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Communist Party of the Soviet Union New Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Party

Spouse(s) Zarifa Aliyeva

Children Sevil Aliyeva Ilham Aliyev

Awards

Signature

Military service

Allegiance  Soviet Union

Service/branch KGB
KGB
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR

Years of service 1941–1969

Rank Major General

Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev, also spelled Gaydar Aliev (Azerbaijani: Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev; Russian: Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев Geydar Aliyevich Aliyev; 10 May 1923[1] – 12 December 2003), was the third President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
who served from October 1993 to October 2003. As national president he held constitutional powers, but his influence on Azerbaijani politics had begun years earlier. As a young man he had joined the Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) and quickly rose to the rank of Major-General. The regime established by Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has been described as dictatorial[2][3][4][5][6][7] or authoritarian [8][9][10][11] and repressive.[12] Political commentators highlight that Aliyev ran a heavy-handed police state, that he rigged elections and muzzled the media[13][14] whereas others emphasize that his balanced policy brought stability to Azerbaijan.[15][16]

Contents

1 Career in the Soviet era

1.1 Early life 1.2 Early career 1.3 Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan

2 From KGB
KGB
to leader of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR 3 Fall and re-invention 4 Presidency

4.1 Domestic policy

4.1.1 Constitutional reform 4.1.2 Abolition of Death Penalty 4.1.3 Establishment of Ombudsman Institution

4.2 Foreign policy

5 Death and successor 6 Honors 7 Honours and awards 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Career in the Soviet era[edit] Early life[edit] According to his website, he was born in Nakhchivan City. After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941 Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Oil Academy), where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR MGB Officer Corps Qualifications-Raising School. Aliyev's official biography also stated that he studied at Baku
Baku
State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957.[17] According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad, graduating in 1944.[18] He also attended senior staff professional development courses at the Dzerzhinsky Higher School of the KGB
KGB
in Moscow
Moscow
in 1966.[19] In 1948, he married Zarifa Aliyeva. On 12 October 1955, their daughter Sevil was born. On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Zarifa Aliyeva died of cancer in 1985. Early career[edit] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
served at the Archive Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941–1944, then he was appointed to the head of General Department of the Council of People's Commissars of Nakhchivan ASSR. H. Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944. Aliyev became the department head of State Security Committee of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
in 1950, after he graduated from Senior Staff Training School of the USSR State Security Committee during 1949-1950.[19] In 1954, as part of a government reform, N KGB
KGB
became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB. Aliyev rose quickly within the agency to the rank of Major-General,[20] became a deputy chairman of Azerbaijani KGB
KGB
in 1964, its chairman in 1967 and rose to the rank of a major general.[21] Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan[edit] Aliyev was appointed by Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
to the post of First Secretary of the Central Committee of Azerbaijan Communist Party
Azerbaijan Communist Party
at its Plenary Session held on 12 July 1969[19] amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign,[22][23] Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms; and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption.[24] In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. In 1977, he visited Iran: Mashhad twice and Kerbala once.[25] During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to considerably increased economic, social and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR.[26] Aliyev became perhaps the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and consistently promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts.[27][28] On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo[29] and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR,[30] responsible for transportation and social services. Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union.[31] Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev.[31] Despite that, CIA report states that, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
became First Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and a full Politburo Member who publicly pledged to fight against corruption, free key state personnel and the economy of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from bribery.[32] It is noted in the report that his colleagues understood his intention to deal harshly with corruption was serious and his commitment to the anti-corruption became his trademark within the Soviet Union.[32] From KGB
KGB
to leader of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR[edit]

Aliyev in his KGB
KGB
uniform.

As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign.[33][34][35] Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. Aliyev became a candidate (non-voting) member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976. He ran this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[33]Heydar Aliyev also served at the USSR Council of Ministers as the first deputy chairman in 1974-1979.[19] His star waned following his appointment in 1985 under Mikhail Gorbachev. His political views became something of a liability to him in the era of perestroika, but he still exerted tremendous power in Azerbaijan.[36][37] Fall and re-invention[edit] After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in Moscow
Moscow
until 1990. He suffered a heart attack during this time. Aliyev appeared in the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
in Moscow, demanded that the organizers and executors of the crime committed against the people of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
be punished for[38] a military action which resulted in violent Black January
Black January
events amidst the brewing Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War. Almost immediately after this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev officially resigned his membership in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and left Moscow
Moscow
for his native Nakhchivan. Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist and was subsequently elected deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
in Baku. Under the pressure and criticism from the groups connected to his nemesis, the then-leader of Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Ayaz Mutallibov, Aliyev again returned to Nakhchivan, where he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
in 1991. By December 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, despite Mutallibov's presidency Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan. Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh. These events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front
Azerbaijan Popular Front
led by Abulfaz Elchibey. During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku. The attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian. Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
was elected as the leader of New Azerbaijan Party
New Azerbaijan Party
at its the constituent congress organized in Nakhchivan on November 21, 1992.[19] In May–June 1993, when, as a result of a crisis in the government, the country was on the verge of a civil war and faced the peril of losing independence, the people of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the then leaders of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
to Baku. On 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight he also assumed temporary presidential powers.[39] In August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by the nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. In May 1994, Aliyev entered into a ceasefire agreement that still remains in force to this very day. However, the conflict remained unresolved, with Armenian control over Nagorno-Karabakh. Presidency[edit]

Aliyev during his Inaguration.

On October 3, 1993, as a result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[40] On October 11, 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 77 percent of the votes, he was re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[41] Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.[19] Domestic policy[edit] The Government under Aliyev's leadership carried out legal, political and economical measures between 1993-2003.[42] Further, Commission for Legal Reforms was established, in 1998 capital punishment was abolished.[43] The institute of the Human Rights Ombudsman was established, amnesty and pardon mechanisms were introduced.[44] Simultaneously, the comprehensive economic reforms including the agrarian reform were carried out; the state property privatization was initiated; the industrial and agricultural crises were lifted.[45][46] Constitutional reform[edit] Constitutional Commission was assembled by Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
in June 1995 in order to substitute 1978 Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
Constitution. The first draft was ready in October for public debate[47] and the final version composed of 5 chapters, 12 sections and 147 articles, was confirmed according to results of popular referendum held on November 12, 1995.[48]As a result, separation of power was provided among 3 divisions: legislative (Milli Majlis), executive (President) and judicial (courts).[49] President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
suggested amendments to the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in June 2002. First amendment to the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was approved as the result of referendum took place in August 2002. Consequently, 39 amendments to 23 articles of the Constitution of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
were made, proportional party list elections to Parliament was abolished; transferring presidential power to Prime Minister instead of Chairman of Milli Majlis in case of resignation of President was confirmed; simple majority was preferred in the procedure of calculating the results of presidential elections; citizens, courts and Ombudsman of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
received right to appeal directly to the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan.[50][51] Abolition of Death Penalty[edit] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
requested elimination of death penalty on February 3, 1998. On his speech addressed to Milli Majlis, Aliyev stated: "I am convinced that the abolition of the death penalty is a crucial step in the humanization of criminal justice policy, moreover it is an important stage in the reform of the legal system as a whole". “Taking into consideration all the facts, I am submitting a draft law on amendments and additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedure and Corrective Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
regarding the abolition of the capital punishment in the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in accordance with Article 96 of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
for the discussion.”[52]Milli Majlis approved the draft law, so on February 10, 1998 the “Law on Amendments and Additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedural and Corrective Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
regarding the elimination of the death penalty in the Republic of Azerbaijan” was adopted.[53] As a result, capital punishment was replaced with life imprisonment.[54] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined “Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty” on January 22, 1999.[55] Establishment of Ombudsman Institution[edit] Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
issued a decree on “Measures for Ensuring Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms” on February 22, 1998. State Program on "Protection of Human Rights" was confirmed by the Presidential Order dated 18 June 1998.[56] [57] Ombudsman institution in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was established based on this State Program and commitments before CoE[56] according to the Constitutional Law “On the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Azerbaijan” adopted on 28 December 2001[58] and Presidential Decree dated 5 March 2002 on implementation of this law.[57] Elmira Suleymanova was appointed as the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) among 3 nominees requested by later President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
according to the Decision № 362 of the Milli Majlis on July 2, 2002.[59][60] Foreign policy[edit]

A meeting between Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in Kremlin
Kremlin
on 25 January 2002.

During the presidency of Heydar Aliyev, foreign policy of Azerbaijan was rebuilt and transformed into balanced policy. The bilateral relations between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and other countries, as well as cooperation with international organizations, started to deepen.[61]

Relations with United Nations. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
began actively participating within the international organizations such as United Nations. Heydar Aliyev attended 49th session of UN General Assembly in 1994, in the special session of UN GA dedicated to 50th anniversary of United Nations in October 1995.[62] He received former Secretary General of UN Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
in October 1994 in Baku. H.Aliyev met with Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
during his trip to USA in 1997 July.[63] Heydar Aliyev addressed the Millennium Summit
Millennium Summit
of UN held in September 2000 where he mentioned about Armenian invasion of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
and adjacent regions, UN resolutions (822, 853, 874, 884) demanding unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces from the occupied Azerbaijani territories.[64] After 11 September attacks, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined anti-terror coalition of UN and cooperated with Office of Counter-Terrorism and Sanctions Committee of the UN SC. In October 2001, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism adopted by UN SC in 1999.[63]

Relations with NATO. Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
(PfP) Framework Document was signed to enhance security and defense cooperation with NATO
NATO
on May 4, 1994.[65] Aliyev approved PfP Presentation Document on April 19, 1996. In November 1997, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined the PfP Planning and Review Process.[66] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
became an associate member of due to the decision of NATO
NATO
PA in November.[67] Relations with EU. The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement came into force on June 22, 1999 which was signed in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
between the European Union
European Union
and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
on cooperation in the field of trade, investment, economy, legislation, culture, immigration and the prevention of illicit trade on April 22, 1996. Azerbaijan received assistance from EU for the economic reforms in the country through TACIS and TRACECA
TRACECA
programmes.[68] “Restoration of the Historic Silk Road” international conference was organized in Baku on 8 September 1998 with the support of EU TACIS and TRACECA programmes based on the initiative of later presidents Heydar Aliyev and Eduard Shevardnadze.[69]

Death and successor[edit]

The Heydar Aliyev International Airport
Heydar Aliyev International Airport
in Baku

Main articles: Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev
Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev
and Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States
United States
at the Cleveland Clinic. He later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003. On 6 August Aliyev returned to the United States
United States
for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003 and appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate. On 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
died at the Cleveland Clinic.[70] He was buried at the Alley of Honor
Alley of Honor
cemetery in Baku. Ilham Aliyev
Ilham Aliyev
duly won the presidential election of 15 October 2003 but international observers again criticized the contest as falling well below expected standards.[71] This transfer of power became the first case of top-level succession in the former Soviet Union.[72] Honors[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Heydar Aliyev

Throughout his life, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honorable doctor of universities in many countries, including the Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
four times, the Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star
once and Hero of the Socialist Labor twice. On 27 March 1997 in Kiev, Ukraine, Aliyev received Ukraine's highest award, the Yaroslav Mudry
Yaroslav Mudry
Order, and on 13 April 1999, Turkey's highest honor, the Peace Premium of Atatürk Order. On 3 April 2003, he was elected a professor and authorized member of the Academy of Safety of the Russian Federation, and was subsequently awarded the Premium of Y.V.Andropov. On 10 May 2003, he was decorated with the order of Saint Apostle Andrey Pervozvanny—Russia's supreme award.[1][73] Honours and awards[edit]

Soviet Union

Hero of Socialist Labour, twice (1979, 1983) Five Orders of Lenin Order of the October Revolution Order of the Red Star Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class

Other

 Turkey: First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(1997)[74]  Russia: Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew
(May 10, 2003) - "for his great personal contribution to strengthening friendship and cooperation between Russia
Russia
and Azerbaijan"  Ukraine: Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 1st class (20 March 1997) - "for outstanding contribution to the development of cooperation between Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and strengthening friendship between the Ukrainian and Azeri people"  Turkey: Atatürk Award for Peace Order of St. Sergius of Radonezh, 1st class (ROC) Order "Sheikh-ul-Islam" (posthumously)  Georgia: Order of the Golden Fleece (Georgia)

See also[edit]

President of Azerbaijan Politics of Azerbaijan National Assembly of Azerbaijan Foreign relations of Azerbaijan List of political parties in Azerbaijan

References[edit]

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In the Shadow of a Dictatorship //Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation, 2012 ^ В турецком учебнике Гейдар Алиев представлен как диктатор // Сontact.az. 2013 Февраль 09 «В изданной в Турции учебнике „Конституционное права“ для студентов университетов бывший президент Азербайджана Гейдар Алиев назван „диктатором“» (copy) ^ Rise of Leader's Son Sharpens Azerbaijan's Identity Crisis // Washington Post. August 9, 2003 ^ David J. Kramer and Richard Kauzlarich. It’s time for the United States to act on Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
// Washington Post, September 8, 2016 ^ Svante E. Cornell Democratization Falters in Azerbaijan
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// Journal of Democracy 12.2 (2001) 118—131 ^ Борисов Николай Александрович. Институционализация института президентства и перспективы консолидации политических режимов на постсоветском пространстве // «Полития».-2011.-№ 4(63).-С.93-103. «И хотя эта гипотеза ещё нуждается в дополнительной проверке, уместно предположить, что в этих государствах состоялась авторитарная консолидация, причем важнейшим её фактором был институт президентства и сами личности президентов (Сапармурат Ниязов, Эмомали Рахмон, Нурсултан Назарбаев, Гейдар Алиев)» ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Heydar Aliyev.

Azerbaijani politician who, was one of the most powerful men in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
for more than 30 years, as deputy chairman (1964-67) and chairman (1967-69) of the regional KGB, as secretary (1969-87) of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, and from 1993 as the repressive and autocratic president of independent Azerbaijan.

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Treaty Collection - Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty". Archived from the original on 2018-03-19. Retrieved 2018-03-19.  ^ a b "Human rights". www.mfa.gov.az. Archived from the original on 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ a b "History of establishment of the institution". www.ombudsman.gov.az (in Azerbaijani). Archived from the original on 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "Legal basis of the Commissione's activity". Archived from the original on 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "Decisions of the Milli Majlis on election of the Commissioner". www.ombudsman.gov.az. Archived from the original on 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "The Commissioner". www.ombudsman.gov.az. Archived from the original on 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ Akyildiz, Selma (2014-01-18). " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Balance Policy in Heydar Aliyev Era (Between 1993-1995) - Akademik Perspektif". Akademik Perspektif. Archived from the original on 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
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United Nations
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External links[edit]

Official website Official website Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Foundation Envisioning the Nation - Interview: Azerbaijan's President, Heydar Aliyev

Party political offices

Preceded by Vali Akhundov First Secretary of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Communist Party 1969–1982 Succeeded by Kamran Bagirov

Political offices

Preceded by none Parliamentary Chairman of Nakhchivan 1991–1993 Succeeded by Vasif Talibov

Preceded by Abulfaz Elchibey President of Azerbaijan 1993–2003 Succeeded by Ilham Aliyev

v t e

Leaders of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
since 1918

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic

Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh Alimardan Topchubashov Mammad Yusif Jafarova

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Soviet Socialist Republic

Mirza Davud Huseynov Grigory Kaminsky Sergey Kirov Levon Mirzoyan Nikolay Gikalo Vladimir Polonsky Mir Jafar Baghirov Mir Teymur Yaqubov Imam Mustafayev Vali Akhundov Heydar Aliyev Kamran Baghirov Abdurrahman Vazirov Ayaz Mütallibov

Republic of Azerbaijan

Ayaz Mutallibov Yagub Mammadova Ayaz Mutallibov Isa Gambara Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev

(a) Denotes acting

v t e

Premiers of the Soviet Union

Premiers

Lenin (1923–1924) Rykov (1924–1930) Molotov (1930–1941) Stalin (1941–1953) Malenkov (1953–1955) Bulganin (1955–1958) Khrushchev (1958–1964) Kosygin (1964–1980) Tikhonov (1980–1985) Ryzhkov (1985–1991) Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991) Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991)

First Deputies

Kuybyshev (1934–35) Voznesensky (1941–46) Molotov (1942–57) Bulganin (1950–55) Beria (Mar.–June 1953) Kaganovich (1953–57) Mikoyan (1955–64) Pervukhin (1955–57) Saburov (1955–57) Kuzmin (1957–58) Kozlov (1958–60) Kosygin (1960–64) Ustinov (1963–65) Mazurov (1965–78) Polyansky (1965–73) Tikhonov (1976–80) Arkhipov (1980–86) Aliyev (1982–87) Gromyko (1983–85) Talyzin (1985–88) Murakhovsky (1985–89) Maslyukov (1988–90) Voronin (1989–90) Niktin (1989–90) Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991) Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)

First Deputy Premiers Deputy Premiers Prime Ministers of Russia

v t e

Politics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1964–1985)

Events (1964–1982)

Collective leadership Glassboro Summit Conference Six Day War Prague Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968 Red Square demonstration Brezhnev Doctrine Brezhnev assassination attempt Sino-Soviet border conflict Détente 1973 oil crisis Fall of Saigon Vladivostok Summit Helsinki Accords 1977 Moscow
Moscow
bombings 1977 Soviet Constitution 1978 Georgian demonstrations Cambodian–Vietnamese War Soviet–Afghan War 1980 Summer Olympics Reaction to 1980–1981 Polish crisis Exercise Zapad Death and state funeral of Leonid Brezhnev Legacy of Leonid Brezhnev

Events (1982–1985)

RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 1983 false nuclear alarm incident Able Archer 83 1984 Summer Olympics boycott Friendship Games

Politburo members

22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th

Aliyev Andropov Brezhnev Chebrikov Chernenko Demichev Dolgikh Efremov Gorbachev Grechko Grishin Gromyko Kirilenko Kiselyov Kunayev Kosygin Kulakov Kuznetsov Masherov Mazurov Mikoyan Mzhavanadze Pelše Podgorny Polyansky Ponomarev Rashidov Romanov Shcherbytsky Shelepin Shelest Shevardnadze Shvernik Solomentsev Suslov Tikhonov Ustinov Voronov Vorotnikov

Leaders

The Troika (Brezhnev Kosygin Podgorny) Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko

Governments

Kosygin's 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Tikhonov's 1st 2nd

National economy

Reforms

OGAS 1965 1973 1979 Food Programme 1984

Five-year plans

8th plan 9th plan 10th plan 11th plan

Brezhnev's family

Churbanov (son-in-law) Galina (daughter) Lyubov (niece) Viktoria (wife) Yakov (brother) Yuri (son)

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

v t e

Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict

Background

Nagorno-Karabakh

History

Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Karabakh movement

Miatsum

Armenians in Azerbaijan

Armenians in Baku

Azerbaijanis in Armenia Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan Anti-Azerbaijani sentiment in Armenia Armenia– Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
relations

Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War

Askeran clash Sumgait pogrom Kirovabad pogrom Baku
Baku
pogrom Battle of Kalbajar Capture of Shusha Black January Zvartnots Airport clash Siege of Stepanakert Khojaly Massacre Maraga massacre Mardakert and Martuni Offensives Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast 1991 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown 1992 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown Operation Goranboy Operation Ring 1993 Summer Offensives 1994 Bagratashen bombing

Post-war clashes

2008 Mardakert skirmishes February 2010 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
skirmish 2010 Mardakert skirmishes 2012 Armenian–Azerbaijani border clashes 2014 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes 2014 Armenian Mil Mi-24 shootdown 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
clashes

Main locations

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Artsakh

Stepanakert Askeran Region Hadrut Region Kashatagh Region Martakert Region Martuni Region Shahumyan Region Shushi Region

Armenian-controlled territories

Agdam District Fuzuli District Jabrayil District Kalbajar District Lachin District Qubadli District Zangilan District

Political leaders

 Armenia

Levon Ter-Petrosyan Robert Kocharyan Serzh Sargsyan

 Republic of Artsakh

Artur Mkrtchyan Robert Kocharyan Leonard Petrosyan Arkadi Ghukasyan Bako Sahakyan

 Azerbaijan

Ayaz Mutallibov Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev

Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh

Bayram Safarov Nizami Bahmanov

 Russia

Boris Yeltsin

 Soviet Union

Mikhail Gorbachev

 Turkey

Turgut Özal

Military leaders

 Armenia

Vazgen Sargsyan Gurgen Dalibaltayan Norat Ter-Grigoryants Jirair Sefilian

 Republic of Artsakh

Samvel Babayan Kristapor Ivanyan Arkady Ter-Tadevosyan Monte Melkonian

 Azerbaijan

Isgandar Hamidov Rahim Gaziyev Surat Huseynov Valeh Barshadly

 Russia

Pavel Grachev

 Soviet Union

Viktor Polyanichko

 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

Shamil Basayev

 Afghanistan

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Peace process

Baker rules Bishkek Protocol Tehran Communiqué Zheleznovodsk Communiqué OSCE Minsk Group Prague Process Madrid Principles

International documents

Astrakhan Declaration Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Declaration NATO
NATO
Lisbon Summit Declaration OIC Resolution 10/11, OIC Resolution 10/37 PACE Resolution 1416 UNGA Resolution 62/243 UNSC Resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884

v t e

Revolutions of 1989

Internal background

Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

International background

Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms

Uskoreniye Perestroika

Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine

Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới

Government leaders

Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker János Kádár Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre

Opposition methods

Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action

Opposition leaders

Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II

Opposition movements

Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location

Central and Eastern Europe

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia

Soviet Union

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen

Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59990763 LCCN: n81047268 ISNI: 0000 0001 0906 6063 GND: 123441242 SELIBR: 283907 SUDOC: 077853504 BNF: cb16714316k (data

.