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Harbin

"Harbin" in Simplified Chinese (top), Traditional Chinese (middle), and Manchu (bottom) characters

Chinese name

Simplified Chinese 哈尔滨

Traditional Chinese 哈爾濱

Hanyu Pinyin  Hā'ěrbīn

Literal meaning (Manchu) "Place of drying fishnets"

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin  Hā'ěrbīn

Bopomofo ㄏㄚ   ㄦˇ   ㄅㄧㄣ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Ha'eelbin

Wade–Giles Ha1-êrh3-pin1

IPA [xá.àɚ.pín]

Yue: Cantonese

Jyutping Haa1-ji5-ban1

Manchu name

Manchu script

Romanization Harbin

Russian name

Russian  Харби́н (help·info)

Romanization Kharbin

Harbin
Harbin
(Chinese: 哈尔滨  Hā'ěrbīn) is the capital of Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.[6] Holding sub-provincial administrative status,[7] Harbin
Harbin
has direct jurisdiction over nine metropolitan districts, two county-level cities and seven counties. Harbin
Harbin
is the eighth most populous Chinese city according to the 2010 census,[8] the built-up area made of seven out of nine urban districts (all but Shuangcheng and Acheng not urbanized yet) had 5,282,093 inhabitants, while the total population of the sub-provincial city was up to 10,635,971.[4] Harbin
Harbin
serves as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural, and communications hub in Northeast China, as well as an important industrial base of the nation.[9] Harbin, which was originally a Manchu word meaning "a place for drying fishing nets",[9] grew from a small rural settlement on the Songhua River to become one of the largest cities in Northeast China. Founded in 1898 with the coming of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the city first prospered as a region inhabited by an overwhelming majority of the immigrants from the Russian Empire.[10] Having the most bitterly cold winters among major Chinese cities, Harbin
Harbin
is heralded as the Ice City for its well-known winter tourism and recreations.[11] Harbin
Harbin
is notable for its beautiful ice sculpture festival in the winter.[12] Besides being well known for its historical Russian legacy, the city serves as an important gateway in Sino-Russian trade today, containing a sizable population of Russian diaspora.[13] In the 1920s, the city was considered China's fashion capital since new designs from Paris and Moscow
Moscow
reached here first before arriving in Shanghai.[14] The city was voted " China
China
Top Tourist City" by the China
China
National Tourism Administration in 2004.[9] On 22 June 2010, Harbin
Harbin
was appointed a "City of Music" by the UN.[15]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 International city 1.3 Japanese invasion period 1.4 After World War II

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Economy

4.1 Economic Development Zones and Ports

5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Ethnic groups 5.3 Religion

6 Culture

6.1 Cuisine 6.2 Winter culture 6.3 The Music City

6.3.1 Harbin
Harbin
Summer Music Concert

6.4 Media 6.5 Television and radio

7 Architecture 8 Sports

8.1 Events

9 Transport

9.1 Railway 9.2 Road 9.3 Air 9.4 Subway 9.5 Ports and waterways

10 Education 11 International relations 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit]

Monument of Wanyan Aguda
Wanyan Aguda
in Acheng District

Human settlement in the Harbin
Harbin
area dates from at least 2200 BC during the late Stone Age. Wanyan
Wanyan
Aguda, the founder and first emperor (reigned 1115-1123) of the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), was born in the Jurchen Wanyan
Wanyan
tribes who resided near the Ashi River in this region.[16] In AD 1115 Aguda established Jin's capital Shangjing (Upper Capital) Huining Prefecture
Huining Prefecture
in today's Acheng District
Acheng District
of Harbin.[17] After Aguda's death, the new emperor Wanyan
Wanyan
Sheng ordered the construction of a new city on a uniform plan. The planning and construction emulated major Chinese cities, in particular Bianjing (Kaifeng), although the Jin capital was smaller than its Northern Song prototype.[18] Huining Prefecture
Huining Prefecture
served as the first superior capital of the Jin empire until Wanyan
Wanyan
Liang (the fourth emperor of Jin Dynasty) moved the capital to Yanjing (now Beijing) in 1153.[19] Liang even went so far as to destroy all palaces in his former capital in 1157.[19] Wanyan
Wanyan
Liang's successor Wanyan
Wanyan
Yong (Emperor Shizong) restored the city and established it as a secondary capital in 1173.[20] Ruins of the Shangjing Huining Prefecture
Huining Prefecture
were discovered and excavated about 2 km from present-day Acheng's central urban area.[17][21] The site of the old Jin capital ruins is a national historic reserve, and includes the Jin Dynasty History Museum. The museum, open to the public, was renovated in late 2005.[21] Mounted statues of Aguda and of his chief commander Wanyan
Wanyan
Zonghan (also Nianhan) stand in the grounds of the museum.[22] Many of the artifacts found there are on display in nearby Harbin. After the Mongol
Mongol
conquest of the Jin Empire (1211-1234), Huining Prefecture was abandoned. In the 17th century, the Manchus
Manchus
used building materials from Huining Prefecture
Huining Prefecture
to construct their new stronghold in Alchuka. The region of Harbin
Harbin
remained largely rural until the 1800s, with over ten villages and about 30,000 people in the city's present-day urban districts by the end of the 19th century.[23] International city[edit] See also: Harbin Russians
Harbin Russians
and History of the Jews in China A small village in 1898 grew into the modern city of Harbin.[24] Polish engineer Adam Szydłowski drew plans for the city following the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, which the Russian Empire had financed.[10] The Russians
Russians
selected Harbin
Harbin
as the base of their administration over this railway and the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
Zone. The Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
extended the Trans-Siberian Railway: substantially reducing the distance from Chita to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
and also linking the new port city of Dalny (Dalian) and the Russian Naval Base Port Arthur (Lüshun).

St. Nicolas Orthodox, a Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
church in Harbin, circa 1940, demolished during the Cultural Revolution

During the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1904–05), Russia used Harbin
Harbin
as its base for military operations in Manchuria. Following Russia's defeat, its influence declined. Several thousand nationals from 33 countries, including the United States, Germany, and France, moved to Harbin. Sixteen countries established consulates to serve their nationals, who established several hundred industrial, commercial and banking companies. Churches were rebuilt for Russian Orthodox, Lutheran/German Protestant, and Polish Catholic Christians. Chinese capitalists also established businesses, especially in brewing, food and textiles. Harbin
Harbin
became the economic hub of northeastern China
China
and an international metropolis.[23] Rapid growth of the city challenged the public healthcare system. The worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague was spread to Harbin through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli.[25] The plague lasted from late autumn of 1910 to spring 1911 and killed 1,500 Harbin
Harbin
residents (mostly ethnic Chinese), or about five percent of its population at the time.[26] This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria
Manchuria
and Mongolia which ultimately claimed 60,000 victims. In the winter of 1910, Dr. Wu Lien-teh
Wu Lien-teh
(later the founder of Harbin
Harbin
Medical University) was given instructions from the Foreign Office, Peking, to travel to Harbin
Harbin
to investigate the plague. Dr. Wu asked for imperial sanction to cremate plague victims, as cremation of these infected victims turned out to be the turning point of the epidemic. The suppression of this plague pandemic changed medical progress in China. Bronze statues of Dr. Wu Lien-teh
Wu Lien-teh
are built in Harbin
Harbin
Medical University to remember his contributions in promoting public health, preventive medicine and medical education.[27] After the plague epidemic Harbin's population continued to increase sharply, especially inside the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
Zone. In 1913 the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
census showed its ethnic composition as: Russians – 34313, Chinese (that is, including Hans, Manchus etc.) – 23537, Jews – 5032, Poles – 2556, Japanese – 696, Germans – 564, Tatars – 234, Latvians – 218, Georgians – 183, Estonians – 172, Lithuanians – 142, Armenians – 124; there were also Karaims, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, and some Western Europeans. In total, 68549 citizens of 53 nationalities, speaking 45 languages.[28] Research shows that only 11.5 percent of all residents were born in Harbin.[29] By 1917, Harbin's population exceeded 100,000, with over 40,000 of them were ethnic Russians.[30]

Harbin's Kitayskaya Street (Russian for "Chinese Street"), now Zhongyang Street (Chinese for "Central Street"), before 1945

After Russia's Great October Socialist Revolution
Great October Socialist Revolution
in November 1917, more than 100,000 defeated Russian White Guards and refugees retreated to Harbin, which became a major center of White Russian émigrés and the largest Russian enclave outside the Soviet Union.[30] The city had a Russian school system, as well as publishers of Russian-language newspapers and journals. Russian Harbintsy[31] community numbered around 120,000 at its peak in the early 1920s.[32] In the early 1920s, according to Chinese scholars' recent studies, over 20,000 Jews lived in Harbin.[33] After 1919, Dr. Abraham Kaufman played a leading role in Harbin's large Russian Jewish community.[34] The Republic of China discontinued diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1920, so many Russians
Russians
found themselves stateless. When the Chinese Eastern Railway and government in Beijing
Beijing
announced in 1924 that they agreed the railroad would only employ Russian or Chinese nationals, the emigrees were forced to announce their ethnic and political allegiance. Most accepted Soviet citizenship. The Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
seized the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
in 1929. Soviet military force quickly put an end to the crisis and forced the Nationalist Chinese to accept restoration of joint Soviet-Chinese administration of the railway.[35] Japanese invasion period[edit] See also: Defense of Harbin and Unit 731

Headquarter of the Imperial Japanese Army's covert biological and chemical warfare research and development Unit 731

Japan
Japan
invaded Manchuria
Manchuria
outright after the Mukden Incident
Mukden Incident
in September 1931. After the Japanese captured Qiqihar
Qiqihar
in the Jiangqiao Campaign, the Japanese 4th Mixed Brigade moved toward Harbin, closing in from the west and south. Bombing and strafing by Japanese aircraft forced the Chinese army to retreat from Harbin. Within a few hours the Japanese occupation of Harbin
Harbin
was complete.[36] With the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo, the pacification of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
began, as volunteer armies continued to fight the Japanese. Harbin
Harbin
became a major operations base for the infamous medical experimenters of Unit 731, who killed people of all ages and ethnicities. All these units were known collectively as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army.[37] The main facility of the Unit 731
Unit 731
was built in 1935 at Pingfang
Pingfang
District, approximately 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin
Harbin
urban area at that time.[38] Between 3,000 and 12,000 citizens including men, women, and children[39][40]—from which around 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai[41]—died during the human experimentation conducted by Unit 731
Unit 731
at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites.[42] Almost 70 percent of the victims who died in the Pingfang
Pingfang
camp were Chinese, including both civilian and military.[43] Close to 30 percent of the victims were Russian.[44] Some others were South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, at the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small number of the prisoners of war from the Allies of World War II[45] (although many more Allied POWs were victims of Unit 731
Unit 731
at other sites). Prisoners of war were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia, after infected with various diseases.[46] Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644 and Unit 100 among others) were involved in research, development, and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both civilian and military) throughout World War II. Human targets were also used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and explosive bombs.[47][48] Twelve Unit 731
Unit 731
members were found guilty in the Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
War Crime Trials but later repatriated; others received secret immunity by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
before the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal
Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal
in exchange for biological warfare work in the Cold War
Cold War
for the American Force.[49]

Three different nationalities – Chinese, Japanese and Russian – on Kitaiskaia Street

Chinese revolutionaries including Zhao Shangzhi, Yang Jingyu, Li Zhaolin, Zhao Yiman
Zhao Yiman
continued to struggle against the Japanese in Harbin
Harbin
and its administrative area, commanding the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army-Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army—which was originally organized by the Manchurian branch of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The army was supported by the Comintern
Comintern
after the CPC Manchurian Provincial Committee was dissolved in 1936.

Anti–communist Russian Fascist Party
Russian Fascist Party
Blackshirts, inspired by Italian Fascism, at Harbin
Harbin
Railway Station, 1934, waiting for arrival of their leader Konstantin Rodzaevsky

Under the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
régime and Japanese occupation, Harbin
Harbin
Russians had a difficult time. In 1935, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sold the Chinese Eastern Railway (KVZhD) to the Japanese, and many Russian emigres left Harbin
Harbin
(48133 of them were arrested during the Soviet Great Purge between 1936 and 1938 as "Japanese spies"[50]).[30] Most departing Russians
Russians
returned to the Soviet Union, but a substantial number moved south to Shanghai
Shanghai
or emigrated to the United States and Australia. By the end of the 1930s, the Russian population of Harbin
Harbin
had dropped to around 30,000.[51] Many of Harbin's Jews (13,000 in 1929) fled after the Japanese occupation as the Japanese associated closely with militant anti-Soviet Russian Fascists, whose ideology of anti-Bolshevism and nationalism was laced with virulent anti-Semitism.[52] Most left for Shanghai, Tianjin, and the British Mandate of Palestine.[53] In the late 1930s, some German Jews fleeing the Nazis moved to Harbin. Japanese officials later facilitated Jewish emigration to several cities in western Japan, notably Kobe, which came to have Japan's largest synagogue. After World War II[edit]

Monument to Soviet soldiers in Harbin's Nangang District, built by Soviet Red Army
Red Army
in 1945

The Soviet Army took the city on 20 August 1945[54] and Harbin
Harbin
never came under the control of the Kuomintang, whose troops stopped 60 km (37 mi) short of the city.[55] The city's administration was transferred by the departing Soviet Army to the Chinese People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
in April 1946. On 28 April 1946, the Communist Government of Harbin
Harbin
was established, making the 700,000-citizen-city the first large city under Chinese Communist force rule.[23] During the short occupation of Harbin
Harbin
by the Soviet Army (August 1945 to April 1946), thousands of Russian emigres who have been identified as members of the Russian Fascist Party
Russian Fascist Party
and fled communism after the Russian October Revolution,[32] were forcibly deported to the Soviet Union. After 1952 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched a second wave of immigration back to Russia.[32] By 1964, the Russian population in Harbin
Harbin
had been reduced to 450.[51] The rest of the European community (Russians, Germans, Poles, Greeks, etc.) emigrated during the years 1950–54 to Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel and the USA, or were repatriated to their home countries.[32] By 1988 the original Russian community numbered just thirty, all of them elderly. Modern Russians
Russians
living in Harbin
Harbin
mostly moved there in the 1990s and 2000s, and have no relation to the first wave of emigration. Harbin
Harbin
was among one of the key construction cities of China
China
during the First Five-Year Plan period from 1951 to 1956. 13 of the 156 key construction projects were aid-constructed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Harbin. This project made Harbin
Harbin
an important industrial base of China. During the Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward
from 1958 to 1961, Harbin experienced a very tortuous development course as several Sino-Soviet contracts were cancelled by the Soviet Union.[56] During the Cultural Revolution many foreign and Christian things were uprooted, such as the St. Nicholas church which was destroyed by Red Guards in 1966. As the normal economic and social order was seriously disrupted, Harbin's economy also suffered from serious setbacks. One of the main reasons of this setback is with its Soviet ties deteriorating and the Vietnam War escalating, China
China
became concerned of a possible nuclear attack. Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
ordered an evacuation of military and other key state enterprises away from the northeastern frontier, with Harbin
Harbin
being the core zone of this region, bordering the Soviet Union. During this Third Front Development Era of China, several major factories of Harbin
Harbin
were relocated to Southwestern Provinces including Gansu, Sichuan, Hunan
Hunan
and Guizhou, where they would be strategically secure in the event of a possible war. Some major universities of China
China
were also moved out of Harbin, including Harbin
Harbin
Military Academy of Engineering (predecessor of Changsha's National University of Defense Technology) and Harbin Institute of Technology
Harbin Institute of Technology
(Moved to Chongqing
Chongqing
in 1969 and relocated to Harbin
Harbin
in 1973).[57]

Huang Shan Jewish Cemetery of Harbin

National economy and social service have obtained significant achievements since the Chinese economic reform
Chinese economic reform
first introduced in 1979. Harbin
Harbin
holds the China
China
Harbin
Harbin
International economic and Trade Fair each year since 1990.[23] Harbin
Harbin
once housed one of the largest Jewish communities in the Far East before World War II. It reached its peak in the mid-1920s when 25,000 European Jews
European Jews
lived in the city. Among them were the parents of Ehud Olmert, the former Prime Minister of Israel. In 2004, Olmert came to Harbin
Harbin
with an Israeli trade delegation to visit the grave of his grandfather in Huang Shan Jewish Cemetery,[58] which had over 500 Jewish graves identified.[32] On 5 October 1984, Harbin
Harbin
was designated a sub-provincial city by the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee. The eight counties of Harbin
Harbin
originally formed part of Songhuajiang Prefecture whose seat was practically located inside the urban area of Harbin since 1972. The prefecture was officially merged into Harbin
Harbin
city on 11 August 1996, increasing Harbin's total population to 9.47 million.[59] Harbin
Harbin
hosted the third Asian Winter Games
Asian Winter Games
in 1996.[60] In 2009, Harbin
Harbin
held the XXIV Winter Universiade. A memorial hall honoring Korean nationalist and independence activist[61] Ahn Jung-geun
Ahn Jung-geun
was unveiled at Harbin Railway Station
Harbin Railway Station
on 19 January 2014.[62] Ahn assassinated four-time Prime Minister of Japan
Japan
and former Resident-General of Korea
Resident-General of Korea
Itō Hirobumi
Itō Hirobumi
at No.1 platform of Harbin Railway Station
Harbin Railway Station
on 26 October 1909, as Korea on the verge of annexation by Japan
Japan
after the signing of the Eulsa Treaty.[63] South Korean President Park Geun-Hye
Park Geun-Hye
raised an idea of erecting a monument for Ahn while meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping during a visit to China
China
in June 2013.[64] After that China began to build a memorial hall honoring Ahn at Harbin
Harbin
Railway Station. As the hall was unveiled on 19 January 2014, the Japanese side soon lodged protest with China
China
over the construction of Ahn's memorial hall.[65] Geography[edit]

Harbin

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3.4     −12 −24

    5.3     −7 −20

    9.7     3 −10

    18     14 1

    40     21 8

    84     26 15

    143     28 18

    121     26 16

    58     21 9

    26     12 0

    9.6     0 −10

    5.8     −9 −20

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: CMA[66]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.1     10 −11

    0.2     19 −4

    0.4     37 15

    0.7     56 33

    1.6     70 46

    3.3     79 58

    5.6     82 65

    4.8     79 61

    2.3     69 48

    1     53 32

    0.4     32 14

    0.2     15 −4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Harbin
Harbin
and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2010-09-22

Harbin, with a total land area of 53,068 km2 (20,490 sq mi), is located in southern Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
province and is the provincial capital. The prefecture is also located at the southeastern edge of the Songnen Plain, a major part of China's Northeastern Plain.[67] The city center also sits on the southern bank of the middle Songhua River. Harbin
Harbin
received its nickname The pearl on the swan's neck, since the shape of Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
resembles a swan.[68] Its administrative area is rather large with latitude spanning 44° 04′−46° 40′ N, and longitude 125° 42′−130° 10' E.[69] Neighbouring prefecture-level cities are Yichun to the north, Jiamusi and Qitaihe
Qitaihe
to the northeast, Mudanjiang
Mudanjiang
to the southeast, Daqing
Daqing
to the west, and Suihua
Suihua
to the northwest. On its southwestern boundary is Jilin
Jilin
province. The main terrain of the city is generally flat and low-lyling, with an average elevation of around 150 metres (490 ft). However, the territory that comprises the 10 county-level divisions in the eastern part of the municipality consists of mountains and uplands. The easternmost part of Harbin prefecture also has extensive wetlands, mainly in Yilan County which is located at the southwestern edge of the Sanjiang Plain.[70] Climate[edit] Under the Köppen climate classification, Harbin
Harbin
features a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Dwa). Due to the Siberian high
Siberian high
and its location above 45 degrees north latitude, the city is known for its coldest weather and longest winter among major Chinese cities.[68] Its nickname Ice City is well-earned, as winters here are dry and freezing cold, with a 24-hour average in January of only −18.4 °C (−1.1 °F), although the city sees little precipitation during the winter and is often sunny. Spring and autumn constitute brief transition periods with variable wind directions. Summers can be hot, with a July mean temperature of 23.0 °C (73.4 °F). Summer is also when most of the year's rainfall occurs, and more than half of the annual precipitation, at 524 millimetres (20.6 in), occurs in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 52 percent in December to 63 percent in March, the city receives 2,571 hours of bright sunshine annually; on average precipitation falls 104 days out of the year. The annual mean temperature is +4.25 °C (39.6 °F), and extreme temperatures have ranged from −42.6 °C (−45 °F) to 39.2 °C (103 °F).[71]

Climate data for Harbin
Harbin
(normals 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 4.2 (39.6) 9.9 (49.8) 20.7 (69.3) 29.4 (84.9) 34.6 (94.3) 36.7 (98.1) 38.2 (100.8) 35.6 (96.1) 31.0 (87.8) 26.5 (79.7) 17.2 (63) 8.5 (47.3) 39.2 (102.6)

Average high °C (°F) −12.5 (9.5) −7.2 (19) 2.3 (36.1) 13.7 (56.7) 21.3 (70.3) 26.1 (79) 27.9 (82.2) 26.3 (79.3) 20.7 (69.3) 11.7 (53.1) −0.1 (31.8) −9.4 (15.1) 10.07 (50.12)

Daily mean °C (°F) −18.3 (−0.9) −13.6 (7.5) −3.4 (25.9) 7.1 (44.8) 14.7 (58.5) 20.4 (68.7) 23.0 (73.4) 21.1 (70) 14.5 (58.1) 5.6 (42.1) −5.3 (22.5) −14.8 (5.4) 4.25 (39.67)

Average low °C (°F) −24.1 (−11.4) −19.8 (−3.6) −9.7 (14.5) 0.4 (32.7) 7.9 (46.2) 14.5 (58.1) 18.3 (64.9) 16.2 (61.2) 8.7 (47.7) 0.1 (32.2) −10.1 (13.8) −24 (−11) −1.8 (28.78)

Record low °C (°F) −38.1 (−36.6) −33.7 (−28.7) −28.4 (−19.1) −12.8 (9) −3.8 (25.2) 4.6 (40.3) 9.5 (49.1) 6.6 (43.9) −4.8 (23.4) −16.2 (2.8) −26.5 (−15.7) −35.7 (−32.3) −42.6 (−44.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.4 (0.134) 5.3 (0.209) 9.7 (0.382) 18.4 (0.724) 40.4 (1.591) 84.4 (3.323) 142.7 (5.618) 121.2 (4.772) 57.6 (2.268) 25.9 (1.02) 9.6 (0.378) 5.8 (0.228) 524.4 (20.647)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.8 5.7 5.7 6.7 10.3 13.5 14.2 12.3 9.9 7.1 6.0 7.2 104.4

Average relative humidity (%) 73 69 56 49 51 65 77 78 70 63 65 71 65.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 155.9 179.9 230.9 231.4 264.1 260.2 254.2 247.2 230.5 206.8 170.2 139.9 2,571.2

Percent possible sunshine 56 62 63 57 58 56 54 57 61 61 60 52 58.1

Source #1: China
China
Meteorological Administration[66]

Source #2: Weather China[72]

Administrative divisions[edit] The sub-provincial city of Harbin
Harbin
has direct jurisdiction over 9 districts, 2 county-level cities and 7 counties.

Map

1 2 3 4 5 6 Hulan Acheng Shuangcheng Yilan County Fangzheng County Bin County Bayan County Mulan County Tonghe County Yanshou County Shangzhi (city) Wuchang (city) 1. Daoli 2. Nangang 3. Daowai 4. Pingfang 5. Songbei 6. Xiangfang

Division code[73] Division Area in km2[74] Population(2010) Seat Postal code Subdivisions[75]

Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages

230100 Harbin 53523.5 10635971 Songbei 150000 131 107 62 12 850 1879

City proper

230102 Daoli 479.2 923762 Fushun
Fushun
Subdistrict 150000 20 3     116 37

230103 Nangang 182.9 1343857 Dacheng Subdistrict 150000 18 1 1 1 169 20

230104 Daowai 618.6 906421 Daxing Subdistrict 150000 22 4     114 38

230108 Pingfang 98.0 190253 Youxie Subdistrict 150000 6 2     25 11

230109 Songbei 736.3 236848 Songbei Subdistrict 150000 7 2     33 48

230110 Xiangfang 339.5 916408 Xiangfang Avenue Subdistrict 150000 20 4     117 46

Suburbs

230111 Hulan 2185.9 764534 Limin Subdistrict 150500 16 7 3   48 170

230112 Acheng 2452.1 596856 Jincheng
Jincheng
Subdistrict 150300 12 7     76 108

230113 Shuangcheng 3112.0 825634 Xinxing Subdistrict 150100 10 6 11 5 18 246

Satellite cities

230183 Shangzhi
Shangzhi
Ct. 8824.9 585386 Shangzhi
Shangzhi
Town 150600   10 7 2 21 163

230184 Wuchang Ct. 7502.0 881224 Wuchang Town 150200   12 12 3 21 261

Rural

230123 Yilan Co. 4616.0 388319 Yilan Town 154800   6 3 1 12 132

230124 Fangzheng Co. 2968.6 203853 Fangzheng Town 150800   4 4   15 67

230125 Bin Co. 3844.7 551271 Binzhou
Binzhou
Town 150400   12 5   5 143

230126 Bayan Co. 3137.7 590555 Bayan Town 151800   10 8   35 116

230127 Mulan Co. 3600.0 277685 Mulan Town 151900   6 2   7 86

230128 Tonghe Co. 5675.5 210650 Tonghe Town 150900   6 2   6 81

230129 Yanshou Co. 3149.6 242455 Yanshou Town 150700   5 4   12 106

Economy[edit] Harbin
Harbin
has the largest economy in Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
province.[9] In 2013, Harbin's GDP totaled RMB501.08 billion, an increase of 8.9 percent over the previous year.[76] The proportion of the three industries to the aggregate of GDP was 11.1:36.1:52.8 in 2012. The total value for imports and exports by the end of 2012 was USD 5,330 million.[9] In 2012, the working population reached 3.147 million. In 2015 Harbin
Harbin
had a GDP of RMB
RMB
575.12 billion.[77] The chernozem soil in Harbin, called "black earth" is one of the most nutrient rich in all of China, making it valuable for cultivating food and textile-related crops. As a result, Harbin
Harbin
is China's base for the production of commodity grain and an ideal location for setting up agricultural businesses. Harbin
Harbin
also has industries such as light industry, textile, medicine, food, aircraft, automobile, metallurgy, electronics, building materials, and chemicals which help to form a fairly comprehensive industrial system. Several major corporations are based in the city. Harbin Electric
Harbin Electric
Company Limited, Harbin Aircraft Industry Group
Harbin Aircraft Industry Group
and Northeast Light Alloy Processing Factory are some of key enterprises. Power manufacturing is a main industry in Harbin; hydro and thermal power equipment manufactured here makes up one-third of the total installed capacity in China.[78] According to Platts, in 2009-10 Harbin Electric
Harbin Electric
was the second largest manufacturer of steam turbines by worldwide market share, tying Dongfang Electric and slightly behind Shanghai
Shanghai
Electric.[79] Harbin
Harbin
Pharmaceutical Group, which mainly focus on research, development, manufacture and sale of medical products, is China's second-biggest pharmaceutical company by market value.[80] Foreign investors seem upbeat about the city. Harbin
Harbin
International Trade and Economic Fair has been held annually since 1990.[81] This investment and trade fair cumulatively attracting more than 1.9 million exhibitors and visitors from more than 80 countries and regions to attend, resulting over US $100 billion contract volume concluded according to the statistics of 2013.[82] Harbin
Harbin
is among major destinations of FDI in Northeast China,[9] with utilized FDI totaling US$980 million in 2013.[76] After the 18th regular meeting between Sino-Russian Prime Ministers between Li Keqiang
Li Keqiang
and Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev in October 2013,[83] two sides come to make an agreement that the Harbin
Harbin
International Trade and Economic Fair will be renamed "China-Russia EXPO" and be co-sponsored by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Provincial government, the Russian Ministry of Economic Development and Russia's Ministry of Trade and Industry.[84]

Headquarter of Harbin
Harbin
Bank

In the financial sector, Longjiang Bank and Harbin Bank
Harbin Bank
are some of the largest banks in Northeast China, with headquarters in Harbin. The latter ranks 4th by competitiveness among Chinese city commercial banks in 2011.[85] In commerce, there is Qiulin Group, which owns Harbin's largest department store. Economic Development Zones and Ports[edit]

Harbin
Harbin
Economic & Technology Development Zone (National), mainly focus on telecommunications equipment, chemicals production and processing, automobile production/assembly, electronics, textiles, medical equipment and supplies.[9][86] Harbin
Harbin
High and New Technological Development Zone, focus on optical-mechanical-electrical integration, biology, medicine, electronics and information technology.[9] Harbin
Harbin
Pingfang
Pingfang
Automobile Industrial Zone (Provincial), mainly focus on automobile production/assembly, electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production.[87] Harbin
Harbin
Limin Economic Development Zone (Provincial), mainly focus on trading and distribution, food/beverage processing, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics.[88] Harbin
Harbin
Port

Harbin
Harbin
Songbei Economic Development Zone

Songbei Economic Development Zone is located in Songbei District
Songbei District
of Harbin. The zone has a planned area of 5.53 square kilometers. Electronics assembly & manufacturing, food and beverage processing are the encouraged industries in the zone.[89] Many regional and provincial headquarters of large enterprises such as the China
China
Datang Corporation, China
China
Netcom and China
China
Telecom have joined in this district, preliminary constituting the economy concentration zone of the local headquarters. Regional Scientific research centers including Harbin
Harbin
Science and Technology Innovation Center and Harbin International Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Center are also located in this development zone. Profit from these major research institutes, Harbin
Harbin
ranked 9th among 50 major Chinese cities in scientific and technological innovation ability in scientific and technological competitiveness ranking in 2006, as well as ranking 6th among Chinese cities in the amount of scientific and technological achievements.[90]

Harbin
Harbin
Economic and Technological Development Zone

Office Buildings around Harbin
Harbin
ICE Center

Harbin
Harbin
Economic and Technological Development Zone(HETDZ) is one of the 90 national economical development zones of China. It was set up in June 1991, and was approved by the State Council as a national development zone in April 1993. In December 2012, Harbin
Harbin
High Technology Development Zone was merged into HETDZ. In 2009, the hi-tech zone was separated from HETDZ again.[91] The area now has a total area of 18.5 square-kilometers in the centralized parks, subdivided into Nangang and Haping Road Centralized Parks. The 12.2 square-kilometers Yingbin Road Hi-tech Centralized Park, which was formerly part of HETDZ, is currently under the administration of Harbin
Harbin
High and New Technology Industry Development Zone since 2009.

Nangang Centralized Park: Designated for the incubation of high-tech projects and research and development base of enterprises as well as tertiary industries such as finance, insurance, services, catering, tourism, culture, recreation and entertainment, where the headquarters of large famous companies and their branches in Harbin
Harbin
are located. Yingbin Road Centralized Park: mainly focus on high-tech incubation projects, high-tech industrial development. Haping Road Centralized Park: Designated for a comprehensive industrial basis for the investment projects of automobile and automobile parts manufacturing, medicines, foodstuffs, electronics, textile; Automobile production and assembly raw material processing are the encouraged industries in this region.

Harbin
Harbin
High and New Technology Industry Development Zone

Harbin
Harbin
High and New Technology Industry Development Zone is one of the 56 national High and New Technology Industry Development Zones of China.[92] The zone was first set up as a provincial level development zone in 1988, and was approved by the State Council as a national development zone in 1991 respectively.[93] It has 23.9 square-kilometers of built-area totally, and subdivided into two parts: Science and Technology Innovation Town and High-tech Industrial Development Zone.[92] Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1934 500,526 —    

1944 711,818 +42.2%

1953 1,162,962 +63.4%

1964 1,962,000 +68.7%

1982 2,542,832 +29.6%

1990 4,219,516 +65.9%

2000 9,413,359 +123.1%

2010 10,635,971 +13.0%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

The 2010 census revealed total population in Harbin
Harbin
was 10,635,971, representing a 12.99 percent increase over the previous decade.[94] The built-up area, made up of all urban districts but Acheng and Shuangcheng not urbanized yet, had a population of 5,282,083 people.[95] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD
OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 10.5 million.[5] The demographic profile for the Harbin
Harbin
metropolitan area in general is relatively old: 10.95 percent are under the age of 14, while 8.04 percent are over 65, compared to the national average of 16.6% and 8.87 percent, respectively. Harbin
Harbin
has a higher percentage of males (50.85 percent) than females (49.15 percent).[96] Harbin
Harbin
currently has a lower birth rate than other parts of China, with 6.95 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to the Chinese average of 12.13 births.[97] Ethnic groups[edit] Most of Harbin's residents belong to the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
majority (93.45 percent). Ethnic minorities include the Manchu, Hui, and Mongol. In 2000, 616,749 residents belonged to minority nationalities, among which the vast majority (433,340) were Manchu, contributing 70.26 percent to the minority population. The second and third largest minority groups were Koreans
Koreans
(119,883) and Hui nationalities (39,995).

Ethnic groups in Harbin, 2000 census[98]

Ethnicity Population Percentage

Han Chinese 8,796,610 93.45%

Manchu 433,340 4.6%

Koreans 119,883 1.27%

Hui 39,995 0.43%

Mongols 13,163 0.14%

Xibe 4,741 0.05%

Daur 938 0.01%

Others 4,689 0.05%

Religion[edit] The Catholic minority is pastorally served by its own Latin rite Apostolic Administration of Harbin, a missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction. It also has the Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
former cathedral of the Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin (pre-diocesan, Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
in Russian language). The badly-damaged Church of the Iver Icon of the Mother of God was previously used by Russian soldiers of the Outer Amur Military Region, then garrisoned in Harbin.[99] Harbin
Harbin
had a small Jewish community centered on Zhongyang Main Street, which was home to many European Jewish refugees.[99] Harbin
Harbin
is famous for its standard Mandarin pronunciation (As a common saying goes, 'If you want to study Chinese language, come to China. If you want to study Mandarin, come to Beijing. If you want to study standard Mandarin, come to Harbin.'). The Harbin
Harbin
local culture is based on Han culture, combined with Manchu culture and Russian culture.[9] This combination of cultures influences the local architecture style, food, music, and customs. The city of Harbin
Harbin
was appointed a UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Music on 22 June 2010 as part of the Creative Cities Network.[15] Culture[edit] Cuisine[edit]

Traditional Guo Bao Rou

Harbin
Harbin
is renowned for its culinary tradition. The cuisine of Harbin consists of European dishes and Northern Chinese dishes mainly typified by heavy sauce and deep-frying.[100] One of the most famous dishes in Northeastern Chinese cuisine is Guo Bao Rou, a form of sweet and sour pork. It is a classic dish from Harbin
Harbin
which originated in the early 20th century in Daotai Fu (pinyin: Dàotái Fǔ).[101] It consists of a bite-sized pieces of pork in a potato starch batter, deep-fried until crispy. They are then lightly coated in a variation of a sweet and sour sauce, made from freshly prepared syrup, rice vinegar, sugar, flavoured with ginger, cilantro, sliced carrot and garlic. The Harbin
Harbin
Guobaorou is distinct from that of other areas of China, such as Liaoning, where the sauce may be made using either tomato ketchup or orange juice. Rather the Harbin
Harbin
style is dominated by the honey and ginger flavours and has a clear or honey yellow colour. Originally the taste was fresh and salty. In order to fete foreign guests, Zheng Xingwen, the chef of Daotai Fu, altered the dish into a sweet and sour taste. Usually, people prefer to go to several small or middle size restaurants to enjoy this dish, because it is difficult to handle the frying process at home.[101] Demoli Stewed Live Fish is one among other notable dishes in Harbin, which is originated in a village named Demoli on the expressway from Harbin
Harbin
to Jiamusi. The village is now Demoli Service Area on Harbin-Tongjiang Expressway.[102] Stewed Chicken with Mushrooms, Braised Pork with Vermicelli, and quick-boil pork with Chinese sauerkraut are also typical authentic local dishes. Since Russia had a strong influence of Harbin's history, the local cuisine of Harbin
Harbin
also contains Russian-style dishes and flavor.[9] There are several authentic Russian-style restaurants in Harbin, especially alongside the Zhongyang Street.[103]

Harbin-style smoked sausage

A popular regional specialty is Harbin-style smoked savory red sausage.[100] This product similar to Lithuanian and German sausages which are very mild, and they tend to be much more of European flavours than other Chinese sausages. In 1900, Russian merchant Ivan Yakovlevich Churin founded a branch in Harbin, which was named Churin Foreign trading company (Chinese pinyin: Qiulin Yanghang; Russian: Цюлинь Янхан) selling imported clothes, leather boots, canned foods, vodka, etc., and began to expand sales network in other cities in Manchuria.[104][105] The influx of Europeans through Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
and Chinese Eastern Railway, increased demand of European flavor food. In 1909, Churin's Sausage Factory was founded, and first produced European flavor sausage with the manufacturing process of Lithuanian staff. Since then European style sausage become a specialty of the city.[100] A Russian style large round bread Dalieba, derived from the Russian word khleb for "bread" is also produced in Harbin's bakeries. Dalieba is a miche like sourdough bread. First introduced to the locals by a Russian baker, it has been sold in bakeries in Harbin
Harbin
for over a hundred years.[106] Dalieba's sour and chewy taste is different from other traditional soft and fluffy Asian style breads in other parts of China. Kvass, a Russia-originated fermented beverage made from black or regular rye bread,[107] is also popular in Harbin.[108] Madier ("马迭尔", derived from "Modern") ice-cream provided in the Zhongyang Street is also well known in northern China. This ice cream is made from a specific traditional recipe and it tastes a little salty but more sweet and milky. Besides its headquarters in Harbin, it also has branches in other major Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai, etc.[109] Winter culture[edit]

Tower at Harbin
Harbin
Ice and Snow Festival, 2013

Located in northern Northeast China, Harbin
Harbin
is the northernmost among major cities in China. Under the direct influence of the Siberian Anticyclone, the average daily temperature is −19.7 °C (−3.5 °F) in winter. Annual low temperatures below −35.0 °C (−31.0 °F) are not uncommon. Nicknamed "Ice City" due to its freezingly cold winter, Harbin
Harbin
is decorated by various styles of Ice and snow Sculptures from December to March every year.[12]

Snow Sculpture in Sun Island, 2011

The annual Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival
Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival
has been held since 1985. Although the official start date is 5 January each year, in practice, many of the sculptures can be seen before. While there are ice sculptures throughout the city, there are two main exhibition areas: enormous snow sculptures at Sun Island (Taiyang Dao, a AAAAA-rated recreational area on the opposite side of the Songhua River from the city) and the separate "Ice and Snow World" that operates each night with lights switched on, illuminating the sculptures from both inside and outside. Ice and Snow World features illuminated full-size buildings made from blocks of 2–3 feet thick crystal clear ice directly taken from the Songhua River
Songhua River
which passes through the city. The sculptures inside the exhibition ground takes 15,000 workers to work for 16 days. In early December, ice artisans cut 120,000 cubic metres (4.2 million cubic feet) of ice blocks from Songhua river's frozen surface as raw materials for the ice sculptures' show.[110] Massive ice buildings, large-scale snow sculptures, ice slides, festival food and drinks can also be found in several parks and major avenues in the city. Winter activities in the festival include Yabuli Alpine Skiing, snow mobile driving, winter-swimming in Songhua River, and the traditional ice-lantern exhibition in Zhaolin Garden, which was first held in 1963.[111] Snow carving and ice and snow recreations are famous nationwide, especially among Asian countries including Korea, Japan, Thailand and Singapore.[110] The " Harbin
Harbin
International Ice and Snow Festival" is one of the four largest ice and snow festivals in the world, along with Japan's Sapporo
Sapporo
Snow Festival, Canada's Quebec City Winter Carnival, and Norway's Holmenkollen Ski Festival.[9] Every November, the city of Harbin
Harbin
sends teams of ice artisans to the United States to promote their unique art form. It takes more than 100 artisans to create ICE!, the annual display of indoor Christmas-themed ice carvings in National Harbor, Maryland; Nashville, Tennessee; Kissimmee, Florida; and Grapevine, Texas. The Music City[edit]

Harbin
Harbin
Music Park, located in Youyi West Road.

Founded in 1908, the Harbin
Harbin
Symphony Orchestra was China's oldest symphony orchestra. Harbin
Harbin
No.1 Music School was also the first music school in China, which was founded in 1928. Nearly 100 famous musicians have studied at the school since its founding, said Liu Yantao, deputy chief of Harbin
Harbin
Cultural, Press and Publication Bureau. Every year, there are thousands of youngsters start their music dreams in this city, and the " Harbin
Harbin
Summer Music Concert" serial activities that always be held in the every year's summer present the music passion of the locals. UNESCO
UNESCO
recognizes China's Harbin
Harbin
as "The Music City" as part of the Creative Cities Network in 2010.[15] Harbin
Harbin
Summer Music Concert[edit] Harbin
Harbin
Summer Music Concert ('Concert' for short) is a national concert festival, which is held on 6 August every two years for a period of 10~11 days. During the concert, multiple evenings, concert, race and activities are held. The artists come from all over the world. The ' Harbin
Harbin
Summer Music Month', which was then renamed as 'Harbin Summer Music Concert', was held in August 1958. The first formal Concert was held on 5 August 1961 in Harbin
Harbin
Youth Palace, and kept on every year until 1966 when the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
started in China.[112] In 1979, the Concert was recovered and from 1994, it has been held every two years. As a part of 2006 Harbin
Harbin
Summer Music Concert's opening ceremony, a 1,001-piano concert was held in Harbin's Flood memorial square located at the north end of Zhongyang Street (Chinese: 中央大街; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Dàjiē) on 6 August 2006.[113][114] Repertoires of the ensemble consisted of Triumphal March, Military March, Radetzky March
Radetzky March
and famous traditional local song On The Sun Island. This concert set a new Guinness World Record for largest piano ensemble, surpassing the previous record held by German artists in a 600-piano concert.[15] In 2008, the 29th Harbin Summer Music Concert was held on 6 August.

Harbin
Harbin
Grand Theater , designed by MAD Studio. Located in Harbin's Songbei District, the opera house is surrounded by wetlands and waterways of Songhua River.

Media[edit]

Dragon Tower(Long Ta), a 336-meter-tall freestanding lattice tower, serves as the headquarter of HLJTV.

Television and radio[edit]

Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Television (HLJTV) serves as the media outlets of this region, broadcasts on seven channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces. Harbin
Harbin
Television (HRBTV) serves as a municipal station, which has five channels for specialized programming. Long Guang, Dragon Broadcast, formerly Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
People's Broadcasting Station, the radio station group that serves the whole Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
region, providing seven channels including a Korean language broadcast station. Harbin
Harbin
People's Broadcasting Station (HPBS), broadcasts music, news, traffic, economy and life in Harbin
Harbin
and adjacent areas including Daqing, Suihua
Suihua
and Fuyu.

Architecture[edit] Harbin
Harbin
is notable for its combination of Chinese and European architecture styles. Many Russian and other European style buildings are protected by the government. The architecture in Harbin
Harbin
gives it the nicknames of "Oriental Moscow" and "Oriental Paris" in China.[68]

European-style building in Zhongyang Street.

Zhongyang Street, one of the main business streets in Harbin, is a remnant of the bustling international business activities at the turn of the 20th century. First built in 1898, The 1.4 km (0.87 mi) long street is now a veritable museum of European architectural styles: Baroque
Baroque
and Byzantine façades,[9] little Russian bakeries and French fashion houses, as well as non European architectural styles: American eateries, and Japanese restaurants.[115] The Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
church, Saint Sophia Cathedral, is also located in the central district of Daoli.[9] Built in 1907 and expanded from 1923 to 1932, it was closed during the Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward
and Cultural Revolution periods. Following its designation in 1996 as a national cultural heritage site (First class Preserved Building),[116] it was turned into a museum as a showcase of the history of Harbin
Harbin
city in 1997.[117] The 53.35 m (175.0 ft)-tall Church, which covers an area of 721 square meters, is a typical representative of Byzantine architecture.[118]

Ji Le Temple
Ji Le Temple
(Temple of Bliss), a Buddhist temple in Harbin.

Many citizens believe that the Orthodox church damaged the local feng shui, so they donated money to build a Chinese monastery in 1921, the Ji Le Temple. There were more than 15 Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
churches and two cemeteries in Harbin
Harbin
until 1949. The Communist Revolution, and the subsequent Cultural Revolution, and the decrease in the ethnic Russian population, saw many of them abandoned or destroyed. Today, about 10 churches remain, while services are held only in the Church of the Intercession in Harbin.[119] Sports[edit]

Division B of the 2018 Bandy World Championship
2018 Bandy World Championship
will be played at the Harbin Sport University
Harbin Sport University
Stadium

As the center of winter sports in China, many famous winter sports athletes come from Harbin. Olympic medalists include short track star Wang Meng (six-time medalist), long track skater Zhang Hong (2014 Sochi, gold medal), and pairs figure skaters Shen Xue
Shen Xue
and Zhao Hongbo (2002 Salt Lake City and 2006 Turin bronze medals, and 2010 Vancouver, gold medal), Zhang Dan
Zhang Dan
and Zhang Hao, (2006 Turin, silver medal) and Pang Qing
Pang Qing
and Tong Jian. (2010 Vancouver, silver medal)[120] Harbin
Harbin
has an indoor speed skating arena, the Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Indoor Rink.[121] Opened in 1995, it is the oldest one of six in China. Mutual cooperation of the Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture and the Harbin
Harbin
Institute of Physical Education started an exchange of sports and cultural delegations, holding of sports, training of Chinese students in Khabarovsk, Russia and Harbin. Russian side started to have plans to introduce bandy to China
China
while Harbin has good preconditions to become one of the strong points of this sport in China.[122] The national team is based in Harbin,[123][124] and it was confirmed in advance that they would play in the 2015 Bandy World Championship.[125] Despite being there for the first time, the Chinese team did not finish last. Mr Zhu, president of the sport university, is a member of the Federation of International Bandy council.[126] In December 2017, an international student tournament will be played.[127] While Chinese bandy is still in its initial stages, it is expected that Harbin
Harbin
even more will become the driving force behind the domestic development,[128] for example via opening the Federation of International Bandy
Bandy
office for development and promotion in Asia.[129][130] Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Lava Spring Football Club currently play their home soccer matches at Harbin
Harbin
International Conference Exhibition and Sports Center, a 50000-seater stadium. The team gained promotion to China's second tier for the 2018 season when they came first in the 2017 China
China
League Two division. KRS Heilongjiang[131] are a professional ice hockey team based in the city. A member of the Russian-based Supreme Hockey League
Supreme Hockey League
and one of two Chinese teams in the league. The team is affiliated with the Kontinental Hockey League
Kontinental Hockey League
side, also based in China, HC Kunlun Red Star. An indoor ski resort opened in Harbin
Harbin
in 2017 and laid claim to be the world's largest of its kind. It will make it possible to enjoy down-hill skiing all year round.[132] Events[edit] The 1996 Asian Winter Games
1996 Asian Winter Games
were held in Harbin. While ice games were mainly held in Harbin
Harbin
city, the skiing events were held in Yabuli ski resort, Shangzhi
Shangzhi
city. In the frame of this campaign to assert its role on the world scene, Harbin
Harbin
hosted the 2009 Winter Universiade. Local Government spent 3.6 billion yuan for this event, with 2.63 billion used in construction and renovation of its sport infrastructure for this Universiade.[133] Harbin
Harbin
hosted the Asian Basketball Confederation Championship in 2003, in which China
China
won the championship on their home court for the thirteenth time.[134] Harbin
Harbin
bid to host the 2010 Winter Olympics, which was ultimately awarded to Vancouver, Canada.[135] The second China-Russia University Winter Sports Carnival was inaugurated 12th of December 2017.[136] This marked the first international bandy in Harbin.[137] The Russian participation came from DVGAFK in Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
among men and IrGTU in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
among women.[138] Being the national centre of bandy, Harbin
Harbin
will organise Division B of the 2018 Bandy
Bandy
World Championship.[139][140][141] Transport[edit] Railway[edit]

Railway system in Northeast China.

Located at the junction of "T-style" mainline system, Harbin
Harbin
is an important railroad hub of the Northeast China
China
Region.[142] Harbin Railway Bureau is the first Railway Bureau established by People's Republic of China
China
Government, of which the railway density is the highest in China. Five conventional rail lines radiate from Harbin
Harbin
to: Beijing
Beijing
(Jingha Line), Suifenhe
Suifenhe
(Binsui Line), Manzhouli
Manzhouli
(Binzhou Line), Beian (Binbei Line) and Lalin (Labin Line). In addition, Harbin has a high-speed rail line linking Dalian, Northeast China's southernmost seaport. In 2009, construction began on the new Harbin West Railway Station with 18 platforms, located on the southwestern outskirts of the city. In December 2012, the station was opened, as China
China
unveiled its first high-speed rail running through regions with extremely low winter temperatures. with scheduled runs from Harbin
Harbin
to Dalian.[143] The weather-proof CRH380B bullet trains serving the line can accommodate temperatures from minus 40 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius above zero.[144] In 2017, plan has been proposed to build a highspeed line between Harbin
Harbin
and Vladivostok, as part of the One Belt One Road Initiative
One Belt One Road Initiative
proposed by President Xi Jinping. The construction will make Harbin
Harbin
the first Chinese city to connect to a Russian city via highspeed and the first time a Russian city connects to the vast Chinese highspeed network. The city's main railway stations are the Harbin
Harbin
Railway Station, which was first built in 1899 and expanded in 1989.The main station is rebuilt in 2017, and now is still under construction; the Harbin
Harbin
East Railway Station, which opened in 1934; and the Harbin
Harbin
West Railway Station, which was built into the city's high-speed railway station in 2012.[142] Another main station, Harbin
Harbin
North Railway Station, opened for public service in 2015, along with new built Harbin-Qiqihar Passenger Railway.[145] Direct passenger train service is available from Harbin
Harbin
Railway Station to large cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Jinan, Nanjing
Nanjing
and many other major cities in China.[78] Direct high-speed railway service began operation between Harbin
Harbin
West and Shanghai
Shanghai
Hongqiao stations since 28 December 2013, and shorten the journey time to 12 hours.[146]

Harbin
Harbin
railway system

North terminal of Harbin
Harbin
Railway Station

Harbin
Harbin
West Railway Station

Harbin
Harbin
East Railway Station

Harbin
Harbin
South Railway Station.

A CRH High-Speed train enters Harbin
Harbin
West railway station

Road[edit]

Haping road, one of the main municipal roads in the south of Harbin.

As an important regional hub in Northeast China, Harbin
Harbin
has an advanced highway system. Major highways which pass through or terminate in Harbin
Harbin
include the Beijing–Harbin, Heihe–Dalian, Harbin–Tongjiang, Changchun–Harbin, and Manzhouli–Suifenhe highways.

Hexing Road, western part of Harbin's 2nd ring road.

G1 Beijing– Harbin
Harbin
Expressway G10 Suifenhe– Manzhouli
Manzhouli
Expressway G1001 Harbin
Harbin
Ring Expressway G1011 Harbin–Tongjiang Expressway, a spur of G10 that extends west to Tongjiang, formerly part of China
China
National Highway 010 G1111 Hegang– Harbin
Harbin
Expressway, a spur of G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway G1211 Jilin– Heihe
Heihe
Expressway, a spur of G12 Hunchun–Ulanhot Expressway that extends north to Heihe China
China
National Highway 102 China
China
National Highway 202 China
China
National Highway 221 China
China
National Highway 222 China
China
National Highway 301

Air[edit] Main article: Harbin
Harbin
Taiping International Airport Harbin
Harbin
Taiping International Airport, which is 35 kilometres (22 miles) away from the urban area of Harbin, is the second largest international airport in Northeast China. The technical level of flight district is 4E, which allows all kinds of large and medium civil aircraft. There are flights to over thirty large cities including Beijing, Tianjing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Qingdao, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shenyang, Dalian, Xi'an
Xi'an
and Hong Kong.[78] In addition there are also scheduled international flights between Harbin
Harbin
and Russia, Singapore, Malaysia
Malaysia
and South Korea. In June 2015, The first LCC international air routes to Japan, specifically the city of Nagoya
Nagoya
was to begin.[142] Because of the freight capability limitation, construction of the T2 Terminal began on 31 October 2014. The 160,000-square-meter T2 Terminal is scheduled to be finished in 2017, and will increase the freight capacity of the airport to three times of the previous.[147] Subway[edit] Main article: Harbin
Harbin
Metro

Entrance of Taipingqiao Station of Line 1, Harbin
Harbin
Metro

Construction of Harbin Subway
Harbin Subway
started on 5 December 2006. The total investment for the first phase of Line 1 is RMB5.89 billion. Twenty stations were planned to be set on this 17.73 km (11.02 mi) long line starting from Harbin East Railway Station
Harbin East Railway Station
to the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University
Harbin Medical University
in the west of the city. A subway depot, a command center and two transformer substations will be built along the line. Most of the line's route follows the air defence evacuation tunnel left from the "7381" Project which started in 1973 and ended in 1979. The 7381 project was intended to protect Harbin
Harbin
from the former Soviet Union's possible invasion or nuclear attack.

Yidaeryuan(2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin
Harbin
Medical University) Station, interchange station between Line 1 and Line 3.

The Line 1 of Harbin Metro
Harbin Metro
actually opened on 26 September 2013.[148] It is oriented along the east–west axis of the urban area of Harbin: from north-east ( Harbin
Harbin
East Railway Station) to south-west (2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin
Harbin
Medical University).[149] Line 2 and Line 3 are under construction. Line 2 runs from Songbei District
Songbei District
to Xiangfang District
Xiangfang District
and ringlike Line 3 runs through Daoli, Daowai, Nangang and Xiangfang Districts of Harbin. On 26 January 2017, Phase I of Line 3 opened for public service. Line 3 links Harbin
Harbin
West Railway Station to Yidaeryuan Station, the transfer station between Line 1 and Line 3.[150] In the long term, the city plans to build nine radiating subway lines and a circle line in downtown and some suburban districts, which account for 340 km (211.3 mi) by 2025.[151] Picture References:

"7381" Project, a Civil Defense System in Harbin Harbin Subway
Harbin Subway
Map, Line 1

Ports and waterways[edit] There are more than 1,900 rivers in Heilongjiang, including the Songhua River, Heilong River
Heilong River
and Wusuli River, creating a convenient system of waterway transportation. Harbin
Harbin
harbor is one of eight inland ports in China
China
and the largest of its type in Northeast China. Available from mid-April until the beginning of November, passenger ships sail from Harbin
Harbin
up the Songhua River
Songhua River
to Qiqihar, or downstream to Jiamusi, Tongjiang, and Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
in Russia.[78] Education[edit]

The main building of Harbin
Harbin
Institute of Technology. Note the Stalinist "tier-cake" façade, reminiscent of the "Seven Sisters" in Moscow.

As Harbin
Harbin
serves as an important military industrial base after PRC's foundation, it is home to several key universities mainly focused on the science and technology service of national military and aerospace industry.[152] Soviet experts played an important role in many education projects in this period. However, due to the threat of possible war with the Soviet Union, several colleges were moved southwards to Changsha, Chongqing, and several other southern cities in China
China
in the 1960s. Some of these colleges were returned to Harbin in the 1970s. Among these universities the best-known is Harbin
Harbin
Institute of Technology (HIT), one of China's better known universities. Founded in 1920 with strong support by the Russian diaspora
Russian diaspora
connected with the Chinese Eastern Railway, the university has developed into an important research university mainly focusing on engineering (e.g. in space science and defense-related technologies),[153][154] with supporting faculties in the sciences, management, humanities and social sciences. The institute's faculty and students contributed to and invented China's first analog computer, the first intelligent chess computer, and the first arc-welding robot. In 2010, research funding from the government, industry, and business sectors surpassed RMB1.13 billion, the second highest of any university in China.[78] HIT was ranked 7th in the Best Global Universities for Engineering by U.S. News in 2016.[155] International relations[edit] Harbin
Harbin
has town twinning and similar arrangements with approximately 30 places around the world, as well as some other cities within China. For a list, see List of twin towns and sister cities in China
China
→ H. In 2009 Harbin
Harbin
opened an International Sister Cities museum. It has 1,048 exhibits in 28 rooms, with a total area of 1,800 square metres (19,375 square feet).[156] On 3 September 2015, China
China
and Russia signed an agreement to re-open the Russian consulate in Harbin, as the former Soviet consulate was closed in 1962 after the Sino-Soviet split. China
China
will also establish a corresponding consulate in Vladivostok.[157] See also[edit]

Harbin
Harbin
Ferris Wheel List of cities in the People's Republic of China
China
by population List of current and former capitals of subnational entities of China

Notes[edit]

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International Sister Cities Museum". China
China
Daily.Com. 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2013-08-08.  ^ "Документы, подписанные по итогам российско-китайских переговоров 3 сентября 2015 г". http://www.russia.org.cn/ (in Russian). The Embassy of the Russian Federation in the People's Republic of China. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.  External link in website= (help)

References[edit]

Jing-shen, Tao (1976). The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95514-7.  Lahusen, Thomas (15 November 2001). Harbin
Harbin
and Manchuria: Place, Space, and Identity (South Atlantic Quarterly (Book 99) ed.). Location: Duke University Press Books. pp. 276 pages. ISBN 0-295-95514-7.  Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." – In: Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter, 1 January 2003. ISBN 3110962799, 9783110962796.

Also available at (Archive) the website of the Queens Library
Queens Library
– This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003. ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.

Further reading[edit]

Meyer, Mike, " Manchuria
Manchuria
Under Ice", Departures Magazine, Nov/Dec 2006, 292–297. Nikos Kavvadias, a popular Greek poet born in Harbin
Harbin
by Greek parents from Kefalonia, Greece Jan, Michel, "Cruelle est la terre des frontières", Payot, Paris, 2006 (in French).

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Prefecture

Daxing'anling

Huma County Tahe County Mohe County

Jiagedaqi Administrative Zone1 2 Songling Administrative Zone1 2 Huzhong Administrative Zone1 3 Xinlin Administrative Zone1 3

1 These are administrative zones, which are not standard units of local government, though they do function as such. 2 Formally part of Oroqen Autonomous Banner
Oroqen Autonomous Banner
in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
but administered de facto by Daxing'anling Prefecture
Daxing'anling Prefecture
in Heilongjiang. 3 Formally part of Huma County.

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144255570 GND: 4072316-1 N

.