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Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(/ˌhɛərtsɪˈɡoʊvɪnə/ HAIRT-si-GOH-vi-nə or /ˌhɜːrtsəɡoʊˈviːnə/;[1] Bosnian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина, [xɛ̌rtsɛɡov̞ina]) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. While there is no official border distinguishing it from the Bosnian geographical region, it is sometimes asserted that the borders of the region are Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to the southwest, Montenegro
Montenegro
to the east, Mount Maglić to the northeast, and Mount Ivan to the north.[citation needed] Measurements of the area range from 11,419 km2 (4,409 sq mi),[2] or around 22% of the total area of the present-day country,[3] to 12,276 km2 (4,740 sq mi), around 24% of the country.[4] The name Herzegovina
Herzegovina
comes from the medieval duchy of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, who took the title Herceg [duke] of Saint Sava; hence the later name Herzegovina
Herzegovina
'land of the Herzeg'.[5][6]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Cities 3 Administration 4 Population 5 History

5.1 Early history 5.2 Kosača
Kosača
family 5.3 Ottoman period 5.4 Modern history

6 Culture

6.1 Monuments 6.2 Religion 6.3 Music

7 Tourism 8 Image gallery 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Further reading

11 External links

Geography[edit]

Herzegovina
Herzegovina
in spring

Čvrsnica

The terrain of Herzegovina
Herzegovina
is mostly hilly karst with high mountains in the north such as Čvrsnica
Čvrsnica
and Prenj, except for the central valley of the river Neretva
Neretva
River. The largest city is Mostar, in the center of the region. Other larger towns include Trebinje, Stolac, Široki Brijeg, Posušje, Ljubuški, Grude, Konjic, and Čapljina. Borders between Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Bosnia are unclear and often disputed. The upper flow of the Neretva
Neretva
River lies in the northern parts of Herzegovina, a heavily forested area with fast flowing rivers and high mountains. Konjic
Konjic
and Jablanica lie in this area. The Neretva
Neretva
rises on Lebršnik Mountain, close to the border to Montenegro, and as the river flows towards west, it enters Herzegovina. The entire upper catchment of Neretva
Neretva
constitutes a precious ecoregion with many endemic and endangered species. The fast flowing emerald river carves its way through the precipitius karst terrain, providing excellent opportunities for rafting and kayaking, while the spectacular scenery of the surrounding mountains and forests is a challenging hiking terrain. The Neretva's tributaries in the upper flow are mostly short, due to the mountainous terrain: the Rakitnica River has cut a deep canyon, its waters being one of the least explored areas in this part of Europe. The Rakitnica River flows into Neretva
Neretva
upstream from Konjic. The Neretva
Neretva
then flows towards northwest, through the town of Konjic. The river enters the Jablanica Reservoir (Jablaničko jezero), one of the largest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The lake ends near the town of Jablanica. From here on, the Neretva
Neretva
turns southward continuing its course towards the Adriatic Sea. With mountains lining its shores gradually receding, the Neretva enters a valley where the city of Mostar
Mostar
lies. It flows under the well-known old bridge (Stari most) and continues now more widely flowing towards the town of Čapljina
Čapljina
and the Neretva
Neretva
Delta in Croatia before emptying into the Adriatic Sea. Cities[edit] Mostar
Mostar
is the best known and the unofficial capital. It is also the only city with over 100,000 citizens. There are no other large cities in Herzegovina, though some have illustrious histories. Stolac, for example, is perhaps the oldest city in Herzegovina. There have been settlements dating from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period (Badanj cave). An Illyrian tribe
Illyrian tribe
lived in the city of Daorson. There were several Roman settlements alongside the Bregava River and medieval inhabitants left large and beautiful stone grave monuments called stećak in Radimlja. Trebinje, on the Trebišnjica River, is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the border with Montenegro. Čapljina
Čapljina
and Ljubuški
Ljubuški
are known for their history and their rivers; the village of Međugorje
Međugorje
has religious importance for many Catholics. Administration[edit] In the modern Bosnian-Herzegovinian state, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
is divided between two entities, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Republika Srpska's part of Herzegovina, commonly referred to as East Herzegovina
East Herzegovina
or, as of late, " Trebinje
Trebinje
Region", is administratively divided into municipalities of Trebinje, Bileća, Gacko, Nevesinje, Ljubinje, Berkovići, Istočni Mostar
Mostar
and Foča. Within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
is administratively divided between the cantons of Herzegovina-Neretva and West Herzegovina.

"East Herzegovina" or " Trebinje
Trebinje
Region" in Republika Srpska

Herzegovina- Neretva
Neretva
Canton in Federation of B&H

West Herzegovina Canton
West Herzegovina Canton
in Federation of B&H

Economic region of Herzegovina, planned since 2013.

Population[edit] The locals of Herzegovina
Herzegovina
are known by the demonym Herzegovinians (Serbo-Croatian: Hercegovci; sing. Hercegovac). While the population of Herzegovina
Herzegovina
throughout history has been ethnically mixed, the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
in the 1990s resulted in mass ethnic cleansing and large-scale displacement of people. The last pre-war census in 1991 recorded a population of 437,095 inhabitants.

Herzegovina
Herzegovina
1991 Ethnic Composition Hercegovina 1991. etnički sastav[7]

Croats
Croats
generally populate the areas closest to the Croatian border focused on Mostar, Ljubuški, Široki Brijeg, Čitluk, Grude, Posušje, Čapljina, Neum, Stolac, Ravno
Ravno
and Prozor-Rama. Bosniaks
Bosniaks
mainly live in the areas along the Neretva, such as Mostar, Konjic
Konjic
and Jablanica, to a significant extent in Stolac
Stolac
and Čapljina, and to a lesser extent in Nevesinje, Gacko
Gacko
and Trebinje. Serbs
Serbs
are the majority in eastern Herzegovina, including the municipalities of Berkovići, Bileća, Gacko, Istočni Mostar, Ljubinje, Nevesinje, Foča
Foča
and Trebinje.

History[edit]

History of Herzegovina

Hum and Travunia
Travunia
(9th–14th century) Duchy of Saint Sava
Saint Sava
(1448–1482) Sanjak of Herzegovina (1481–1851) Herzegovina Eyalet
Herzegovina Eyalet
(1833–1851) Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Uprising (1875–1877)

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See also: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina Early history[edit] Further information: Zachlumia
Zachlumia
and Travunija Slavs settled in the Balkans in the 7th century. What later became known as Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was divided between Croatia, Zachlumia
Zachlumia
and Travunija
Travunija
in the Early Middle Ages. Parts of the region were later ruled by various medieval rulers, with the eastern part mostly within Medieval
Medieval
Serbia, and the western part in the Kingdom of Croatia. Bosnian Ban Stjepan II Kotromanić
Stjepan II Kotromanić
and King Tvrtko I
Tvrtko I
Kotromanić joined these regions to the Bosnian state in the 14th century. Kosača
Kosača
family[edit]

Flag of the Herzog's lands, based on Belgrade Armorial II
Belgrade Armorial II
(ca. 1600–1620)

Following the weakening of the Bosnian crown after the death of King Tvrtko I, magnate Sandalj Hranić
Sandalj Hranić
and his nephew Stjepan Vukčić
Stjepan Vukčić
of the Bosnian Kosača
Kosača
family ruled the Hum region independently, only nominally recognizing Bosnian overlordship. In a document sent to Frederick III on January 20, 1448, Stjepan Vukčić
Stjepan Vukčić
was titled Herzog (duke) of Saint Sava, lord of Hum and Primorje, great duke of the Bosnian kingdom, his lands (the Duchy of Saint Sava) became (much later) known as Herzog's lands or Herzegovina. Ottoman period[edit] Further information: Sanjak of Herzegovina

Flag of the Herzegovina Eyalet
Herzegovina Eyalet
(1833–1851)

In 1482, the lands of Stefan Vukčić's successors were occupied by Ottoman forces. The Ottomans were the first to begin officially using the name Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(Hersek) for the region. The Bosnian beylerbey Isa-beg Ishaković mentioned the name in a letter from 1454. In the Ottoman Empire, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was organized as a sanjak, the Sanjak of Herzegovina, within the Bosnia Eyalet. During the Long War (1591–1606), Serbs
Serbs
rose up in Herzegovina (1596–97), but they were quickly suppressed after their defeat at the field of Gacko. The Candian War of 1645 to 1669 caused great damage to the region as the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and the Ottoman Empire fought for control over Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and coastal Herzegovina. As a result of the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
of 1699, the Ottomans gained access to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
through the Neum-Klek coastal area. The Republic of Dubrovnik ceded this to distance themselves from the Venetian Republic's influence. The Ottomans benefitted from this in gaining the region's salt. As a result of the Bosnian Uprising (1831–32), the Vilayet was split to form the separate Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Eyalet, ruled by semi-independent vizier Ali-paša Rizvanbegović. After his death, the eyalets of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
were merged. The new joint entity was after 1853 commonly referred to as Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbs
Serbs
in the region revolted against the Ottomans (1852–62) and were aided by the Montenegrins, who sought the liberation of the Serb people
Serb people
from Ottoman rule. The Herzegovinian Serbs
Serbs
frequently rose up against the Ottoman rule; culminating in the Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Uprising (1875-78), which was supported by the Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
and Montenegro. Montenegro did succeed in liberating and annexing large parts of Herzegovina before the Berlin Congress
Berlin Congress
of 1878, including the Nikšić
Nikšić
area; the historical Herzegovina
Herzegovina
region annexed to Montenegro
Montenegro
is known as East or Old Herzegovina. Modern history[edit] As a result of the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Herzegovina, along with Bosnia, was occupied by Austria-Hungary, only nominally remaining under Ottoman rule. The historical Herzegovina
Herzegovina
region in the Principality of Montenegro
Montenegro
was known as East or Old Herzegovina. The Serb population of Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Bosnia hoped for annexation to Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. The Franciscan order opened the first university in Herzegovina
Herzegovina
in 1895 in Mostar.

Flag of Herzegovina
Herzegovina
in Austria-Hungary

In 1908, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
annexed the province, leading to the Bosnian Crisis, an international dispute which barely failed to precipitate a world war immediately, and was an important step in the buildup of international tensions during the years leading up to the First World War. The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
came as a direct result of the resentment of the Serbs
Serbs
of Bosnia and Herzegovina against Austro-Hungarian rule. During World War I, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was a scene of inter-ethnic conflict. During the war, the Austro-Hungarian government formed Šuckori, Muslim and Croat militia units. Šuckori
Šuckori
units were especially active in Herzegovina. In 1918, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
became a part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes (later renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia). In 1941 Herzegovina
Herzegovina
fell once again under the rule of the fascist Independent State of Croatia. During World War II, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was a battleground between fascist Croat Ustaše, royalist Serb Četniks, and the communist Yugoslav Partisans; Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was a part of the Independent State of Croatia, administratively divided into the counties of Hum and Dubrava, then in 1945, PR Bosnia and Herzegovina became one of the republics of Second Yugoslavia. It remained so until the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. During the Bosnian War, large parts of western and central Herzegovina came under control of the Croat republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
(which later joined the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) while eastern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
became a part of Republika Srpska. Culture[edit] Monuments[edit]

Stećci Stari most Tekija

Religion[edit]

Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina Roman Catholic Diocese of Mostar-Duvno

Music[edit]

Sevdalinka Ganga

Tourism[edit] In Herzegovina
Herzegovina
there are many beautiful and well-known natural landmarks, such as the falls of Kravica. These consist of several waterfalls near the city of Ljubuški
Ljubuški
and a popular spot for the local people, to take a bath in the hot Herzegovinian weather, or just to enjoy the view.

The Hutovo blato is a bird reserve, one of the most important in Europe and a gathering place for many international ornithologists. Vjetrenica
Vjetrenica
cave is a cave system near the border with Croatia, in the Ravno
Ravno
municipality. The cave has not been explored totally yet, but it is open to visitors. More and more species are being discovered there and it is a unique ecosystem with cave animals and other interesting things. Blagaj
Blagaj
is also known as the origin of the Buna River, inside a cave system. Neum
Neum
at the Adriatic Sea, Bosnia and Herzegovina's only coastal town, is also a popular tourist attraction. Međugorje
Međugorje
has one of the most visited sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina, receiving more than one million visitors each year.

Image gallery[edit]

Rock formation "Hajdučka vrata" on Čvrsnica

The "Old Bridge" ("Stari most") in Mostar, rebuilt in 2004.

Neum
Neum
and the Herzegovinian coast.

Počitelj, Old town

Rama Lake in Prozor-Rama

Medjugorje

Blidinje

Trebinje

Neretva
Neretva
River in Mostar, 2004

Bilećko jezero ( Bileća
Bileća
Lake)

Čvrsnica

See also[edit]

Bosnia (region) Daorsi Herzegovinians Old Herzegovina Sutjeska National Park Zahumlje Michael of Zahumlje Blidinje Hutovo Blato Karst Ganga Žilavka

References[edit]

^ " Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
dictionary definition Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
defined". yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-10-24.  ^ Administrativno uređenje Hercegovine od 1945. do 1952. godine by Adnan Velagić, published in Most - časopis za obrazovanje, nauku i kulturu, No. 191, Year 2005 (October), pp. 82-84. ISSN 0350-6517 ^ "Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary". encyclopedia.farlex.com. Retrieved 2014-10-24.  ^ Ekonomska regija Hercegovina[permanent dead link], Regionalna razvojna agencija za Hercegovinu (REDAH) in conjunction with the EU RED Project, Bosnia and Herzegovina, November, 2004, pp 24-26 ^ John V.A. Fine, "The Medieval
Medieval
and Ottoman Roots of Modern Bosnian Society", in Mark Pinson, ed., The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina: Their Historic Development from the Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia, Harvard Middle East Monographys 28, Harvard University Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2nd ed, 1996 ISBN 0932885128, p. 11 ^ B. Djurdjev, "Bosna" in Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed, P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, eds. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0126, 2012 ^ Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991. 1991. 

Further reading[edit]

Bataković, Dušan T. (1996). The Serbs
Serbs
of Bosnia & Herzegovina: History and Politics. Paris: Dialogue.  Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.  Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval
Medieval
Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.  Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1994) [1987]. The Late Medieval
Medieval
Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.  Klaić, Nada (1989). Srednjovjekovna Bosna: Politički položaj bosanskih vladara do Tvrtkove krunidbe (1377. g.). Zagreb: Grafički zavod Hrvatske. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Herzegovina.

Culture of Lower Herzegovina Poskok (Vipera) - herzegovinian portal Vinska Cesta

v t e

Regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographical

Gatačko polje Zagorje Popovo Polje Polimlje Romanija Bosanska Krajina

Knešpolje Cazinska Krajina Lijevče

Posavina Semberija Podrinje

Birač Osat Ludmer

Tropolje Travunia Prijedorsko polje Majevica Sutjeska

Historical

Bosnia Bosanska Krajina

Knešpolje Lijevče

Donji Kraji Vrhbosna Travunija Tropolje
Tropolje
(Završje) Osat Ludmer Herz

.