A flight recorder is an electronic recording device placed in an
aircraft for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of aviation
accidents and incidents.
Flight recorders are also known by the
misnomer black box—they are actually bright orange to aid in their
recovery after accidents.
The flight data recorder (FDR) is a device that preserves the recent
history of the flight through the recording of dozens of parameters
collected several times per second. The cockpit voice recorder (CVR)
preserves the recent history of the sounds in the cockpit, including
the conversation of the pilots. The two recorders give an accurate
testimony, narrating the aircraft's flight history, to assist in any
The FDR and CVR may be combined in a single unit. The two recorders
are required by international regulation, overseen by the
Aviation Organization, to be capable of surviving
the conditions likely to be encountered in a severe aircraft accident.
For this reason, they are typically specified to withstand an impact
of 3400 g and temperatures of over 1,000 °C (1,830 °F) as
EUROCAE ED-112. They have been required in commercial
aircraft in the US since 1967.
1.1 Early designs
1.3 United States
Flight data recorder
Cockpit voice recorder
3.3 Combined units
3.4 Additional equipment
5.1 Proposed requirements
5.1.1 Deployable recorders
5.1.2 Image recorders
5.2 After Malaysia Airlines
5.3 After Indonesia AirAsia
6 Cultural references
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
1985 ABC news report interviewing David Warren about his invention
Cockpit voice recorder (on display in the Deutsches Museum). This is a
magnetic tape unit built to an old standard TSO C84 as shown on the
nameplate. The text on the side in French says "flight recorder do not
One of the earliest and proven attempts was made by François Hussenot
and Paul Beaudouin in 1939 at the
Marignane flight test center,
France, with their "type HB" flight recorder; they were essentially
photograph-based flight recorders, because the record was made on a
scrolling eight meters long by 88 millimeters wide photographic film.
The latent image was made by a thin ray of light deviated by a mirror
tilted according to the magnitude of the data to record (altitude,
speed, etc.). A pre-production run of 25 "HB" recorders was
ordered in 1941 and HB recorders remained in use in French test
centers well into the seventies. In 1947, Hussenot founded the
Société Française des Instruments de Mesure with Beaudouin and
another associate, so as to market his invention, which was also known
as the "hussenograph". This company went on to become a major supplier
of data recorders, used not only aboard aircraft but also trains and
other vehicles. SFIM is today part of the
Safran group and is still
present on the flight recorder market. The advantage of the film
technology was that it could be easily developed afterwards and
provides a durable, visual feedback of the flight parameters without
needing any playback device. On the other hand, unlike magnetic bands
or later flash memory-based technology, a photographic film cannot be
erased and recycled, and so it must be changed periodically. As such,
this technology was reserved for one-shot uses, mostly during planned
test flights; and it was not mounted aboard civilian aircraft during
routine commercial flights. Also, the cockpit conversation was not
Another form of flight data recorder was developed in the UK during
World War II. Len Harrison and Vic Husband developed a unit that could
withstand a crash and fire to keep the flight data intact. This unit
used copper foil as the recording medium with various styli indicating
various instruments / aircraft controls which indented the copper
foil. The copper foil was periodically advanced at set periods of time
therefore giving a history of the instruments / control settings of
the aircraft. This unit was developed at Farnborough for the Ministry
Aircraft Production. At the war's end the Ministry got Harrison and
Husband to sign over their invention to them and the Ministry patented
it under British patent 19330/45. This unit was the forerunner of
today's black boxes being able to withstand conditions that aircrew
The first modern flight recorder, called "Mata Hari", was created in
1942 by Finnish aviation engineer Veijo Hietala. This black high-tech
mechanical box was able to record all important aviation details
during test flights of
World War II
World War II fighter aircraft that the Finnish
army repaired or built in their main aviation factory in Tampere,
Finland. The "Mata Hari" black box is displayed in the Vapriikki
Museum (fi) in Tampere, Finland.
Australian engineer David Warren conceived a device that
would record not only the instruments reading, but also the cockpit
voices, when working with the
Australian Research Laboratories. He
built the first prototype in 1958.
Warren, when working with the Defence Science and Technology
Organisations' Aeronautical Research Laboratory (Melbourne,
Australia), published a 1954 report entitled "A Device for
Assisting Investigation into
Aircraft Accidents" and built a prototype
FDR called "The ARL
Flight Memory Unit" in 1957. The first coupled FDR
/ CVR prototype designed with civilian aircraft in mind, for explicit
post-crash examination purposes, was produced in 1958. However,
aviation authorities from around the world were largely uninterested.
This changed in 1958 when Sir Robert Hardingham, the
Secretary of the
British Air Registration Board, visited the ARL and was introduced to
The Aeronautical Research Laboratory allocated Warren an engineering
team to develop the prototype to airborne stage. The team, consisting
of electronics engineers Lane Sear, Wally Boswell and Ken Fraser
developed a working design incorporating a fire and shockproof case, a
reliable system for encoding and recording aircraft instrument
readings and voice on one wire, and a ground-based decoding device.
The ARL system became the "Red Egg", made by the British firm of S.
Davall & Sons, Ltd., of Greenford, Middlesex. The "Red Egg" got
its name from its shape and bright red color.
In 1965 the units were redesigned and moved to the rear of airplanes
to improve the probability of successful data retrieval after a crash.
Flight Recorder" was invented and patented in the United States
by Professor James J. "Crash" Ryan, a professor of mechanical
engineering at the
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota from 1931 to 1963. Ryan's
Flight Recorder" patent was filed in August 1953 and approved on
November 8, 1960; see US Patent 2,959,459. A second patent by Ryan
for a "Coding Apparatus For
Flight Recorders and the Like" is US
Patent 3,075,192 dated January 22, 1963. An early prototype of the
Flight Data Recorder is described in the January 2013 Aviation
History Magazine article "Father of the Black Box" by Scott M.
Fisher. Ryan, also the inventor of the retractable safety seat
belt now required in automobiles, began working on the idea of a
flight recorder in 1946, and invented the device in response to the
1948 request from the
Civil Aeronautics Board
Civil Aeronautics Board for development of a
flight recorder as a means of accumulating data that could be used to
get information useful in arriving at operating procedures designed to
reduce air mishaps. The original device was known as the "General
Flight Recorder". The benefits of the flight recorder and the
coding apparatus for flight recorders were outlined by Ryan in his
study entitled "Economies in
Airline Operation with
which was entered into the Congressional Record in 1956. Ryan's Flight
Recorder maintained a continuing recording of aircraft flight data
such as engine exhaust, temperature, fuel flow, aircraft velocity,
altitude, control surfaces positions, and rate of descent.
Cockpit Sound Recorder" (CSR) was independently invented and
patented by Edmund A. Boniface, Jr., an aeronautical engineer at
Aircraft Corporation. He originally filed with
the US Patent Office on February 2, 1961, as an "
Sound Recorder". The 1961 invention was viewed by some as an
"invasion of privacy". Subsequently Boniface filed again on February
4, 1963 for a "
Cockpit Sound Recorder" (US Patent 3,327,067) with
the addition of a spring-loaded switch which allowed the pilot to
erase the audio/sound tape recording at the conclusion of a safe
flight and landing. Boniface's participation in aircraft crash
investigations in the 1940s and in the accident investigations of
the loss of one of the wings at cruise altitude on each of two
Lockheed Electra turboprop powered aircraft (
Flight #542 operated by
Braniff Airlines in 1959 and
Flight #710 operated by Northwest Orient
Airlines in 1961) led to his wondering what the pilots may have said
just prior to the wing loss and during the descent as well as the type
and nature of any sounds or explosions that may have preceded or
occurred during the wing loss. His patent was for a device for
recording audio of pilot remarks and engine or other sounds to be
"contained with the in-flight recorder within a sealed container that
is shock mounted, fireproofed and made watertight" and "sealed in such
a manner as to be capable of withstanding extreme temperatures during
a crash fire". The CSR was an analog device which provided a
progressive erasing/recording loop (lasting 30 or more minutes) of all
sounds (explosion, voice, and the noise of any aircraft structural
components undergoing serious fracture and breakage) which could be
overheard in the cockpit.
GEE airborne equipment, with the R1355 receiver on the left and the
Indicator Unit Type 62A 'black box' on the right.
The origin of the term "black box" is uncertain. In a systems
engineering context (since the 1960s when the term was spreading), the
meaning is that the aircraft is modeled as a black box, and its
behaviour can be understood from its recorded inputs, such as pilot
instructions, and outputs, such as flight level data.
The term "black box" is almost never used within the flight safety
industry or aviation, which prefers the term "flight
recorder". The recorders are not permitted to be
black in color, and must be bright orange, as they are intended to be
spotted and recovered after incidents. The term "black box" has
been popularised by the media in general.
One explanation for popularization of the term "black box" comes from
the early film-based design of flight data recorders, which required
the inside of the recorder to be perfectly dark to prevent light leaks
from corrupting the record, as in a photographer's darkroom.
Another explanation of the "black box" term popularization came from a
meeting about Warren's "Red Egg", when afterwards a journalist told
Warren: "This is a wonderful black box." The unit
itself was based on an
EMI Minifon wire recorder (originally a 1950s
espionage gadget from the West-German manufacturer Protona Monske)
fitted into a perspex box firmly screwed together.
Another possible origin of the term is
World War II
World War II RAF jargon. Prior
to the end of the war in 1945, new electronic innovations, such as
Oboe, GEE and H2S, were added to bombers on a regular basis. The
prototypes were roughly covered in hand-made metal boxes, painted
black to prevent reflections. After a time any piece of "new"
electronics was referred to as the "box-of-tricks" (as illusionist
box) or the "black box".
The first recorded use of the term "black box" in reference to flight
data recorders and cockpit voice recorders was by Mr E. Newton of the
AAIB at a meeting of the Aeronautical Research Council in August
Flight data recorder
A typical flight recorder
Cockpit voice recorder and flight data recorder, each with an
underwater locator beacon on the front
An underwater locator beacon, with a ballpoint pen to provide scale
Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder (CVDR), with its attached ULB
visible on the left side of the unit
A flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder installed on their
mounting trays in the rear fuselage of an aircraft
A flight data recorder (FDR) (also ADR, for accident data recorder) is
an electronic device employed to record instructions sent to any
electronic systems on an aircraft. Another kind of flight recorder is
the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), which records conversation in the
cockpit, radio communications between the cockpit crew and others
(including communication with air traffic control personnel), as well
as ambient sounds.
The data recorded by the FDR are used for accident and incident
investigation. Due to their importance in investigating accidents,
these ICAO-regulated devices are carefully engineered and constructed
to withstand the force of a high speed impact and the heat of an
intense fire. Contrary to the popular term "black box", the exterior
of the FDR is coated with heat-resistant bright orange paint for high
visibility in wreckage, and the unit is usually mounted in the
aircraft's tail section, where it is more likely to survive a severe
crash. Following an accident, the recovery of the FDR is usually a
high priority for the investigating body, as analysis of the recorded
parameters can often detect and identify causes or contributing
Modern day FDRs receive inputs via specific data frames from the
Flight Data Acquisition Units (FDAU). They record significant flight
parameters, including the control and actuator positions, engine
information and time of day. There are 88 parameters required as a
minimum under current US federal regulations (only 29 were required
until 2002), but some systems monitor many more variables. Generally
each parameter is recorded a few times per second, though some units
store "bursts" of data at a much higher frequency if the data begin to
change quickly. Most FDRs record approximately 17–25 hours of data
in a continuous loop. It is required by regulations
that an FDR verification check (readout) is performed annually in
order to verify that all mandatory parameters are recorded.[citation
Modern FDRs are typically double wrapped in strong corrosion-resistant
stainless steel or titanium, with high-temperature insulation inside.
Modern FDRs are accompanied by an underwater locator beacon that emits
an ultrasonic "ping" to aid in detection when submerged. These beacons
operate for up to 30 days and are able to operate while immersed to a
depth of up to 6,000 meters (20,000 ft).
Cockpit voice recorder
Both side views of a cockpit voice recorder, one type of flight
A cockpit voice recorder (CVR) is a flight recorder used to record the
audio environment in the flight deck of an aircraft for the purpose of
investigation of accidents and incidents. This is typically achieved
by recording the signals of the microphones and earphones of the
pilots' headsets and of an area microphone in the roof of the cockpit.
The current applicable
FAA TSO is C123b titled
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Where an aircraft is required to carry a CVR and uses digital
communications the CVR is required to record such communications with
air traffic control unless this is recorded elsewhere. As of
2008[update] it is an
FAA requirement that the recording duration is a
minimum of two hours.
A standard CVR is capable of recording 4 channels of audio data for a
period of 2 hours. The original requirement was for a CVR to record
for 30 minutes, but this has been found to be insufficient in many
cases, significant parts of the audio data needed for a subsequent
investigation having occurred more than 30 minutes before the end of
The earliest CVRs used analog wire recording, later replaced by analog
magnetic tape. Some of the tape units used two reels, with the tape
automatically reversing at each end. The original was the ARL Flight
Memory Unit produced in 1957 by
Australian David Warren and an
instrument maker named Tych Mirfield.
Other units used a single reel, with the tape spliced into a
continuous loop, much as in an 8-track cartridge. The tape would
circulate and old audio information would be overwritten every 30
minutes. Recovery of sound from magnetic tape often proves difficult
if the recorder is recovered from water and its housing has been
breached. Thus, the latest designs employ solid-state memory and use
digital recording techniques, making them much more resistant to
shock, vibration and moisture. With the reduced power requirements of
solid-state recorders, it is now practical to incorporate a battery in
the units, so that recording can continue until flight termination,
even if the aircraft electrical system fails.
Like the FDR, the CVR is typically mounted in the rear of the airplane
fuselage to maximize the likelihood of its survival in a crash.
With the advent of digital recorders, the FDR and CVR can be
manufactured in one fireproof, shock proof, and waterproof container
as a combined digital
Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder (CVDR).
Currently a CVDR is manufactured by L-3 Communications as well as
Solid state recorders became commercially practical in 1990, having
the advantage of not requiring scheduled maintenance and making the
data easier to retrieve. This was extended to the two-hour voice
recording in 1995.
Since the 1970s, most large civil jet transports have been
additionally equipped with a "quick access recorder" (QAR). This
records data on a removable storage medium. Access to the FDR and CVR
is necessarily difficult because of the requirement that they survive
an accident. They also require specialized equipment to read the
recording. The QAR recording medium is readily removable and is
designed to be read by equipment attached to a standard desktop
computer. In many airlines, the quick access recordings are scanned
for 'events', an event being a significant deviation from normal
operational parameters. This allows operational problems to be
detected and eliminated before an accident or incident results.
Many modern aircraft systems are digital or digitally controlled. Very
often, the digital system will include Built-In Test Equipment which
records information about the operation of the system. This
information may also be accessed to assist with the investigation of
an accident or incident.
Cockpit voice recorder memory module of PR-GTD, a Gol Transportes
Aéreos Boeing 737-8EH SFP, found in the Amazon in Mato Grosso,
After the crash of Gol Transportes Aéreos
Flight 1907, Brazilian Air
Force personnel show the recovered flight data recorder
The design of today's FDR is governed by the internationally
recognized standards and recommended practices relating to flight
recorders which are contained in
ICAO Annex 6 which makes reference to
industry crashworthiness and fire protection specifications such as
those to be found in the European Organisation for Civil Aviation
EUROCAE ED55, ED56 fiken A and ED112 (Minimum
Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne
Recorder Systems). In the United States, the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) regulates all aspects of US aviation, and cites
design requirements in their Technical Standard Order, based on
EUROCAE documents (as do the aviation authorities of many other
EUROCAE specifies that a recorder must be able to withstand
an acceleration of 3400 g (33 km/s²) for 6.5 milliseconds. This
is roughly equivalent to an impact velocity of 270 knots
(310 mph; 500 km/h) and a deceleration or crushing distance
of 45 cm. Additionally, there are requirements for penetration
resistance, static crush, high and low temperature fires, deep sea
pressure, sea water immersion, and fluid immersion.
EUROCAE ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for
Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) defines the minimum
specification to be met for all aircraft requiring flight recorders
for recording of flight data, cockpit audio, images and CNS / ATM
digital messages and used for investigations of accidents or
incidents. When issued in March 2003 ED-112 superseded previous
ED-55 and ED-56A that were separate specifications for FDR and CVR.
FAA TSOs for FDR and CVR reference ED-112 for characteristics common
to both types.
In order to facilitate recovery of the recorder from an aircraft
accident site they are required to be coloured bright yellow or orange
with reflective surfaces. All are lettered "FLIGHT RECORDER DO NOT
OPEN" on one side in English and the same in French on the other side.
To assist recovery from submerged sites they must be equipped with an
underwater locator beacon which is automatically activated in the
event of an accident.
In the investigation of the 1960 crash of Trans
Flight 538 at Mackay (Queensland), the inquiry judge strongly
recommended that flight recorders be installed in all (Australian)
Australia became the first country in the world to make
cockpit-voice recording compulsory.
Flight Data Recorder from West Air Sweden
Flight 294. All
data was collected, even though the rest of the aircraft was heavily
The United States' first CVR rules were passed in 1964, requiring all
turbine and piston aircraft with four or more engines to have CVRs by
March 1, 1967. As of 2008[update] it is an
FAA requirement that
the CVR recording duration is a minimum of two hours, following
the NTSB recommendation that it should be increased from its
previously-mandated 30-minute duration. As of 2014[update], the
United States requires flight data recorders and cockpit voice
recorders on aircraft that have 20 or more passenger seats, or those
that have six or more passenger seats, are turbine-powered, and
require two pilots.
For US air carriers and manufacturers, the National Transportation
Safety Board (NTSB) is responsible for investigating accidents and
safety-related incidents. The NTSB also serves in an advisory role for
many international investigations not under its formal jurisdiction.
The NTSB does not have regulatory authority, but must depend on
legislation and other government agencies to act on its safety
recommendations. In addition, 49 USC Section 1114(c) prohibits the
NTSB from making the audio recordings public except by written
ARINC Standards are prepared by the Airlines Electronic
Engineering Committee (AEEC). The 700 Series of standards describe the
form, fit, and function of avionics equipment installed predominately
on transport category aircraft. The FDR is defined by ARINC
Characteristic 747. The CVR is defined by
The NTSB recommended in 1999 that operators be required to install two
sets of CVDR systems, with the second CVDR set being "deployable or
ejectable". The "deployable" recorder combines the cockpit
voice/flight data recorders and an emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
in a single unit. The "deployable" unit would depart the aircraft
before impact, activated by sensors. The unit is designed to "eject"
and "fly" away from the crash site, to survive the terminal velocity
of fall, to float on water indefinitely, and would be equipped with
satellite technology for immediate location of crash impact site. The
"deployable" CVDR technology has been used by the US Navy since
1993. The recommendations would involve a massive retrofit
program. However, government funding would negate cost objections from
manufacturers and airlines. Operators would get both sets of recorders
for free: they would not have to pay for the one set they are
currently required by law to carry. The cost of the second
"deployable/ejectable CVDR" (or "Black Box") was estimated at US$30
million for installation in 500 new aircraft (about $60,000 per new
commercial plane).
In the United States, the proposed SAFE Act calls for implementing the
NTSB 1999 recommendations. However, so far the SAFE ACT legislation
has failed to pass Congress, having been introduced in 2003 (H.R.
2632), in 2005 (H.R. 3336), and in 2007 (H.R. 4336). Originally
Flight Enhancement (SAFE) Act of 2003" was
introduced on June 26, 2003 by Congressman David Price (NC) and
Congressman John Duncan (Tennessee) in a bipartisan effort to ensure
investigators have access to information immediately following
On July 19, 2005, a revised SAFE Act was introduced and referred to
the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the US House of
Representatives. The bill was referred to the House Subcommittee on
Aviation during the 108th, 109th, and 110th Congresses.
The NTSB has asked for the installation of cockpit image recorders in
large transport aircraft to provide information that would supplement
existing CVR and FDR data in accident investigations. They have
recommended that image recorders be placed into smaller aircraft that
are not required to have a CVR or FDR. The rationale is that what
is seen on an instrument by the pilots of an aircraft is not
necessarily the same as the data sent to the display device. This is
particularly true of aircraft equipped with electronic displays (CRT
or LCD). A mechanical instrument is likely to preserve its last
indication, but this is not the case with an electronic display. Such
systems, estimated to cost less than $8,000 installed, typically
consist of a camera and microphone located in the cockpit to
continuously record cockpit instrumentation, the outside viewing area,
engine sounds, radio communications, and ambient cockpit sounds. As
with conventional CVRs and FDRs, data from such a system is stored in
a crash-protected unit to ensure survivability. Since the
recorders can sometimes be crushed into unreadable pieces, or even
located in deep water, some modern units are self-ejecting (taking
advantage of kinetic energy at impact to separate themselves from the
aircraft) and also equipped with radio emergency locator transmitters
and sonar underwater locator beacons to aid in their
After Malaysia Airlines
On March 12, 2014, in response to the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight
370, David Price re-introduced the SAFE Act in the US House of
The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines
Flight 370 demonstrated the
limits of the contemporary flight recorder technology, namely how
physical possession of the flight recorder device is necessary to help
investigate the cause of an aircraft incident. Considering the
advances of modern communication, technology commentators called for
flight recorders to be supplemented or replaced by a system that
provides "live streaming" of data from the aircraft to the
ground. Furthermore, commentators called for the
underwater locator beacon's range and battery life to be extended, as
well as the outfitting of civil aircraft with the deployable flight
recorders typically used in military aircraft. Previous to MH370, the
investigators of the 2009 Air France
Flight 447 urged to extend the
battery life as "rapidly as possible" after the crash's flight
recorders went unrecovered for over a year.
After Indonesia AirAsia
On December 28, 2014, Indonesia AirAsia
Flight 8501, en route from
Surabaya, Indonesia, to Singapore, crashed in bad weather, killing all
155 passengers and seven crew on board.
On January 12 and 13, 2015, following the recovery of the flight
recorders, an anonymous
ICAO representative said: "The time has come
that deployable recorders are going to get a serious look."[citation
needed] Unlike military recorders, which jettison away from an
aircraft, signaling their location to search and rescue bodies,
recorders on commercial aircraft remain inside the fuselage. A second
ICAO official said that public attention had "galvanized momentum in
favour of ejectable recorders on commercial aircraft".
The artwork for the band Rammstein's album
Reise, Reise is made to
look like a CVR; it also includes a recording from a crash. The
recording is from the last 1–2 minutes of the CVR of Japan Airlines
Flight 123, which crashed on August 12, 1985, killing 520 people; JAL
123 is the deadliest single-aircraft disaster in history.
Members of the performing arts collective Collective:Unconscious made
a theatrical presentation of a play called Charlie Victor Romeo
with a script based on transcripts from CVR voice recordings of nine
aircraft emergencies. The play features the famous United Airlines
Flight 232 that landed in a cornfield near Sioux City,
suffering a catastrophic failure of one engine and most flight
Survivor, a novel by Chuck Palahniuk, is about a cult member who
dictates his life story to a flight recorder before the plane runs out
of fuel and crashes.
Acronyms and abbreviations in avionics
Black box theory
Emergency locator beacon
Emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station
Event data recorder
Flight operations quality assurance
Korean Air Lines
List of unrecovered flight recorders
Quick access recorder
Train event recorder
Voyage data recorder
^ Jean-Claude Fayer, Vols d'essais: Le Centre d'Essais en Vol de 1945
à 1960, published by E.T.A.I. (Paris), 2001, 384 pages,
^ Cite error: The named reference Baudouin-1 was invoked but never
defined (see the help page).
^ Page 206 and 209 of Beaudouin & Beaudouin
^ "Mata-Hari or Black Box". Museums of Tampere. 1946. Archived from
the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
Australian Research Laboratories
^ A Brief History of Black Boxes, Time Magazine, July 20, 2009, p. 22
^ "Dave Warren – Inventor of the black box flight recorder". Defence
Science and Technology Organisation. Archived from the original on
July 6, 2011.
Australian Research Laboratories". Apc-online.com. February 9,
2000. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
^ "A Brief History of Black Boxes". Time Magazine. No. July 20.
2009. p. 22. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
^ [US Patent 2,959,459 for
Flight Recorder by James J. Ryan;
^ [US Patent 3,075,192 for Coding Apparatus for
Flight Recorders by
James J. Ryan;
Aviation History - Books, Facts, News, Photos / Art Gallery".
^ a b "
Cockpit Sound Recorder". Google Patents. Google Inc. Retrieved
31 December 2013.
^ "Airplane ‘Black Box’
Flight Recorder Technology, How it Works".
Slyck News, March 13, 2014
^ " Why Are
Cockpit Voice Recorders Painted Orange and Called a Black
Box?". Guardian Liberty Voice, By Jerry Nelson on March 8, 2014
Aviation Historical Society Fall-Winter 2014 Journal
Flight Data Recorder".
Aviation Digest, May 11, 2015, page 58.
^ US Patent 3,327,067 for
Cockpit Sound Recorder by Edmund A.
^ "France to resume 'black box' hunt". BBC News. December 13, 2009.
Retrieved April 30, 2010.
^ page 210 of Beaudouin & Beaudouin
^ "Beyond the Black Box". IEEE Spectrum. July 30, 2010. Retrieved
April 28, 2014.
^ "radar – 1946 – 0844 –
^  Archived January 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
Flight Data Recorder Systems" (PDF). Federal Aviation
Administration. April 10, 2007. Section 3 Point B. Retrieved April 8,
Flight Data Recorder OSA".
^ "SSFDR Solid State
Flight Data Recorder,
ARINC 747 - TSO C 124 - ED
55" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2012.
Cockpit Voice Recorder Equipment" (PDF). Federal Aviation
Administration. June 1, 2006. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
^ a b "Federal
Aviation Regulation Sec. 121.359(h)(i)(2), amendment
338 and greater –
Cockpit voice recorders". Risingup.com. Retrieved
February 7, 2013.
Aviation Regulation Sec. 23.1457 –
recorders". Risingup.com. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
Aviation Recorders". l-3ar.com.
^ "History of
Flight Recorders". L3
Flight Recorders. Archived from
the original on December 11, 2013.
^ Luftfahrt. "European Organisation for Civil
Eurocae.net. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
FAA Regs". Airweb.faa.gov. May 23, 2006. Retrieved March
Black box flight recorders". ATSB. April 1, 2014.
^  Archived August 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Dave Warren - Inventor of the black box flight recorder". Defence
Science and Technology Organisation. March 29, 2005. Archived from the
original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
^ Campbell, Neil. "The Evolution of
Flight Data Analysis" (PDF). Proc.
Australian Society of Air Safety Investigators conference, 2007.
^ Nick Komos (August 1989). Air Progress: 76. Missing or empty
^ "2011 Most Wanted List Page. Recorders." NTSB Archived August 4,
2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ >U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (April 25, 2010). "14 CFR
91.609". Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law School. Retrieved
June 17, 2016.
^ >"History of the NTSB". NTSB Official Site. Retrieved June 17,
ARINC Store, 700 series".
^ a b "
Aviation Today". aviationtoday.com. Archived from the original
on March 25, 2014.
Flight Enhancement Act of 2005 (2005; 109th
Congress H.R. 3336) - GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us.
^ "Text of the Safe
Flight Enhancement Act-((SAFE) Act of
2003)". Retrieved August 2, 2015 – via govtrack.us.
^ "Bill Text - 108th Congress (2003-2004) - THOMAS (Library of
Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
^ "Bill Text - 109th Congress (2005-2006) - THOMAS (Library of
Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
^ "Bill Text - 110th Congress (2007-2008) - THOMAS (Library of
Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
^ a b "NTSB — Most Wanted". Ntsb.gov. Archived from the
original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
^ Jansen, Bart. "Lawmaker urges 'black boxes' that eject from planes".
^ "Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 makes it clear: we need to rethink
black boxes Stephen Trimble Comment is free". theguardian.com.
Retrieved March 31, 2014.
^ "Malaysia Airlines MH370: Why airlines don't live-stream black box
data". Technology & Science. CBC News. August 4, 2005. Retrieved
March 31, 2014.
^ Yu, Yijun. "If we’d used the cloud, we might know where MH370 is
now", The Conversation (website), London, March 18, 2014. Retrieved on
August 21, 2014.
^ "MH370: Expert demands better black box technology". The Sydney
^ "AirAsia QZ8501: More bad weather hits AirAsia search". BBC News.
January 1, 2015.
^ "AirAsia crash makes case for ejectable black boxes". Reuters.
Retrieved January 14, 2015.
^ "Collective: Unconscious". Charlievictorromeo.com. July 3, 2012.
Retrieved February 7, 2013.
Cite error: A list-defined reference named "Beaudouin-1" is not used
in the content (see the help page).
Aviation Historical Society, Volume 59, Fall-Winter 2014,
"Edmund A. Boniface, Jr.: Inventing the
Cockpit Sound Recorder"
(Extraordinary), "Extraordinary Inventor", U of A Engineer Magazine,
(Survivors), "Saving Survivors by Finding Fallen Aircrafts (sic)",
Jeremy Sear, "The ARL ‘Black Box’
Flight Recorder", University of
Melbourne, October 2001
Siegel, Greg (2014). "Chapter 3. Black Boxes". Forensic Media:
Reconstructing Accidents in Accelerated Modernity. Duke University
Press. pp. 89–142. ISBN 978-0-8223-7623-1.
Wyatt, David; Mike Tooley (2009). "Chapter 18.
Flight data and cockpit
Aircraft Electrical and Electronic Systems.
Routledge. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-136-44435-7.
Ben Hargreaves (Apr 13, 2017). "
Flight Data Recorder Evolution: Where
Aviation Week. Could flight data recorders evolve
to be useful in preventative maintenance as well?.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Cockpit voice recorders.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Flight data recorders.
'The ARL 'Black Box'
Flight Recorder': Melbourne University history
honours thesis on the development of the first cockpit voice recorder
by David Warren
Flight Recorder in Museums of
"Beyond the Black Box: Instead of storing flight data on board,
aircraft could easily send the information in real time to the
ground," by Krishna M. Kavi, IEEE Spectrum, August 2010
"A crash course in transportation safety". Archived from the original
on February 11, 2009. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
David Warren interview transcript 2002, ABC TV (Australia)
David Warren interview transcript 2003, ABC TV (Australia)
Flight Recorder designer
Heavy Vehicle EDR information site for black box technology
How Black Boxes Work at HowStuffWorks
IRIG 106 Chapter 10:
Flight data recorder digital recorder standard
Public domain photos of recorders
Cockpit Voice Recorder Database
Popular Mechanics, March 19, 2008
"His Crashes Helped Make Ours Less Dangerous"
US 3075192 James J. Ryan: "Coding Apparatus for
and the Like"
First modern flight recorder "Mata Hari" at display in
Aircraft components and systems
Aft pressure bulkhead
Flight control modes
Aerodynamic and high-lift
Active Aeroelastic Wing
Adaptive compliant wing
Leading edge cuff
Avionic and flight
Air data computer
Course deviation indicator
Flight management system
Horizontal situation indicator
Turn and slip indicator
Vertical Speed Indicator
devices and fuel systems
Self-sealing fuel tank
Landing and arresting gear
Conventional landing gear
Landing gear extender
Tricycle landing gear
Escape crew capsule
Auxiliary power unit
Bleed air system
Emergency oxygen system
Flight data recorder
Environmental control system
Ice protection system
Passenger service unit
Ram air turbine
Jet engines and aircraft gas turbines
and jet propulsion
Constant speed drive
Aircraft engine starting
Engine pressure ratio (EPR)
Jet engine performance
Overall pressure ratio
Thrust specific fuel consumption
Thrust to weight ratio
Variable cycle engine
Propeller speed reduction unit
Electronic centralised aircraft monitor (ECAM)
Electronic flight instrument system
Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)
Engine-indicating and crew-alerting system
Engine-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS)
Flight data recorder
Full Authority Digital Engine/Electronics (FADEC)
Fuel and induction
Auxiliary power unit
Auxiliary power unit (APU)
Bleed air system
Ice protection system
Commercial air travel
Airline holding companies
United States (A4A
Other regions (AACO
First class (aviation)
First class travel
Aircraft seat map
Buy on board
Crew rest compartment
Airport rail link
Low cost carrier terminal
Customs / Immigration
Arrival card (Landing card)
Impact on environment
Air transport agreement
Bermuda Agreement (UK-US, 1946-78)
Bermuda II Agreement (UK-US, 1978-2008)
Cross-Strait charter (China-Taiwan)
Cape Town Treaty
Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives
Freedoms of the air
Hague Hijacking Convention
Open skies (EU–US Open Skies Agreement)
Paris Convention of 1919
Baggage handling system
Air Navigation and Transport Act
Air traffic control
Air traffic control (ATC)
Aircraft safety card
Airport crash tender
National aviation authority
Pre-flight safety demonstration
Unruly aircraft passenger
Airline booking ploys
Airline reservations system
Fare basis code
Flight cancellation and delay
Government contract flight
Passenger name record
Aircraft maintenance technician
Aircraft ground handler
Mile high club
This article incorporates public domain material from
websites or documents of the National Transportation S