1 Career in the Soviet era
1.1 Early life 1.2 Early career 1.3 Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan
4.1 Inauguration 4.2 Domestic policy
4.2.1 Constitutional reform 4.2.2 Abolition of Death Penalty 4.2.3 Establishment of Ombudsman Institution 4.2.4 Agrarian and land reform
4.3 Foreign policy 4.4 Oil strategy
5 Death and successor 6 Honours 7 Honours and awards 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
Career in the Soviet era
According to his website, he was born in Nakhchivan City. After
graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941
Aliyev attended the
Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan State Oil Academy), where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR Ministry of State Security Higher School in Leningrad. Aliyev's official biography also stated that he studied at Baku
Baku State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957. According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad, graduating in 1944. He also attended senior staff professional development courses at the Dzerzhinsky Higher School of the KGB
KGB in Moscow
Moscow in 1966. In 1948, he married Zarifa Aliyeva. On 12 October 1955, their daughter Sevil was born. On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Zarifa Aliyeva
Zarifa Aliyeva died of cancer in 1985.
Heydar Aliyev served at the Archive Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1941 to 1944, before his appointment to the head of General Department of the Council of People's Commissars of the Nakhchivan ASSR. H. Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944. He proceeded to became the department head of State Security Committee of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR in 1950, after he graduated from Senior Staff Training School of the USSR State Security Committee. In 1954, as part of a government reform, N KGB
KGB became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB. Aliyev rose quickly through the KGB
KGB ranks, becoming a deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani KGB
KGB in 1964, its chairman in 1967, and eventually reaching the rank of major general.
Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan
Aliyev was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the
Azerbaijan Communist Party
Azerbaijan Communist Party at its Plenary Session held on 12 July 1969, amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign. Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms; and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption. In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. In 1977, he visited Iran: Mashhad twice and Kerbala once. During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to considerably increased economic, social and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan SSR. Aliyev became perhaps the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and consistently promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts. On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, responsible for transportation and social services. Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union. Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev. Despite that, CIA report states that, Heydar Aliyev became First Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and a full Politburo Member who publicly pledged to fight against corruption, free key state personnel and the economy of the Soviet Union from bribery. It is noted in the report that his colleagues understood his intention to deal harshly with corruption was serious and his commitment to the anti-corruption became his trademark within the Soviet Union.
KGB to leader of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan SSR Aliyev in his KGB
KGB uniform. As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign. Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. Aliyev became a candidate (non-voting) member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976. He ran this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev also served at the USSR Council of Ministers as the first deputy chairman in 1974-1979. His star waned following his appointment in 1985 under Mikhail Gorbachev. His political views became something of a liability to him in the era of perestroika, but he still exerted tremendous power in Azerbaijan.
Fall and re-invention
After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in
Moscow until 1990. He suffered a heart attack during this time. Aliyev opposed the January 1990 Soviet military crackdown in Baku, which had followed conflict regarding Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh since 1988 between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan SSR and Armenia. Almost immediately after this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev left Moscow
Moscow for his native Nakhchivan. Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist. He was elected to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR in Baku
Baku in October 1990. Under the pressure and criticism from the groups connected to his nemesis, the then-leader of Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov, Aliyev again returned to Nakhchivan, where he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in 1991. He resigned that same year from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. By December 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, despite Mutallibov's presidency Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan. Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh. These events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front
Azerbaijan Popular Front led by Abulfaz Elchibey. During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku. The attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev was elected as the leader of New Azerbaijan Party
New Azerbaijan Party at its constituent congress organized in Nakhchivan on November 21, 1992. In May–June 1993, when, as a result of a crisis in the government, the country was on the verge of a civil war and faced the peril of losing independence, the people of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the then leaders of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev to Baku. On 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight he also assumed temporary presidential powers. This date (June 15) started to be celebrated as the National Salvation Day of Azerbaijanis according to the decision of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan dated 27 June 1997 based on the numerous requests of the citizens of Azerbaijan. In August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by the nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. In May 1994, Aliyev entered into a ceasefire agreement that still remains in force to this very day. However, the conflict remained unresolved, with Armenian control over Nagorno-Karabakh.
Aliyev during his Inauguration.
On 3 October 1993, as a result of nationwide voting,
Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. On 11 October 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 77 per cent of the votes, he was re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.
On 10 October 1993,
Heydar Aliyev took an oath as the third President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in a ceremony held in the Republic Palace. During the ceremony he stated:
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Strengthening the state independence, creating independent structures
state, its attributes, ensuring the security, territorial integrity
and sovereignty of
Azerbaijan helping the country to end the war, improving the welfare of its citizens, creating the necessary conditions for their life and work will be basic directions in my activity as President and I will do my best to accomplish them...Putting my hand on the Constitution of Azerbaijan, I swear to devote all my knowledge, experience, efforts for the good deeds of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan people, for Azerbaijan. The inauguration of President Aliyev for the second term occurred on 18 October 1998 at the Republic Palace. His inauguration coincided with the celebration of the Day of İndependence on 18 October. After taking the oath, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev delivered his speech and declared being loyal to his oath one more time: Just in front you, in front of all the citizens of Azerbaijan, I have taken the oath by putting my hand both on the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and on the Holy Koran, I declare that I shall be always loyal to this oath and up to the end of my life, truly serve our native Azerbaijan, our nation and our people.
Domestic policy The Government under Aliyev's leadership carried out legal, political and economical measures between 1993 and 2003. Further, Commission for Legal Reforms was established, in 1998 capital punishment was abolished. The institute of the Human Rights Ombudsman was established, amnesty and pardon mechanisms were introduced. Simultaneously, the comprehensive economic reforms including the agrarian reform were carried out; the state property privatization was initiated; the industrial and agricultural crises were lifted.
Constitutional Commission was assembled by
Heydar Aliyev in June 1995 in order to substitute 1978 Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR Constitution. The first draft was ready in October for public debate and the final version composed of 5 chapters, 12 sections and 147 articles, was confirmed according to results of popular referendum held on November 12, 1995. As a result, separation of power was provided among 3 divisions: legislative (Milli Majlis), executive (President) and judicial (courts). President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev suggested amendments to the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in June 2002. First amendment to the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan was approved as the result of referendum took place in August 2002. Consequently, 39 amendments to 23 articles of the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan were made, proportional party list elections to Parliament was abolished; transferring presidential power to Prime Minister instead of Chairman of Milli Majlis in case of resignation of President was confirmed; simple majority was preferred in the procedure of calculating the results of presidential elections; citizens, courts and Ombudsman of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan received right to appeal directly to the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan.
Abolition of Death Penalty
Heydar Aliyev requested the elimination of the death penalty on 3 February 1998. On his speech addressed to Milli Majlis, Aliyev stated: "I am convinced that the abolition of the death penalty is a crucial step in the humanization of criminal justice policy, moreover it is an important stage in the reform of the legal system as a whole". “Taking into consideration all the facts, I am submitting a draft law on amendments and additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedure and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan regarding the abolition of the capital punishment in the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in accordance with Article 96 of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan for the discussion.” Milli Majlis approved the draft law, so on 10 February 1998 the “Law on Amendments and Additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedural and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan regarding the elimination of the death penalty in the Republic of Azerbaijan” was adopted. As a result, capital punishment was replaced with life imprisonment. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan joined “Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty” on 22 January 1999.
Establishment of Ombudsman Institution
Heydar Aliyev issued a decree on “Measures for Ensuring Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms” on February 22, 1998. State Program on "Protection of Human Rights" was confirmed by the Presidential Order dated 18 June 1998. Ombudsman institution in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan was established based on this State Program and commitments before CoE according to the Constitutional Law “On the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Azerbaijan” adopted on 28 December 2001 and Presidential Decree dated 5 March 2002 on implementation of this law. Elmira Süleymanova
Elmira Süleymanova was appointed as the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) among 3 nominees requested by later President Heydar Aliyev according to the Decision No. 362 of the Milli Majlis on July 2, 2002.
Agrarian and land reform Agrarian reforms implemented during the presidency of Heydar Aliyev can be divided into 2 phases:
1995-1997 - At the first stage the legislative base for agrarian
sector was reestablished with adopting a number of legislative
documents. Privatization of agriculture of
Azerbaijan with dissolving the traditional collective and state farms was in the center of these laws, as the Law on “the Basis of Agrarian Reform” (18 February 1995); “Reform of state and collective farms” (18 February 1995);“Land Reform” (16 July 1996). On 10 January 1997 Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev issued a Decree on “Approval of some legal documents assuring implementation of agrarian reforms”. State Commission on Agrarian Reforms was formed by the Decree of Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev dated 2 March 1995. 1998-2001 - At the second phase the main attention was paid to post-privatization support and removing bureaucratic barriers to implement these reforms more effectively. Ministry of Agriculture was reorganized by presidential decree dated 6 June 1998 (On Ratification of the Statue on the Ministry of Agriculture), the law on “State land cadaster, land monitoring and structure” (22 December 1998), decree on “Land rent” (12 March 1999), law on “land market” (7 May 1999) was adopted, moreover The Land Code of Azerbaijani Republic was approved by the Law on “Approval of Land Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan” dated 25 June 1999. Foreign policy A meeting between Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin in Kremlin
Kremlin on 25 January 2002. During the presidency of Heydar Aliyev, foreign policy of Azerbaijan was rebuilt and transformed into balanced policy. The bilateral relations between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan and other countries, as well as cooperation with international organizations, started to deepen.
Relations with United Nations.
Azerbaijan began actively participating within the international organizations such as United Nations. Heydar Aliyev attended 49th session of UN General Assembly in 1994, in the special session of UN GA dedicated to 50th anniversary of United Nations in October 1995. He received former Secretary General of UN Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros Boutros-Ghali in October 1994 in Baku. H.Aliyev met with Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan during his trip to USA in 1997 July. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev addressed the Millennium Summit
Millennium Summit of UN held in September 2000 where he mentioned about Armenian invasion of Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent regions, UN resolutions (822, 853, 874, 884) demanding unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces from the occupied Azerbaijani territories. After 11 September attacks, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan joined anti-terror coalition of UN and cooperated with Office of Counter-Terrorism and Sanctions Committee of the UN SC. In October 2001, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan joined International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism adopted by UN SC in 1999. Relations with NATO. Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace (PfP) Framework Document was signed to enhance security and defense cooperation with NATO
NATO on May 4, 1994. Aliyev approved PfP Presentation Document on April 19, 1996. In November 1997, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan joined the PfP Planning and Review Process. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan became an associate member of due to the decision of NATO
NATO PA in November. Relations with EU. The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement came into force on June 22, 1999 which was signed in Luxembourg
Luxembourg between the European Union
European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan on cooperation in the field of trade, investment, economy, legislation, culture, immigration and the prevention of illicit trade on April 22, 1996. Azerbaijan received assistance from EU for the economic reforms in the country through TACIS and TRACECA
TRACECA programmes. “Restoration of the Historic Silk Road” international conference was organized in Baku
Baku on 8 September 1998 with the support of EU TACIS and TRACECA programmes based on the initiative of later presidents Heydar Aliyev and Eduard Shevardnadze. Relations with Council of Europe. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan participated as a specially invited guest at the Council of Europe
Council of Europe on 28 June 1996. Consequently, a number of resolutions and legal acts were adopted in 1996-2001 in order to improve legislative system of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan to meet the requirements of European standards and international law. On 28 June 2000, Azerbaijan's admission to CoE as a full member was recommended at the session of PACE and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan became the member a full member of CoE on 17 January with the official ceremony conducted on 25 January 2011. Presidential orders “On the implementation of the measures of the program of cooperation between the Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the Republic of Azerbaijan” (July 8, 1996), "On the measures of Deepening Cooperation between the Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the Republic of Azerbaijan" dated 20 January 1998, “On the measures of expanding cooperation between Azerbaijan and CoE for defending interests of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in Council of Europe" dated 14 May 1999 were adopted by Heydar Aliyev. Relations with Russia. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev gave importance to establish warmer relations with Russia
Russia than the previous leadership of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan did. He stated in his speech at Milli Majlis on June 15, 1993 after being elected as the head of Parliament of Azerbaijan: "Russia, our northern neighbor, is absolutely a vast state. Undoubtedly, the relation based on independent principles between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan and Russia
Russia must be better, broader and more fruitful". The Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Security between Russia
Russia and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan was signed on July 3, 1997. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev paid his first official trip to Russia
Russia as a President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in July 1997 with the invitation of the President of Russia
Russia Boris Yeltsin. The relations with Russia
Russia developed further through Aliyev-Putin negotiations during their bilateral visits ( Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin visited Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in 2001 and Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev paid a reciprocal visit to Russia
Russia in 2002). The Agreements on “The Status and Benefiting Principles of Gabala Radio Location Station”, “Long term economic cooperation agreement between Russian Federation
Russian Federation and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Republic until the year 2010”, as well as “The common declaration of the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin and President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev” were signed in the latter meeting. Relations with US. Establishing closer relations and developing cooperation with USA was among the main directions of the foreign policy of the former President of Azerbaijan
President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev. He stated in one of his speeches regarding this issue: “The relations of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan with the United States
United States are important as we need to learn the Western democracy, culture, achievements, to benefit from them, to use and apply them in Azerbaijan. In this regard, the United States
United States is a special country for us". The relations between these two countries began to strengthen after oil contracts were signed between them as a result of Heydar Aliyev's oil strategy. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev paid his first official visit to USA and met with President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton on August 1, 1997. They signed Joint Statement on future relations between USA and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan in defense and military issues. During this trip (27 July-5 August 1997), the statement on intentions of formation of bilateral dialogue between the US and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan regarding the energy issues, the general agreement between the Government of the Azerbaijani Republic, the National Bank and the U.S. Export-Import Bank on the promotion of projects were signed. Additionally, 4 agreements on development and production sharing for the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea were signed. Heydar Aliyev issued an order on “Measures to expand partnership relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan and the United States” on 2 September 1997 after the visit. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan joined US-lead international coalition against terrorism after 11 September attacks, and sent a military contingent to Afghanistan. An amendment to the Freedom Support Act was adopted in 2002 (24 October) by the US Senate to allow the president of US to temporarily waive Section 907 which used to forbid to export any financial or humanitarian support to Azerbaijan. Oil strategy Oil pipeline routes Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev used the oil potential of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan to avoid the difficulties his country faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union by attracting foreign investment into Azerbaijan. After a series of negotiations took place in Baku, Istanbul
Istanbul and Houston
Houston over a year,“Agreement on the Joint Development and Production Sharing for the Azeri and Chirag Fields and the Deep Water Portion of the Gunashli Field in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Sector of the Caspian Sea” was signed in Baku
Baku on September 20, 1994, by the Government of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan and the consortium of 11 oil companies from 6 countries (USA, UK, Russia, Norway, Turkey, Saudi Arabia) in the presence of Heydar Aliyev. State Oil Fund of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan was established by the Presidential Decree of Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev in December 1999 to gather the income gained from oil profit with the aim of financing social and economic projects. As a result of oil strategy developed by Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijani oil was planned to be carried through different routes as Baku-Supsa, BTC and etc. In order to export Azerbaijani oil to the European market, the presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey
Turkey agreed on constructing Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in 1998 in Ankara. The ground-breaking ceremony of BTC took place in September 2002 with the participation of Heydar Aliyev, Ahmet Necdet Sezer and Edward Shevardnadze. To export Azerbaijani crude oil to the Novorossiysk port of Russia
Russia was decided by the contract signed in Moscow
Moscow on February 18, 1996, transportation of oil through this route was realized in October 1997. Establishment of the alternative Baku-Supsa route was agreed on March 8, 1996, by Heydar Aliyev and Edward Shevardnadze. This route started to operate in April 1999.
Death and successor
Heydar Aliyev International Airport
Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku Main articles: Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev
Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev and Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States
United States at the Cleveland Clinic. He later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003. On 6 August Aliyev returned to the United States
United States for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003 and appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate. On 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev died at the Cleveland Clinic. He was buried at the Alley of Honor
Alley of Honor cemetery in Baku. Ilham Aliyev
Ilham Aliyev duly won the presidential election of 15 October 2003 but international observers again criticized the contest as falling well below expected standards. This transfer of power became the first case of top-level succession in the former Soviet Union.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Heydar Aliyev
See also: Statue of Heydar Aliyev, Mexico City
Throughout his life,
Heydar Aliyev was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honourable doctor of universities in many countries, including the Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin four times, the Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star once and Hero of the Socialist Labor twice. On 27 March 1997 in Kiev, Ukraine, Aliyev received Ukraine's highest award, the Yaroslav Mudry
Yaroslav Mudry Order, and on 13 April 1999, Turkey's highest honour, the Peace Premium of Atatürk Order. On 3 April 2003, he was elected a professor and authorized member of the Academy of Safety of the Russian Federation, and was subsequently awarded the Premium of Y. V. Andropov. On 10 May 2003, he was decorated with the Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called—Russia's supreme award.
Honours and awards
Hero of Socialist Labour, twice (1979, 1983)
Five Orders of Lenin
Order of the October Revolution
Order of the Red Star
Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class
Medal "For Impeccable Service” Second Class (1959)
Medal "For Impeccable Service” First Class (1964)
Turkey: First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of
Turkey (1997) Russia: Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew (May 10, 2003) – "for his great personal contribution to strengthening friendship and cooperation between Russia
Russia and Azerbaijan" Russia: Chuvash National Prize named after I.Yakovlev (2000) Ukraine: Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 1st class (20 March 1997) – "for outstanding contribution to the development of cooperation between Ukraine
Ukraine and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan and strengthening friendship between the Ukrainian and Azeri people" Turkey: Atatürk Award for Peace Turkey: Silk Road Service Award by the Fund of the Silk Road (1998) Georgia: Order of the Golden Fleece (Georgia) France: Order of "Great cross commander of Honorary Legion" (2003) Ukraine: “Gloria Populi” award of “Golden Fortune” International Scientific Organization Order of St. Sergius of Radonezh, 1st class (ROC) Order "Sheikh-ul-Islam" (posthumously) See also President of Azerbaijan Politics of Azerbaijan National Assembly of Azerbaijan Foreign relations of Azerbaijan List of political parties in Azerbaijan References
^ a b c d Roger East, Richard J. Thomas. Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders, Routledge, 2003, .mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 1-85743-126-X, p. 32
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^ The Two Faces of Azerbaijan’s Mr. Aliyev // The New York Times, JAN. 11, 2015
^ Hans Slomp. Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO, 2011. ISBN 0-313-39181-5, 9780313391811. P.672
^ FranCoise Companjen, Laszlo Maracz, Lia Versteegh. Exploring the Caucasus in the 21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam University Press, 2011. ISBN 90-8964-183-1, 9789089641830. P.121
^ Thomas Goltz.
Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter’s Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic. M.E. Sharpe, 1999. ISBN 0-7656-0244-X, 9780765602442. P.66
^ Elisabeth Precht.
Azerbaijan In the Shadow of a Dictatorship //Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation, 2012
^ В турецком учебнике Гейдар Алиев представлен как диктатор // Сontact.az. 2013 Февраль 09 «В изданной в Турции учебнике „Конституционное права“ для студентов университетов бывший президент Азербайджана Гейдар Алиев назван „диктатором“» (copy)
^ Rise of Leader's Son Sharpens Azerbaijan's Identity Crisis // Washington Post. August 9, 2003
^ Борисов Николай Александрович. Институционализация института президентства и перспективы консолидации политических режимов на постсоветском пространстве // «Полития».-2011.-№ 4(63).-С.93-103. «И хотя эта гипотеза ещё нуждается в дополнительной проверке, уместно предположить, что в этих государствах состоялась авторитарная консолидация, причем важнейшим её фактором был институт президентства и сами личности президентов (Сапармурат Ниязов, Эмомали Рахмон, Нурсултан Назарбаев, Гейдар Алиев)»
^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Heydar Aliyev. Azerbaijani politician who,
was one of the most powerful men in
Azerbaijan for more than 30 years, as deputy chairman (1964-67) and chairman (1967-69) of the regional KGB, as secretary (1969-87) of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, and from 1993 as the repressive and autocratic president of independent Azerbaijan.
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председателем комиссии по
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Heydar Aliyev Foundation Envisioning the Nation - Interview: Azerbaijan's President, Heydar Aliyev
Party political offices
Preceded byVali Akhundov
First Secretary of the
Azerbaijan Communist Party1969–1982
Succeeded byKamran Bagirov
Parliamentary Chairman of Nakhchivan1991–1993
Succeeded byVasif Talibov
Preceded byAbulfaz Elchibey
President of Azerbaijan1993–2003
Succeeded byIlham Aliyev
Azerbaijan since 1918 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh Alimardan Topchubashov Mammad Yusif Jafarova AzerbaijanSoviet Socialist Republic Mirza Davud Huseynov Grigory Kaminsky Sergei Kirov Levon Mirzoyan Nikolai Gikalo Vladimir Polonsky Mir Jafar Baghirov Mir Teymur Yagubov Imam Mustafayev Vali Akhundov Heydar Aliyev Kamran Baghirov Abdurrahman Vazirov Ayaz Mutallibov Republic of Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov Yagub Mammadova Ayaz Mutallibov Isa Gambara Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev (a) Denotes acting vtePremiers of the Soviet UnionPremiers Lenin (1923–1924) Rykov (1924–1930) Molotov (1930–1941) Stalin (1941–1953) Malenkov (1953–1955) Bulganin (1955–1958) Khrushchev (1958–1964) Kosygin (1964–1980) Tikhonov (1980–1985) Ryzhkov (1985–1991) Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991) Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991) First Deputies Kuybyshev (1934–35) Voznesensky (1941–46) Molotov (1942–57) Bulganin (1950–55) Beria (Mar.–June 1953) Kaganovich (1953–57) Mikoyan (1955–64) Pervukhin (1955–57) Saburov (1955–57) Kuzmin (1957–58) Kozlov (1958–60) Kosygin (1960–64) Ustinov (1963–65) Mazurov (1965–78) Polyansky (1965–73) Tikhonov (1976–80) Arkhipov (1980–86) Aliyev (1982–87) Gromyko (1983–85) Talyzin (1985–88) Murakhovsky (1985–89) Maslyukov (1988–90) Voronin (1989–90) Niktin (1989–90) Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991) Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)
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