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Hanfu
Hanfu
(Chinese: 漢服; pinyin:  Hànfú; literally: "Han clothing") is a term associated with the Hanfu movement
Hanfu movement
used to refer to the historical/traditional dress of the Han people.[1][2][3][4] Although the Book of Han
Book of Han
contains reference to '漢衣服' (read Han Yifu in modern Standard Mandarin),[5] the word 'Hanfu' (漢服) does not appear in A Dictionary
Dictionary
of Current Chinese, Cihai
Cihai
or other authoritative dictionaries of Standard Mandarin Chinese.[6][7][8][9][10] Ancient Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing is influential to the clothing of East Asia such as the Japanese kimono and Korean hanbok.[4]

Contents

1 Term and modern usage 2 History 3 Several styles

3.1 Garments

3.1.1 Hats, headwear and hairstyles

3.2 Style

3.2.1 Informal wear 3.2.2 Semi-formal wear 3.2.3 Formal wear 3.2.4 Court dress

4 Specific styles

4.1 Tang dynasty 4.2 Song and Yuan dynasty 4.3 Ming dynasty 4.4 Qing dynasty 4.5 Republic of China and modern China

5 Gallery

5.1 Gallery of Classic Han Clothing in Modern Times

6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Term and modern usage[edit] See also: Hanfu
Hanfu
movement The word "Hanfu" is not included in the authoritative dictionary of Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
Chinese "Contemporary Chinese Dictionary" (Chinese: 現代漢語詞典) and its modern definition was created by internet users around the year 2003.[11][12] According to " Dictionary
Dictionary
of Old Chinese Clothing" (Chinese: 中國衣冠服飾大辭典), the term "hanfu" means "dress of the Han people."[13] It is a concept to distinguish Han people's dress from minority clothing.[14] The term/concept of "hanfu" which is not commonly used in ancient times can be found in some historical records from Han, Tang, Song, Ming dynasties and the Republican era in China,[15][16][17][18][19] yet there is no clear history indicating that there was any such apparel in existence under the name "hanfu".[20][3] In 2003, some people in China has began a movement called the "Hanfu movement". The advocates of the movement think that the term "hanfu" refers to the vanished, pre-17th century historical clothing worn by the Han people, and the meaning of Hanfu
Hanfu
in the movement is the same from what it was in the historical records,[21][3] yet scholarly research indicates that the "modern definition of Hanfu" was created on Chinese-language, collaborative, web-based encyclopedia Baidu Baike and Chinese online platform “hanwang” by internet users.[14][22][12] Some pioneers of the movement who promote Han clothing and Han supremacist agenda admitted that the issue of Han clothing cannot be separted from the larger issue of racial identity and political power in China.[23] Professor
Professor
of China Youth University of Political Studies
China Youth University of Political Studies
Zhang Xian (Chinese: 張跣) mentioned the "modern definition of Hanfu" is a concept publicized by advocates of hanfu movement. Those advocates are mostly students, who created a non-academic, non-official standard of Hanfu
Hanfu
that refers to the historical dress of the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
before the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and published it on Baidu Baike. He also argue that the promotion of Han clothing is a hollow "totem" which serves to mislead and deceive people about the underlining racist and regressive nature of the movement. By stressing the purity and superiority of Han clture, the Hanists are denigrating rather than reviving national consciousness, and thus represent a deviation and distortion from the mainstream of cultural nationalism in morder China.[22][23] Professor
Professor
of Aichi University
Aichi University
Zhou Xing (Chinese: 周星) said that the so-called "hanfu", which is not commonly used in ancient times, refers to the traditional dress imagined by participants of hanfu movement.[3] Lecturer
Lecturer
of Macquarie University
Macquarie University
Kevin Carrico pointed out that: "in reality, modern hanfu is an invented style of dress that features broad sleeves, flowing robes, belted waists and vibrant colours. Its modern-day proponents claim it was the invention of the mythical Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
and was worn for millennia by the Chinese people... Han Clothing made the transition from a fantastic invented tradition to a distant image on a screen to a physical reality in the streets of China, in which one could wrap and recognise oneself."[12] History[edit]

A Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
portrait of Confucius
Confucius
showing the Chinese clothing of the Spring and Autumn period

From the beginning of its history, Han clothing (especially in elite circles) was inseparable from silk, supposedly discovered by the Yellow Emperor's consort, Leizu. The Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
(c. 1600 BC – 1000 BC), developed the rudiments of Hanfu; it consisted of a yi, a narrow-cuffed, knee-length tunic tied with a sash, and a narrow, ankle-length skirt, called chang, worn with a bixi, a length of fabric that reached the knees. Vivid primary colors and green were used, due to the degree of technology at the time.

12th-century Chinese painting
Chinese painting
of The Night Revels of Han Xizai (韓熙載夜宴圖) showing musicians' dress

The dynasty to follow the Shang, the Western Zhou Dynasty, established a strict hierarchical society that used clothing as a status meridian, and inevitably, the height of one’s rank influenced the ornateness of a costume. Such markers included the length of a skirt, the wideness of a sleeve and the degree of ornamentation. In addition to these class-oriented developments, Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing became looser, with the introduction of wide sleeves and jade decorations hung from the sash which served to keep the yi closed. The yi was essentially wrapped over, in a style known as jiaoling youren, or wrapping the right side over before the left, because of the initially greater challenge to the right-handed wearer (people of Zhongyuan discouraged left-handedness like many other historical cultures, considering it unnatural, barbarian, uncivilized, and unfortunate). Several styles[edit] Garments[edit] The style of historical Han clothing can be summarized as containing garment elements that are arranged in distinctive and sometimes specific ways. This is different from the traditional garment of other ethnic groups in China, most notably the Manchu-influenced clothes, the qipao, which is popularly assumed to be the de facto traditional Han Chinese
Han Chinese
garb. A comparison of the two styles can be seen as the following provides[original research?]:

Component Han Manchu

Upper Garment Consist of "yi" (衣), which have loose lapels and are open Consist of "pao" (袍), which have secured lapels around the neck and no front openings

Lower Garment Consist of skirts called "chang" (裳) Consist of pants or trousers called "ku" (褲)

Collars Generally, diagonally crossing each other, with the left crossing over the right Parallel vertical collars with parallel diagonal lapels, which overlap

Sleeves Long and loose Narrow and tight

Buttons Sparingly used and concealed inside the garment Numerous and prominently displayed

Fittings Belts and sashes are used to close, secure, and fit the garments around the waist Flat ornate buttoning systems are typically used to secure the collar and fit the garment around the neck and upper torso

A complete Hanfu
Hanfu
garment is assembled from several pieces of clothing into an attire:

Yi (衣): Any open cross-collar garment, and worn by both sexes Pao (袍): Any closed full-body garment, worn only by men in Hanfu Ru (襦): Open cross-collar shirt Shan (衫): Open cross-collar shirt or jacket that is worn over the yi Qun (裙) or chang (裳): Skirt
Skirt
for women and men Ku (褲): Trousers
Trousers
or pants

Hats, headwear and hairstyles[edit]

Children playing on a winter day (冬日嬰戲圖), Song Dynasty, by court painter Su, Hanchen (蘇漢臣). National Palace Museum
National Palace Museum
in Taiwan.

Poet Li Bai
Li Bai
in Stroll (李白行吟圖). A "減筆畫" (lit. minimalist painting) by Liang Kai
Liang Kai
(梁楷) of Southern Song Dynasty. Note that Li Bai
Li Bai
is depicted with his bun exposed, possibly due to the poet's heavy Taoist
Taoist
influence. The painting is currently kept in Tokyo National Museum.

Mural painting of a male figure, discovered in a Western Han
Western Han
dynasty (206 B.C. – 8 A.D.) tomb in Chin-hsiang County

On top of the garments, hats (for men) or hairpieces (for women) may be worn. One can often tell the profession or social rank of someone by what they wear on their heads. The typical types of male headwear are called jin (巾) for soft caps, mao (帽) for stiff hats and guan (冠) for formal headdress. Officials and academics have a separate set of hats, typically the putou (幞頭), the wushamao (烏紗帽), the si-fang pingding jin (四方平定巾; or simply, fangjin: 方巾) and the Zhuangzi jin (莊子巾). A typical hairpiece for women is the ji (笄) but there are more elaborate hairpieces. In addition, managing hair was also a crucial part of ancient Han people's daily life. Commonly, males and females would stop cutting their hair once they reached adulthood. This was marked by the Chinese coming of age ceremony Guan Li, usually performed between ages 15 to 20. They allowed their hair to grow long naturally until death, including facial hair. This was due to Confucius' teaching "身體髮膚,受諸父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也" – which can be roughly translated as 'My body, hair and skin are given by my father and mother, I dare not damage any of them, as this is the least I can do to honor and respect my parents'. In fact, cutting one's hair off in ancient China was considered a legal punishment called '髡', designed to humiliate criminals, as well as tattooing '黥', since regular people wouldn't have tattoos on their skin due to the same teaching. Children were exempt from the above commandment; they could cut their hair short, make different kinds of knots or braids, or simply just let them hang without any care. However, once they entered adulthood, every male was obliged to tie his long hair into a bun called ji (髻) either on or behind his head and always cover the bun up with different kinds of headdresses (except Buddhist
Buddhist
monks, who would always keep their heads completely shaved to show that they're "cut off from the earthly bonds of the mortal world"; and Taoist
Taoist
monks, who would usually just use hair sticks called '簪' (zān) to hold the buns in place without concealing them). Thus the 'disheveled hair', a common but erring depiction of ancient Chinese male figures seen in most modern Chinese period dramas or movies with hair (excluding facial hair) hanging down from both sides and/or in the back are historically inaccurate. Females on the other hand, had more choices in terms of decorating their hair as adults. They could still arrange their hair into as various kinds of hairstyles as they pleased. There were different fashions for women in various dynastic periods. Such strict "no-cutting" hair tradition was implemented all throughout Han Chinese
Han Chinese
history since Confucius' time up until the end of Ming Dynasty (1644 CE), when the Qing Prince Dorgon
Dorgon
forced the male Han people to adopt the hairstyle of Manchu men, which was shave their foreheads bald and gather the rest of the hair into ponytails in the back (See Queue) in order to show that they submitted to Qing authority, the so-called "Queue Order" (薙髮令). Han children and females were spared from this order, also Taoist
Taoist
monks were allowed to keep their hair and Buddhist
Buddhist
monks were allowed to keep all their hair shaven. Han defectors to the Qing like Li Chengdong and Liu Liangzuo and their Han troops carried out the queue order to force it on the general population. Han Chinese
Han Chinese
soldiers in 1645 under Han General Hong Chengchou forced the queue on the people of Jiangnan while Han people were initially paid silver to wear the queue in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
when it was first implemented.[24]

A lacquerware painting from the Jingmen
Jingmen
Tomb (Chinese: 荊門楚墓; Pinyin: Jīngmén chǔ mù) of the State of Chu
State of Chu
(704–223 BC), depicting women and men wearing precursors to traditional silk dress) and riding in a two-horsed chariot

A Taoist
Taoist
soothsayer advising a woman. Note that his hair is tightened into a bun on his head, a surviving example of the previous commonly adopted male hairstyle of Han people. Photo taken in 2008 outside the Changchun Temple (長春觀) in Wuhan, China.

Fresco
Fresco
of a woman from a Western Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 B.C. – 8 A.D.) tomb in Xi'an

Mural of a woman from the Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb of the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD), in Zhengzhou, Henan

Mural of two women with Han hairstyles, Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb

Mural of a woman, Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb

Mural of a woman, Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb

A Northern Qi
Northern Qi
dynasty mural of a gate guard from the tomb of Lou Rui (婁叡).

A Song dynasty
Song dynasty
mural reflecting a scene of the daily life of the occupant, found in a tomb unearthed in Dengfeng.

Man's Headwear view Woman's Headwear view

Mianguan

Phoenix crown

Tongtianguan

Huasheng

Pibian

Bian

Jinxianguan

Hairpin

Longguan

Putou (襆頭), lit. "head cover' or "head wrap". An early form of informal headwear dates back as early as Jin Dynasty that later developed into several variations for wear in different occasions.

Zhangokfutou (展角幞頭), lit. "Spread-Horn Head Cover", designed by the founder of Song Dynasty, with elongated horns on both sides in order to keep the distance between his officials so they couldn't whisper to each other during court assemblies. It was also later adapted by the Ming Dynasty, authorized for court wear.

Zhan Chi Fu Tou (展翅幞頭), lit. "Spread-Wing Head Cover", more commonly known by its nickname Wu Sha Mao (烏紗帽), lit. 'Black-Cloth Hat', was the standard headwear of officials during the Ming Dynasty. The term 'Wu Sha Mao' is still frequently used in modern Chinese slang when referring to a government position.

Yishanguan (翼善冠), lit. "Winged Crown of Philanthropy", worn by emperors and princes of the Ming Dynasty, as well as kings of many of its tributaries such as Korea
Korea
and Ryukyu. The version worn by emperors was elaborately decorated with jewels and dragons; while the others looked basically like Wu Sha Mao only with wings folded upwards.

Pashou

Patou

Zhuzi jin

Zhouzi jin

Zhuangzi jin

Fujin

Li

Zi

Wangjing

Style[edit]

Another type of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Shenyi
Shenyi
(深衣) commonly worn from the pre-Shang periods to the Ming Dynasty. This form is known as the zhiju (直裾) and worn primarily by men

Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing had changed and evolved with the fashion of the days since its commonly assumed beginnings in the Shang dynasty. Many of the earlier designs are more gender-neutral and simple in cuttings. Later garments incorporate multiple pieces with men commonly wearing pants and women commonly wearing skirts. Clothing for women usually accentuates the body's natural curves through wrapping of upper garment lapels or binding with sashes at the waist. Informal wear[edit] Types include tops (yi) and bottoms (divided further into pants and skirts for both genders, with terminologies chang or qun), and one-piece robes that wrap around the body once or several times (shenyi).

Zhongyi (中衣) or zhongdan (中單): inner garments, mostly white cotton or silk Shanqun (衫裙): a short coat with a long skirt Ruqun
Ruqun
(襦裙): a top garment with a separate lower garment or skirt Kuzhe (褲褶): a short coat with trousers Zhiduo/zhishen (直裰/直身): a Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
style robe, similar to a zhiju shenyi but with vents at the side and 'stitched sleeves' (i.e. the sleeve cuff is closed save a small opening for the hand to go through) Daopao/Fusha (道袍/彿裟): Taoist/ Buddhist
Buddhist
priests' full dress ceremonial robes. Note: Daopao
Daopao
doesn't necessarily means Taoist's robe, it actually is a style of robe for scholars. And the Taoist version of Daopao
Daopao
is called De Luo (得罗), and Buddhist
Buddhist
version is called Hai Qing (海青).

Two traditional forms of ruqun (襦裙), a type of Han Chinese clothing worn primarily by women. Cuffs and sleeves on the upper garment may be tighter or looser depending on style. A short skirt or weighted braid (with weight provided by a jade or gold pendant) is sometimes worn to improve aesthetics or comfort of the basic ruqun.

A typical set of Hanfu
Hanfu
can consist of two or three layers. The first layer of clothing is mostly the zhongyi (中衣) which is typically the inner garment much like a Western T-shirt and pants. The next layer is the main layer of clothing which is mostly closed at the front. There can be an optional third layer which is often an overcoat called a zhaoshan which is open at the front. More complicated sets of Hanfu
Hanfu
can have many more layers. For footwear, white socks and black cloth shoes (with white soles) are the norm, but in the past, shoes may have a front face panel attached to the tip of the shoes. Daoists, Buddhists and Confucians may have white stripe chevrons. Semi-formal wear[edit] A piece of Hanfu
Hanfu
can be "made semi-formal" by the addition of the following appropriate items:

Chang (裳): a pleated skirt Bixi (蔽膝): long front cloth panel attached from the waist belt Zhaoshan (罩衫): long open fronted coat Guan (冠) or any formal hats

Generally, this form of wear is suitable for meeting guests or going to meetings and other special cultural days. This form of dress is often worn by the nobility or the upper-class as they are often expensive pieces of clothing, usually made of silks and damasks. The coat sleeves are often deeper than the shenyi to create a more voluminous appearance. Formal wear[edit]

Yuanlingshan

In addition to informal and semi-formal wear, there is a form of dress that is worn only at confucian rituals (like important sacrifices or religious activities) or by special people who are entitled to wear them (such as officials and emperors). Formal wear
Formal wear
are usually long wear with long sleeves except Xuanduan. Formal garments may include:

Xuanduan (玄端): a very formal dark robe; equivalent to the Western white tie Shenyi
Shenyi
(深衣): a long full body garment

Quju (曲裾): diagonal body wrapping Zhiju (直裾): straight lapels

Yuanlingshan
Yuanlingshan
(圓領衫), lanshan (襴衫) or panlingpao (盤領袍): closed, round-collared robe; mostly used for official or academical dress

Carved reliefs on stone tomb doors showing a man holding a shield, the other a broom, Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
(25–220 AD), from Lanjia Yard, Pi County, Sichuan
Sichuan
province, Sichuan
Sichuan
Provincial Museum of Chengdu

A late Eastern Han
Eastern Han
(25–220 AD) Chinese tomb mural showing lively scenes of a including ladies and gentlemen banquet (yanyin 宴饮), dance and music (wuyue 舞乐), acrobatics (baixi 百戏), and wrestling (xiangbu 相扑), from the Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb (Chinese: 打虎亭汉墓, Pinyin: Dahuting
Dahuting
Han mu), on the southern bank of the Suihe River in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China (just west of Xi County)

Style Views

Xuanduan

Shenyi

Yuanlingshan

The most formal dress civilians can wear is the xuanduan (sometimes called yuanduan 元端[25]), which consists of a black or dark blue top garment that runs to the knees with long sleeve (often with white piping), a bottom red chang, a red bixi (which can have a motif and/or be edged in black), an optional white belt with two white streamers hanging from the side or slightly to the front called peishou (佩綬), and a long black guan. Additionally, wearers may carry a long jade gui (圭) or wooden hu (笏) tablet (used when greeting royalty). This form of dress is mostly used in sacrificial ceremonies such as Ji Tian
Ji Tian
(祭天) and Ji Zu (祭祖), etc., but is also appropriate for state occasions. The xuanduan is basically a simplified version of full court dress of the officials and the nobility.

Men and women in xuanduan formal wear at a Confucian
Confucian
ceremony in China

Those in the religious orders wear a plain middle layer garment followed by a highly decorated cloak or coat. Taoists have a 'scarlet gown' (絳袍)[26] which is made of a large cloak sewn at the hem to create very long deep sleeves used in very formal rituals. They are often scarlet or crimson in color with wide edging and embroidered with intricate symbols and motifs such as the eight trigrams and the yin and yang Taiji symbol. Buddhist
Buddhist
have a cloak with gold lines on a scarlet background creating a brickwork pattern which is wrapped around over the left shoulder and secured at the right side of the body with cords. There may be further decorations, especially for high priests.[27] Those in academia or officialdom have distinctive gowns (known as changfu 常服 in court dress terms). This varies over the ages but they are typically round collared gowns closed at the front. The most distinct feature is the headwear which has 'wings' attached. Only those who passed the civil examinations are entitled to wear them, but a variation of it can be worn by ordinary scholars and laymen and even for a groom at a wedding (but with no hat). Court dress[edit]

The Emperor's Mianfu ( Sun Quan
Sun Quan
as Emperor, Three Kingdoms period) 

The Emperor in his court (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) 

The Empress's Diyi
Diyi
(Empress Li Fengniang, Song Dynasty) 

Diyi
Diyi
(Empress Wu, Song Dynasty) 

Princess of Cao Guo (曹國公主, personal name Zhu Fonv (朱佛女), sister of Hongwu Emperor, Ming Dynasty) Seated portrait wearing Da Shan Xia Pei (大衫霞帔, lit. "The Grand Dress
Dress
of Draping Radiance") 

Emperor's Yellow Pao (Yongle Emperor, Ming Dynasty) 

Gongfu (Emperor Zhenzong, Song Dynasty) 

Highest rank official's Mang Pao (蟒袍, lit. "The Python Robe". The right to wear such dress was seen as a special honour that emperors bestowed on officials who had done great deeds for the empire so they earned the privilege to wear the 'python' – named so because only royals could wear dragons [which are five-clawed], thus the modified 'pythons' [which look basically like dragons only with four claws] for prestigious officials. Ming Dynasty) 

Official's Changfu (Ming Dynasty) 

Lower rank official's Changfu (Ming Dynasty) 

Official dressed with different colored Changfu. (Ming Dynasty) 

Court dress in a court assembly during the Wanli Era (Ming Dynasty) 

Court dress is the dress worn at very formal occasions and ceremonies that are in the presence of a monarch (such as an enthronement ceremony). The entire ensemble of clothing can consist of many complex layers and look very elaborate. Court dress is similar to the xuanduan in components but have additional adornments and elaborate headwear. They are often brightly colored with vermillion and blue. There are various versions of court dress that are worn for certain occasions. Court dress refers to:

Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
sancai statue showing an official's dress

Romanization Hanzi Definition

Mianfu 冕服 religious court dress of emperor, officials or nobility

Bianfu 弁服 ceremonial military dress of emperor, officials or nobility

Chaofu 朝服 a red ceremonial court dress of emperor, officials or nobility

Gongfu 公服 formal court dress according to ranks

Changfu 常服 everyday court dress

The practical use of court dress is now obsolete in the modern age since there is no reigning monarch in China anymore. Specific styles[edit] Historically, Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing has influenced many of its neighbouring cultural costumes, such as Japanese kimono, yukata,[28][29] and the Vietnamese Áo giao lĩnh.[30][31] Elements of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing have also been influenced by neighbouring cultural costumes, especially by the nomadic peoples to the north, and Central Asian cultures to the west by way of the Silk
Silk
Road.[32][33] Tang dynasty[edit]

Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
woman

The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
represents a golden age in China's history, where the arts, sciences and economy were thriving. Female dress and personal adornments in particular reflected the new visions of this era, which saw unprecedented trade and interaction with cultures and philosophies alien to Chinese borders. Although it still continues the clothing of its predecessors such as Han and Sui dynasties, fashion during the Tang was also influenced by its cosmopolitan culture and arts. Where previously Chinese women had been restricted by the old Confucian
Confucian
code to closely wrapped, concealing outfits, female dress in the Tang Dynasty gradually became more relaxed, less constricting and even more revealing.[34] The Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
also saw the ready acceptance and syncretisation with Chinese practice, of elements of foreign culture by the Han Chinese. The foreign influences prevalent during Tang China included cultures from Gandhara, Turkistan, Persia and Greece. The stylistic influences of these cultures were fused into Tang-style clothing without any one particular culture having especial prominence.[35] Song and Yuan dynasty[edit]

Han Clothing in Yuan dynasty

Some features of Tang Clothing carried into the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
Such as court customs. Song court customs often use red color for their garments with black leather shoe and hats. Collar edges and sleeve edges of all clothes that have been excavated were decorated with laces or embroidered patterns. Such clothes were decorated with patterns of peony, camellia, plum blossom, and lily, etc. Song Empress often had three to five distinctive jewelry-like marks on their face (two side of the cheek, other two next to the eyebrows and one on the forehead). Although some of Song clothing have similarities with previous dynasties, some unique characteristics separate it from the rest. Many of Song Clothing goes into Yuan and Ming.[36] One of the common clothing style for the woman in Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
is Beizi(褙子), which were usually regard as shirt or jacket and could be matched with Ru or Ku. There are two size of Beizi: short one is crown rump length and long one means the length cover to knees.[37] Ming dynasty[edit]

Female's Ao Qun (襖裙, lit. coat-and-skirt), historical artifact kept in Kong Family Mansion.

Commoner's clothing

Nicolas Trigault, a Flemish Jesuit
Jesuit
in Ming style Confucian-scholar costume (Rufu 儒服). Drawing by Peter Paul Rubens, 1617.

A portrait painting of Nicolas Trigault
Nicolas Trigault
believed to be wearing the same costume as shown in the drawing. By Rubens' workshop.

According to the Veritable Records of Hongwu Emperor
Hongwu Emperor
(太祖實錄, a detailed official account written by court historians recording the daily activities of Hongwu Emperor
Hongwu Emperor
during his reign.), shortly after the founding of Ming dynasty, "on the Renzi day in the second month of the first year of Hongwu era (Feb 29th, 1368 CE), Hongwu emperor decreed that all fashions of clothing and headwear shall be restored to the standard of Tang, all citizens shall gather their hairs on top of their heads, and officials shall wear the Wu Sha Mao (Black-cloth Hats), round-collar robes, belts, and black boots." ("洪武元年二月壬子...至是,悉命復衣冠如唐制,士民皆束髮於頂,官則烏紗帽,圓領袍,束帶,黑靴。") This attempt to restore the entire clothing system back to the way it was during Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was a gesture from the founding emperor that signified the restoration of Han tradition and cultural identity after defeating the Yuan dynasty. However, fashionable Mongol attires, items and hats were still sometimes worn by early Ming royalties such as Emperors Hongwu and Zhengde.[33][38] The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
also brought many changes to its clothing, as many dynasties do. They implemented metal buttons and the collar changed from the symmetrical type of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(960-1279) to the main circular type. Compared with the costume of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the proportion of the upper outer garment to lower skirt in the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
was significantly inverted. Since the upper outer garment was shorter and the lower garment was longer, the jacket gradually became longer to shorten the length of the exposed skirt. Young ladies in the mid Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
usually preferred to dress in these waistcoats. The waistcoats in the Qing Dynasty were transformed from those of the Yuan Dynasty. During the Ming Dynasty, Confucian codes and ideals were popularized and it had a significant effect on clothing.[39]

Ten Officials Who Passed The Imperial Exam In The Same Year of 1464 (甲申十同年圖), painted in 1503 during one of their reunions. The presence of yapai (牙牌, lit. 'Tusk Card' or 'Ivory Plaque')—the rectangular device hanging from each official's left waist, made from ivory, engraved with the wearer's department, position, rank and instructions, worn by officials who were granted passage into the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
to have an audience with the emperor, similar to a visitor's badge—implies that this scene was painted shortly after such a meeting had taken place. In Ming Dynasty, both Civil and Military officials were divided into nine Ranks (品), each Rank was further subdivided into Primary (正) and Secondary (從) so there were technically eighteen Ranks, with First Rank Primary (正一品) being the highest and the Ninth Rank Secondary (從九品) the lowest. Officials of the upper four Ranks (from First Rank Primary to Fourth Rank Secondary) were entitled to wear the red robes; mid-Ranks (Fifth Rank Primary to Seventh Rank Secondary) to wear blue robes and the lower Ranks (Eighth Rank Primary to Ninth Rank Secondary) to wear green robes. In addition, each exact Rank was indicated by a picture of unique animal (either real or legendary) sewn on a square-shaped patch in both front and back of the robe, so fellow officials could identify someone's Rank from afar. (Use the chart below for comprehensible facts, for more information see Mandarin square)

A yapai (牙牌) from Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
as mentioned in the painting above, this is the side engraved with instructions: the smaller text on the right reads "Officials who come to pay tribute [to the emperor] shall wear this card, those found without one will be prosecuted by law. Those who borrow or lend this card will be punished equally." the larger text on the left reads 'Not required [to be checked] when outside the capital [Beijing]."

Official Dress
Dress
Codes of the Ming Dynasty

Precedence Rank Robe Color Animal on Patch (Civil) Animal on Patch (Military) Exemplified Positions (Not All-Inclusive)

1st(Highest)

First Rank Primary 正一品

Crane

Lion

Emperor's Chief Advisor 太師 Regional Commander 都督

2nd

First Rank Secondary 從一品

Ditto

Ditto

Emperor's Assistant 少傅 Regional Executive Officer 都督同知

3rd

Second Rank Primary 正二品

Golden pheasant

Lion

Crown Prince's Teaching Assistant太子少師 Secretary of Defense 兵部尚書

4th

Second Rank Secondary 從二品

Ditto

Ditto

Governor 布政使 Provincial Deputy Commander 都指揮同知

5th

Third Rank Primary 正三品

Peacock

Tiger

Mayor of Beijing
Beijing
順天府尹 Deputy Secretary of Labor 工部侍郎

6th

Third Rank Secondary 從三品

Ditto

Ditto

Minister of the Imperial Stud 太僕寺卿 Minister of Salt Supply 都轉鹽運使

7th

Fourth Rank Primary 正四品

Wild goose

Leopard

(Eunuch Position) Handler of the Imperial Seal 掌印太監 Minister of Foreign Affairs 鴻臚寺卿

8th

Fourth Rank Secondary 從四品

Ditto

Ditto

Principal of the Imperial Academy 國子監祭酒 Governor's Junior Assistant 參議

9th

Fifth Rank Primary 正五品

Silver pheasant

Bear

Principal of the Imperial Medical Academy 太醫院使 Grand Secretary of the Cabinet 内閣大學士

10th

Fifth Rank Secondary 從五品

Ditto

Ditto

Junior Scholar at the Imperial Library 翰林院侍讀學士 Deputy Manager of the Department of Justice 刑部員外郎

11th

Sixth Rank Primary 正六品

Egret

Panther

(Female Position) Manager of Royal House Records 司記 Minister of Buddhist
Buddhist
Affairs 僧錄司善世

12th

Sixth Rank Secondary 從六品

Ditto

Ditto

Deputy Mayor 同知 Deputy Manager of Minority Affairs 安撫司副使

13th

Seventh Rank Primary 正七品

Mandarin duck

Panther

Auditor of the Supreme Court 大理寺評事 Investigating Censor 監察御史

14th

Seventh Rank Secondary 從七品

Ditto

Ditto

Monitor of the Six Ministries給事中 Deputy Ambassador 行人司左司副

15th

Eighth Rank Primary 正八品

Oriole

Rhinoceros

Accountant at the Department of Finance 戶部照磨 Deputy County Administrator 縣丞

16th

Eighth Rank Secondary 從八品

Ditto

Ditto

Assistant Priest at the Ministry of Imperial Sacrifices 太常寺祀丞 Supervisor at the Ministry of Royal Food Service 光祿寺監事

17th

Ninth Rank Primary 正九品

Quail

A horse in the sea (not seahorse)

Chief Servant at the Ministry of Royal Theatres 教坊司奉鑾 Chief Officer at the Headquarter of Official Travels 會同館大使

18th(Lowest)

Ninth Rank Secondary 從九品

Ditto

Ditto

Warden 司獄 Marshal 巡檢

Qing dynasty[edit]

Han and Manchu clothing coexisted during Qing dynasty

Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing in early Qing

When the Manchurians established the Qing dynasty, the authorities issued decrees having Han Chinese
Han Chinese
men to wear Manchurian attire and shave their hair into pigtails. The resistances against the hair shaving policy were suppressed.[40] Some Han civilian men also voluntarily adopted Manchu clothing like Changshan
Changshan
on their own free will. By the late Qing, not only officials and scholars, but a great many commoners as well, started to wear Manchu attire.[41][1] As a result, Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
style clothing was even retained in some places in China during the Xinhai Revolution.[42] During the Qing dynasty, Manchu style clothing was only required for scholar-official elite such as the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
members and Han men serving as government officials. For women's clothing, Manchu and Han systems of clothing coexisted.[43] Throughout the Qing dynasty, Han women continued to wear clothing from Ming dynasty.[44] Neither Taoist priests nor Buddhist
Buddhist
monks were required to wear the queue by the Qing; they continued to wear their traditional hairstyles, completely shaved heads for Buddhist
Buddhist
monks, and long hair in the traditional Chinese topknot for Taoist priests.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] It was Han Chinese
Han Chinese
defectors who carried out massacres against people refusing to wear the queue. Li Chengdong, a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
general who had served the Ming but defected to the Qing,[55] ordered troops to carry out three separate massacres in the city of Jiading within a month, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths. The third massacre left few survivors.[56] The three massacres at Jiading District
Jiading District
are some of the most infamous, with estimated death tolls in the tens or even hundreds of thousands.[57] Jiangyin
Jiangyin
also held out against about 10,000 Qing troops for 83 days. When the city wall was finally breached on October 9, 1645, the Qing army, led by the Han Chinese Ming defector Liu Liangzuo (劉良佐), who had been ordered to "fill the city with corpses before you sheathe your swords," massacred the entire population, killing between 74,000 and 100,000 people.[58] Han Chinese
Han Chinese
soldiers in 1645 under Han General Hong Chengchou forced the queue on the people of Jiangnan while Han people
Han people
were initially paid silver to wear the queue in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
when it was first implemented.[24][59] During the late Qing dynasty, the Vietnamese envoy to Qing China were still wearing the official attire in Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
style. Some of the locals recognised their clothing, yet the envoy received both amusement and ridicules from those who didn’t.[60]

Han female custom in Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1)

Han female custom in Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(2)

Children in Qing dynasty

Taoist
Taoist
Clothing in Qing dynasty

People in rain

Republic of China and modern China[edit]

Graduates of FJU in 1947

During the Republic of China period, the styles and forms of traditional Qing costumes gradually changed, influenced by European and American fashion culture. Men wore Sun Yat-sen uniforms, western-style cloths, leather shoes and bowler hats as well as long robes, mandarin jackets, cotton cloth shoes and skullcaps; women wore cheong-sams and western style skirts.[61]

Yuan Shikai

An official of the Republic of China from Fujian

Zhang Taiyan

Chen Huanzhang

Sai jinhua

A graduate from Yanjing University in 1930

Gallery[edit]

Detail of a lacquerware painting from the Ching-mên Tomb (Chinese: 荊門楚墓; pinyin: Jīng mén chǔ mù) of the State of Ch'u (704–223 BC)

A female servant and male advisor in Chinese silk robes, ceramic figurines from the Western Han
Western Han
Period (202 BCE – 9 CE)

A Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
(202 BCE – 220 CE) pottery statuette of a female dancer

A Han dynasty
Han dynasty
fresco of a man in blue hunting dress

A Han dynasty
Han dynasty
fresco of a horseman in red hunting dress

A late Western Han
Western Han
(202 BC – 9 AD) painting from a tomb of Dongping County, Shandong province, showing women and men wearing Hanfu

A Western Han
Western Han
(202 BC – 9 AD) fresco depicting Confucius
Confucius
and Laozi, from a tomb of Dongping County, Shandong province, China

A man dressing in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
style Shên-i

Fresco
Fresco
of a Western Han dynasty
Han dynasty
woman

Lively musicians playing a bamboo flute and a plucked instrument, Chinese ceramic statues from the Eastern Han
Eastern Han
period (25-220 AD), Shanghai
Shanghai
Museum

A Chinese ceramic statue of a woman holding a bronze mirror, Eastern Han period (25-220 AD), Sichuan
Sichuan
Provincial Museum, Chengdu

Mural from the Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb (Chinese: 打虎亭汉墓, Pinyin: Dahuting
Dahuting
Han mu) of the late Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
(25-220 AD), located in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China

Mural from the Dahuting
Dahuting
Tomb (Chinese: 打虎亭汉墓, Pinyin: Dahuting
Dahuting
Han mu) of the late Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
(25-220 AD), located in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, was excavated in 1960–1961 and contains vault-arched burial chambers decorated with murals showing scenes of daily life.

An Eastern Han
Eastern Han
lacquerware basket from the Lelang Commandery
Lelang Commandery
(modern North Korea) showing people wearing Hanfu
Hanfu
robes, 108 BC – 133 AD, National Museum of Seoul

Painted lacquerware dish from the tomb of Zhu Ran
Zhu Ran
(182-249 AD) in Anhui province, showing figures wearing Hanfu, Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
period

"Carpe diem": a mural painting showing the leisurely life scene, from a tomb in Chiu-ch'üan, Later Liang – Northern Liang

A man wearing Hanfu
Hanfu
robes and a woman dressing in Tsa-chü-ch'ui-shao-fu, from a lacquerware painting over wood, Northern Wei
Northern Wei
period, 5th century AD

Male figure wearing Hanfu
Hanfu
robes, from a lacquerware painting over wood, Northern Wei
Northern Wei
period, 5th century AD

Admonitions of the Court Instructress
Admonitions of the Court Instructress
(detail) by Ku K'ai-chih

Admonitions of the Court Instructress
Admonitions of the Court Instructress
(detail) by Ku K'ai-chih

Admonitions of the Court Instructress
Admonitions of the Court Instructress
(detail) by Ku K'ai-chih

Duke Yi of Wey (衞懿公) from Wise and Benevolent Women by Ku K'ai-chih

Yuanlingshan
Yuanlingshan
robes of a Tang emperor Li Yuan

Court ladies of the Tang from Li Xianhui's tomb, Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706.

A painting of Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
women playing with a dog, by artist Zhou Fang, 8th century.

Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
Styled Hanfu

Buddhist
Buddhist
donors of late T'ang dynasty.

A lady playing the pipa, T'ang dynasty.

A noble lady from the painting Bodhisattva Who Leads the Way, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

Buddhist
Buddhist
donatress Chang, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

Pao-shan tomb wall-painting of Liao dynasty.

A Buddhist
Buddhist
donor from early Northern Sung dynasty.

A male Buddhist
Buddhist
donor from early Northern Sung dynasty.

A Sung dynasty
Sung dynasty
mural reflecting a scene of the daily life of the occupant, found in a tomb unearthed in Tengfeng
Tengfeng
city.

A Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
empress, wife of Emperor Zhenzong
Emperor Zhenzong
of Song

Imperial Portrait of the empress and wife to Emperor Qinzong of (1100–1161) of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
in China.

A female figure from Vimalakirti
Vimalakirti
and the Doctrine of Nonduality, Yüen dynasty.

A Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
portrait of an Empress

A Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
portrait of a noblewoman wearing yuanlingshan, xiapei and phoenix crown

Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
and Xu Guangqi
Xu Guangqi
dressed in Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Hanfu.

A Taoist
Taoist
priest in red colored gown

A 1940s embroidered Han infant hat (繡帽; xiùmào) with double tigers, in the collection of The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.

Gallery of Classic Han Clothing in Modern Times[edit]

Aoqun (袄裙)

Banbi
Banbi
(半臂)

Bijia (比甲)

Modern Hanfu

Jess Sum
Jess Sum
at 2005 Hong Kong Flower Show

Coming of age ritual for a Chinese girl (笄禮)

Daopao
Daopao
(道袍)

Panling Lanshan
Panling Lanshan
(盤領襴衫)

Shenyi
Shenyi
(深衣)

Zhiduo (直裰)

See also[edit]

China portal Fashion
Fashion
portal

List of Hanfu Culture of China Chinese academic dress Guan Li Hanfu
Hanfu
movement Mandarin square

Notes and references[edit]

^ a b Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K. (2008) Cambridge History of China Volume 9 Part 1 The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, p87-88 ^ 楊, 娜 (2016). 《漢服歸來》. 中國人民大學出版社. ISBN 978-7-300-23020-7.  ^ a b c d 周, 星 (2012). "汉服运动:中国互联网时代的亚文化". ICCS Journal of Modern Chinese Studies. 4: 61–67.  ^ a b Sandra Lee Evenson (30 October 2014). " Hanfu
Hanfu
Chinese robes". In Annette Lynch; Mitchell D. Strauss. Ethnic Dress
Dress
in the United States A Cultural Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-0-7591-2150-8. Chinese hanfu robes are full-length wrapped garments with bell-shaped sleeves extending over the hand. The front left opening is extended to a triangle shape....When wrapped, the contrast banding creates a dramatic play of line and color. Both men and women wear the hanfu; however, the overlap on the men's style is less extensive. In the Disney film Mulan, the title character wears a 'hanfu' to visit the matchmaker. History The term "hanfu" means "dress of the Han people." It is based on the two-piece, fitted shenyi of the Warring States period (475-221 BCE). ....By the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BCE-220 CE), the one-piece version emerged as a long voluminous linen or silk robe in vivid, contrasting primary colors. Manchu people
Manchu people
from the northeast founded the Qing dyansty (1616–1911 CE). ...To expunge the Han identity, Qing rulers prohibited Han national dress and require them to wear garments in the Manchu tradition. Han resistance was so severe that the policies were modified. Men, government officials, Confucian
Confucian
scholars, and prostitutes wore the Manchu style; women, errand boys, children, monks, and Taoists were free to wear Han styles. Han dress was also permitted for special occasions such as weddings and funerals. During the Republic of China period (1911–1949 CE), Euro-America lifestyles and products influenced Chinese dress, representing a shift from dynastic to popular rule.... After the revolution in 1949 and the founding of the People's Republic of China, both traditional dress and world dress were rejected in favor of Mao suits and boxy cotton jackets and pants for bot men and women. Communist leadership discouraged reference to historical class hierarchies and modern capitalistic values. As a result, traditional Han dress was relegated to ceremonial use. With the liberalization of the Chinese economy, interest in national dress prompted a search for popular, authentic, and intrinsically Chinese styles. ... Because of its proportions, the hanfu is impractical for everyday dress, but is worn in China for Mid-Autumn Festival and for a new created coming-of-age ritual. Some favor the hanfu as a prototype for China's acaemia regalia. On the other hand, the hanfu resembles the Japanese kimono and Korean hanbok, both based on Chinese robes. Some scholars note that this cultural authentication of styles blurs the geopolitical boundaries of what is authentically Han. Infusion of Chinese-American aesthetics and meanings may further complicate identifying an intrinsically Chinese national dress. Hanfu
Hanfu
in the United States Han dress arrived in the United States with Chinese immigrants in the nineteenth century. Male laborers tended toward Manchu jackets and pants for work on the pineapple and sugarcane plantations of Hawi'i, in the gold fields of the American West (1848–1855 CE), and on the transcontinental railroad (1863–1869 CE). Over time, their families joined them, bringing traditions such as ceremonial dress. In the United States, the hanfu is sorn as ethnic dress for special occasions through out the life cycle. Women's hanfu are billowing and fluid, with extended sleeves, trailing ribbons, and swaying dangles. Accessories range from the very traditional to the fashion forward, similar to the trending of other wedding dresses in America. Men's styles are more restrained, but equally elegant. Influence and Impact Euro-Americans often identify the hanfu as traditional Chinese dress, inspiring Seventh Avenue, Hollywood, and individuals alike. In addition, when times change, dress is often the stage where the negotiation of cultural values play out. The hanfu has been that stage, both historically and in the twenty-first century. The hanfu is also used as costuming in cosplay, where tradition and fantasy combine.  ^ "《西域傳下》(Hanshu 66b:32)" (in Traditional Chinese). Chinese Text Project. Retrieved 29 January 2018. ... 後數來朝賀,樂漢衣服制度, ...  CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ 'Hanfu' does not appear on page 513 where it would be found.现代汉语词典(第七版). A Dictionary
Dictionary
of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. 1 September 2016. p. 513. ISBN 978-7-100-12450-8.  ^ 'Hanfu' does not appear on page 511 where it would be found.现代汉语词典(第六版). A Dictionary
Dictionary
of Current Chinese (Sixth Edition). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. June 2012. p. 511. ISBN 978-7-100-09354-5.  ^ 'Hanfu' does not appear on page 537 where it would be found.现代汉语词典(第五版). A Dictionary
Dictionary
of Current Chinese (Fifth Edition). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. June 2005. p. 537. ISBN 978-7-100-04385-4.  ^ 'Hanfu' does not appear on page 0845 where it would be found.辞海第六版. Cihai
Cihai
(Sixth Edition). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai
Shanghai
Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 0845. ISBN 9787532628599.  ^ 'Hanfu' does not appear on page 540 where it would be found.古代汉语词典. Gudai Hanyu Cidian. 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. August 2002. p. 540. ISBN 7-100-03515-5.  ^ 羅, 雪揮 (2005-09-05). "《「漢服」先鋒》". 《中國新聞周刊》.  ^ a b c Kevin Carrico, A State of Warring Styles ^ 高, 春明 (1996). 《中國衣冠服飾大辭典》. 上海: 周汛. ISBN 7-5326-0252-4.  ^ a b 华, 梅 (14 June 2007). "汉服堪当中国人的国服吗?". People's Daily Online.  ^ 《宋史》:“吾家世為王民,自金人犯邊,吾兄弟不能以死報國,避難入關,今為曦所逐,吾不忍棄漢衣冠,願死於此,為趙氏鬼。” ^ 倪在田 (1957). 《續明紀事本末》 (in Chinese). 臺灣大通書局. p. 214. “(金)聲桓預作數十棺,全家漢服坐其中,自焚死。”  ^ 樊綽; 趙吕甫校释 (1985). 《云南志校释》 (in Chinese). 中国社会科学出版社. p. 143页. “裳人,本漢人也。部落在鐵橋北,不知遷徙年月。初襲漢服,後稍参諸戎風俗,迄今但朝霞纏頭,其余無異。”  ^ 《馬關縣志·風俗志》. “男子衣褲用棉布係以腰帶,有鈕扣與漢服略同者,稱之為漢苗”  ^ 《廣州市黃埔區志》. “清末民初時期,大多數人都是以穿漢服(唐裝)為主”  ^ Carrico, Kevin (2017). The Great Han: Race, Nationalism, and Tradition in China Today. Univ of California Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-520-29549-0.  ^ 李冬青; 刘涛 (2014). "汉服的文化意義及傳承方式研究". 遼寧絲綢. 2014(2): 18–20.  ^ a b ""汉服运动":互联网时代的种族性民族主义--《中国青年政治学院学报》2009年04期". 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2005-09-01.  ^ a b Leibold, James (Sep 2010). "More Than a Category: Han Supremacism on the Chinese Internet". The China Quarterly. 203: 539–559.  ^ a b Michael R. Godley, "The End of the Queue:Hair as Symbol in Chinese History" ^ Xu, Zhongguo Gudai Lisu Cidian, p. 7. ^ " Daoist
Daoist
Headdresses and Dress
Dress
– Scarlet Robe". taoism.org.hk. Archived from the original on 2008-03-06.  ^ High Priest of the Shaolin Monastery Archived 2008-02-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Stevens, Rebecca (1996). The kimono inspiration: art and art-to-wear in America. Pomegranate. pp. 131–142. ISBN 0-87654-598-3.  ^ Dalby, Liza (2001). Kimono: Fashioning Culture. Washington, USA: University of Washington Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 0-295-98155-5.  ^ 《大南實錄・正編・第一紀・世祖實錄》,越南阮朝,國史館 ^ 《大南实录・正编・第一纪・卷五十四・嘉隆十五年七月条》,越南阮朝,國史館 ^ Finnane, Antonia (2008), Changing clothes in China: fashion, history, nation, Columbia University Press, pp. 44–46, ISBN 0-231-14350-8  ^ a b "Ancestors, The Story of China – BBC Two". BBC.  ^ Costume
Costume
in the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
Archived 2008-12-05 at the Wayback Machine. chinaculture.org retrieved 2010-01-07 ^ Yoon, Ji-Won (2006). "Research of the Foreign Dancing Costumes: From Han to Sui-Tang Dynasty". 56. The Korean Society of Costume: 57–72.  ^ Costume
Costume
in the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
Archived 2008-12-05 at the Wayback Machine. chinaculture.org retrieved 2010-01-07 ^ ! e History of Chinese Ancient Clothing Author:Chou XiBao 2011-01-01 ^ http://www.history.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/documents/readings/robinson_culture_courtiers_ch.8.pdf ^ Costume
Costume
in the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Archived 2008-12-05 at the Wayback Machine. chinaculture.org retrieved 2010-01-07 ^ 呤唎 (February 1985). 《太平天國革命親歷記》. 上海古籍出版社.  ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-295-98040-9.  ^ 千志, 魏 (1998). 《明清史概論》. 中國社會科學出版社. pp. 358–360.  ^ Shaorong Yang (2004). Traditional Chinese Clothing Costumes, Adornments & Culture. Long River Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-59265-019-4. Men's clothing in the Qing Dyansty consisted for the most part of long silk growns and the so-called "Mandarin" jacket, which perhaps achieved their greatest popularity during the latter Kangxi Period to the Yongzheng Period. For women's clothing, Manchu and Han systems of clothing coexisted.  ^ 周, 锡保 (2002-01-01). 《中国古代服饰史》. 中国戏剧出版社. p. 449. ISBN 9787104003595. . ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-0-295-98040-9.  ^ Gerolamo Emilio Gerini (1895). Chŭlăkantamangala: Or, The Tonsure Ceremony as Performed in Siam. Bangkok Times. pp. 11–.  ^ The Museum Journal. The Museum. 1921. pp. 102–.  ^ George Cockburn (1896). John Chinaman: His Ways and Notions. J. Gardner Hitt. pp. 86–.  ^ Robert van Gulik (15 November 2010). Poets and Murder: A Judge Dee Mystery. University of Chicago Press. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-0-226-84896-9.  ^ James William Buel (1883). Mysteries and Miseries of America's Great Cities: Embracing New York, Washington City, San Francisco, Salt Lake City, and New Orleans. A.L. Bancroft & Company. pp. 312–.  ^ Justus Doolittle (1876). Social Life of the Chinese: With Some Account of Their Religious, Governmental, Educational, and Business Customs and Opinions. With Special
Special
But Not Exclusive Reference to Fuhchau. Harpers. pp. 241–.  ^ Justus Doolittle, Social life of the Chinese : with some account of their religious, governmental, educational and business customs and opinions, with special but not exclusive reference to Fuhchau[permanent dead link] c ^ East Asian History. Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University. 1994. p. 63.  ^ Michael R. Godley, The End of the Queue: Hair as Symbol in Chinese History ^ Faure (2007), p. 164. ^ Ebrey (1993) ^ Ebrey, Patricia (1993). Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. Simon and Schuster. p. 271.  ^ Wakeman 1975b, p. 83. ^ Justus Doolittle (1876). Social Life of the Chinese: With Some Account of Their Religious, Governmental, Educational, and Business Customs and Opinions. With Special
Special
But Not Exclusive Reference to Fuhchau. Harpers. pp. 242–.  ^ Trần Quang Đức (2013). Ngàn năm áo mũ (PDF). Nhã Nam. p. 31. Retrieved 1 January 2018. 清朝承平日久…唯衣服之製度不改,滿俗終乏雅觀…自清朝入帝中國,四方薙髮變服,二百年來,人已慣耳目[…]不曾又識初來華夏樣矣。我國使部來京,穿戴品服,識者亦有竊羨華風,然其不智者,多群然笑異,見襆頭網巾衣帶,便皆指為倡優樣格,胡俗之移人,一至浩歎如此  ^ Mei Hua, Chinese Clothing, Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 133–134

Bibliography[edit]

Zhou Xibao (1984), 【中國古代服飾史】 Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Shi (History of Ancient Chinese Costume), Beijing: Zhongguo Xiju. Zhou, Xun; Gao, Chunming; The Chinese Costumes Research Group (1984), 5000 Years of Chinese Costume, Hong Kong: The Commercial Press. ISBN 962-07-5021-7 許嘉璐 Xu Jialu (1991), 【中國古代禮俗辭典】 Zhongguo Gudai Lisu Cidian ( Dictionary
Dictionary
of Rituals and Customs of Ancient China). 沈從文 Shen Congwen (1999, 2006), 【中國古代服飾研究】 Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Yanjiu (Researches on Ancient Chinese Costumes), Shanghai: Shanghai
Shanghai
Century Publishing Group. ISBN 7-80678-329-6 黃能馥, 陳娟娟 Huang Nengfu and Chen Juanjuan (1999), 【中華歷代服飾藝術】 Zhonghua Lidai Fushi Yishu (The Art of Chinese Clothing Through the Ages), Beijing. 華梅 Hua, Mei (2004), 【古代服飾】 Gudai Fushi (Ancient Costume), Beijing: Wenmu Chubanshe. ISBN 7-5010-1472-8 Zhou, Xun; Gao, Chunming (1988). 5000 years of Chinese costumes. San Francisco: China Books & Periodicals. ISBN 978-0-8351-1822-4. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Hanfu
Hanfu
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Historical Han Chinese
Han Chinese
clothing

Hanfu

Diyi Daxiushan Ruqun Zhiduo Banbi Beizi Chang-ao Daopao Shenyi Yuanlingshan Panling Lanshan Pien Fu

Headwear

Tang official headwear Song official headwear Ming official headwear Qing official headwear

Other

Fengguan Mandarin square

List of Hanfu

v t e

Historical clothing

Periods

Ancient

Egyptian Biblical Greek Roman Han Chinese Indian

Middle Ages

Anglo-Saxon Byzantine English Europe

400s–1000s 1100s 1200s 1300s 1400s

Ottoman

1500s–1820s Western fashion

1500–1550 1550–1600 1600–1650 1650–1700 1700–1750 1750–1775 1775–1795 1795–1820 1820s

1830s–1910s Western fashion

Victorian

1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s

1900s 1910s

1920s–1990s Western fashion

1920s 1930–1945 1945–1959 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s

2000–present

2000s 2010s

Body-length

Banyan Brunswick Chiton Frock Hanfu Peplos Stola Toga Tunic

Tops

Basque Bedgown Bodice Court dress (Empire of Japan) Doublet Peascod belly Poet shirt

Trousers

Braccae Breeches Culottes Harem pants Knickerbockers Pedal pushers

Skirts

Ballerina skirt Harem skirt Hobble skirt Poodle skirt Train

Dresses

Bliaut Close-bodied gown Débutante dress Gown Kirtle Mantua Polonaise Sack-back gown Sailor dress Tea gown

Outerwear

Caraco Chlamys Cloak Dolman Doublet Duster Exomis Frock
Frock
coat Greatcoat Himation Houppelande Inverness cape Jerkin Justacorps Kandys Palla Pallium Pelisse Redingote Smock-frock Surcoat Ulster coat Visite Witzchoura

Underwear

Basque Bustle Chausses Chemise Codpiece Corselet Corset

Waist cincher

Dickey Garter Hoop skirt

Crinoline Farthingale Pannier

Hose Liberty bodice Loincloth Open drawers Pantalettes Petticoat Peignoir Pettipants Union suit Yếm

Headwear

Albanian Apex Arakhchin Attifet Aviator Bergère Blessed hat Bonnet Capotain Cavalier Coif Coonskin Cornette Crown Dunce Fillet French hood Fontange Gable hood Hennin Jeongjagwan Jewish Kausia Kokoshnik Llawt'u Matron's badge Miner's Ming Mob Modius Monmouth Mooskappe Motoring hood Mounteere Nemes Nightcap Nón quai thao Ochipok Pahlavi Petasos Phrygian Pileus Printer's Pudding Qing Snood Smoking Tainia Taranga Wimple

Footwear

Buskins Caligae Chopines Crakow Episcopal sandals Hessians Pampooties Sabatons

Accessories

Ascot tie Belt hook Cointoise Cravat Hairpin Hatpin Muff Partlet Ruff Shoe buckle

See also

Timeline of clothing Clothing terminology Costume Dress
Dress
code Fashion Formal wear S

.