Central Asian Orogenic Belt
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The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), also called the Altaids, is one of the world's largest
Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current in the , and the one during which abundant and has existed. It covers million years to the present, and it began with the Period when animals first developed hard shells preserved in the fossil record. The ...
accretionary orogens, and thus a leading laboratory of geologically recent crustal growth. The orogenic belt is bounded by the
East European Craton The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-Tectonic plate, plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatian Craton, Sarmatia to the south. Fennoscandi ...
and the
North China Craton The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

North China Craton
in the Northwest-Southeast direction, as well as Siberia Craton and Tarim Craton in the Northeast-Southwest direction. It formed by ocean closures during
Neoproterozoic The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...
to the late
Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current in the , and the one during which abundant and has existed. It covers million years to the present, and it began with the Period when animals first developed hard shells preserved in the fossil record. The ...
time. Like many other accretionary orogenic belts, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt consists of a huge amount of magmatic arcs, arc-related basins, ,
seamount A seamount is a large geologic landform that rises from the ocean floor The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
s,
continental fragment Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phrase in a given language. For example, in the English language, the words ''beg ...
s and
ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crus ...

ophiolite
s. It is also considered a relatively distinctive collisional orogenic belt because widespread subduction-accretion complexes and arc magmatic rocks can be found in the region, but collision-related
foreland basin A foreland basin is a structural basin A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as building ...
s are not common. The formation history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is complex and highly disputed among academic scientists. Currently, there are two major evolutionary hypotheses that could potentially explain the geological history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. One of the hypothesis stated by geologist Celal Sengor proposed that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt formed due to the
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
of multiple oceanic arcs and
continental crust Continental crust is the layer of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
s, while another hypothesis proposed that it was produced by accumulating subduction-accretion complexes on a magmatic arc. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is now one of the most researched orogenic belts in the world due to its high significance in researching continental accretion and ore formation. It contains plentiful natural resources, including mineral ores, oil and gas. These rich mineral resources explain why the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is also called the Central Asian metallogenic domain, which is one of the largest metallogenic domains in the world.


Location

Like any typical accretionary orogen, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is long and wide. It occupies roughly 30% of the land surface area of the entire
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
. It is located within the boundary of six nations, which are
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is located between the
East European craton The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-Tectonic plate, plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatian Craton, Sarmatia to the south. Fennoscandi ...
and
North China craton The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

North China craton
on the Northwest-Southeast direction, and between Siberian craton and Tarim craton on the Northeast-Southwest direction. The belt extends for approximately 2500 km in the East-West direction.


Geology

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt has a long and complicated geological history. Through mapping, geologists concluded that the geological formation has a southward younging direction, meaning that the rocks in the north is older than the rocks in the south.
Cenozoic The Cenozoic ( ; ) is Earth's current geological era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the ge ...

Cenozoic
-
Mesozoic The Mesozoic Era ( ), also called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers, is the second-to-last era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy ...
sedimentary basin Sedimentary basins are regions of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remainin ...
s can be found at the eastern portion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt while volcanic-plutonic rocks formed from
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
to
Mesozoic The Mesozoic Era ( ), also called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers, is the second-to-last era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy ...
can be found in the middle and western portion of the Orogenic Belt. It has an extensive
granitoid A granitoid is a generic term for a diverse category of coarse-grained igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the othe ...
development as around 60% of the exposed area of the belt is made of granitoids, while most of exposed bedrocks were formed between 550 Ma and 100 Ma.


Main Regions of the CAOB

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt has a complex accretionary
tectonics Tectonics (; ) are the processes that control the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time. These include the processes of mountain building A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, gen ...
, which is being well documented in two main areas. One of them, namely "Kazakhstan Orocline", is located in the western portion of the belt, which is in North
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
in China and Kokchetav-Balkash in
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
. Another one, namely "Tuva-Mongol Orocline", is located in the eastern portion of the belt, which is in the
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, and southern
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
.


Kazakhstan Orocline

The Kazakhstan orocline, which is located at the north of the
TarimTarim may refer to: *Tarim, Yemen, a city in Yemen *Tarim District, Yemen *Tarim River, China *Tarim Basin, China ** Tarim Mummies, a series of mummies which have been excavated at Niya, an oasis in the Tarim Basin *Tarim, the monotheistic god worsh ...
craton and Karakum craton, as well as at the south-east of the
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
, is a bend of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which consists of broken fragments of
continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

continent
s formed in late
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
. In
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
time, the major terrane of the Kazakhstan orocline was mainly
Mesoproterozoic The Mesoproterozoic Era is a geologic Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is oft ...
metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the mineral ...

metamorphic rock
s, which potentially had
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (g ...

Gondwana
affinity. They were then covered by the
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. ...

sediment
s from
Neoproterozoic The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...
and
Cambrian The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These peri ...
to
Lower Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other eart ...

Lower Ordovician
.
Island arc Island arcs are long chains of active volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical b ...

Island arc
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by t ...

volcanic rock
s, and
chert Chert () is a hard, fine-grained sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is cat ...

chert
formed in deep sea environment were the dominant rock types in
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
. By the end of the
Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other eart ...

Ordovician
and
Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-refere ...
, the
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
of paleo-Kazakhstan completed, meaning that materials were added to the paleo-Kazakhstan at a
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
zone. The subsequent
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
and
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
rocks deposited on the paleo-Kazakhstan were mainly the
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by t ...

volcanic rock
s formed from
continental arc A continental arc is a type of volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitational ...
s. During
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
to early
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
, several
unconformities An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categoriz ...

unconformities
were formed, together with the
thrust Thrust is a reaction Reaction may refer to a process or to a response to an action, event, or exposure: Physics and chemistry *Chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transforma ...

thrust
ing in the back of the Balkhash-Yili
volcanic belt in Mexico A volcanic belt is a large volcano, volcanically active region. Other terms are used for smaller areas of activity, such as volcanic fields. Volcanic belts are found above zones of unusually high temperature (700-1400 °C) where m ...
, documenting the event of lateral
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
of the continental crust. The collision between paleo-Kazakhstan and Tarim occurred from the middle Carboniferous to the beginning of the Permian. The south-verging thrusts in the northern part of the South Tienshan consist of ophiolites, accreted high-grade metamorphic rocks, basalts and cherts formed in deep sea environment. These rocks were thrusted upon the
carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline mi ...

carbonate
s and
turbidite A turbidite is the geologic Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly ...

turbidite
s of the southern continents during
Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-refere ...
to
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
. In the late
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
, these rocks were deformed in two phases. Some well-developed
strike slip faults In geology, a fault is a Plane (geometry), planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of Rock (geology), rock across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movements. Large faults within the Earth's Crust (geolo ...
can be found in Kazakhstan.


Tuva-Mongolia Orocline

The geology of Tuva-Mongolia orocline can be divided into two major parts. One of which was formed in
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
, while the other one consists
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

sedimentary rock
s in the north and
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by t ...

volcanic rock
s formed in
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
in the south of the
oroclineAn orocline — from the Greek words for "mountain" and "to bend" — is a bend or curvature of an orogenic (mountain building) belt imposed after it was formed. The term was introduced by S. Warren Carey in 1955 in a paper setting forth how complex ...
. For the northern portion of the
oroclineAn orocline — from the Greek words for "mountain" and "to bend" — is a bend or curvature of an orogenic (mountain building) belt imposed after it was formed. The term was introduced by S. Warren Carey in 1955 in a paper setting forth how complex ...
, it contained
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
to early
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the mineral ...

metamorphic rock
s,
Neoproterozoic The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...
ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crus ...

ophiolite
s,
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by t ...

volcanic rock
s formed in the early
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
island arc Island arcs are long chains of active volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical b ...

island arc
s, and some associated
volcaniclastic Volcaniclastics are geologic materials composed of broken fragments (clasts) of volcanic rock. These encompass all clastic volcanic materials, regardless of what process fragmented the rock, how it was subsequently transported, what environment it ...
sediments. These rocks were then covered by the
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
to
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
sediments and were influenced by the volcanic activities during
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
. For the southern portion of the Tuva-Mongolia Orocline, the majority of rocks there were formed during early to late
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by t ...

volcanic rock
s with
ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crus ...

ophiolite
s. The
volcaniclastic Volcaniclastics are geologic materials composed of broken fragments (clasts) of volcanic rock. These encompass all clastic volcanic materials, regardless of what process fragmented the rock, how it was subsequently transported, what environment it ...
sediments formed during Late
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
to
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
were also common in this region. For both portions in the Tuva-Mongolia Orocline, intrusions of
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
s occurred after the mountain building events and were covered by the
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcanic
and
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

sedimentary rock
s formed during
Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
to
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of division ...

Cretaceous
.


Ophiolites in CAOB

Ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crus ...

Ophiolite
s, which are uplifted and exposed fragments of
oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust i ...
s with pieces of
upper mantle The upper mantle of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. ...
, are considered to be able to provide important information regarding the history of formation and evolution of the
orogenic belt An Orogenic belt means a zone affected by orogeny Orogeny is the primary mechanism by which mountains are formed on continents. An orogeny is an event that takes place at a convergent plate margin when plate motion compresses the margin. This ...
. The following table shows the locations of some of the
ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crus ...

ophiolite
s that can be found in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and the related interpretation on the evolutionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt


Geological Evolution

Being an accretionary orogen, the geological evolutionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is highly complicated. There are two major evolutionary hypotheses that have been proposed. One of the hypotheses posits that oceanic arcs and possible derived from
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (g ...

Gondwana
were added to the Siberian, Russian, and North China cratons via
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
. Another hypothesis suggests that the Central Asian collage is made of accumulated
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
materials that were derived from
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
,
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
, and deformation of a single magmatic arc. Even though the Orogenic Belt has been at the forefront of the research of accretionary orogens, there is no consensus on the formation history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Further explanation of the two
hypotheses A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements Statement or statements may refer to: Common uses *Statement (computer science)In computer programming Computer programming is the proce ...
for the geological evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is provided below.


Two hypotheses of the formation of CAOB


First hypothesis

The first hypothesis states that the southern margin of the Siberian continent was formed from the
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
of multiple oceanic arcs and possibly parts of continents derived from
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (g ...

Gondwana
, a
supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers sim ...
existed from
Neoproterozoic The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...
to
Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
, to the
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
,
Siberian Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact chara ...
, and . This hypothesis suggests that
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
of orogens in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt started in the late
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
and the Orogenic Belt reached its highest altitude with the amalgamation of Tarim's
passive margin A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere that is not an active plate Continental margin, margin. A passive margin forms by sedimentation above an ancient rift, now marked by transitional lithosphere. Contin ...

passive margin
and northern accretionary system until the end
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
and middle
Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...

Triassic
. This hypothesis states that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt involved numerous
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
, collision in parallel orientation,
accretion Accretion may refer to: Science * Accretion (astrophysics), the formation of planets and other bodies by collection of material through gravity * Accretion (meteorology), the process by which water vapor in clouds forms water droplets around nucle ...
, amalgamation of microcontinents and bending of
oroclineAn orocline — from the Greek words for "mountain" and "to bend" — is a bend or curvature of an orogenic (mountain building) belt imposed after it was formed. The term was introduced by S. Warren Carey in 1955 in a paper setting forth how complex ...
s. It is still debated whether the microcontinents derived from
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (g ...

Gondwana
were involved in the formation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in this hypothesis since the original structure of the Orogenic Belt is highly deformed and broken through tectonic evolution.


Second hypothesis

The second hypothesis proposed by geologist Celal Sengor in 1993 suggested that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt was formed due to the accumulation of
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
subduction-accretion materials against a single magmatic arc. The entire process of formation of Central Asian Orogenic Belt is explained below and summarized in Table 2 and Figure 5. This hypothesis suggests that
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
craton was attached with Siberia craton during the period
Ediacaran The Ediacaran Period ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of ...
. Their locations during Ediacaran were confirmed from
paleomagnetic Paleomagnetism, or palaeomagnetism, is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus ...
data.
Continental rifting In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics. Typical rift features are a central linear Fault (geology), downfaulted depression, called a graben, or more commonly ...

Continental rifting
between
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...
happened from late Ediacaran to
Cambrian The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These peri ...
(610-520
Myr The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Uni ...

Myr
). During this period, collision of microcontinents and subduction happened at the north of the Siberia craton. During Middle
Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-refere ...
(430-424 Myr), the Kipchak arc, which is the fragment formed due to the
rift In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics. Typical rift features are a central linear Fault (geology), downfaulted depression, called a graben, or more commonly ...

rift
ing of
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...
, had its northern end attached to the Siberia craton and its southern end free from attachment to the Baltica craton. Meanwhile, the accretionary complex formed during subduction of microcontinents at the north of the Siberia craton and the amount of accretionary materials at the Kipchak arc decreased towards the southwest as it was more away from the source in
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...
. During Early
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
(390-386 Myr), there was no more addition growth of subduction-accretion complexes at the southern end of the Kipchak arc due to the abrupt influx of thick layer of Early
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
clastic materials and the simultaneous decrease in subduction-related
magmatism Magmatism is the emplacement of magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The thr ...
. This could be explained by collision of Mugodzhar arc at the north of
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
with the southern end of the Kipchak arc. On the other hand, a subduction-accretion wedge started to grow at the north of the Kipchak arc. By Late
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
(367-362 Myr), subduction-accretion and arc
magmatism Magmatism is the emplacement of magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The thr ...
produced a continental crust that had a normal thickness. During Early
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
(332-318 Myr),
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
craton migrated towards Siberia craton, which led to the
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
under the original southern end of the Kipchak arc. During Late
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
(318-303 Myr),
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
experienced right-lateral Shear (geology), shearing, combined with compressional force, the entire
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
oroclineAn orocline — from the Greek words for "mountain" and "to bend" — is a bend or curvature of an orogenic (mountain building) belt imposed after it was formed. The term was introduced by S. Warren Carey in 1955 in a paper setting forth how complex ...
became more tightly packed. Until Early
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
(269-260 Myr), the Nurol basin, which is a stretched
continental crust Continental crust is the layer of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
, was formed and alkaline
magmatism Magmatism is the emplacement of magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The thr ...
occurred at its basement. Finally, during Late
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
(225–251 Myr), the shearing direction of
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...
reversed as the Gornostaev shear zone moved to the south and east of
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...
. With this final act during Late
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
, Sengor's hypothesis on the Central Asian Orogenic Belt evolution was completed. It was estimated that around 2.5 million square kilometers of juvenile materials were added to
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
in around 350 million years, making the Central Asian Orogenic Belt to be one of the most important juvenile crust formations since the end of Proterozoic. However, some geologists suggested that the extent of juvenile crust formed during
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
is highly overestimated as many of the
Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current in the , and the one during which abundant and has existed. It covers million years to the present, and it began with the Period when animals first developed hard shells preserved in the fossil record. The ...
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
s found in the belt were initially formed in the Mesoproterozoic, Mesoproterozic and being reworked later on.


Major questions

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt has been on the forefront of research since the 21st century. Despite international efforts of scientists, there are still many questions regarding the Central Asian Orogenic Belt that remain unanswered. They include: * To what extent is the continental crust of the CAOB is juvenile or recycled in
Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current in the , and the one during which abundant and has existed. It covers million years to the present, and it began with the Period when animals first developed hard shells preserved in the fossil record. The ...
; * Whether microcontinents derived from
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (g ...

Gondwana
were accreted to the
Siberian Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact chara ...
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
TarimTarim may refer to: *Tarim, Yemen, a city in Yemen *Tarim District, Yemen *Tarim River, China *Tarim Basin, China ** Tarim Mummies, a series of mummies which have been excavated at Niya, an oasis in the Tarim Basin *Tarim, the monotheistic god worsh ...
and ; * The balance between tectonic erosion and formation of
continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

continent
s.


Economic significance

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is rich in natural resources and more extensive study of the region would yield more benefits to society.


Mineral ore

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is rich in mineral ores, including platinum, gold, silver and copper. The mines of these valuable metals can be found and explored according to the tectonic settings and the structures of the
orogenic belt An Orogenic belt means a zone affected by orogeny Orogeny is the primary mechanism by which mountains are formed on continents. An orogeny is an event that takes place at a convergent plate margin when plate motion compresses the margin. This ...
. For platinum, its associated minerals can be found in the dunite, a type of Ultramafic rock, ultramafic Intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock, from the Xiadong Alaskan complex. The platinum would usually appear as platinum-group element sulfide and sulfarsenide. It could also appear as inclusions of chromite and clinopyroxene or as interstitial grains in the fractures of chromite. For gold, a large gold mine was found in the Nenjian-Heihe Mélange, melange zone within the CAOB. This gold mine, namely the Yongxin gold deposit, is a fracture-controlled gold deposit with a thickness of 52m at the largest ore body. Pyrite, which is the most important mineral that host gold, could be found in the mine. The CAOB is also rich in world-class copper . The Laoshankou Iron Oxide-Cu-Au deposit, which is located at the southwest of the Qinhe City, Xinjiang, Xinjian, Northwest China, is considered as one of the most important high-quality copper and gold reserve in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, with the deposit being hosted by the
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by t ...

volcanic rock
s formed during Middle
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
.


Oil and gas

Since Central Asian Orogenic Belt has a complex tectonic setting, it is often being associated with different kinds of energy production in the world.{{Cite journal, last1=Abitkazy, first1=Taskyn, last2=Ma, first2=Yongsheng, last3=Shi, first3=Kaibo, last4=Wu, first4=Shuhong, last5=Mu, first5=Langfeng, last6=Zhao, first6=Lisha, last7=Liu, first7=Bo, date=December 2019, title=Hydrocarbon potential of Late Palaeozoic residual basins in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Insights from the tectonic evolution of the Yinggen‐Ejinaqi Basin, Inner Mongolia, China, url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gj.3694, journal=Geological Journal, volume=55, issue=7, pages=4997–5021, doi=10.1002/gj.3694, s2cid=213104542, issn=0072-1050 It is important to note that some of the richest Oil reserves, hydrocarbon reserves in the world can be found in the region near Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Within the Orogenic Belt, oil- and gas-bearing basins were developed, such as Dzungaria, Junggar, Santangpu, Santanghu, and Northeast China Plain, Songliao basins, of which the former two are located at the south-western portion of the Orogenic Belt and the later one is located at the eastern portion of the Orogenic Belt. The Yinggen-Ejinaqi Basin, which is located at the southern portion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt has been suggested to have a high potential of having a hydrocarbon reserve. Further research and analysis is required before commercial use of oil and gas can be extracted from this region.


References

Geology of Asia Orogenies of Asia