Coloureds
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Coloureds ( af, Kleurlinge or , ) are a
multiracial Multiracial people are people of more than one race (human categorization), race or ethnicity. A variety of terms have been used for multi-racial people, including ''mixed-race'', ''biracial'', ''multiethnic'', ''polyethnic'', ''Métis'', ''Creo ...
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambiguation) In arts and entertain ...
to
Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Pr ...
who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including
Khoisan Khoisan , or (), according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography, is a catch-all term for those Indigenous peoples of Africa, indigenous peoples of Southern Africa who do not speak one of the Bantu languages, combining the (formerly "K ...

Khoisan
,
Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styling, Bantu knots, a type of African hairstyle *Blac ...
,
European European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...
,
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
,
South Asian South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention ( ...
, or
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...
. Because of the combination of ethnicities, different families and individuals within a family may have a variety of different physical features. ''Coloured'' was a legally defined
racial classification A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations. By ...
during
apartheid Apartheid (: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised that existed in and (now ) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on ' (or ), wh ...

apartheid
. In the
Western Cape The Western Cape ( af, Wes-Kaap; xh, iNtshona-Koloni) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
, a distinctive
Cape Coloured Cape Coloureds () are a South African ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race. Although Coloureds form a minority group within South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernm ...
and affiliated
Cape Malay Cape Malays () also known as Cape Muslims or Malays, are a Muslim community or ethnic group in South Africa. They are the descendants of enslaved and free Muslims from different parts of the world who lived at the Cape during Dutch Cape Colony, ...
culture developed. In other parts of Southern Africa, people classified as Coloured were usually the descendants of individuals from two distinct ethnicities. Genetic studies suggest the group has the highest levels of mixed ancestry in the world.
Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the located in , cellular s within cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, such as (ATP). Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell ...

Mitochondrial DNA
studies have demonstrated that the maternal lines of the Coloured population are descended mostly from African
Khoisan Khoisan , or (), according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography, is a catch-all term for those Indigenous peoples of Africa, indigenous peoples of Southern Africa who do not speak one of the Bantu languages, combining the (formerly "K ...

Khoisan
women. This ethnicity shows a gender-biased admixture. Male lines originate from
NguniNguni may refer to: *Nguni languages The Nguni languages are a group of Bantu languages spoken in southern Africa by the Nguni peoples. Nguni languages include Xhosa language, Xhosa, Zulu language, Zulu, Northern Ndebele language, Ndebele (somet ...
, Southern African, West African, and East African populations at 45.2%;
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
an lineages at 37.3%; and
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the ...

South Asia
n/
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
n lineages at 17.5%. Coloureds are mostly found in the western part of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
. In
Cape Town Cape Town (: Kaapstad ; : ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in , after , and also the legislative of . Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the of the province and forms part of the . The is situated in Cape Town. The othe ...

Cape Town
, they form 45.4% of the total population, according to the
South African National Census of 2011 The South African National Census of 2011 is the 3rd comprehensive census performed by Statistics South Africa. The 2011 census was the first census to include Georeference, geo-referencing for every individual dwelling in South Africa. How ...
. The apartheid-era
Population Registration Act, 1950 The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that each inhabitant of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 milli ...
and subsequent amendments, codified the Coloured identity and defined its subgroups.
Indian South Africans Indian South Africans are South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countr ...
were initially classified under the act as a subgroup of Coloured. As a consequence of Apartheid policies and despite the abolition of the Population Registration Act in 1991, Coloureds are regarded as one of four race groups in South Africa. These groups ( blacks, European-African, Coloureds and Indians) still tend to have strong racial identities and to classify themselves and others as members of these race groups. The classification continues to persist in government policy, to an extent, as a result of attempts at redress such as
Black Economic Empowerment Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is an integration programme launched by the South African government The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a par ...
and .


Background

The Cape Coloured community is predominantly descended from numerous interracial sexual unions, primarily between
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
an men and Khoisan or mixed-race women in the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British Empire, British colony in present-day South Africa named after the Cape of Good Hope. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Corporate colony that b ...
from the 17th century onwards. In
KwaZulu-Natal KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu people, ...
, the Coloured possess a diverse heritage including
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
Mauritian Mauritians (singular Mauritian; french: Mauricien; Mauritian Creole, Creole: ''Morisien'') are Nationality, nationals or natives of the Mauritius, Republic of Mauritius and their descendants. Mauritius is a Multiracial, multi-ethnic society. The ma ...
, ,
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
,
Xhosa Xhosa may refer to: * Xhosa people, a nation, and ethnic group, who live in south-central and southeasterly region of South Africa * Xhosa language, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, principally spoken by the Xhosa people See also ...
and
Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in southern Africa * Zulu people, an ethnic group of southern Africa Arts, entertainment, and med ...
. Zimbabwean Coloureds are descended from Shona or
Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a language that stems from the South African Zulu language. With very similar clicking sounds between t ...
, British and
Afrikaner Afrikaners () are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can i ...

Afrikaner
settlers, as well as Arab and Asian people.
GriquaGriqua may refer to: * Griqua people * Griqua language or Xiri language * Griquas (rugby), a South African rugby team * 1362 Griqua, an outer main-belt asteroid * Griqua asteroid, dynamical group of asteroids {{Disambig Language and nationality dis ...
, on the other hand, are descendants of
Khoisan Khoisan , or (), according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography, is a catch-all term for those Indigenous peoples of Africa, indigenous peoples of Southern Africa who do not speak one of the Bantu languages, combining the (formerly "K ...

Khoisan
women and Afrikaner Trekboers. Despite these major differences, as both groups have ancestry from more than one ''naturalised'' racial group, they are classified as ''coloured'' in the South African context. Such mixed-race people did not necessarily self-identify this way; some preferred to call themselves ''black'' or ''Khoisan'' or just ''South African''. The Griqua were subjected to an ambiguity of other creole people within Southern African social order. According to Nurse and Jenkins (1975), the leader of this “mixed” group, Adam Kok I, was a former slave of the Dutch governor who was manumitted and provided land outside Cape Town in the eighteenth century (Nurse 1975:71). With territories beyond the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate organization that owns or controls the pro ...

Dutch East India Company
’s administration, Kok provided refuge to deserting soldiers, runaway slaves and remaining members of various
Khoikhoi Khoekhoen (singular Khoekhoe) (or Khoikhoi in the former orthography; formerly also '' Hottentots''"Hottentot, n. and adj." ''OED Online'', Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. ...

Khoikhoi
tribes. In South Africa and neighbouring countries, the white minority governments historically segregated Africans from Europeans after settlement had progressed. They classified all such ''mixed race'' people together in one class, despite their numerous ethnic and national differences in ancestry. The imperial and
apartheid Apartheid (: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised that existed in and (now ) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on ' (or ), wh ...

apartheid
governments categorized them as Coloured. In addition, other distinctly homogeneous ethnic groups also traditionally viewed the mixed-race populations as a separate group. During the
apartheid era Apartheid (South African English: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid wa ...
in South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, the government used the term "Coloured" to describe one of the four main racial groups it defined by law. This was an effort to impose
white supremacy White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to those of other races and thus should dominate them. The belief favors the maintenance and defense of white power and privilege. White supremacy has roots in ...
and maintain racial divisions. Individuals were classified as
White South Africans White South Africans ( af, Blankes/Europeërs) refers to South Africans The population of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South ...
(formally classified as "European"),
Black South AfricansIndigenous people of South Africa refers to: * Bantu peoples of South Africa * Khoisan peoples of South Africa * Coloureds of South Africa, only those who descended from the above-mentioned groups See also * Ethnic groups in South Africa {{da ...
(formally classified as "Native", "Bantu" or simply "African" and comprising the majority of the population), Coloureds (mixed-race) and
Indians Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
(formally classified as "Asian"). Coloured people may have ethnic ancestry from Indonesia, mixed-race, and Khoisan ancestry. The Apartheid government treated them as one people, despite their differences. 'Cape Muslims' were also classified as 'coloured.' They generally have Indonesian and black ancestry, as many Indonesian slaves had children with African partners. Many
GriquaGriqua may refer to: * Griqua people * Griqua language or Xiri language * Griquas (rugby), a South African rugby team * 1362 Griqua, an outer main-belt asteroid * Griqua asteroid, dynamical group of asteroids {{Disambig Language and nationality dis ...
began to self-identify as ''Coloureds'' during the apartheid era, because of the benefits of such classification. For example, Coloureds did not have to carry a '' dompas'' (an identity document designed to limit the movements of the non-white populace), while the Griqua, who were seen as an indigenous African group, did. In the 21st century, Coloured people constitute a plurality of the population in the provinces of
Western Cape The Western Cape ( af, Wes-Kaap; xh, iNtshona-Koloni) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
(48.8%), and a large minority in the
Northern Cape The Northern Cape ( af, Noord-Kaap; xh, eMntla-Koloni; tn, Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. It was created in 1994 when the Cape Province was split up. Its capital is Ki ...
(40.3%), both areas of centuries of mixing among the populations. In the
Eastern Cape The Eastern Cape ( xh, eMpuma-Kapa, af, Oos-Kaap, st, Kapa Botjhabela) is one of the provinces of South Africa South Africa is divided into nine provinces. On the eve of the 1994 South African general election, 1994 general election, South Afr ...
, they make up 8.3% of the population. Most speak
Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 5 ...
, as they were generally descendants of Dutch and Afrikaner men and grew up in their society. About twenty percent of the Coloured speak English as their mother tongue, mostly those of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Virtually all
Cape Town Cape Town (: Kaapstad ; : ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in , after , and also the legislative of . Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the of the province and forms part of the . The is situated in Cape Town. The othe ...

Cape Town
Coloured are bilingual.


Genetics

At least one genetic study indicates that Cape Coloureds have ancestries from the following ethnic groups; not all Coloureds in South Africa had the same ancestry. * Indigenous
Khoisan Khoisan , or (), according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography, is a catch-all term for those Indigenous peoples of Africa, indigenous peoples of Southern Africa who do not speak one of the Bantu languages, combining the (formerly "K ...

Khoisan
: (32–43%) * Indigenous
Bantu peoples Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large Language family, family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The total number of Bantu lang ...
, chiefly from
Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Pr ...
: (20–36%) * Peoples from
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
, chiefly the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe forming ...
: (21–28%) * Peoples from
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...

South
and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
: (9–11%) *Studies also show that coloured also have Xhosa ancestry. *Coloureds from the Eastern Cape have British, Xhosa and Irish The
Malagasy Malagasy may refer to: *Someone or something from Madagascar *Malagasy people *Malagasy language *Malagasy Republic *Related to the culture of Madagascar See also

*Madagascar (disambiguation) {{disambiguation Language and nationality disambi ...
component in the Coloured composite gene pool is itself a blend of
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
and Bantu
genetic marker A genetic marker is a gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian_inheritance#History, Mendelian units of heredity..." (Greek language, Greek) meaning ''generation'' or ''birth ...
s. This genetic admixture appears to be gender-biased. A majority of maternal genetic material is Khoisan. The Cape Coloured population is descended predominantly from unions of European and European-African males with autochthonous Khoisan females. Coloureds in KwaZulu-Natal tend to be descended from unions between Zulu women and British settlers, and the group includes people with Mauritian and St Helenian ancestry.


Pre-apartheid era

Coloured people played an important role in the struggle against apartheid and its predecessor policies. The African Political Organisation, established in 1902, had an exclusively Coloured membership; its leader
Abdullah Abdurahman Abdullah Abdurahman (18 December 1872 – 2 February 1940) was a South African politician and physician, born in Wellington, Western Cape, Wellington, South Africa. He was the first coloured city councillor of Cape Town, and leader of the ant ...

Abdullah Abdurahman
rallied Coloured political efforts for many years. Many Coloured people later joined the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is a social-democratic political party in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of ...
and the United Democratic Front. Whether in these organisations or others, many Coloured people were active in the fight against apartheid. The political rights of Coloured people varied by location and over time. In the 19th century they theoretically had similar rights to Whites in the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British Empire, British colony in present-day South Africa named after the Cape of Good Hope. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Corporate colony that b ...
(though income and property qualifications affected them disproportionately). In the
Transvaal Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was an independent republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the s ...
or the
Orange Free State The Orange Free State ( nl, Oranje Vrijstaat, af, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonists of the eastern Cape frontier in ...
, they had few rights. Coloured members were elected to
Cape Town Cape Town (: Kaapstad ; : ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in , after , and also the legislative of . Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the of the province and forms part of the . The is situated in Cape Town. The othe ...

Cape Town
's municipal authority (including, for many years, Abdurahman). The establishment of the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) was the historical predecessor to the present-day South Africa, Republic of South Africa. It came into existence on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the British ...
gave Coloured people the franchise, although by 1930 they were restricted to electing White representatives. They conducted frequent voting boycotts in protest. Such boycotts may have contributed to the victory of the National Party in 1948. They carried out an apartheid programme that stripped Coloured people of their remaining voting powers. Coloured people were subject to forced relocation. For instance, the government relocated Coloured from the urban Cape Town areas of
District Six District Six (Afrikaans ''Distrik Ses'') is a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town, South Africa. Over 60,000 of its inhabitants were History of South Africa in the Apartheid era#Forced removal, forcibly removed during the 1970s ...
, which was later bulldozed. Other areas they were forced to leave included Constantia, Claremont,
Simon's Town Simon's Town ( af, Simonstad), sometimes spelled Simonstown, is a town in the Western Cape The Western Cape ( af, Wes-Kaap; xh, iNtshona-Koloni) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sta ...

Simon's Town
. Inhabitants were moved to racially designated sections of the metropolitan area on the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
. Additionally, under apartheid, Coloured people received education inferior to that of Whites. It was, however, better than that provided to Black South Africans.


Apartheid era

, known as "the Lion of the North", worked to restrict Coloured rights. He removed their ability to exercise their franchise. Strijdom's government expanded the number of Senate seats from 48 to 89. All of the additional 41 members hailed from the National Party, increasing its representation in the Senate to 77 in total. The Appellate Division Quorum Bill increased the number of judges necessary for constitutional decisions in the Appeal Court from five to eleven. Strijdom, knowing that he had his two-thirds majority, held a joint sitting of parliament in May 1956. The entrenchment clause regarding the Coloured vote, known as the South African Act, was amended. Coloureds were placed on a separate voters' roll. They could elect four Whites to represent them in the
House of Assembly House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who ...
. Two Whites would be elected to the
Cape Provincial Council The Cape Provincial Council was the provincial council of the Cape Province The Province of the Cape of Good Hope ( af, Provinsie Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province ( af, Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape ( ...
and the governor general could appoint one
senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the Ancient Rome, ancient Roman Senate (Latin: ''Senatus''), so-call ...
. Both blacks and Whites opposed this measure. The
Torch Commando The Torch Commando was a South African anti-racist organisation, born out of the work of the Springbok Legion, a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Dem ...
was very prominent, while the
Black Sash The Black Sash is a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by po ...

Black Sash
(White women, uniformly dressed, standing on street corners with placards) also made themselves heard. Many Coloureds refused to register for the new voters' roll and the number of Coloured voters dropped dramatically. In the next election, only 50.2% of them voted. They had no interest in voting for White representatives— an activity which many of them saw as pointless. Under the
Population Registration Act The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified and registered in accordance with their racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid. Social rights, political rights, educational ...
, as amended, Coloureds were formally classified into various subgroups, including Cape Coloureds, Cape Malays and "other coloured". A portion of the small Chinese South African community was also classified as a coloured subgrou

https://archive.org/details/southafricanoeas0000leac/page/70 ] In 1958, the government established the Department of Coloured Affairs, followed in 1959 by the Union for Coloured Affairs. The latter had 27 members and served as an advisory link between the government and the Coloured people. The 1964 Coloured Persons Representative Council turned out to be a constitutional hitch which never really got going. In 1969, the Coloureds elected forty onto the council to supplement the twenty nominated by the government, taking the total number to sixty. Following the South African constitutional reform referendum, 1983, 1983 referendum, in which 66.3% of White voters supported the change, the South African Constitution of 1983, Constitution was reformed to allow the Coloured and Indian South Africans, Indian minorities limited participation in separate and subordinate Houses in a tricameral Parliament of South Africa, Parliament. This was part of a change in which the Coloured minority was to be allowed limited rights, but the Black majority were to become citizens of independent homelands. These separate arrangements were removed by the negotiations which took place from 1990 to provide all South Africans with the vote.


Post-apartheid era

During the 1994 all-race elections, some Coloured people voted for the white National Party. The National Party recast itself as the New National Party (South Africa), New National Party, partly to attract non-White voters. This political alliance, often perplexing to outsiders, has sometimes been explained in terms of the culture and language shared by White and Coloured New National Party members, who both spoke Afrikaans. In addition, both groups opposed affirmative action programmes that might give preference to non-Coloured Black people, and some Coloured people feared giving up older privileges, such as access to municipal jobs, if
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is a social-democratic political party in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of ...
gained leadership in the government. Since the late 20th century, Coloured identity politics have grown in influence. The Western Cape has been a site of the rise of opposition parties, such as the Democratic Alliance (South Africa), Democratic Alliance (DA). The Western Cape is considered as an area in which this party might gain ground against the dominant African National Congress. The Democratic Alliance (South Africa), Democratic Alliance drew in some former New National Party voters and won considerable Coloured support. The New National Party collapsed in the 2004 elections. Coloured support aided the Democratic Alliance's victory in the 2006 Cape Town municipal elections. Patricia de Lille, former mayor of
Cape Town Cape Town (: Kaapstad ; : ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in , after , and also the legislative of . Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the of the province and forms part of the . The is situated in Cape Town. The othe ...

Cape Town
and founder of the now-defunct Independent Democrats, does not use the label Coloured but many observers would consider her as Coloured by visible appearance. The Independent Democrats party sought the Coloured vote and gained significant ground in the municipal and local elections in 2006, particularly in districts in the Western Cape with high proportions of Coloured residents. The firebrand Peter Marais (formerly a provincial leader of the New National Party) has sought to portray his New Labour Party (South Africa), New Labour Party as the political voice for Coloured people. Coloured people supported and were members of the African National Congress before, during and after the apartheid era: notable politicians include Ebrahim Rasool (previously Western Cape premier), Beatrice Marshoff, John Schuurman and Allan Hendrickse. The Democratic Alliance won control over the Western Cape during the 2009 National and Provincial Elections and subsequently brokered an alliance with the Independent Democrats. The ANC has had some success in winning Coloured votes, particularly among labour-affiliated and middle-class Coloured voters. Some Coloureds express distrust of the ANC with the comment, saying that the Coloured were considered "not white enough under apartheid and not black enough under the ANC." In the 2004 election, voter apathy was high in historically Coloured areas. The ANC faces the dilemma of having to balance the increasingly nationalistic economic aspirations of its core black African support base, with its ambition to regain control of the Western Cape, which would require support from Coloureds. Western Cape Independence There has been significant advocacy for Western Cape Independence, particularly among the 49% of Western Cape residents who identify as Coloured as well as White residents who make up 16% of the population. Western Cape independence has become a mainstream part of the political discussion in the Western Cape since 2019. The Capexit pressure group has achieved over 816 000 signatures on its petition for Western Cape independence as of the 5th of August 2021 and Western Cape independence has been endorsed by the Freedom Front Plus party that have 10 seats in the South African parliament. The support for Western Cape Independence among coloured residents is primarily due to South Africa’s troubled economic situation as well as the unique cultural identity of the coloured people that has been derived from the indigenous Khoisan people of the Cape as well as the first European settlers that landed in 1652 at what would become the Cape Of Good Hope. The Gatovol Capetonian movement was established in 2018 by three coloured men in the Western Cape and is led by Fadiel Adams. The group gained support among coloured residents in the Cape flats. The groups number 1 listed goal is Cape Independence. The group believes that Black Economic Empowerment laws are harming Coloured South Africans in the Western Cape and preventing them from housing benefits and jobs. The group has stated that is opposes the migration of Black South Africans in to the Western Cape from the Eastern Cape as they are taking social benefits through BEE that would otherwise be given to Coloured residents. The pressure group has also stated it wants to raise awareness among the broader minority community including white and Indian South Africans about the way minority groups are being “mauled over” by the ANC. The group believes that the Western Cape belongs to the Coloured people as the Khoisan people who are indigenous to the Western Cape and the broader Cape region form a significant part of their ancestry along with the first European settlers.


Southern Africa

The term Coloured People in Namibia, Coloured is also used in Namibia, to describe persons of mixed race, specifically part Khoisan, and part European. The ''Basters'' of Namibia constitute a separate
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
that are sometimes considered a sub-group of the Coloured population of that country. Under South African rule, the policies and laws of apartheid were extended to what was then called South West Africa. In Namibia, Coloured People in Namibia, Coloureds were treated by the government in a way comparable to that of South African Coloureds. In Zimbabwe and to a lesser extent Zambia, the term Coloured or ''Goffal'' was used to refer to people of mixed race. Most are descended from mixed African and British, or African and Indian, progenitors. Some Coloured families descended from Cape Coloured migrants from South Africa who had children with local women. Under Rhodesia's predominantly white government, Coloureds had more privileges than black Africans[?], including full voting rights, but still faced social discrimination. The term Coloured is also used in Eswatini.


Culture


Lifestyle

As far as family life, housing, eating habits, clothing and so on are concerned, the Christian Coloureds generally maintain a Western lifestyle. Marriages are strictly monogamous, although extramarital and premarital sexual relationships can occur and are perceived differently from family to family. Among the working and agrarian classes, permanent relationships are often officially ratified only after a while if at all. The average family size of six does not differ from those of other Western families and, as with the latter, is generally related to socio-economic status. Extended families are common. Coloured children are often expected to refer to any extended relatives as their "auntie" or "uncle" as a formality. While many affluent families live in large, modern, and sometimes luxurious homes, many urban coloured people rely on state-owned economic and sub-economic housing.


Cultural aspects

There are many singing and choir associations as well as orchestras in the Coloured community. The Eoan Group Theatre Company performs opera and ballet in Cape Town. The Kaapse Klopse carnival, held annually on 2 January in Cape Town, and the Cape Malay choir and orchestral performances are an important part of the city's holiday season. Kaapse Klopse consists of several competing groups that have been singing and dancing through Cape Town's streets on New Year's Day earlier this year. Nowadays the drumlines in cheerful, brightly Coloured costumes perform in a stadium. Christmas festivities take place in a sacred atmosphere but are no less vivid, mainly including choirs and orchestras that sing and play Christmas songs in the streets. In the field of performing arts and literature, several Coloureds performed with the CAPAB (Cape Performing Arts Board) ballet and opera company, and the community yielded three major Afrikaans poets the well-known poets, Adam Small, Sydney Vernon Petersen, S.V. Petersen, and P.J. Philander. In 1968, the Culture and Recreation Council was established to promote the cultural activities of the Coloured Community.


Education

Until 1841 missionary societies provided all the school facilities for Coloured children. All South African children are expected to attend school from the age of seven to sixteen years, minimum.


Economic activities

Initially, the Coloureds were mainly semi-skilled and unskilled labourers who, as builders, masons, carpenters and painters, made an important contribution to the early construction industry at the Cape. Many were also fishermen and farm workers, and the latter had an important share in the development of the wine, fruit and grain farms in the Western Cape. The Malays were, and still are, skilled furniture makers, dressmakers and coopers. In recent years, more and more Coloureds have been working in the manufacturing and construction industry. There are still many Coloured fishermen, and most Coloureds in the countryside are farm workers and even farmers. The largest percentage of economically active Coloureds is found in the manufacturing industry. About 35% of the economically active Coloured women are employed in clothing, textile, food and other factories. Another important field of work is the service sector, while an ever-increasing number of Coloureds operate in administrative, clerical and sales positions. All the more professional and managerial posts and posts are. In order to stimulate the economic development of the Coloureds, the Coloured Development Corporation was established in 1962. The corporation provided capital to businessmen, offered training courses and undertook the establishment of shopping centres, factories and the like.


Distribution

A majority of those who identify as coloured live in the Western Cape, where they make up almost 49% of the province's population. In the 2011 South African census the distribution of the group per province was as follows:Statistics South Africa: Interactive data "SuperWEB2"; Census 2011 Data
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Language

In the 2011 South African census 95% of those who identified as Coloured spoke either Afrikaans (74.6%) or English (20.5) while 4.93% reported a different first language, the largest of those being Setswana which was spoken by 0.87% of the group.


Cuisine

Numerous South African cuisines can be traced back to Coloured people. It is said that bobotie, Thyrsites, snoek based dishes,  koe'sisters, Tomato bredie, bredies, Malay roti and gatsbies are staple diets of Coloureds and other South Africans as well. A popular Coloured cuisine also include braai (English: barbecue). Zainab Lagardien, Traditional Cape Malay Cooking, Random House Struik 2008 Most dishes are passed down for many generations.


See also

*Anglo-Indian *Anglo-Burmese people, Anglo-Burmese *Arab-Berber *Basters *Burgher people, Burghers *Colored *Coloured People in Namibia *Multiracial people *Culture of South Africa *South African cuisine *Goffal *
GriquaGriqua may refer to: * Griqua people * Griqua language or Xiri language * Griquas (rugby), a South African rugby team * 1362 Griqua, an outer main-belt asteroid * Griqua asteroid, dynamical group of asteroids {{Disambig Language and nationality dis ...
*Sandra Laing *Melungeon *Mestizo (Mestiço) *Métis *Miscegenation *Mulatto *Negro *One-drop rule *Pardo *Passing (racial identity) *Pencil test (South Africa), Pencil test *Person of color


References


Bibliography

* ''Gekonsolideerde Algemene Bibliografie: Die Kleurlinge Van Suid-Afrika'', South Africa Department of Coloured Affairs, Inligtingsafdeling, 1960, 79 p. * Mohamed Adhikari, ''Not White Enough, Not Black Enough: Racial Identity in the South African Coloured Community'', Ohio University Press, 2005, 252 p. * Vernie A. February, ''Mind Your Colour: The "coloured" Stereotype in South African Literature'', Routledge, 1981, 248 p. * R. E. Van der Ross, ''100 Questions about Coloured South Africans'', 1993, 36 p. * Philippe Gervais-Lambony, ''La nouvelle Afrique du Sud, problèmes politiques et sociaux'', la Documentation française, 1998 * François-Xavier Fauvelle-Aymar, ''Histoire de l'Afrique du Sud'', 2006, Seuil


Novels

* Pamela Jooste, ''Dance with a Poor Man's Daughter'', Doubleday, 1998, * Zoë Wicomb, ''David’s Story'', New York, Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 2001. * Henry Martin Scholtz, ''A Place Called Vatmaar'', 2000,


External links

{{Authority control Ethnic groups in Namibia Coloured African people, Multiracial affairs in Africa European diaspora in Africa Creole peoples Person of color History of the Dutch East India Company Articles containing video clips