyeva. On 12 October 1955, their daughter Sevil was born. On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Zarifa Aliyeva
Zarifa Aliyeva
died of cancer in 1985.

Early career[edit] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
served at the Archive Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1941 to 1944, before his appointment to the head of General Department of the Council of People's Commissars of the Nakhchivan ASSR. H. Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944. He proceeded to became the department head of State Security Committee of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
in 1950, after he graduated from Senior Staff Training School of the USSR State Security Committee.[20] In 1954, as part of a government reform, N KGB
KGB
became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB. Aliyev rose quickly through the KGB
KGB
ranks, becoming a deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani KGB
KGB
in 1964, its chairman in 1967, and eventually reaching the rank of major general.[21][22]

Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan[edit] Aliyev was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party
Azerbaijan Communist Party
at its Plenary Session held on 12 July 1969, amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign.[20][23][24] Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms; and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption.[25] In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. In 1977, he visited Iran: Mashhad twice and Kerbala once.[26] During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to considerably increased economic, social and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR.[27] Aliyev became perhaps the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and consistently promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts.[28][29] On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo[30] and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR,[31] responsible for transportation and social services. Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union.[32] Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev.[32] Despite that, CIA report states that, Heydar Aliyev became First Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and a full Politburo Member who publicly pledged to fight against corruption, free key state personnel and the economy of the Soviet Union from bribery.[33] It is noted in the report that his colleagues understood his intention to deal harshly with corruption was serious and his commitment to the anti-corruption became his trademark within the Soviet Union.[33]

From KGB
KGB
to leader of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR[edit] Aliyev in his KGB
KGB
uniform. As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign.[34][35][36] Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. Aliyev became a candidate (non-voting) member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976. He ran this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[34] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
also served at the USSR Council of Ministers as the first deputy chairman in 1974-1979.[20] His star waned following his appointment in 1985 under Mikhail Gorbachev. His political views became something of a liability to him in the era of perestroika, but he still exerted tremendous power in Azerbaijan.[37][38]

Fall and re-invention[edit] After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in Moscow
Moscow
until 1990. He suffered a heart attack during this time. Aliyev opposed the January 1990 Soviet military crackdown in Baku, which had followed conflict regarding Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
since 1988 between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR and Armenia.[1] Almost immediately after this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev left Moscow
Moscow
for his native Nakhchivan. Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist. He was elected to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
in Baku
Baku
in October 1990.[1] Under the pressure and criticism from the groups connected to his nemesis, the then-leader of Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Ayaz Mutallibov, Aliyev again returned to Nakhchivan, where he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
in 1991. He resigned that same year from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[1] By December 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, despite Mutallibov's presidency Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan. Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh. These events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front
Azerbaijan Popular Front
led by Abulfaz Elchibey. During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku. The attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
was elected as the leader of New Azerbaijan Party
New Azerbaijan Party
at its constituent congress organized in Nakhchivan on November 21, 1992.[20] In May–June 1993, when, as a result of a crisis in the government, the country was on the verge of a civil war and faced the peril of losing independence, the people of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the then leaders of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
to Baku. On 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight he also assumed temporary presidential powers.[39] This date (June 15) started to be celebrated as the National Salvation Day of Azerbaijanis according to the decision of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
dated 27 June 1997 based on the numerous requests of the citizens of Azerbaijan.[40] In August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by the nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. In May 1994, Aliyev entered into a ceasefire agreement that still remains in force to this very day. However, the conflict remained unresolved, with Armenian control over Nagorno-Karabakh.

Presidency[edit] Aliyev during his Inauguration. On 3 October 1993, as a result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[41] On 11 October 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 77 per cent of the votes, he was re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[42] Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.[20]

Inauguration[edit] On 10 October 1993, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
took an oath as the third President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in a ceremony held in the Republic Palace. During the ceremony he stated:[43]

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Strengthening the state independence, creating independent structures state, its attributes, ensuring the security, territorial integrity and sovereignty of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
helping the country to end the war, improving the welfare of its citizens, creating the necessary conditions for their life and work will be basic directions in my activity as President and I will do my best to accomplish them...Putting my hand on the Constitution of Azerbaijan, I swear to devote all my knowledge, experience, efforts for the good deeds of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
people, for Azerbaijan. The inauguration of President Aliyev for the second term occurred on 18 October 1998 at the Republic Palace.[44] His inauguration coincided with the celebration of the Day of İndependence on 18 October.[45] After taking the oath, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
delivered his speech and declared being loyal to his oath one more time:[46] Just in front you, in front of all the citizens of Azerbaijan, I have taken the oath by putting my hand both on the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and on the Holy Koran, I declare that I shall be always loyal to this oath and up to the end of my life, truly serve our native Azerbaijan, our nation and our people.

Domestic policy[edit] The Government under Aliyev's leadership carried out legal, political and economical measures between 1993 and 2003.[47] Further, Commission for Legal Reforms was established, in 1998 capital punishment was abolished.[48] The institute of the Human Rights Ombudsman was established, amnesty and pardon mechanisms were introduced.[49] Simultaneously, the comprehensive economic reforms including the agrarian reform were carried out; the state property privatization was initiated; the industrial and agricultural crises were lifted.[50][51]

Constitutional reform[edit] Constitutional Commission was assembled by Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
in June 1995 in order to substitute 1978 Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
Constitution. The first draft was ready in October for public debate[52] and the final version composed of 5 chapters, 12 sections and 147 articles, was confirmed according to results of popular referendum held on November 12, 1995.[53] As a result, separation of power was provided among 3 divisions: legislative (Milli Majlis), executive (President) and judicial (courts).[54] President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
suggested amendments to the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in June 2002. First amendment to the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was approved as the result of referendum took place in August 2002. Consequently, 39 amendments to 23 articles of the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
were made, proportional party list elections to Parliament was abolished; transferring presidential power to Prime Minister instead of Chairman of Milli Majlis in case of resignation of President was confirmed; simple majority was preferred in the procedure of calculating the results of presidential elections; citizens, courts and Ombudsman of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
received right to appeal directly to the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan.[55][56]

Abolition of Death Penalty[edit] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
requested the elimination of the death penalty on 3 February 1998. On his speech addressed to Milli Majlis, Aliyev stated: "I am convinced that the abolition of the death penalty is a crucial step in the humanization of criminal justice policy, moreover it is an important stage in the reform of the legal system as a whole". “Taking into consideration all the facts, I am submitting a draft law on amendments and additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedure and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
regarding the abolition of the capital punishment in the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in accordance with Article 96 of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
for the discussion.”[57] Milli Majlis approved the draft law, so on 10 February 1998 the “Law on Amendments and Additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedural and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
regarding the elimination of the death penalty in the Republic of Azerbaijan” was adopted.[58] As a result, capital punishment was replaced with life imprisonment.[59] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined “Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty” on 22 January 1999.[60]

Establishment of Ombudsman Institution[edit] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
issued a decree on “Measures for Ensuring Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms” on February 22, 1998. State Program on "Protection of Human Rights" was confirmed by the Presidential Order dated 18 June 1998.[61][62] Ombudsman institution in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was established based on this State Program and commitments before CoE[61] according to the Constitutional Law “On the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Azerbaijan” adopted on 28 December 2001[63] and Presidential Decree dated 5 March 2002 on implementation of this law.[62] Elmira Süleymanova
Elmira Süleymanova
was appointed as the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) among 3 nominees requested by later President Heydar Aliyev according to the Decision No. 362 of the Milli Majlis on July 2, 2002.[64][65]

Agrarian and land reform[edit] Agrarian reforms implemented during the presidency of Heydar Aliyev can be divided into 2 phases:

1995-1997 - At the first stage the legislative base for agrarian sector was reestablished with adopting a number of legislative documents. Privatization of agriculture of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
with dissolving the traditional collective and state farms was in the center of these laws,[66] as the Law on “the Basis of Agrarian Reform” (18 February 1995);[67] “Reform of state and collective farms” (18 February 1995);[68]“Land Reform” (16 July 1996).[69] On 10 January 1997 Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
issued a Decree on “Approval of some legal documents assuring implementation of agrarian reforms”. State Commission on Agrarian Reforms was formed by the Decree of Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
dated 2 March 1995.[70][71] 1998-2001 - At the second phase the main attention was paid to post-privatization support and removing bureaucratic barriers to implement these reforms more effectively. Ministry of Agriculture was reorganized by presidential decree dated 6 June 1998 (On Ratification of the Statue on the Ministry of Agriculture),[72] the law on “State land cadaster, land monitoring and structure” (22 December 1998),[73] decree on “Land rent” (12 March 1999),[74] law on “land market” (7 May 1999)[75] was adopted, moreover The Land Code of Azerbaijani Republic was approved by the Law on “Approval of Land Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan”[76] dated 25 June 1999.[66] Foreign policy[edit] A meeting between Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in Kremlin
Kremlin
on 25 January 2002. During the presidency of Heydar Aliyev, foreign policy of Azerbaijan was rebuilt and transformed into balanced policy. The bilateral relations between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and other countries, as well as cooperation with international organizations, started to deepen.[77]

Relations with United Nations. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
began actively participating within the international organizations such as United Nations. Heydar Aliyev attended 49th session of UN General Assembly in 1994, in the special session of UN GA dedicated to 50th anniversary of United Nations in October 1995.[78] He received former Secretary General of UN Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
in October 1994 in Baku. H.Aliyev met with Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
during his trip to USA in 1997 July.[79] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
addressed the Millennium Summit
Millennium Summit
of UN held in September 2000 where he mentioned about Armenian invasion of Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent regions, UN resolutions (822, 853, 874, 884) demanding unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces from the occupied Azerbaijani territories.[80] After 11 September attacks, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined anti-terror coalition of UN and cooperated with Office of Counter-Terrorism and Sanctions Committee of the UN SC. In October 2001, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism adopted by UN SC in 1999.[79] Relations with NATO. Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
(PfP) Framework Document was signed to enhance security and defense cooperation with NATO
NATO
on May 4, 1994.[81] Aliyev approved PfP Presentation Document on April 19, 1996. In November 1997, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined the PfP Planning and Review Process.[82] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
became an associate member of due to the decision of NATO
NATO
PA in November.[83] Relations with EU. The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement came into force on June 22, 1999 which was signed in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
between the European Union
European Union
and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
on cooperation in the field of trade, investment, economy, legislation, culture, immigration and the prevention of illicit trade on April 22, 1996. Azerbaijan received assistance from EU for the economic reforms in the country through TACIS and TRACECA
TRACECA
programmes.[84] “Restoration of the Historic Silk Road” international conference was organized in Baku
Baku
on 8 September 1998 with the support of EU TACIS and TRACECA programmes based on the initiative of later presidents Heydar Aliyev and Eduard Shevardnadze.[85] Relations with Council of Europe. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
participated as a specially invited guest at the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
on 28 June 1996. Consequently, a number of resolutions and legal acts were adopted in 1996-2001 in order to improve legislative system of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to meet the requirements of European standards and international law. On 28 June 2000, Azerbaijan's admission to CoE as a full member was recommended at the session of PACE and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
became the member a full member of CoE on 17 January with the official ceremony conducted on 25 January 2011.[86] Presidential orders “On the implementation of the measures of the program of cooperation between the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and the Republic of Azerbaijan” (July 8, 1996),[87] "On the measures of Deepening Cooperation between the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and the Republic of Azerbaijan" dated 20 January 1998, “On the measures of expanding cooperation between Azerbaijan and CoE for defending interests of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Council of Europe"[87] dated 14 May 1999 were adopted by Heydar Aliyev.[88] Relations with Russia. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
gave importance to establish warmer relations with Russia
Russia
than the previous leadership of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
did. He stated in his speech at Milli Majlis on June 15, 1993 after being elected as the head of Parliament of Azerbaijan:[89] "Russia, our northern neighbor, is absolutely a vast state. Undoubtedly, the relation based on independent principles between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Russia
Russia
must be better, broader and more fruitful".[90] The Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Security between Russia
Russia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was signed on July 3, 1997.[91] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
paid his first official trip to Russia
Russia
as a President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in July 1997 with the invitation of the President of Russia
Russia
Boris Yeltsin. The relations with Russia
Russia
developed further through Aliyev-Putin negotiations during their bilateral visits ( Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
visited Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in 2001 and Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
paid a reciprocal visit to Russia
Russia
in 2002).[89] The Agreements on “The Status and Benefiting Principles of Gabala Radio Location Station”, “Long term economic cooperation agreement between Russian Federation
Russian Federation
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic until the year 2010”, as well as “The common declaration of the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev” were signed in the latter meeting.[92] Relations with US. Establishing closer relations and developing cooperation with USA was among the main directions of the foreign policy of the former President of Azerbaijan
President of Azerbaijan
Heydar Aliyev. He stated in one of his speeches regarding this issue: “The relations of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
with the United States
United States
are important as we need to learn the Western democracy, culture, achievements, to benefit from them, to use and apply them in Azerbaijan. In this regard, the United States
United States
is a special country for us".[93] The relations between these two countries began to strengthen after oil contracts were signed between them as a result of Heydar Aliyev's oil strategy. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
paid his first official visit to USA and met with President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
on August 1, 1997. They signed Joint Statement on future relations between USA and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in defense and military issues. During this trip (27 July-5 August 1997), the statement on intentions of formation of bilateral dialogue between the US and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
regarding the energy issues, the general agreement between the Government of the Azerbaijani Republic, the National Bank and the U.S. Export-Import Bank on the promotion of projects were signed. Additionally, 4 agreements on development and production sharing for the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea were signed.[93] Heydar Aliyev issued an order on “Measures to expand partnership relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the United States” on 2 September 1997 after the visit.[94] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined US-lead international coalition against terrorism after 11 September attacks,[95] and sent a military contingent to Afghanistan.[96] An amendment to the Freedom Support Act was adopted in 2002 (24 October) by the US Senate to allow the president of US to temporarily waive Section 907 which used to forbid to export any financial or humanitarian support to Azerbaijan.[97] Oil strategy[edit] Oil pipeline routes Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
used the oil potential of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to avoid the difficulties his country faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union by attracting foreign investment into Azerbaijan. After a series of negotiations took place in Baku, Istanbul
Istanbul
and Houston
Houston
over a year,[98][99]“Agreement on the Joint Development and Production Sharing for the Azeri and Chirag Fields and the Deep Water Portion of the Gunashli Field in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Sector of the Caspian Sea” was signed in Baku
Baku
on September 20, 1994, by the Government of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the consortium of 11 oil companies from 6 countries (USA, UK, Russia, Norway, Turkey, Saudi Arabia) in the presence of Heydar Aliyev.[100][101] State Oil Fund of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was established by the Presidential Decree of Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
in December 1999 to gather the income gained from oil profit with the aim of financing social and economic projects.[102] As a result of oil strategy developed by Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijani oil was planned to be carried through different routes as Baku-Supsa, BTC and etc.[99] In order to export Azerbaijani oil to the European market, the presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey
Turkey
agreed on constructing Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in 1998 in Ankara. The ground-breaking ceremony of BTC took place in September 2002 with the participation of Heydar Aliyev, Ahmet Necdet Sezer and Edward Shevardnadze.[103][104][105] To export Azerbaijani crude oil to the Novorossiysk port of Russia
Russia
was decided by the contract signed in Moscow
Moscow
on February 18, 1996,[106][105] transportation of oil through this route was realized in October 1997.[107] Establishment of the alternative Baku-Supsa route was agreed on March 8, 1996, by Heydar Aliyev and Edward Shevardnadze. This route started to operate in April 1999.[108][109]

Death and successor[edit] The Heydar Aliyev International Airport
Heydar Aliyev International Airport
in Baku Main articles: Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev
Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev
and Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States
United States
at the Cleveland Clinic. He later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003. On 6 August Aliyev returned to the United States
United States
for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003 and appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate. On 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
died at the Cleveland Clinic.[110] He was buried at the Alley of Honor
Alley of Honor
cemetery in Baku. Ilham Aliyev
Ilham Aliyev
duly won the presidential election of 15 October 2003 but international observers again criticized the contest as falling well below expected standards.[111] This transfer of power became the first case of top-level succession in the former Soviet Union.[112]

Honours[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Heydar Aliyev

See also: Statue of Heydar Aliyev, Mexico City Throughout his life, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honourable doctor of universities in many countries, including the Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
four times, the Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star
once and Hero of the Socialist Labor twice. On 27 March 1997 in Kiev, Ukraine, Aliyev received Ukraine's highest award, the Yaroslav Mudry
Yaroslav Mudry
Order, and on 13 April 1999, Turkey's highest honour, the Peace Premium of Atatürk Order. On 3 April 2003, he was elected a professor and authorized member of the Academy of Safety of the Russian Federation, and was subsequently awarded the Premium of Y. V. Andropov. On 10 May 2003, he was decorated with the Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew
the Apostle the First-Called—Russia's supreme award.[2][113]

Honours and awards[edit] Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labour, twice (1979, 1983) Five Orders of Lenin Order of the October Revolution Order of the Red Star Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class Medal "For Impeccable Service” Second Class (1959) Medal "For Impeccable Service” First Class (1964) Other  Turkey: First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(1997)[114]  Russia: Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew
(May 10, 2003) – "for his great personal contribution to strengthening friendship and cooperation between Russia
Russia
and Azerbaijan"  Russia: Chuvash National Prize named after I.Yakovlev (2000)[115]  Ukraine: Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 1st class (20 March 1997) – "for outstanding contribution to the development of cooperation between Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and strengthening friendship between the Ukrainian and Azeri people"  Turkey: Atatürk Award for Peace  Turkey: Silk Road Service Award by the Fund of the Silk Road (1998)[116]  Georgia: Order of the Golden Fleece (Georgia)  France: Order of "Great cross commander of Honorary Legion" (2003)[117]  Ukraine: “Gloria Populi” award of “Golden Fortune” International Scientific Organization[118] Order of St. Sergius of Radonezh, 1st class (ROC) Order "Sheikh-ul-Islam" (posthumously) See also[edit] President of Azerbaijan Politics of Azerbaijan National Assembly of Azerbaijan Foreign relations of Azerbaijan List of political parties in Azerbaijan References[edit]

^ a b c d Roger East, Richard J. Thomas. Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders, Routledge, 2003, .mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 1-85743-126-X, p. 32

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External links[edit] Official website Official website Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Foundation Envisioning the Nation - Interview: Azerbaijan's President, Heydar Aliyev

Party political offices

Preceded byVali Akhundov

First Secretary of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Communist Party1969–1982

Succeeded byKamran Bagirov

Political offices

Preceded bynone

Parliamentary Chairman of Nakhchivan1991–1993

Succeeded byVasif Talibov

Preceded byAbulfaz Elchibey

President of Azerbaijan1993–2003

Succeeded byIlham Aliyev

vteLeaders of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
since 1918 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh Alimardan Topchubashov Mammad Yusif Jafarova AzerbaijanSoviet Socialist Republic Mirza Davud Huseynov Grigory Kaminsky Sergei Kirov Levon Mirzoyan Nikolai Gikalo Vladimir Polonsky Mir Jafar Baghirov Mir Teymur Yagubov Imam Mustafayev Vali Akhundov Heydar Aliyev Kamran Baghirov Abdurrahman Vazirov Ayaz Mutallibov Republic of Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov Yagub Mammadova Ayaz Mutallibov Isa Gambara Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev (a) Denotes acting vtePremiers of the Soviet UnionPremiers Lenin (1923–1924) Rykov (1924–1930) Molotov (1930–1941) Stalin (1941–1953) Malenkov (1953–1955) Bulganin (1955–1958) Khrushchev (1958–1964) Kosygin (1964–1980) Tikhonov (1980–1985) Ryzhkov (1985–1991) Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991) Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991) First Deputies Kuybyshev (1934–35) Voznesensky (1941–46) Molotov (1942–57) Bulganin (1950–55) Beria (Mar.–June 1953) Kaganovich (1953–57) Mikoyan (1955–64) Pervukhin (1955–57) Saburov (1955–57) Kuzmin (1957–58) Kozlov (1958–60) Kosygin (1960–64) Ustinov (1963–65) Mazurov (1965–78) Polyansky (1965–73) Tikhonov (1976–80) Arkhipov (1980–86) Aliyev (1982–87) Gromyko (1983–85) Talyzin (1985–88) Murakhovsky (1985–89) Maslyukov (1988–90) Voronin (1989–90) Niktin (1989–90) Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991) Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)

First Deputy Premiers Deputy Premiers Prime Ministers of Russia

vtePolitics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1964–1985)Events (1964–1982) Collective leadership Glassboro Summit Conference Six-Day War Prague Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968 Red Square demonstration Brezhnev Doctrine Brezhnev assassination attempt Sino-Soviet border conflict Détente 1973 oil crisis Fall of Saigon Vladivostok Summit Helsinki Accords 1977 Moscow
Moscow
bombings 1977 Soviet Constitution 1978 Georgian demonstrations Cambodian–Vietnamese War Soviet–Afghan War 1980 Summer Olympics Reaction to 1980–1981 Polish crisis Exercise Zapad Death and state funeral of Leonid Brezhnev Legacy of Leonid Brezhnev Events (1982–1985) RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 1983 false nuclear alarm incident Able Archer 83 1984 Summer Olympics boycott Friendship Games Politburo members 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th Aliyev Andropov Brezhnev Chebrikov Chernenko Demichev Dolgikh Efremov Gorbachev Grechko Grishin Gromyko Kirilenko Kiselyov Kunaev Kosygin Kulakov Kuznetsov Masherov Mazurov Mikoyan Mzhavanadze Pelše Podgorny Polyansky Ponomarev Rashidov Romanov Shcherbytsky Shelepin Shelest Shevardnadze Shvernik Solomentsev Suslov Tikhonov Ustinov Voronov Vorotnikov Leaders The Troika (Brezhnev Kosygin Podgorny) Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Governments Kosygin's 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Tikhonov's 1st 2nd National economyReforms OGAS 1965 1973 1979 Food Programme 1984 Five-year plans 8th plan 9th plan 10th plan 11th plan Brezhnev's family Churbanov (son-in-law) Galina (daughter) Lyubov (niece) Viktoria (wife) Yakov (brother) Yuri (son) Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal vte Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflictBackground Nagorno-Karabakh History Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Karabakh movement Miatsum Armenians in Azerbaijan Armenians in Baku Azerbaijanis in Armenia Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan Anti-Azerbaijani sentiment in Armenia Armenia– Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
relations Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War Askeran clash Sumgait pogrom Kirovabad pogrom Baku
Baku
pogrom Battle of Kalbajar Capture of Shusha Black January Zvartnots Airport clash Siege of Stepanakert Khojaly Massacre Maraga massacre Mardakert and Martuni Offensives Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast 1990 Tbilisi–Agdam bus bombing 1991 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown 1992 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown Operation Goranboy Operation Ring 1993 Summer Offensives 1994 Bagratashen bombing 1994 Baku
Baku
Metro bombings Post-war clashes 2008 Mardakert skirmishes February 2010 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
skirmish 2010 Mardakert skirmishes 2012 Armenian–Azerbaijani border clashes 2014 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes 2014 Armenian Mil Mi-24 shootdown 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
clashes 2018 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes Main locations Administrative divisions of the Republic of Artsakh Stepanakert Askeran Province Hadrut Province Kashatagh Province Martakert Province Martuni Province Shahumyan Province Shushi Province Armenian-controlled territories Agdam District Fuzuli District Jabrayil District Kalbajar District Lachin District Qubadli District Zangilan District Political leaders  Armenia Levon Ter-Petrosyan Robert Kocharyan Serzh Sargsyan Nikol Pashinyan  Republic of Artsakh Artur Mkrtchyan Robert Kocharyan Leonard Petrosyan Arkadi Ghukasyan Bako Sahakyan  Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh Bayram Safarov Nizami Bahmanov  Russia Boris Yeltsin  Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev  Turkey Turgut Özal Military leaders  Armenia Vazgen Sargsyan Gurgen Dalibaltayan Norat Ter-Grigoryants Jirair Sefilian  Republic of Artsakh Samvel Babayan Kristapor Ivanyan Arkady Ter-Tadevosyan Monte Melkonian  Azerbaijan Isgandar Hamidov Rahim Gaziyev Surat Huseynov Valeh Barshadly  Russia Pavel Grachev  Soviet Union Viktor Polyanichko  Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Shamil Basayev  Afghanistan Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Peace process Baker rules Bishkek Protocol Tehran Communiqué Zheleznovodsk Communiqué OSCE Minsk Group Prague Process Madrid Principles International documents Astrakhan Declaration Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Declaration NATO
NATO
Lisbon Summit Declaration OIC Resolution 10/11 OIC Resolution 10/37 PACE Resolution 1416 UNGA Resolution 62/243 UNSC Resolutions 822 853 874 884

vteRevolutions of 1989Internalbackground Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies Internationalbackground Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Reforms Uskoreniye Perestroika Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới Governmentleaders Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre Oppositionmethods Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action Oppositionleaders Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Viktor Orbán Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II Oppositionmovements Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces Eventsby locationCentral and Eastern Europe Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Soviet Union Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Elsewhere Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen Individualevents 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 1988 Polish strikes Polish Round Table Agreement April 9 tragedy Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Baltic Way Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Fall of the Berlin Wall Fall of the inner German border Malta Summit Black January Helsinki Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union Later events Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars Pink Tide

Authority control BIBSYS: 90561239 BNF: cb16714316k (data) GND: 123441242 ISNI: 0000 0001 0906 6063 LCCN: n81047268 NKC: mzk2004228244 NTA: 070270562 SELIBR: 283907 SUDOC: 077853504 VIAF: 59990763 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via