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 Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field. Michael Faraday Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday's law of induction. Lenz's law Lenz's law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday's law was later generalized to become the Maxwell–Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations in James Clerk Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction has found many applications in technology, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers, and devices such as electric motors and generators.Part of a series of articles aboutElectromagnetismElectricity MagnetismElectrostaticsElectric charge Static electricity Electric field Conductor Insulator Triboelectricity Electrostatic discharge Induction Coulomb's law Gauss's law Electric flux / potential energy Electric dipole moment Polarization densityMagnetostaticsAmpère's law Magnetic field Magnetization Magnetic flux Biot–Savart law Magnetic dipole moment Gauss's law for magnetismElectrodynamics Lorentz force Lorentz force law Electromagnetic induction Faraday's law Lenz's law Displacement current Magnetic potential Maxwell's equations Electromagnetic field Electromagnetic pulse Electromagnetic radiation Maxwell tensor Poynting vector Liénard–Wiechert potential Jefimenko's equations Eddy current London equationsMathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic fieldElectrical networkElectric current Electric potential Voltage Resistance Ohm's law Series circuit Parallel circuit Direct current Alternating current Electromotive force Capacitance Inductance Impedance Resonant cavities WaveguidesCovariant formulationElectromagnetic tensor (stress–energy tensor)Four-current Electromagnetic four-potentialScientistsAmpère Coulomb Faraday Gauss Heaviside Henry Hertz Lorentz Maxwell Tesla Volta Weber Ørstedv t eContents1 History 2 Theory2.1 Faraday's law of induction Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law 2.2 Maxwell–Faraday equation 2.3 Faraday's law and relativity3 Applications3.1 Electrical generator 3.2 Electrical transformer3.2.1 Current clamp3.3 Magnetic flow meter4 Eddy currents4.1 Electromagnet Electromagnet laminations 4.2 Parasitic induction within conductors5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistoryA diagram of Faraday's iron ring apparatus. Change in the magnetic flux of the left coil induces a current in the right coil.[2]Faraday's disk (see homopolar generator) Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction was first discovered by Michael Faraday, who made his discovery public in 1831.[3][4] It was discovered independently by Joseph Henry Joseph Henry in 1832.[5][6] In Faraday's first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer).[citation needed] Based on his understanding of electromagnets, he expected that, when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. He saw a transient current, which he called a "wave of electricity", when he connected the wire to the battery and another when he disconnected it.[7] This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.[2] Within two months, Faraday found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk").[8] Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly because they were not formulated mathematically.[9] An exception was James Clerk Maxwell, who used Faraday's ideas as the basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory.[9][10][11] In Maxwell's model, the time varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as a differential equation, which Oliver Heaviside Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is slightly different from Faraday's original formulation and does not describe motional EMF. Heaviside's version (see Maxwell–Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell's equations. In 1834 Heinrich Lenz Heinrich Lenz formulated the law named after him to describe the "flux through the circuit". Lenz's law Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced EMF and current resulting from electromagnetic induction. Theory Faraday's law of induction Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law Main article: Faraday's law of inductionA solenoidThe longitudinal cross section of a solenoid with a constant electrical current running through it. The magnetic field lines are indicated, with their direction shown by arrows. The magnetic flux corresponds to the 'density of field lines'. The magnetic flux is thus densest in the middle of the solenoid, and weakest outside of it. Faraday's law of induction Faraday's law of induction makes use of the magnetic flux ΦB through a region of space enclosed by a wire loop. The magnetic flux is defined by a surface integral:[12] Φ B = ∫ Σ B ⋅ d A   , displaystyle Phi _ mathrm B =int limits _ Sigma mathbf B cdot dmathbf A , where dA is an element of the surface Σ enclosed by the wire loop, B is the magnetic field. The dot product B·dA corresponds to an infinitesimal amount of magnetic flux. In more visual terms, the magnetic flux through the wire loop is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines that pass through the loop. When the flux through the surface changes, Faraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an electromotive force (EMF).[note 1] The most widespread version of this law states that the induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux enclosed by the circuit:[16][17] E = − d Φ B d t   displaystyle mathcal E =- dPhi _ mathrm B over dt ,where E displaystyle mathcal E is the EMF and ΦB is the magnetic flux. The direction of the electromotive force is given by Lenz's law Lenz's law which states that an induced current will flow in the direction that will oppose the change which produced it.[18] This is due to the negative sign in the previous equation. To increase the generated EMF, a common approach is to exploit flux linkage by creating a tightly wound coil of wire, composed of N identical turns, each with the same magnetic flux going through them. The resulting EMF is then N times that of one single wire.[19][20] E = − N d Φ B d t displaystyle mathcal E =-N dPhi _ mathrm B over dt Generating an EMF through a variation of the magnetic flux through the surface of a wire loop can be achieved in several ways:the magnetic field B changes (e.g. an alternating magnetic field, or moving a wire loop towards a bar magnet where the B field is stronger), the wire loop is deformed and the surface Σ changes, the orientation of the surface dA changes (e.g. spinning a wire loop into a fixed magnetic field), any combination of the aboveMaxwell–Faraday equation See also: Faraday's law of induction Faraday's law of induction § Maxwell–Faraday equation In general, the relation between the EMF E displaystyle mathcal E in a wire loop encircling a surface Σ, and the electric field E in the wire is given by E = ∮ ∂ Σ ⁡ E ⋅ d ℓ displaystyle mathcal E =oint _ partial Sigma mathbf E cdot d boldsymbol ell where dℓ is an element of contour of the surface Σ, combining this with the definition of flux Φ B = ∫ Σ B ⋅ d A   , displaystyle Phi _ mathrm B =int limits _ Sigma mathbf B cdot dmathbf A , we can write the integral form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation ∮ ∂ Σ ⁡ E ⋅ d ℓ = − d d t ∫ Σ B ⋅ d A displaystyle oint _ partial Sigma mathbf E cdot d boldsymbol ell =- frac d dt int _ Sigma mathbf B cdot dmathbf A It is one of the four Maxwell's equations, and therefore plays a fundamental role in the theory of classical electromagnetism. Faraday's law and relativity Faraday's law describes two different phenomena: the motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see Lorentz force), and the transformer EMF generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field (due to the differential form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation). James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to the separate physical phenomena in 1861.[21][22] This is believed to be a unique example in physics of where such a fundamental law is invoked to explain two such different phenomena.[23] Einstein Einstein noticed that the two situations both corresponded to a relative movement between a conductor and a magnet, and the outcome was unaffected by which one was moving. This was one of the principal paths that led him to develop special relativity.[24] Applications The principles of electromagnetic induction are applied in many devices and systems, including:Current clamp Electric generators Electromagnetic forming Graphics tablet Hall effect Hall effect meters Induction cooking Induction motors Induction sealing Induction welding Inductive charging Inductors Magnetic flow meters Mechanically powered flashlight Pickups Rowland ring Transcranial magnetic stimulation Transformers Wireless energy transferElectrical generatorRectangular wire loop rotating at angular velocity ω in radially outward pointing magnetic field B of fixed magnitude. The circuit is completed by brushes making sliding contact with top and bottom discs, which have conducting rims. This is a simplified version of the drum generator.Main article: Electric generator The EMF generated by Faraday's law of induction Faraday's law of induction due to relative movement of a circuit and a magnetic field is the phenomenon underlying electrical generators. When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is created. If the wire is connected through an electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical energy is generated, converting the mechanical energy of motion to electrical energy. For example, the drum generator is based upon the figure to the bottom-right. A different implementation of this idea is the Faraday's disc, shown in simplified form on the right. In the Faraday's disc example, the disc is rotated in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the disc, causing a current to flow in the radial arm due to the Lorentz force. It is interesting to understand how it arises that mechanical work is necessary to drive this current. When the generated current flows through the conducting rim, a magnetic field is generated by this current through Ampère's circuital law (labelled "induced B" in the figure). The rim thus becomes an electromagnet that resists rotation of the disc (an example of Lenz's law). On the far side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the far side of the rim to the bottom brush. The B-field induced by this return current opposes the applied B-field, tending to decrease the flux through that side of the circuit, opposing the increase in flux due to rotation. On the near side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the near side of the rim to the bottom brush. The induced B-field increases the flux on this side of the circuit, opposing the decrease in flux due to rotation. Thus, both sides of the circuit generate an EMF opposing the rotation. The energy required to keep the disc moving, despite this reactive force, is exactly equal to the electrical energy generated (plus energy wasted due to friction, Joule heating, and other inefficiencies). This behavior is common to all generators converting mechanical energy to electrical energy. Electrical transformer Main article: Transformer When the electric current in a loop of wire changes, the changing current creates a changing magnetic field. A second wire in reach of this magnetic field will experience this change in magnetic field as a change in its coupled magnetic flux, d ΦB / d t. Therefore, an electromotive force is set up in the second loop called the induced EMF or transformer EMF. If the two ends of this loop are connected through an electrical load, current will flow. Current clampA current clampMain article: Current clamp A current clamp is a type of transformer with a split core which can be spread apart and clipped onto a wire or coil to either measure the current in it or, in reverse, to induce a voltage. Unlike conventional instruments the clamp does not make electrical contact with the conductor or require it to be disconnected during attachment of the clamp. Magnetic flow meter Main article: Magnetic flow meter Faraday's law is used for measuring the flow of electrically conductive liquids and slurries. Such instruments are called magnetic flow meters. The induced voltage ℇ generated in the magnetic field B due to a conductive liquid moving at velocity v is thus given by: E = − B ℓ v , displaystyle mathcal E =-Bell v, where ℓ is the distance between electrodes in the magnetic flow meter. Eddy currents Main article: Eddy current Conductors (of finite dimensions) moving through a uniform magnetic field, or stationary within a changing magnetic field, will have currents induced within them. These induced eddy currents can be undesirable, since they dissipate energy in the resistance of the conductor. There are a number of methods employed to control these undesirable inductive effects.Electromagnets in electric motors, generators, and transformers do not use solid metal, but instead use thin sheets of metal plate, called laminations. These thin plates reduce the parasitic eddy currents, as described below. Inductive coils in electronics typically use magnetic cores to minimize parasitic current flow. They are a mixture of metal powder plus a resin binder that can hold any shape. The binder prevents parasitic current flow through the powdered metal. Electromagnet Electromagnet laminationsEddy currents occur when a solid metallic mass is rotated in a magnetic field, because the outer portion of the metal cuts more lines of force than the inner portion, hence the induced electromotive force not being uniform, tends to set up currents between the points of greatest and least potential. Eddy currents consume a considerable amount of energy and often cause a harmful rise in temperature.[25]Only five laminations or plates are shown in this example, so as to show the subdivision of the eddy currents. In practical use, the number of laminations or punchings ranges from 40 to 66 per inch, and brings the eddy current loss down to about one percent. While the plates can be separated by insulation, the voltage is so low that the natural rust/oxide coating of the plates is enough to prevent current flow across the laminations.[25]This is a rotor approximately 20mm in diameter from a DC motor used in a CD player. Note the laminations of the electromagnet pole pieces, used to limit parasitic inductive losses.Parasitic induction within conductorsIn this illustration, a solid copper bar conductor on a rotating armature is just passing under the tip of the pole piece N of the field magnet. Note the uneven distribution of the lines of force across the copper bar. The magnetic field is more concentrated and thus stronger on the left edge of the copper bar (a,b) while the field is weaker on the right edge (c,d). Since the two edges of the bar move with the same velocity, this difference in field strength across the bar creates whorls or current eddies within the copper bar.[25] High current power-frequency devices, such as electric motors, generators and transformers, use multiple small conductors in parallel to break up the eddy flows that can form within large solid conductors. The same principle is applied to transformers used at higher than power frequency, for example, those used in switch-mode power supplies and the intermediate frequency coupling transformers of radio receivers.See alsoBook: Maxwell's equationsAlternator Crosstalk Faraday paradox Inductance Moving magnet and conductor problemReferences Notes^ The EMF is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads. Mathematically, E displaystyle mathcal E is defined as the energy available from a unit charge that has traveled once around the wire loop.[13][14][15]References^ Poyser, A. W. (1892). Magnetism Magnetism and Electricity: A Manual for Students in Advanced Classes. London and New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 285.  ^ a b Giancoli, Douglas C. (1998). Physics: Principles with Applications (Fifth ed.). pp. 623–624.  ^ Ulaby, Fawwaz (2007). Fundamentals of applied electromagnetics (5th ed.). Pearson:Prentice Hall. p. 255. ISBN 0-13-241326-4.  ^ "Joseph Henry". Distinguished Members Gallery, National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2006-11-30.  ^ "A Brief History of Electromagnetism" (PDF).  ^ "Electromagnetism". Smithsonian Institution Archives.  ^ Michael Faraday, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 182-3 ^ Michael Faraday, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 191–5 ^ a b Michael Faraday, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 510 ^ Maxwell, James Clerk (1904), A Treatise on Electricity Electricity and Magnetism, Vol. II, Third Edition. Oxford University Press, pp. 178–9 and 189. ^ "Archives Biographies: Michael Faraday", The Institution of Engineering and Technology. ^ Good, R. H. (1999). Classical Electromagnetism. Saunders College Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 0-03-022353-9.  ^ Feynman, R. P.; Leighton, R. B.; Sands, M. L. (2006). The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume 2. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. pp. 17–2. ISBN 0-8053-9049-9.  ^ Griffiths, D. J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 301–303. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.  ^ Tipler, P. A.; Mosca, G. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (5th ed.). W.H. Freeman. p. 795. ISBN 978-0716708100.  ^ Jordan, E.; Balmain, K. G. (1968). Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 100.  ^ Hayt, W. (1989). Engineering Electromagnetics (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 312. ISBN 0-07-027406-1.  ^ Schmitt, R. (2002). Electromagnetics Explained. p. 75.  ^ Whelan, P. M.; Hodgeson, M. J. (1978). Essential Principles of Physics (2nd ed.). John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3382-1.  ^ Nave, C. R. "Faraday's Law". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Retrieved 2011-08-29.  ^ Maxwell, J. C. (1861). "On physical lines of force". Philosophical Magazine. 90: 11–23. doi:10.1080/1478643100365918.  ^ Griffiths, D. J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 301–303. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.  Note that the law relating flux to EMF, which this article calls "Faraday's law", is referred to by Griffiths as the "universal flux rule". He uses the term "Faraday's law" to refer to what this article calls the "Maxwell–Faraday equation". ^ "The flux rule" is the terminology that Feynman uses to refer to the law relating magnetic flux to EMF. Feynman, R. P.; Leighton, R. B.; Sands, M. L. (2006). The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume II. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. p. 17-2. ISBN 0-8053-9049-9.  ^ Einstein, A. (1905). "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper". Annalen der Physik. 17 (10): 891–921. Bibcode:1905AnP...322..891E. doi:10.1002/andp.19053221004. Translated in Einstein, A. (1923). "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (PDF). The Principle of Relativity. Jeffery, G.B.; Perret, W. (transl.). London: Methuen and Company. ^ a b c Images and reference text are from the public domain book: Hawkins Electrical Guide, Volume 1, Chapter 19: Theory of the Armature, pp. 270–273, Copyright 1917 by Theo. Audel & Co., Printed in the United StatesFurther readingMaxwell, James Clerk (1881), A treatise on electricity and magnetism, Vol. II, Chapter III, §530, p. 178. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-486-60637-6.External linksA simple interactive Java tutorial on electromagnetic induction National High Magnetic Field Laboratory R. Vega Induction: Faraday's law and Lenz's law Lenz's law - Highly animated lecture Faraday's Law for EMC Engineers Tankersley and Mosca: Introducing Faraday's law A free java simulation on motional EMFAuthority control

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