Dot Product
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term ''scalar product'' means literally "product with a scalar as a result". It is also used sometimes for other symmetric bilinear forms, for example in a pseudoEuclidean space. is an algebraic operation that takes two equallength sequences of numbers (usually coordinate vectors), and returns a single number. In Euclidean geometry, the dot product of the Cartesian coordinates of two vectors is widely used. It is often called the inner product (or rarely projection product) of Euclidean space, even though it is not the only inner product that can be defined on Euclidean space (see Inner product space for more). Algebraically, the dot product is the sum of the products of the corresponding entries of the two sequences of numbers. Geometrically, it is the product of the Euclidean magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between them. These definitions are equivalent when using Cartesian coordinates. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient
In arithmetic, a quotient (from lat, quotiens 'how many times', pronounced ) is a quantity produced by the division of two numbers. The quotient has widespread use throughout mathematics, and is commonly referred to as the integer part of a division (in the case of Euclidean division), or as a fraction or a ratio (in the case of proper division). For example, when dividing 20 (the ''dividend'') by 3 (the ''divisor''), the ''quotient'' is "6 with a remainder of 2" in the Euclidean division sense, and 6\tfrac in the proper division sense. In the second sense, a quotient is simply the ratio of a dividend to its divisor. Notation The quotient is most frequently encountered as two numbers, or two variables, divided by a horizontal line. The words "dividend" and "divisor" refer to each individual part, while the word "quotient" refers to the whole. \dfrac \quad \begin & \leftarrow \text \\ & \leftarrow \text \end \Biggr \} \leftarrow \text Integer part definition The q ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Column Vector
In linear algebra, a column vector with m elements is an m \times 1 matrix consisting of a single column of m entries, for example, \boldsymbol = \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end. Similarly, a row vector is a 1 \times n matrix for some n, consisting of a single row of n entries, \boldsymbol a = \begin a_1 & a_2 & \dots & a_n \end. (Throughout this article, boldface is used for both row and column vectors.) The transpose (indicated by T) of any row vector is a column vector, and the transpose of any column vector is a row vector: \begin x_1 \; x_2 \; \dots \; x_m \end^ = \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end and \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end^ = \begin x_1 \; x_2 \; \dots \; x_m \end. The set of all row vectors with ''n'' entries in a given field (such as the real numbers) forms an ''n''dimensional vector space; similarly, the set of all column vectors with ''m'' entries forms an ''m''dimensional vector space. The space of row vectors with ''n'' entries can ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Row Vector
In linear algebra, a column vector with m elements is an m \times 1 matrix consisting of a single column of m entries, for example, \boldsymbol = \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end. Similarly, a row vector is a 1 \times n matrix for some n, consisting of a single row of n entries, \boldsymbol a = \begin a_1 & a_2 & \dots & a_n \end. (Throughout this article, boldface is used for both row and column vectors.) The transpose (indicated by T) of any row vector is a column vector, and the transpose of any column vector is a row vector: \begin x_1 \; x_2 \; \dots \; x_m \end^ = \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end and \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end^ = \begin x_1 \; x_2 \; \dots \; x_m \end. The set of all row vectors with ''n'' entries in a given field (such as the real numbers) forms an ''n''dimensional vector space; similarly, the set of all column vectors with ''m'' entries forms an ''m''dimensional vector space. The space of row vectors with ''n'' entries can ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transpose
In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal; that is, it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix, often denoted by (among other notations). The transpose of a matrix was introduced in 1858 by the British mathematician Arthur Cayley. In the case of a logical matrix representing a binary relation R, the transpose corresponds to the converse relation RT. Transpose of a matrix Definition The transpose of a matrix , denoted by , , , A^, , , or , may be constructed by any one of the following methods: # Reflect over its main diagonal (which runs from topleft to bottomright) to obtain #Write the rows of as the columns of #Write the columns of as the rows of Formally, the th row, th column element of is the th row, th column element of : :\left mathbf^\operatorname\right = \left mathbf\right. If is an matrix, then is an matrix. In the case of square matrices, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix Multiplication
In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, matrix multiplication is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices. For matrix multiplication, the number of columns in the first matrix must be equal to the number of rows in the second matrix. The resulting matrix, known as the matrix product, has the number of rows of the first and the number of columns of the second matrix. The product of matrices and is denoted as . Matrix multiplication was first described by the French mathematician Jacques Philippe Marie Binet in 1812, to represent the composition of linear maps that are represented by matrices. Matrix multiplication is thus a basic tool of linear algebra, and as such has numerous applications in many areas of mathematics, as well as in applied mathematics, statistics, physics, economics, and engineering. Computing matrix products is a central operation in all computational applications of linear algebra. Notation This article will use the following notat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Row Matrix
In linear algebra, a column vector with m elements is an m \times 1 matrix consisting of a single column of m entries, for example, \boldsymbol = \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end. Similarly, a row vector is a 1 \times n matrix for some n, consisting of a single row of n entries, \boldsymbol a = \begin a_1 & a_2 & \dots & a_n \end. (Throughout this article, boldface is used for both row and column vectors.) The transpose (indicated by T) of any row vector is a column vector, and the transpose of any column vector is a row vector: \begin x_1 \; x_2 \; \dots \; x_m \end^ = \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end and \begin x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_m \end^ = \begin x_1 \; x_2 \; \dots \; x_m \end. The set of all row vectors with ''n'' entries in a given field (such as the real numbers) forms an ''n''dimensional vector space; similarly, the set of all column vectors with ''m'' entries forms an ''m''dimensional vector space. The space of row vectors with ''n'' entries can ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Threedimensional Space (mathematics)
Threedimensional space (also: 3D space, 3space or, rarely, tridimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called ''parameters'') are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In mathematics, a tuple of numbers can be understood as the Cartesian coordinates of a location in a dimensional Euclidean space. The set of these tuples is commonly denoted \R^n, and can be identified to the dimensional Euclidean space. When , this space is called threedimensional Euclidean space (or simply Euclidean space when the context is clear). It serves as a model of the physical universe (when relativity theory is not considered), in which all known matter exists. While this space remains the most compelling and useful way to model the world as it is experienced, it is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3manifolds. In this classical example, when the thr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dimension
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus, a line has a dimension of one (1D) because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on itfor example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface, such as the boundary of a cylinder or sphere, has a dimension of two (2D) because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on itfor example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere. A twodimensional Euclidean space is a twodimensional space on the plane. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is threedimensional (3D) because three coordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces. In classical mechanics, space and time are different categories and refer to absolute space and time. That conception of the world is a fourdimensional space but not the one that was ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Summation
In mathematics, summation is the addition of a sequence of any kind of numbers, called ''addends'' or ''summands''; the result is their ''sum'' or ''total''. Beside numbers, other types of values can be summed as well: functions, vectors, matrices, polynomials and, in general, elements of any type of mathematical objects on which an operation denoted "+" is defined. Summations of infinite sequences are called series. They involve the concept of limit, and are not considered in this article. The summation of an explicit sequence is denoted as a succession of additions. For example, summation of is denoted , and results in 9, that is, . Because addition is associative and commutative, there is no need of parentheses, and the result is the same irrespective of the order of the summands. Summation of a sequence of only one element results in this element itself. Summation of an empty sequence (a sequence with no elements), by convention, results in 0. Very often, the elem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthonormal Basis
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space ''V'' with finite dimension is a basis for V whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other. For example, the standard basis for a Euclidean space \R^n is an orthonormal basis, where the relevant inner product is the dot product of vectors. The image of the standard basis under a rotation or reflection (or any orthogonal transformation) is also orthonormal, and every orthonormal basis for \R^n arises in this fashion. For a general inner product space V, an orthonormal basis can be used to define normalized orthogonal coordinates on V. Under these coordinates, the inner product becomes a dot product of vectors. Thus the presence of an orthonormal basis reduces the study of a finitedimensional inner product space to the study of \R^n under dot product. Every finitedimensional inner product space has an orthonormal basis, which ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Coordinate Space
In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension , denoted ( ) or is the set of the tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of real numbers. With componentwise addition and scalar multiplication, it is a real vector space, and its elements are called coordinate vectors. The coordinates over any basis of the elements of a real vector space form a ''real coordinate space'' of the same dimension as that of the vector space. Similarly, the Cartesian coordinates of the points of a Euclidean space of dimension form a ''real coordinate space'' of dimension . These one to one correspondences between vectors, points and coordinate vectors explain the names of ''coordinate space'' and ''coordinate vector''. It allows using geometric terms and methods for studying real coordinate spaces, and, conversely, to use methods of calculus in geometry. This approach of geometry was introduced by RenĂ© Descartes in the 17th century. It is widely used, as it allows l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 