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The Church of Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ἐκκλησία τῆς Ἑλλάδος, Ekklisía tis Elládos [ekliˈsia tis eˈlaðos]), part of the wider Greek Orthodox Church, is one of the autocephalous churches which make up the communion of Orthodox Christianity. Its canonical territory is confined to the borders of Greece
Greece
prior to the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
of 1912–1913 ("Old Greece"), with the rest of Greece (the "New Lands", Crete, and the Dodecanese) being subject to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople. However, most of its dioceses are de facto administered as part of the Church of Greece
Greece
for practical reasons, under an agreement between the churches of Athens
Athens
and Constantinople. The primate of the Church of Greece
Greece
is the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Athens
Athens
and All Greece.

Contents

1 Prevailing religion of Greece 2 Church hierarchy 3 Clergy and monastics 4 Old Calendarists 5 History 6 Administration and Hierarchy of the Throne

6.1 Metropolises and metropolitans of the Church of Greece 6.2 Titular metropolises and metropolitans 6.3 Titular dioceses and bishops 6.4 Metropolises and metropolitans of the New Lands

7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Prevailing religion of Greece[edit]

Greek Orthodoxy is the prevailing religion of Greece, emphasised by displays of the Greek flag and national emblem.

Template:Orthodox sidebar Adherence to the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
was established as a definitive hallmark of Greek ethnic identity already in the first modern Greek constitution, the " Epidaurus
Epidaurus
Law" of 1822, during the Greek War of Independence. The preamble of all successive Greek constitutions simply states "In the name of the Holy, Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity", and the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Christ is established as the "prevailing" religion of Greece. Mainstream Orthodox clergy's salaries and pensions are paid for by the State at rates comparable to those of teachers. The Church had previously compensated the State by a tax of 35% on ordinary revenues of the Church, but Law 3220/2004 in 2004 abolished this tax. By virtue of its status as the prevailing religion, the canon law of the Church is recognized by the Greek government in matters pertaining to church administration. This is governed by the "Constitution of the Church of Greece", which has been voted by Parliament into law. Religious marriages and baptisms are legally equivalent to their civil counterparts and the relevant certificates are issued by officiating clergy. All Greek Orthodox students in primary and secondary schools in Greece
Greece
attend religious instruction. Liaisons between church and state are handled by the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs. Church hierarchy[edit]

The religious jurisdictions of the Church of Greece
Greece
in Greece

Supreme authority is vested in the synod of all the diocesan bishops who have metropolitan status (the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece, Greek: Ἱερὰ Σύνοδος τῆς Ἐκκλησίας τῆς Ἑλλάδος Hierà Sýnodos tês Ekklēsías tês Helládos [ieˈra ˈsinoðos tis ekliˈsias tis eˈlaðos]) under the de jure presidency of the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Athens
Athens
and all Greece. This synod deals with general church questions. The Standing Synod is under the same presidency, and consists of the Primate and 12 bishops, each serving for one term on a rotating basis and deals with details of administration. The church is organised into 81 dioceses. 36 of these, located in northern Greece
Greece
and in the major islands in the north and northeast Aegean, are nominally and spiritually under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople, which retains certain privileges over and in them—for example, their bishops have to acknowledge the Patriarch as their own primate during prayers. They are called the "New Lands" (Νέαι Χώραι, or Néai Chōrai) as they became part of the modern Greek state only after the Balkan Wars, and are represented by 6 of the 12 bishops of the Standing Synod. A bishop elected to one of the Sees of the New Lands has to be confirmed by the Patriarch of Constantinople before assuming his duties. These dioceses are administered by the Church of Greece
Greece
"in stewardship" and their bishops retain their right of appeal (the "ékklēton") to the Patriarch. The dioceses of Crete
Crete
(Church of Crete) and the Dodecanese, and the Monastic Republic of Holy Mount Athos
Mount Athos
remain under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople; they are not part of the Church of Greece. The Archdiocese of Crete
Crete
in particular enjoys semiautonomous status: new bishops are elected by the local Synod of incumbents, and the Archbishop
Archbishop
is appointed by the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
from a three-person list (the triprósōpon) drawn by the Greek Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs from among the incumbent Metropolitans of Crete.

Clergy and monastics[edit] As in other Orthodox Churches, male graduates of seminaries run by the church (and financed by the Greek State), may be ordained as deacons and eventually priests. They are allowed to marry before their ordination as deacons, but not afterwards. The vast majority of parish clergy in Greece
Greece
are married. Alternatively, they may enter monasteries and/or take monastic vows. Monastics who are ordained as priests, and possess a university degree in theology, are eligible as candidates for the episcopate (archimandrites). Women may also take monastic vows and become nuns, but they are not ordained. Monasteries are either affiliated to their local diocese, or directly to one of the Orthodox Patriarchates; in the latter case they are called "Stauropegiac" monasteries (Stayropēgiaká, "springs of the Cross"). Old Calendarists[edit] Main article: Greek Old Calendarists A split (schism) occurred within the Church in 1924 when the Holy Synod decided to replace the Old Calendar (Julian) with a hybrid calendar—the so-called "Revised Julian Calendar"—which maintained a modified Julian dating method for Easter while adopting the Gregorian Calendar
Gregorian Calendar
date for fixed feasts. Those who refused to adopt this change are known as Old Calendarists
Old Calendarists
(palaioimerologites in Greek) and still follow the old Julian Calendar. They themselves have suffered several schisms, and not all Old Calendarists
Old Calendarists
comprise one Church. They refer to themselves as "Genuine Orthodox Christians", and the largest group associating itself with the Old Calendarists
Old Calendarists
is the Synod of Archbishop
Archbishop
Chrysostomos II Kioussis. This Synod has obtained government recognition as a valid Orthodox Church, although this is not in communion with the Church of Greece
Greece
or the other Orthodox Churches. History[edit] Main articles: Orthodoxy in Greece
Greece
and Greek Orthodox Church

Saint Paul
Saint Paul
delivering the Areopagus sermon
Areopagus sermon
in Athens. Raphael, 1515

Dionysius the Areopagite, first bishop of Athens

Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens

The Cathedral of St. Andrew in Patras

Greece
Greece
was an early center of Christianity. Upon formation of the Patriarchate, the Church was formerly a part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople. Under Ottoman rule, the Muslims had no control over the church. With the establishment of the Greek kingdom, however, the government decided to take control of the church, breaking away from the patriarch in Constantinople. The government declared the church to be autocephalous in 1833 in a political decision of the Bavarian Regents acting for King Otto, who was a minor. The decision roiled Greek politics for decades as royal authorities took increasing control. The new status was finally recognized as such by the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 1850, under compromise conditions with the issue of a special "Tomos" decree which brought it back to a normal status. As a result, it retains certain special links with the "Mother Church". There were only four bishops, and they had political roles.[2] In 1833 Parliament dissolved 400 small monasteries having fewer than five monks or nuns. Priests were not salaried; in rural areas he was a peasant farmer himself, dependent for his livelihood on his farm work and from fees and offerings by his parishioners. His ecclesiastical duties were limited to administering the sacraments, supervising funerals, the blessings of crops, and exorcism. Few attended seminaries. By the 1840s, there was a nationwide revival, run by traveling preachers. The government arrested several and tried to shut down the revival, but it proved too powerful when the revivalists denounced three bishops for purchasing their office. By the 1880s the "Anaplasis" ("Regeneration") Movement led to renewed spiritual energy and enlightenment. It fought against the rationalistic and materialistic ideas that had seeped in from secular Western Europe. It promoted catechism schools, and circles for the study the Bible.[3] The 20th-century religious revival was led by the Zoë movement, which was founded in 1911. Based in Athens
Athens
but operating in decentralized fashion, it reached a membership of laymen as well as some priests. The main activities include publications and the nationwide Sunday School movement in 7800 churches reaching 150,000 students. Zoë sponsored numerous auxiliaries and affiliated groups, including organizations for professional men, youth, parents, and young women nurses. A strong effort was made to circulate Bibles, illustrated novels, pamphlets, and other religious materials. A liturgical movement encouraged the laity to a greater awareness in the Eucharist, and more frequent Communion.[4] Seminaries were built in the 20th century, but most of the graduates entered teaching rather than parish work. In 1920, only 800 of Greece's 4500 priests had any education beyond the elementary level. By 1959, out of 7000 priests no more than five percent had completed university and seminary training. Monastic life declined sharply, although it continued at remote Mount Athos. Routine church life was highly disrupted by the Second World War and subsequent civil war, with many churches burned, and hundreds of priests and monks killed by the Germans on the one hand or the Communists on the other.[5] Administration and Hierarchy of the Throne[edit] Head of the Church of Greece
Greece
and of the Holy Synod is Archbishop Ieronymos II (Ioannis Liapis), Archbishop
Archbishop
of Athens
Athens
and All Greece (2008–). Metropolises and metropolitans of the Church of Greece[edit]

Metropolis of Aetolia and Acarnania : Kosmas Papachristou (2005–) Metropolis of Argolis : Νεκτάριος Αντωνοπουλος (2013-) Metropolis of Arta : Ignatios Alexiou (1988–) Metropolis of Cephalonia :Δημήτριος Αργυρός (2015-) Metropolis of Chalcis, Istiaia
Istiaia
and Sporades
Sporades
Islands : Chrysostomos (Konstantinos) Triantafyllou (2001–) Metropolis of Corfu, Paxoi and the Diapontian Islands : Nektarios (Dimitrios) Dovas (2002–) Metropolis of Corinth : Dionysios (Dimitrios) Mantalos (2006–) Metropolis of Demetrias
Demetrias
and Almyros : Ignatios (Panagiotis) Georgakopoulos (1998–) Metropolis of Elis
Elis
and Oleni : Germanos (Ioannis) Paraskevopoulos (1981–) Metropolis of Glyfada
Glyfada
and Aexoni : Pavlos (Efstratios) Tsaousoglou (2002–) Metropolis of Gortyna and Megalopolis : Ieremias Foundas (2006–) Metropolis of Gytheion
Gytheion
and Oitylo
Oitylo
(Metropolis of Mani from 2010) : Chrysostomos (Dimitrios) Korakitis (1996–) Metropolis of Hydra, Spetses
Spetses
and Aegina : Ephraem (Evangelos) Stenakis (2001–) Metropolis of Kalavrita
Kalavrita
and Aigialeia : Amvrosios (Athanasios) Lenis (1978–) Metropolis of Karpenisi : Nikolaos Drosos (1979–) Metropolis of Karystos
Karystos
and Skyros : Seraphim (Sokrates) Roris (1968–) Metropolis of Kessariani, Vyronas
Vyronas
and Hymettus : Daniel (Dionysios) Pourtsouklis (2000–) Metropolis of Kifissia, Amaroussion and Oropos : Kyrillos (Konstantinos) Misiakoulis 1 (2010–) Metropolis of Kythira : Seraphim (lambros) Stergioulis (2005–) Metropolis of Ilion, Acharnes
Acharnes
and Petroupolis : Athenagoras (Georgios) Dikaiakos 1 (2010–) Metropolis of Larissa and Tyrnavos : Ignatios (Iakovos) Lappas (1994–) Metropolis of Leucada
Leucada
and Ithaca : Theofilos (Konstantinos) Manolatos (2008–) Metropolis of Mantineia
Mantineia
and Kynouria : Alexandros Papadopoulos (1995–) Metropolis of Megara
Megara
and Salamis : Konstantinos Giakoumakis (2014–) Metropolis of Mesogeia and Lavreotiki : Nikolaos Hatzinikolaou (2004–) Metropolis of Messinia : Chrysostomos (Georgios) Savvatos (2007–) Metropolis of Monemvasia
Monemvasia
and Sparta : Eustathios (Konstantinos) Speliotis (1980–) Metropolis of Nafpaktos and Agios Vlasios : Hierotheos Vlachos (1995–) Metropolis of New Ionia
New Ionia
and Philadelphia : Gabriel (Georgios) Papanicolaou (2014-) Metropolis of New Smyrna : Symeon (Periklis) Koutsas (2002–) Metropolis of Nicaea : Alexios Vryonis (1995–) Metropolis of Paronaxia (Paros, Naxos and Antiparos) : Kallinikos (Nikolaos) Demenopoulos (2008–) Metropolis of Patras : Chrysostomos (Christos) Sklifas (2005–) Metropolis of Peristeri : Chrysostomos (Gerasimos) Zafyris (1978–) Metropolis of Phocis : Theoktistios (Theodore) Kloukinas (2014-) Metropolis of Phthiotis : Nikolaos Protopappas (1996–) Metropolis of Piraeus : Seraphim Mentzenopoulos (2001–) Metropolis of Stagi and Meteora : Seraphim Stefanou (1991–) Metropolis of Syros, Tinos, Andros, Kea and Milos : Dorotheos Polykandriotis (2001–) Metropolis of Thessaliotida, Fanari and Pharsalos : Timotheos (Nikolaos) Anthis (2014–) Metropolis of Thebes and Livadeia : Georgios Matzouranis (2008–) Metropolis of Thera, Amorgos
Amorgos
and the Islands : Epiphanios (Michael) Artemis (2003–) Metropolis of Trifyllia and Olympia : Chrysostomos (Alexandros) Stavropoulos (2007–) Metropolis of Trikke and Stagi 2 : Alexios (Theodoros) Mihalopoulos (1981–) Metropolis of Zakynthos
Zakynthos
and Strophades : Dionysios (Dimitrios) Sifnaios (2011–)

Notes 1 In 2010 the Metropolis of Attica
Attica
was split into 2 new Metropolises, the Metropolis of Kifissia, Amaroussion and Oropos
Oropos
(temporary Vicar: the Metropolitan of Mesogeia) and the Metropolis of Ilion, Acharnes and Petroupolis (temporary Vicar: the Metropolitan of Megara) 2 The Metropolis of Trikke was separated from the Metropolis of Stagi (and Meteora) in 1981 but still bears the titular name "Trikke and Stagi" Titular metropolises and metropolitans[edit]

Metropolis of Euripos : Vasileios Panagiotakopoulos (2000–) Metropolis of Acheloos (Agrinio) : Euthymios Stylios (2000–) Metropolis of Stavropigi : Alexandros Kalpakidis (2000–) Metropolis of Achaia : Athanasios Hatzopoulos (2007–)

Titular dioceses and bishops[edit]

Diocese
Diocese
of Christopolis : Petros Daktylidis (1995–) Diocese
Diocese
of Velestino : Damaskinos (Ioannis) Kasanakis (2003–) Diocese
Diocese
of Koronia : Panteleimon Kathreptidis (2003–) Diocese
Diocese
of Neochori : Pavlos Athanatos (1995–) Diocese
Diocese
of Marathon : Meliton Kavatsiklis (1995–) Diocese
Diocese
of Thermopylae : Ioannis Sakellariou (2000–) Diocese
Diocese
of Fanari : Agathangelos (Vasileios) Haramantidis (2003–) Diocese
Diocese
of Photice : Dionysios (Dimitrios) Siphneos (2010–) Diocese
Diocese
of Tanagra : Polykarpos Chrysikos (2010–) Diocese
Diocese
of Christianoupolis : Prokopios Petridis (2010–) Diocese
Diocese
of Eleusis : Dorotheos Mourtsoukos (2009–) Diocese
Diocese
of Rentina : Seraphim Kalogeropoulos (2009–) Diocese
Diocese
of Androusa : Theoklitos (Theodoros) Kloukinas (2009–) Diocese
Diocese
of Epidaurus : Kallinikos (Konstantinos) Korombokis (2009–) Diocese
Diocese
of Oleni : Athanasios (Aristedis) Bahos (2009–)

Metropolises and metropolitans of the New Lands[edit] (under the jurisdiction of Constantinople until 1928, then under Athens; except the Dodecanese)

Metropolis of Alexandroupolis : Anthimos (Christos) Koukouridis (2004–) Metropolis of Chios, Psara
Psara
and Inousses
Inousses
and Exarchate of All Ionia : Markos Vasilakis (1965–) Metropolis of Didymoteichon
Didymoteichon
and Orestias and Exarchate of Haemimontos : Damaskinos (Minas) Karpathakis (2009–) Metropolis of Drama : Pavlos (Alexandros) Apostolidis (2005–) Metropolis of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani
Pogoniani
and Konitsa
Konitsa
and Exarchate of Northern Epirus : Andreas Trebelas (1995–) Metropolis of Edessa, Pella
Pella
and Almopia : Ioel (Panagiotis) Fragkakis (2002–) Metropolis of Elassona
Elassona
and Exarchate of Mount Olympus : Vasileios Kolokas (1995–) Metropolis of Eleftheroupolis
Eleftheroupolis
and Exarchate of Pangaeon : Chrysostomos (Ioannis) Avajianos (2004–) Metropolis of Florina, Prespes
Prespes
and Eordaia : Theoklitos (Thomas) Pasalis (2000–) Metropolis of Goumenissa, Axioupoli
Axioupoli
and Polykastro : Dimitrios Bekiaris-Mavrogonatos (1991–) Metropolis of Grevena : Sergios (Antonios) Sigalas (1976–) Metropolis of Ierissos, Mount Athos
Mount Athos
and Ardameri : Theoklitos Athanasopoulos (2012–) Metropolis of Ioannina
Ioannina
and Exarchate of Epirus : Maximos Papagiannis (1975–) Metropolis of Kassandria and Exarchate of All the Thermaic Gulf : Nikodemos (Konstantinos) Korakis (2001–) Metropolis of Kastoria and Exarchate of Upper Macedonia : Seraphim (Ioannis) Papakostas (1996–) Metropolis of Kitros, Katerini
Katerini
and Platamonas
Platamonas
and Exarchate of Pieria : Agathonikos (Georgios) Fatouros (1985–) Metropolis of Langadas : Ioannis Tassias (2010–) Metropolis of Lemnos
Lemnos
and Agios Efstratios
Agios Efstratios
and Exarchate of the North Aegean : Ierotheos Garyfallos (1988–) Metropolis of Maronia
Maronia
and Komotini
Komotini
and Exarchate of Rhodope : Damaskinos (Petros) Roumeliotis (1974–2012) Metropolis of Mithymna : Chrysostomos (Kyriakos) Kalamatianos (1984–) Metropolis of Mytilini, Eresos
Eresos
and Plomari : Iakovos Frantzis (1988–) Metropolis of Neapolis and Stavroupolis : Varnavas (Markos) Tyris (2004–) Metropolis of Nea Krini and Kalamaria : Prokopios (Antonios) Georgantopoulos (1974–) Metropolis of Zichni and Nevrokopion : Ierotheos (Dimitrios) Tsoliakos (2003–) Metropolis of Nikopolis
Nikopolis
and Preveza
Preveza
and Exarchate of Old Epirus : Meletios Kalamaras (1980–) Metropolis of Paramythia, Filiates, Giromeri and Parga
Parga
and Exarchate of Thesprotia : Titos (Sotirios) Papanakos (1974–) Metropolis of Philippi, Neapolis and Thasos : Prokopios (Michael) Tsakoumakas (1974–) Metropolis of Polyani and Kilkision : Emmanuel Sigalas (2009–) Metropolis of Samos
Samos
and Ikaria : Eusebios (Evangelos) Pistolis (1995–) Metropolis of Serres
Serres
and Nigrita : Theologos (Ioannis) Apostolidis (2003–) Metropolis of Servia and Kozani : Pavlos Papalexiou (2004–) Metropolis of Siderokastron : Makarios (Sotirios) Philotheou (2001–) Metropolis of Sisanion and Siatista : Pavlos Ioannou (2006–) Metropolis of Thessaloniki : Anthimos (Dionysios) Roussas (2004–) Metropolis of Veria
Veria
and Naousa : Panteleimon (Ioannis) Kalpakidis (1994–) Metropolis of Xanthi
Xanthi
and Peritheorion and Exarchate of Western Thrace : Panteleimon (Michael) Kalaphatis (1995–)

See also[edit]

Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
portal Greece
Greece
portal

History of the Orthodox Church List of Archbishops of Athens National church Religion in Greece

References[edit]

^ "Church of Greece". oikoumene.org. World Council of Churches. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: The Protestant and Churches. (1959) 2: 479-481 ^ Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age (1959) 2: 481-83 ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, The Zoë Movement in Greece," St. Vladimir's Seminary Quarterly (1959) vol 3 pp 1-15 online. ^ Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age (1961) 4: 523-27

Bibliography[edit] Tomkinson, John L., Between Heaven and Earth: The Greek Church, Anagnosis (Athens, 2004) ISBN 960-87186-5-1 Online Greek Orthodox Typikon http://www.e-typikon.com Further reading[edit]

Aderny, Walter F. The Greek and Eastern Churches (1908) online Fortesque, Adrian. The Orthodox Eastern Church (1929) Kephala, Euphrosyne. The Church of the Greek People Past and Present (1930) Latourette, Kenneth Scott. ' Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: The Protestant and Eastern Churches. (1959) 2: 479-484; Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, IV: The Twentieth Century in Europe: The Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Churches (1958)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Church of Greece.

Official website Church of Greece
Greece
at OrthodoxWiki Anagnosis Books Greek Church Pages Map of Old & New Lands (in Greek) Article on the Church of Greece
Greece
by Ronald Roberson on the CNEWA website

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