HOME
The Info List - Ficus


--- Advertisement ---



About 800, see text

Ficus
Ficus
(/ˈfaɪkəs/[1] or /ˈfiːkəs/[2][3]) is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae. Collectively known as fig trees or figs, they are native throughout the tropics with a few species extending into the semi-warm temperate zone. The common fig (F. carica) is a temperate species native to southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (from Afghanistan to Portugal), which has been widely cultivated from ancient times for its fruit, also referred to as figs. The fruit of most other species are also edible though they are usually of only local economic importance or eaten as bushfood. However, they are extremely important food resources for wildlife. Figs are also of considerable cultural importance throughout the tropics, both as objects of worship and for their many practical uses.

Contents

1 Description 2 Ecology and uses 3 Production 4 Nutrients 5 Fig fruit and reproduction system 6 Mutualism with the pollinating fig wasps 7 Systematics 8 Selected species 9 Cultivation 10 Cultural and spiritual significance 11 List of famous fig trees 12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References 15 External links

Description[edit]

Aerial root
Aerial root
that may eventually provide structural support

A Ficus
Ficus
carica

Ficus
Ficus
is a pan-tropical genus of trees, shrubs and vines occupying a wide variety of ecological niches; most are evergreen, but some deciduous species are endemic to areas outside of the tropics and to higher elevations.[4] Fig species are characterized by their unique inflorescence and distinctive pollination syndrome, which utilizes wasp species belonging to the family Agaonidae
Agaonidae
for pollination. The specific identification of many of the species can be difficult, but figs as a group are relatively easy to recognize.[5] Many have aerial roots and a distinctive shape or habit, and their fruits distinguish them from other plants. The fig fruit is an enclosed inflorescence, sometimes referred to as a syconium, an urn-like structure lined on the inside with the fig's tiny flowers. The unique fig pollination system, involving tiny, highly specific wasps, known as fig wasps that enter via ostiole these sub-closed inflorescences to both pollinate and lay their own eggs, has been a constant source of inspiration and wonder to biologists.[6] Finally, there are three vegetative traits that together are unique to figs. All figs possess a white to yellowish latex, some in copious quantities; the twig has paired stipules or a circular stipule scar if the stipules have fallen off; and the lateral veins at the base of the leaf are steep, forming a tighter angle with the midrib than the other lateral veins, a feature referred to as "tri-veined". There are no unambiguous older fossils of Ficus. However, current molecular clock estimates indicate that Ficus
Ficus
is a relatively ancient genus being at least 60 million years old,[6] and possibly as old as 80 million years. The main radiation of extant species, however, may have taken place more recently, between 20 and 40 million years ago. Some better-known species that represent the diversity of the genus include the common fig, a small temperate deciduous tree whose fingered fig leaf is well known in art and iconography; the weeping fig (F. benjamina), a hemi-epiphyte with thin tough leaves on pendulous stalks adapted to its rain forest habitat; the rough-leaved sandpaper figs from Australia; and the creeping fig (F. pumila), a vine whose small, hard leaves form a dense carpet of foliage over rocks or garden walls. Moreover, figs with different plant habits have undergone adaptive radiation in different biogeographic regions, leading to very high levels of alpha diversity. In the tropics, it is quite common to find that Ficus
Ficus
is the most species-rich plant genus in a particular forest. In Asia as many as 70 or more species can co-exist.[7] Ficus species richness declines with an increase in latitude in both hemispheres.[8][9] Ecology and uses[edit]

A common fig's syconium (fruit)

Cut through ripe common fig

Figs are keystone species in many tropical forest ecosystems. Their fruit are a key resource for some frugivores including fruit bats, and primates including: capuchin monkeys, langurs, gibbons and mangabeys. They are even more important for birds such as Asian barbets, pigeons, hornbills, fig-parrots and bulbuls, which may almost entirely subsist on figs when these are in plenty. Many Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
caterpillars feed on fig leaves, for example several Euploea
Euploea
species (crow butterflies), the plain tiger (Danaus chrysippus), the giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes), the brown awl (Badamia exclamationis), and Chrysodeixis eriosoma, Choreutidae
Choreutidae
and Copromorphidae moths. The citrus long-horned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis), for example, has larvae that feed on wood, including that of fig trees; it can become a pest in fig plantations. Similarly, the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is frequently found as a pest on figs grown as potted plants and is spread through the export of these plants to other localities. For a list of other diseases common to fig trees, see List of foliage plant diseases (Moraceae). The wood of fig trees is often soft and the latex precludes its use for many purposes. It was used to make mummy caskets in Ancient Egypt. Certain fig species (mainly F. cotinifolia, F. insipida and F. padifolia) are traditionally used in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
to produce papel amate (Nahuatl: āmatl). Mutuba (F. natalensis) is used to produce barkcloth in Uganda. Pou (F. religiosa) leaves' shape inspired one of the standard kbach rachana, decorative elements in Cambodian architecture. Indian banyan
Indian banyan
(F. bengalensis) and the Indian rubber plant, as well as other species, have use in herbalism. Figs have figured prominently in some human cultures. There is evidence that figs, specifically the common fig (F. carica) and sycamore fig ( Ficus
Ficus
sycomorus), were among the first – if not the very first – plant species that were deliberately bred for agriculture in the Middle East, starting more than 11,000 years ago. Nine subfossil F. carica figs dated to about 9400–9200 BCE were found in the early Neolithic
Neolithic
village Gilgal I
Gilgal I
(in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho). These were a parthenogenetic type and thus apparently an early cultivar. This find predates the first known cultivation of grain in the Middle East by many hundreds of years.[10] The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that Ficus
Ficus
aspera had the common names " Rough-leaved Fig." " Purple Fig " and "White Fig." and that Indigenous Australians of the Rockhampton region referred to them as "Noomaie" and in Cleveland Bay (Queensland) "Balemo". It also states that the fruit which is black can be eaten.[11] Production[edit] In 2014, world production of raw figs was 1.14 million tonnes, led by Turkey, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco as the four largest producers, collectively accounting for 64% of the world total.[12]

Production of raw figs - 2014 (tonnes)

 Turkey

300,282

 Egypt

176,105

 Algeria

128,620

 Morocco

126,554

 Iran

72,672

 World

1,137,730

Source: United Nations FAOSTAT[12]

Nutrients[edit] In a 100 gram serving, raw figs provide 74 calories, but no essential nutrients in significant content, all having less than 10% of the Daily Value (DV) (table). When dried (uncooked), however, 100 grams of figs supply 249 calories with the dietary mineral, manganese, in rich content (24% DV) and several other minerals and vitamin K in moderate amounts of the DV (table).

Figs, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 310 kJ (74 kcal)

Carbohydrates

19.2 g

Sugars 16.3 g

Dietary fiber 2.9 g

Fat

0.3 g

Protein

0.75 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv. beta-Carotene

(1%) 7 μg

(1%) 85 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(5%) 0.06 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(4%) 0.05 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(3%) 0.4 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(6%) 0.3 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(8%) 0.11 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(2%) 6 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(2%) 2 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(1%) 0.11 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(4%) 4.7 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(4%) 35 mg

Iron

(3%) 0.37 mg

Magnesium

(5%) 17 mg

Manganese

(6%) 0.13 mg

Phosphorus

(2%) 14 mg

Potassium

(5%) 232 mg

Sodium

(0%) 1 mg

Zinc

(2%) 0.15 mg

Full Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Figs, dried, uncooked

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 1,041 kJ (249 kcal)

Carbohydrates

63.9 g

Sugars 47.9 g

Dietary fiber 9.8 g

Fat

0.93 g

Protein

3.3 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv.

(0%) 0 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(7%) 0.085 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(7%) 0.082 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(4%) 0.62 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(9%) 0.43 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(8%) 0.11 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(2%) 9 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(1%) 1 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(2%) 0.35 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(15%) 15.6 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(16%) 162 mg

Iron

(15%) 2 mg

Magnesium

(19%) 68 mg

Manganese

(24%) 0.51 mg

Phosphorus

(10%) 67 mg

Potassium

(14%) 680 mg

Sodium

(1%) 10 mg

Zinc

(6%) 0.55 mg

Full Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Fig fruit and reproduction system[edit]

See also: Common fig

Ficus
Ficus
exasperata, fruits

Many fig species are grown for their fruits, though only Ficus
Ficus
carica is cultivated to any extent for this purpose. The fig fruits, important as both food and traditional medicine, contain laxative substances, flavonoids, sugars, vitamins A and C, acids and enzymes. However, figs are skin allergens, and the latex is a serious eye irritant. A fig "fruit" is a type of multiple fruit known as a syconium, derived from an arrangement of many small flowers on an inverted, nearly closed receptacle. The many small flowers are unseen unless the fig is cut open. In Chinese the fig is called wú huā guǒ (simplified Chinese: 无花果; traditional Chinese: 無花果), "fruit without flower".[13] In Bengali, where the common fig is called dumur, it is referenced in a proverb: tumi jeno dumurer phool hoe gele ("You have become [invisible like] the dumur flower"). The syconium often has a bulbous shape with a small opening (the ostiole) at the outward end that allows access to pollinators. The flowers are pollinated by very small wasps that crawl through the opening in search of a suitable place to lay eggs. Without this pollinator service fig trees could not reproduce by seed. In turn, the flowers provide a safe haven and nourishment for the next generation of wasps. This accounts for the frequent presence of wasp larvae in the fruit, and has led to a coevolutionary relationship. Technically, a fig fruit proper would be only one of the many tiny matured, seed-bearing gynoecia found inside one fig – if you cut open a fresh fig, individual fruit will appear as fleshy "threads", each bearing a single seed inside. The genus Dorstenia, also in the fig family (Moraceae), exhibits similar tiny flowers arranged on a receptacle but in this case the receptacle is a more or less flat, open surface. Fig plants can be monoecious (hermaphrodite) or gynodioecious (hermaphrodite and female).[14] Nearly half of fig species are gynodioecious, and therefore have some plants with inflorescences (syconium) with long styled pistillate flowers, and other plants with staminate flowers mixed with short styled pistillate flowers.[15] The long flowers styles tend to prevent wasps from laying their eggs within the ovules, while the short styled flowers are accessible for egg laying.[16] All the native fig trees of the American continent are hermaphrodites, as well as species like Indian banyan
Indian banyan
(F. benghalensis), weeping fig (F. benjamina), Indian rubber plant
Indian rubber plant
(F. elastica), fiddle-leaved fig (F. lyrata), Moreton Bay fig (F. macrophylla), Chinese banyan
Chinese banyan
(F. microcarpa), sacred fig (F. religiosa) and sycamore fig (F. sycomorus).[17] On the other hand, the common fig ( Ficus
Ficus
carica) is a gynodioecious plant, as well as lofty fig or clown fig (F. aspera), Roxburgh fig (F. auriculata), mistletoe fig (F. deltoidea), F. pseudopalma, creeping fig (F. pumila) and related species. The hermaphrodite common figs are called "inedible figs" or "caprifigs"; in traditional culture in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region they were considered food for goats (Capra aegagrus). In the female fig trees, the male flower parts fail to develop; they produce the "'edible figs". Fig wasps grow in common fig caprifigs but not in the female syconiums because the female flower is too long for the wasp to successfully lay her eggs in them. Nonetheless, the wasp pollinates the flower with pollen from the caprifig it grew up in. When the wasp dies, it is broken down by enzymes (Ficain) inside the fig. Fig wasps are not known to transmit any diseases harmful to humans. When a caprifig ripens, another caprifig must be ready to be pollinated. In temperate climes, wasps hibernate in figs, and there are distinct crops. Common fig[verification needed] caprifigs have three crops per year; edible figs have two. The first (breba)[18] produces small fruits called olynth. Some parthenocarpic cultivars of common figs do not require pollination at all, and will produce a crop of figs (albeit sterile) in the absence of caprifigs or fig wasps. Depending on the species, each fruit can contain hundreds or even thousand of seeds.[19] Figs can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, air-layering or grafting. However, as with any plant, figs grown from seed are not necessarily genetically identical to the parent and are only propagated this way for breeding purposes. Mutualism with the pollinating fig wasps[edit] Further information: Reproductive coevolution in Ficus Each species of fig is pollinated by one or a few specialised wasp species, and therefore plantings of fig species outside of their native range results in effectively sterile individuals. For example, in Hawaii, some 60 species of figs have been introduced, but only four of the wasps that fertilize them have been introduced, so only four species of figs produce viable seeds there and can become invasive species. This is an example of mutualism, in which each organism (fig plant and fig wasp) benefit each other, in this case reproductively. The intimate association between fig species and their wasp pollinators, along with the high incidence of a one-to-one plant-pollinator ratio have long led scientists to believe that figs and wasps are a clear example of coevolution. Morphological and reproductive behavior evidence, such as the correspondence between fig and wasp larvae maturation rates, have been cited as support for this hypothesis for many years.[20] Additionally, recent genetic and molecular dating analyses have shown a very close correspondence in the character evolution and speciation phylogenies of these two clades.[6] According to meta-analysis of molecular data for 119 fig species 35% (41) have multiple pollinator wasp species. The real proportion is higher because not all wasp species were detected.[21] On the other hand, species of wasps pollinate multiple host fig species.[22] Molecular techniques, like microsatellite markers and mitochondrial sequence analysis, allowed a discovery of multiple genetically distinct, cryptic wasp species. Not all these cryptic species are sister taxa and thus must have experienced a host fig shift at some point.[23] These cryptic species lacked evidence of genetic introgression or backcrosses indicating limited fitness for hybrids and effective reproductive isolation and speciation.[23] The existence of cryptic species suggests that neither the number of symbionts nor their evolutionary relationships are necessarily fixed ecologically. While the morphological characteristics that facilitate the fig-wasp mutualisms are likely to be shared more fully in closer relatives, the absence of unique pairings would make it impossible to do a one-to-one tree comparison and difficult to determine cospeciation. Systematics[edit] With 800 species, Ficus
Ficus
is by far the largest genus in the Moraceae, and is one of the largest genera of flowering plants currently described.[24] The species currently classified within Ficus
Ficus
were originally split into several genera in the mid-1800s, providing the basis for a subgeneric classification when reunited into one genus in 1867. This classification put functionally dioecious species into four subgenera based on floral characters.[25] In 1965, E. J. H. Corner reorganized the genus on the basis of breeding system, uniting these four dioecious subgenera into a single dioecious subgenus Ficus. Monoecious figs were classified within the subgenera Urostigma, Pharmacosycea and Sycomorus.[26] This traditional classification has been called into question by recent phylogenetic studies employing genetic methods to investigate the relationships between representative members of the various sections of each subgenus.[6][25][27][28][29] Of Corner's original subgeneric divisions of the genus, only Sycomorus is supported as monophyletic in the majority of phylogenetic studies.[6][25][28] Notably, there is no clear split between dioecious and monoecious lineages.[6][25][27][28][29] One of the two sections of Pharmacosycea, a monoecious group, form a monophyletic clade basal to the rest of the genus, which includes the other section of Pharmacosycea, the rest of the monoecious species, and all of the dioecious species.[29] These remaining species are divided into two main monophyletic lineages (though the statistical support for these lineages isn't as strong as for the monophyly of the more derived clades within them). One consists of all sections of Urostigma except for section Urostigma s. s.. The other includes section Urostigma s. s., subgenus Sycomorus, and the species of subgenus Ficus, though the relationships of the sections of these groups to one another are not well resolved.[6][29] Selected species[edit]

Subgenus Ficus Ficus
Ficus
amplissima Sm Ficus benjamina
Ficus benjamina
L., 1767 - weeping fig Ficus carica
Ficus carica
L. – common fig Ficus daimingshanensis Chang Ficus deltoidea
Ficus deltoidea
Jack – mistletoe fig Ficus
Ficus
erecta Thunb. – Japanese fig Ficus
Ficus
grossularioides Burman f. - white-leaved fig Ficus
Ficus
hirta Vahl Ficus neriifolia
Ficus neriifolia
Sm. Ficus palmata Forssk. Ficus
Ficus
pandurata Hance Ficus
Ficus
ischnopoda Miq. Ficus
Ficus
vaccinioides King Ficus
Ficus
variolosa Lindl. ex Benth. Subgenus Pharmacosycea Ficus
Ficus
adhatodifolia Schott Ficus
Ficus
apollinaris Dugand Ficus
Ficus
carchiana Berg Ficus crassiuscula
Ficus crassiuscula
Standl. Ficus
Ficus
ecuadorensis Berg Ficus
Ficus
dicranostyla Mildbr. Ficus gigantosyce Dugand Ficus
Ficus
guajavoides Lundell Ficus
Ficus
illiberalis Corner Ficus insipida
Ficus insipida
Willd. Ficus lacunata
Ficus lacunata
Kvitvik Ficus
Ficus
macbridei Standl. Ficus maxima
Ficus maxima
Mill. Ficus mutabilis
Ficus mutabilis
Bureau Ficus
Ficus
mutisii Dugand Ficus nervosa
Ficus nervosa
Heyne ex Roth Ficus
Ficus
obtusiuscula Miq. Ficus
Ficus
piresiana Vázquez Avila & Berg Ficus pulchella
Ficus pulchella
Schott Ficus
Ficus
rieberiana Berg Ficus
Ficus
tonduzii Standl. Ficus yoponensis Desv. Subgenus Sycidium Ficus andamanica
Ficus andamanica
Corner Ficus
Ficus
aspera G.Forst. Ficus bojeri
Ficus bojeri
Baker Ficus capreifolia
Ficus capreifolia
Delile Ficus coronata
Ficus coronata
Spin - creek sandpaper fig Ficus fraseri
Ficus fraseri
Miq. - shiny sandpaper fig Ficus
Ficus
fulvopilosa Summerh. Ficus
Ficus
godeffroyi Warb. - mati (Samoan) Ficus
Ficus
greenwoodii Summerh. Ficus
Ficus
heterophylla L.f. Ficus lateriflora
Ficus lateriflora
Vahl Ficus
Ficus
masonii Baker Ficus montana Burm.f. – oakleaf fig Ficus opposita
Ficus opposita
Miq. – sweet sandpaper fig Ficus
Ficus
scabra G.Forst. Ficus tinctoria
Ficus tinctoria
G.Forst. – dye fig Ficus ulmifolia
Ficus ulmifolia
Lam. Ficus
Ficus
virgata Blume Ficus
Ficus
wassa Roxb. Subgenus Sycomorus Ficus auriculata
Ficus auriculata
Lour. – Roxburgh fig Ficus
Ficus
benguetensis Merr. Ficus
Ficus
congesta Roxb. Ficus dammaropsis
Ficus dammaropsis
Diels – highland breadfruit, kapiak Ficus
Ficus
fistulosa Blume Ficus hispida
Ficus hispida
L. Ficus
Ficus
mauritiana Lam. Ficus
Ficus
minahassae Teijsmann & de Vriese Ficus
Ficus
mollior Bentham Ficus
Ficus
nana Corner Ficus nota
Ficus nota
Merr. – tibig Ficus pseudopalma
Ficus pseudopalma
Blanco Ficus racemosa
Ficus racemosa
L. – cluster fig Ficus septica
Ficus septica
Burm.f. – hauli tree Ficus sycomorus
Ficus sycomorus
L. – sycamore fig Ficus
Ficus
variegata Blume Subgenus Synoecia Ficus barbata
Ficus barbata
Blume = Ficus
Ficus
villosa Ficus
Ficus
hederacea Roxb. Ficus
Ficus
laevis Blume Ficus pantoniana King – climbing fig Ficus pumila
Ficus pumila
L. – creeping fig

Ficus pumila
Ficus pumila
var. awkeotsang (Makino) Corner

Ficus
Ficus
sarmentosa[30] Sm. Subgenus Urostigma Ficus abutilifolia
Ficus abutilifolia
Miq. Ficus albert-smithii
Ficus albert-smithii
Standl. Ficus altissima
Ficus altissima
Blume Ficus amazonica
Ficus amazonica
Miq. Ficus americana
Ficus americana
Aubl. Ficus aripuanensis
Ficus aripuanensis
Berg & Kooy Ficus
Ficus
arpazusa[31] Carauta and Diaz Ficus aurea
Ficus aurea
Nutt. - Florida strangler fig Ficus
Ficus
beddomei King – thavital Ficus benghalensis
Ficus benghalensis
L. – Indian banyan Ficus benjamina
Ficus benjamina
L. – weeping fig Ficus
Ficus
binnendijkii Miq. Ficus bizanae
Ficus bizanae
Hutch. & Burtt-Davy Ficus blepharophylla
Ficus blepharophylla
Vázquez Avila Ficus broadwayi
Ficus broadwayi
Urb. Ficus
Ficus
bubu Warb. Ficus burtt-davyi
Ficus burtt-davyi
Hutch. Ficus calyptroceras
Ficus calyptroceras
Miq. Ficus castellviana
Ficus castellviana
Dugand Ficus catappifolia
Ficus catappifolia
Kunth & Bouché Ficus
Ficus
caulocarpa Miq. Ficus citrifolia
Ficus citrifolia
Mill. – short-leaved fig Ficus cordata
Ficus cordata
Thunb. Ficus
Ficus
costaricana Miq. Ficus
Ficus
cotinifolia Kunth Ficus crassipes F.M.Bailey – round-leaved banana fig Ficus craterostoma
Ficus craterostoma
Mildbr. & Burret Ficus cyathistipula
Ficus cyathistipula
Warb. Ficus
Ficus
cyclophylla Ficus dendrocida
Ficus dendrocida
Kunth Ficus destruens F.White Ficus
Ficus
drupacea Thunb. Ficus elastica
Ficus elastica
Hornem. - Indian rubber plant Ficus
Ficus
elasticoides De Wild. Ficus
Ficus
enormis Miq. Ficus exasperata
Ficus exasperata
Vahl. Ficus faulkneriana
Ficus faulkneriana
Berg Ficus fergusonii (King) T.B.Worth. ex Corner Ficus
Ficus
fischeri Mildbr. & Burret Ficus
Ficus
glaberrima Blume Ficus glumosa
Ficus glumosa
Delile Ficus
Ficus
gomelleira Kunth & Bouché Ficus greiffiana
Ficus greiffiana
Dugand Ficus
Ficus
guaranitica[32] Ficus guianensis
Ficus guianensis
Desv. Ficus hirsuta
Ficus hirsuta
Schott Ficus ilicina
Ficus ilicina
Miq. Ficus
Ficus
kerkhovenii Valeton[33] – Johore fig Ficus
Ficus
luschnathiana Miq. Ficus ingens
Ficus ingens
Miq. Ficus krukovii
Ficus krukovii
Standl. Ficus lacor
Ficus lacor
Buch.-Ham. Ficus lapathifolia
Ficus lapathifolia
Miq. Ficus lauretana
Ficus lauretana
Vázquez Avila Ficus lutea
Ficus lutea
Vahl Ficus lyrata
Ficus lyrata
Warb. – fiddle-leaved fig Ficus maclellandii
Ficus maclellandii
King – Alii fig Ficus macrophylla
Ficus macrophylla
Desf. ex Pers. – Moreton Bay fig Ficus malacocarpa
Ficus malacocarpa
Standl. Ficus mariae Berg, Emygdio & Carauta Ficus mathewsii
Ficus mathewsii
Miq. Ficus matiziana
Ficus matiziana
Dugand Ficus mexiae
Ficus mexiae
Standl. Ficus microcarpa
Ficus microcarpa
L. – Chinese banyan Ficus muelleriana
Ficus muelleriana
Berg Ficus natalensis
Ficus natalensis
Hochst. – mutuba (Ganda) Ficus obliqua
Ficus obliqua
G.Forst. – small-leaved fig Ficus obtusifolia
Ficus obtusifolia
Kunth Ficus pakkensis
Ficus pakkensis
Standl. Ficus pallida
Ficus pallida
Vahl Ficus panurensis
Ficus panurensis
Standl. Ficus pertusa
Ficus pertusa
L.f. Ficus petiolaris
Ficus petiolaris
Kunth Ficus platypoda
Ficus platypoda
Cunn. – desert fig Ficus pleurocarpa
Ficus pleurocarpa
DC. – banana fig Ficus polita
Ficus polita
Vahl Ficus
Ficus
prolixa G.Forst. Ficus religiosa
Ficus religiosa
L. – sacred fig Ficus roraimensis
Ficus roraimensis
Berg Ficus rubiginosa
Ficus rubiginosa
Desf. – Port Jackson fig Ficus
Ficus
rumphii Blume Ficus salicifolia
Ficus salicifolia
Vahl – willow-leaved fig Ficus sansibarica
Ficus sansibarica
Warb. Ficus
Ficus
saussureana DC. Ficus schippii
Ficus schippii
Standl. Ficus schultesii
Ficus schultesii
Dugand Ficus schumacheri
Ficus schumacheri
Griseb. Ficus sphenophylla
Ficus sphenophylla
Standl. Ficus stuhlmannii
Ficus stuhlmannii
Warb. Ficus subpisocarpa
Ficus subpisocarpa
Gagnep. Ficus subpuberula Corner Ficus superba
Ficus superba
Miq. Ficus sycomorus
Ficus sycomorus
Miq.

Ficus superba
Ficus superba
var. henneana (Miq.) Corner

Ficus
Ficus
tettensis Hutch. Ficus thonningii
Ficus thonningii
Blume Ficus
Ficus
tremula Warb. Ficus trichopoda Baker Ficus trigona L.f. Ficus trigonata
Ficus trigonata
L. Ficus triradiata Corner – red-stipule fig Ficus
Ficus
umbellata Vahl Ficus ursina
Ficus ursina
Standl. Ficus velutina
Ficus velutina
Willd. Ficus verruculosa Warb. Ficus virens
Ficus virens
Aiton – white fig

Ficus virens
Ficus virens
var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner – sour fig

Ficus watkinsiana
Ficus watkinsiana
F.M.Bailey – Watkins's fig Unknown subgenus Ficus
Ficus
bibracteata Ficus
Ficus
cristobalensis Ficus tsjahela
Ficus tsjahela
Burm.f.

Cultivation[edit] Numerous species of fig are found in cultivation in domestic and office environments, including:[34]

F. binnendijkii, narrow-leaf fig - hardy to 5 °C (41 °F) F. carica, common fig - hardy to −10 °C (14 °F): shrub or small tree which can be grown outdoors in mild temperate regions, producing substantial harvests of fruit: several cultivars are available F. benjamina, Benjamin tree - hardy to 5 °C (41 °F): widely used as an indoor plant for the home or the office: it benefits from the dry, warm atmosphere of centrally-heated interiors, and can grow to substantial heights in a favoured position: several variegated cultivars are available F. elastica, rubber plant - hardy to 10 °C (50 °F) F. lyrata, fiddle-leaf fig - hardy to 10 °C (50 °F) F. microcarpa, Indian laurel - hardy to 10 °C (50 °F) F. pumila, creeping fig - hardy to 1 °C (34 °F) F. rubiginosa, Port Jackson fig - hardy to 10 °C (50 °F)

Cultural and spiritual significance[edit] Further information: Fig leaf
Fig leaf
and Figs in the Bible

Leaves of the sacred fig ( Ficus
Ficus
religiosa)

Fig tree roots overgrowing a sandstone Buddha
Buddha
statue, near Wat Maha That in Ayutthaya province, Thailand

Fig trees have profoundly influenced culture through several religious traditions. Among the more famous species are the sacred fig tree (Pipal, bodhi, bo, or po, Ficus
Ficus
religiosa) and the banyan fig (Ficus benghalensis). The oldest living plant of known planting date is a Ficus religiosa
Ficus religiosa
tree known as the Sri Maha Bodhi
Sri Maha Bodhi
planted in the temple at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka by King Tissa in 288 BCE. The common fig is one of two significant trees in Islam, and there is a sura in Quran named "The Fig" or At-Tin
At-Tin
(سوره تین). In Asia, figs are important in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism. In Jainism, the consumption of any fruit belonging to this genus is prohibited.[35] The Buddha
Buddha
is traditionally held to have found bodhi (enlightenment) while meditating under a sacred fig (F. religiosa). The same species was Ashvattha, the "world tree" of Hinduism. The plaksa Pra-sravana was said to be a fig tree between the roots of which the Sarasvati River sprang forth; it is usually held to be a sacred fig but more probably seems to be a wavy-leaved fig (F. infectoria). According to the Kikuyu people, sacrifices to Ngai were performed under a sycomore tree (Mũkũyũ) and if one was not available, a fig tree (Mũgumo) would be used. The common fig tree is cited in the Bible, where in Genesis 3:7, Adam and Eve cover their nakedness with fig leaves. The fig fruit is also one of the traditional crops of Israel, and is included in the list of food found in the Promised Land, according to the Torah (Deut. 8). Jesus cursed a fig tree for bearing no fruit (Mark 11:12–14). The fig tree was sacred in ancient Cyprus where it was a symbol of fertility. List of famous fig trees[edit]

Ashvattha
Ashvattha
– the world tree of Hinduism, held to be a supernatural F. religiosa Bodhi
Bodhi
tree – a F. religiosa Charybdis Fig Tree
Tree
of Homer's Odyssey, presumably a F. carica Curtain Fig Tree
Tree
– a F. virens Ficus Ruminalis
Ficus Ruminalis
– a F. carica Plaksa
Plaksa
– another supernatural fig in Hinduism; usually identified as F. religiosa but probably F. infectoria Santa Barbara's Moreton Bay Fig Tree
Tree
– a F. macrophylla Sri Maha Bodhi
Sri Maha Bodhi
– another F. religiosa, planted in 288 BCE, the oldest human-planted tree on record The Great Banyan
Banyan
– a F. benghalensis, a clonal colony and once the largest organism known Vidurashwatha
Vidurashwatha
– "Vidura's Sacred Fig Tree", a village in India named after a famous F. religiosa that until recently stood there Wonderboom - the largest fig tree, in Pretoria, South Africa

See also[edit]

Abraham Mauricio Salazar, famous papel amate artist Amphoe Pho Sai
Amphoe Pho Sai
and Amphoe Suan Phueng, districts in Thailand named after Ficus
Ficus
species Edred John Henry Corner Fig Newton
Fig Newton
(a fig roll) Fig-parrots Figtree, California Figtree, New South Wales Figtree, Saint Kitts and Nevis Figtree, Zimbabwe God hates figs Jesus cursing the fig tree List of fruits Mission fig Naturopathic medicine Nutrition Phytonutrients Pippalada Atharva-Veda
Atharva-Veda
scholar whose name means "sacred fig eater" Zacchaeus

Footnotes[edit]

^ " Ficus
Ficus
- Definition of ficus by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com.  ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 ^ "Definition of "ficus" - Collins English Dictionary". collinsdictionary.com.  ^ Halevy, Abraham H. (1989). Handbook of Flowering Volume 6 of CRC Handbook of Flowering. CRC Press. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-8493-3916-5. Retrieved 2009-08-25  ^ Quigley's Plant
Plant
identification 10:100 ^ a b c d e f g Rønsted et al. (2005) ^ Harrison (2005) ^ Van Noort, S.; Van Harten, A. (12-2006) ^ Berg, C.C.; Hijmann, M.E.E. (1989) ^ Kislev, ME; Hartmann, A; Bar-Yosef, O (2 June 2006). "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science. 312: 1372–4. doi:10.1126/science.1125910. PMID 16741119.  ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.  ^ a b "Raw fig production in 2014; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity from pick lists". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, FAOSTAT. 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2017.  ^ Denisowski (2007) ^ "Armstrong, Wayne P. and Steven Disparti. 1998. A key to subgroups of dioecious* (gynodioecious) figs". Waynesword.palomar.edu. 1998-04-04. Archived from the original on 2012-02-02. Retrieved 2012-01-05.  ^ Friis, Ib; Balslev, Henrik (2005). Plant
Plant
diversity and complexity patterns: local, regional, and global dimensions:. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. p. 472. ISBN 978-87-7304-304-2.  ^ Jstor.org ^ Berg & Corner (2005) ^ CRFG (1996) ^ "Figs4fun.com" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-05.  ^ Machado et al. (2001) ^ Yang, Li-Yuan; Machado, Carlos A.; Dang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin (February 2015). "The incidence and pattern of copollinator diversification in dioecious and monoecious figs". Evolution. 69 (2): 294–304. doi:10.1111/evo.12584.  ^ Machado et al. (2005) ^ a b Molbo, D.; Machado, C. A.; Sevenster, J. G.; Keller, L.; Herre, E. A. (24 April 2003). "Cryptic species of fig-pollinating wasps: Implications for the evolution of the fig-wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (10): 5867–5872. doi:10.1073/pnas.0930903100.  ^ Judd, W. S. (2008) Plant
Plant
Systematics: A phylogenetic approach. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. ^ a b c d Weiblen, G. D. (2000). Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
relationships of functionally dioecious Ficus
Ficus
(Moraceae) based on ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, 87(9), 1342–1357. ^ Corner, E. J. H. (1965). "Check-list of Ficus
Ficus
in Asia and Australasia with keys to identification". The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. (digitised, online, via biodiversitylibrary.org). 21 (1): 1–186. Retrieved 5 Feb 2014.  ^ a b Herre, E.; Machado, C. A.; Bermingham, E.; Nason, J. D.; Windsor, D. M.; McCafferty, S.; Van Houten, W.; et al. (1996). "Molecular phylogenies of figs and their pollinator wasps". Journal of Biogeography. 23 (4): 521–530. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.1996.tb00014.x.  ^ a b c Jousselin, E.; Rasplus, J.-Y.; Kjellberg, F. (2003). "Convergence and coevolution in a mutualism: evidence from a molecular phylogeny of Ficus". Evolution; international journal of organic evolution. 57 (6): 1255–69. doi:10.1554/02-445.  ^ a b c d Rønsted, N, Weiblen, G. D., Clement, W. L., Zerega, N. J. C., & Savolainen, V. (2008). Reconstructing the phylogeny of figs (Ficus, Moraceae) to reveal the history of the fig pollination mutualism. ^ Wu ,et al., 2003, Flora of China ^ Brazil. Described by Carauta & Diaz (2002): pp.38–39 ^ Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina: Carauta & Diaz (2002): pp.64–66 ^ "Changitrees". Habitatnews.nus.edu.sg. 2002-09-12. Retrieved 2012-01-05.  ^ Brickell, Christopher, ed. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 448. ISBN 9781405332965.  ^ Tukol, T. K (1980). Compendium of Jainism. p. 206. 

References[edit]

Berg, C.C., Hijmann, M.E.E. (1989). "Chapter 11: Ficus". In: Flora of Tropical East Africa. R.M. Polhill (ed.). pp. 43–86.  Berg, C. C. & Corner, E. J. H. (2005): Moraceae. In: Flora Malesiana Ser. I, vol. 17, part 2. California Rare Fruit
Fruit
Growers, Inc. (CRFG) (1996): Fig. Retrieved November 1, 2008. Carauta, Pedro; Diaz, Ernani (2002): Figueiras no Brasil. Editora UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro. ISBN 85-7108-250-2 Condit, Ira J. (1969): Ficus: the exotic species. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences. 363 pp. Denisowski, Paul (2007): Chinese–English Dictionary – Fig. Retrieved November 1, 2008. Harrison, Rhett D (2005). "Figs and the diversity of tropical rain forests" (PDF). BioScience. 55 (12): 1053–1064. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[1053:FATDOT]2.0.CO;2.  Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006). "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science. 312 (5778): 1372–4. doi:10.1126/science.1125910. PMID 16741119.  Supporting Online Material Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006). "Response to Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley"". Science. 314 (5806): 1683b. doi:10.1126/science.1133748.  Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Abbo, Shahal; Flaishman, Moshe A (2006). "Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley"". Science. 314 (5806): 1683a. doi:10.1126/science.1132636. PMID 17170278.  Lewington, Anna & Parker, Edward (1999): Ancient trees: Trees that live for 1000 years: 192. London, Collins & Brown Limited. Rønsted, Nina; Weiblen, George D.; Cook, James M.; Salamin, Nicholas; Machado, Carlos A.; Savoainen, Vincent (2005). "60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 272 (1581): 2593–2599. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3249.  Shanahan, M.; Compton, S. G.; So, Samson; Corlett, Richard (2001). "Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review". Biological Reviews. 76 (4): 529–572. doi:10.1017/S1464793101005760. PMID 11762492.  Electronic appendices Van Noort, Simon; Van Harten, Antonius (2006-12-18). "The species richness of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) in Yemen". Fauna of Arabia (22): 449–472. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ficus.

Figweb Major reference site for the genus Ficus Video: Interaction of figs and fig wasps Multi-award-winning documentary Fruits of Warm Climates: Fig BBC: Fig fossil clue to early farming

Video

How the fig tree strangles other plants for survival in the rainforest

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q59798 APDB: 190774 EoL: 60627 EPPO: 1FIUG FloraBase: 21307 FNA: 112770 FoC: 112770 GBIF: 2984588 GRIN: 4665 IPNI: 327905-2 ITIS: 19081 NCBI: 3493 PLANTS: FICUS Tropicos: 40009268 VASCAN: 2

.