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Celery
Celery
( Apium
Apium
graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery
Celery
has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves, or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery
Celery
seed is also used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine.

Contents

1 Description 2 Etymology 3 Taxonomy 4 Cultivation

4.1 North America 4.2 Europe 4.3 Asia 4.4 Wild

5 Harvesting and storage

5.1 Sulfites

6 Uses

6.1 Leaves 6.2 Seeds 6.3 Celery
Celery
salt 6.4 Herbalism

7 Nutrition 8 Allergies 9 Chemistry 10 History

10.1 Cultural depictions

11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Description[edit] Celery
Celery
leaves are pinnate to bipinnate with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm (1.2–2.4 in) long and 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) broad. The flowers are creamy-white, 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) in diameter, and are produced in dense compound umbels. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose, 1.5–2 mm (0.059–0.079 in) long and wide. Modern cultivars have been selected for solid petioles, leaf stalks.[2] A celery stalk readily separates into "strings" which are bundles of angular collenchyma cells exterior to the vascular bundles.[3] Wild celery, Apium
Apium
graveolens var. graveolens, grows to 1 m (3.3 ft) tall. It occurs around the globe. The first cultivation is thought to have happened in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, where the natural habitats were salty and wet, or marshy soils near the coast where celery grew in agropyro-rumicion-plant communities.[4] North of the alps wild celery is found only in the foothill zone on soils with some salt content. It prefers moist or wet, nutrient rich, muddy soils. It cannot be found in Austria and is increasingly rare in Germany.[5]

Cultivar Image Name

Celery

Apium
Apium
graveolens var. graveolens

Celeriac

Apium
Apium
graveolens var. rapaceum

Leaf celery

Apium
Apium
graveolens var. secalinum

Etymology[edit] First attested in English in 1664, the word "celery" derives from the French céleri, in turn from Italian seleri, the plural of selero, which comes from Late Latin
Late Latin
selinon,[6] the latinisation of the Greek σέλινον (selinon), "celery".[7][8] The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
se-ri-no, written in Linear B syllabic script.[9] Taxonomy[edit]

Cross-section of a 'Pascal' celery rib, the petiole

Celery
Celery
was described by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.[10] Cultivation[edit] The plants are raised from seed, sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year, and, after one or two thinnings and transplantings, they are, on attaining a height of 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in), planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching, which is effected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. In the past, celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring; it was perceived as a cleansing tonic, welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet based on salted meats without greens. By the 19th century, the season for celery had been extended, to last from the beginning of September to late in April.[11] North America[edit] In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the cultivar called 'Pascal' celery.[2] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars, many of which differ from the wild species, mainly in having stouter leaf stems. They are ranged under two classes, white and red. The stalks grow in tight, straight, parallel bunches, and are typically marketed fresh that way, without roots and just a little green leaf remaining. The stalks are eaten raw, or as an ingredient in salads, or as a flavoring in soups, stews, and pot roasts. Europe[edit] In Europe, another popular variety is celeriac (also known as celery root), Apium
Apium
graveolens var. rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb could be kept for months in winter and mostly serves as a main ingredient in soup. It can also be ground up and used in salads. The leaves are used as seasoning; the small, fibrous stalks find only marginal use.[12][13][14] Asia[edit]

Leaf celery, also known as Chinese celery

Leaf celery
Leaf celery
(Chinese celery, Apium
Apium
graveolens var. secalinum) is a cultivar from East Asia that grows in marshlands. Leaf celery
Leaf celery
is most likely the oldest cultivated form of celery. Leaf celery
Leaf celery
has characteristically thin skin stalks and a stronger taste and smell compared to other cultivars. It is used as a flavoring in soups and sometimes pickled as a side dish.[15] Wild[edit] The wild form of celery is known as "smallage". It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves, the whole plant having a coarse, earthy taste, and a distinctive smell. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine), but the leaves may be used in salads, and its seeds are those sold as a spice.[16] With cultivation and blanching, the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild, sweetish, aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. Because wild celery is rarely eaten, yet susceptible to the same diseases as more well-used cultivars, it is often removed from fields to help prevent transmission of viruses like celery mosaic virus.[17] Harvesting and storage[edit]

Celery
Celery
cells under 400x magnification of a light microscope

Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable; due to extremely uniform crop growth, fields are harvested only once. The petioles and leaves are removed and harvested; celery is packed by size and quality (determined by color, shape, straightness and thickness of petiole, stalk and midrib[clarification needed] length and absence of disease, cracks, splits, insect damage and rot). During commercial harvesting, celery is packaged into cartons which contain between 36 and 48 stalks and weigh up to 27 kg (60 lb).[18] Under optimal conditions, celery can be stored for up to seven weeks between 0 to 2 °C (32 to 36 °F). Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F). Shelf life can be extended by packaging celery in anti-fogging, micro-perforated shrink wrap.[19] Freshly cut petioles of celery are prone to decay, which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing, gentle handling, and proper sanitation.[20] Sulfites[edit] In the past, restaurants used to store celery in a container of water with powdered vegetable preservative, but it was found that the sulfites in the preservative caused allergic reactions in some people.[21] In 1986, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
banned the use of sulfites on fruits and vegetables intended to be eaten raw.[22] Uses[edit]

Celery
Celery
seed ( Apium
Apium
graveolens) essential oil

Celery
Celery
is eaten around the world as a vegetable. In North America the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) is used. In Europe the hypocotyl is used as a root vegetable. The leaves are strongly flavored and are used less often, either as a flavoring in soups and stews or as a dried herb. Celery, onions, and bell peppers are the "holy trinity" of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery, onions, and carrots make up the French mirepoix, often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery
Celery
is a staple in many soups, such as chicken noodle soup. Leaves[edit] Celery
Celery
leaves are frequently used in cooking to add a mild spicy flavor to foods, similar to, but milder than black pepper. Celery leaves are suitable dried as a sprinkled on seasoning for use with baked, fried or roasted fish, meats and as part of a blend of fresh seasonings suitable for use in soups and stews. Seeds[edit] In temperate countries, celery is also grown for its seeds. Actually very small fruit, these "seeds" yield a valuable essential oil that is used in the perfume industry. The oil contains the chemical compound apiole. Celery
Celery
seeds can be used as flavoring or spice, either as whole seeds or ground. Celery
Celery
salt[edit] The seeds can be ground and mixed with salt, to produce celery salt. Celery salt
Celery salt
can be made from an extract of the roots or using dried leaves. Celery salt
Celery salt
is used as a seasoning, in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavor of Bloody Mary cocktails), on the Chicago-style hot dog, and in Old Bay Seasoning. Herbalism[edit]

Celery
Celery
seeds

Celery
Celery
seeds have been used widely in Eastern herbal traditions such as Ayurveda.[23] Aulus Cornelius Celsus
Aulus Cornelius Celsus
wrote that celery seeds could relieve pain in around AD 30.[24] Though scientific evidence is lacking, it is still used as in ancient times for water retention, arthritis, and inflammation, and has seen more recent uses for reducing blood pressure and muscular spasms and as a mosquito repellent.[23] Nutrition[edit]

Celery, raw ( Apium
Apium
graveolens)

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 67 kJ (16 kcal)

Carbohydrates

2.97 g (including fibre)

Starch 0.00 g

Sugars lactose

1.34 g 0.00 g

Dietary fiber 1.6 g

Fat

0.17 g

Saturated 0.042 g

Trans 0.000 g

Monounsaturated 0.032 g

Polyunsaturated 0.079 g

Protein

0.69 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv.

(3%) 22 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(2%) 0.021 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(5%) 0.057 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(2%) 0.320 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(5%) 0.246 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(6%) 0.074 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(9%) 36 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B12

(0%) 0.00 μg

Choline

(1%) 6.1 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(4%) 3.1 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
D

(0%) 0 IU

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(2%) 0.27 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(28%) 29.3 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(4%) 40 mg

Copper

(2%) 0.035 mg

Iron

(2%) 0.20 mg

Magnesium

(3%) 11 mg

Phosphorus

(3%) 24 mg

Potassium

(6%) 260 mg

Sodium

(5%) 80 mg

Zinc

(1%) 0.13 mg

Other constituents

Water 95.43 g

Alcohol (ethanol) 0.0 g

Caffeine 0 mg

Cholesterol 0 mg

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Celery
Celery
is used in weight-loss diets, where it provides low-calorie dietary fibre bulk. Celery
Celery
is often incorrectly thought to be a "negative-calorie food", the digestion of which burns more calories than the body can obtain. In fact, eating celery provides positive net calories, with digestion consuming only a small proportion of the calories taken in.[25] Allergies[edit] Celery
Celery
is among a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions; for people with celery allergy, exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.[26] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Celery
Celery
root—commonly eaten as celeriac, or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis
may be exacerbated. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery, making avoiding such foods difficult. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US, celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe.[27] In the European Union, foods that contain or may contain celery, even in trace amounts, must be clearly marked as such.[28] Chemistry[edit] Polyynes can be found in Apiaceae
Apiaceae
vegetables like celery, and their extracts show cytotoxic activities.[29][30] Celery
Celery
contains phenolic acid, which is an antioxidant.[31] Apiin
Apiin
and apigenin can be extracted from celery and parsley. Lunularin is a dihydrostilbenoid found in common celery. The main chemicals responsible for the aroma and taste of celery are butylphthalide and sedanolide.[32] History[edit]

Selinunte
Selinunte
didrachm coin bearing a selinon (celery) leaf, circa 515-470 BC.

Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[33] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
(died 1323 BC), and celery mericarps dated to the seventh century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. However, they note "since A. graveolens grows wild in these areas, it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. M. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC, at Kastanas; however, the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. In Homer's Iliad, the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy, and in Odyssey, there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[34] In the Capitulary of Charlemagne, compiled ca. 800, apium appears, as does olisatum, or alexanders, among medicinal herbs and vegetables the Frankish emperor desired to see grown.[35] At some later point in medieval Europe celery displaced alexanders. Celery's late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. By 1699, John Evelyn
John Evelyn
could recommend it in his Acetaria. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery, apium Italicum, (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage...and for its high and grateful Taste
Taste
is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet, at our Great Men's tables, and Praetors feasts, as the Grace of the whole Board".[36] Celery
Celery
makes a minor appearance in colonial American gardens; its culinary limitations are reflected in the observation by the author of A Treatise on Gardening, by a Citizen of Virginia that it is "one of the species of parsley."[37] Its first extended treatment in print was in Bernard M'Mahon's American Gardener's Calendar (1806).[38] After the mid-19th century, continued selections for refined crisp texture and taste brought celery to American tables, where it was served in celery vases to be salted and eaten raw. Cultural depictions[edit]

Apium
Apium
illustration from Barbarus Apuleius' Herbarium, c. 1400.

A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks, celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos, father of the Cabeiri, chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace, Lemnos, and Thebes. The spicy odor and dark leaf color encouraged this association with the cult of death. In classical Greece, celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead, and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games
Isthmian Games
were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. According to Pliny the Elder[39] in Achaea, the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games
Nemean Games
was also made of celery.[34] The Ancient Greek colony of Selinous (Greek: Σελινοῦς, Selinous), on Sicily, was named after wild parsley that grew abundantly there; Selinountian coins depicted a parsley leaf as the symbol of the city. The perennial BBC television series Doctor Who featured the Fifth Doctor (played by Peter Davison, from 1981–84), who wore a sprig of celery as a corsage. The name "celery" retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking, as the English "celery" (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term, seleri, from the Latin selinon, borrowed from Greek.[40] See also[edit]

Food portal

Apium
Apium
virus Y Celery
Celery
mosaic virus Celery
Celery
powder List of vegetables Vallisneria americana—wild celery

References[edit]

^ " Apium
Apium
graveolens". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved March 31, 2016.  ^ a b de Vilmorin, Roger L. (1950). "Pascal celery and its origin". Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 51 (602): 39–41.  ^ Peterson, R. L.; Peterson, Carol A.; Melville, L.H. (2008). Teaching plant anatomy through creative laboratory exercises. National Research Council Press. ISBN 9780660197982. OCLC 512819711.  ^ Erich, Oberdorfer (2001). Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora für Deutschland und angrenzende Gebiete. E. Ulmer. p. 708. ISBN 3800131315. OCLC 875386204.  ^ Fischer, Manfred A.; Günter, Gottschlich (2008). Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol : Bestimmungsbuch für alle in der Republik Österreich, im Fürstentum Liechtenstein und in der Autonomen Provinz Bozen / Südtirol (Italien) wildwachsenden sowie die wichtigsten kultivierten Gefässpflanzen (Farnpflanzen und Samenpflanzen) mit Angaben über ihre Ökologie und Verbreitung (in German). Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum. p. 849. ISBN 9783854741879. OCLC 886822563.  ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (eds.). "selinon". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.  ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (eds.). "σέλινον". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.  ^ "celery". Etymonline.com.  ^ "celery". Palaeolexicon.com.  ^ (in Latin) Linnaeus, C (1753). Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).  ^ William Robinson and W. P. Thomson (1920). The Vegetable
Vegetable
Garden (3rd ed.). p. 227.  ^ Watson, Molly. "All About Celery
Celery
Root (Celeriac)". localfoods.about.com. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ "eat celery root". eattheseasons.com. 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ Schuchert, Wolfgang. " Celeriac
Celeriac
( Apium
Apium
graveolens L. var. rapaceum)". Crop Exhibition. Max Planck Institute for Plant
Plant
Breeding Research. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ Newman, Jacqueline (Fall 2006). "Chinese Celery". Vegetables and Vegetarian Foods. 13 (3): 15–34. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Smallage". Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ Wellman, F (February 1937). "Control of Southern Celery
Celery
Mosaic in Florida by Removing Weeds That Serve as Sources of Mosaic Infection". United States Department of Agriculture. 54 (8): 1–16. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ Takele, Etaferahu. " Celery
Celery
Production: Sample Costs and Profitability Analysis" (PDF). UC Davis. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ Rizzo, V (January 2009). "Effects of packaging on shelf life of fresh celery". Journal of Food Engineering. 90 (1): 124–128. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.06.011. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ Cantwell, M; Suslow, T. (2002-06-10). "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Post-harvest technology research and information center. Archived from the original on 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  ^ Feldman D, Schwan K (2005). How Does Aspirin Find a Headache?. HarperCollins. p. 208. ISBN 0-06-074094-9.  ^ Fortin ND (2009). Food Regulation: Law, Science, Policy and Practice. John Wiley and Sons. p. 288. ISBN 0-470-12709-0.  ^ a b "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide > Herb
Herb
> Celery
Celery
seed". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2015-06-22. Retrieved 2018-02-15.  ^ Celsus, de Medicina, Thayer translation ^ Nestle, M.; Nesheim, M.C. (2012). Why Calories Count: From Science to Politics. University of California Press. p. 189. ISBN 9780520262881. Retrieved 2014-10-05.  ^ Celestin, J; Heiner, DC (1993). "Food-induced anaphylaxis". The Western journal of medicine. 158 (6): 610–1. PMC 1311786 . PMID 8337856.  ^ Bublin, M.; Radauer, C; Wilson, IB; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K (2003). "Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5, a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery, are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients". The FASEB Journal. 17 (12): 1697–9. doi:10.1096/fj.02-0872fje. PMID 12958180.  ^ "Food labelling and packaging in international trade". General labelling standards for the UK and EU.  ^ Zidorn, Christian; Jöhrer, Karin; Ganzera, Markus; Schubert, Birthe; Sigmund, Elisabeth Maria; Mader, Judith; Greil, Richard; Ellmerer, Ernst P.; Stuppner, Hermann (2005). "Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Vegetables Carrot, Celery, Fennel, Parsley, and Parsnip
Parsnip
and Their Cytotoxic Activities". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53 (7): 2518–23. doi:10.1021/jf048041s. PMID 15796588.  ^ Minto, Robert E.; Blacklock, Brenda J "Biosynthesis and function of polyacetylenes and allied natural products" From Progress in Lipid Research 2008, vol. 47, 233-306. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2008.02.002 ^ Yang, Yao (2010). "Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant
Antioxidant
Activities of 11 Celery
Celery
Cultivars" (PDF). Journal of Food Science. 75.  ^ Wilson, Charles Welthy III (1970). "Relative recovery and identification of carbonyl compounds from celery essential oil". Journal of Food Science. 35 (6): 766–768. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1970.tb01989.x.  ^ D. Zohary and M. Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World, (3rd ed. 2000) p.202. ^ a b Megaloudi, Fragiska (2005). "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables, Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity (900 B.C. to 400 B.C.)". Environmental Archaeology. 10 (1): 73–82. doi:10.1179/146141005790083858.  ^ Charlemagne's Capitulary ^ Evelyn, J. (2005) [1699]. Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets. B. Tooke; The Women's Auxiliary of Brooklyn Botanic Garden; Project Gutenberg.  ^ Quoted in Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century, 1976, p. 199. ^ David Shields, "American Heritage Vegetables" ^ Pliny, Natural History XIX.46. ^ OED, s.v. "Celery".

Further reading[edit]

El-Shinnawy, Nashwa (1 February 2013). "The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity". Toxicology and Industrial Health. 31 (4): 355–366. doi:10.1177/0748233713475515. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Celery
Celery
and Apium
Apium
graveolens.

 "Celery". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911.  Apium
Apium
graveolens in Plant
Plant
Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) Quality standards (in PDF), from the USDA website

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Edible Apiaceae

Aegopodium podagraria Ajwain Alepidea peduncularis Alexanders Angelica archangelica Anise Anthriscus sylvestris Apium
Apium
prostratum Arracacha Asafoetida Bunium persicum Caraway Carrot Celeriac Celery Centella asiatica Chaerophyllum bulbosum Chervil Chinese celery Cicely Coriander Crithmum Cryptotaenia Cumin Daucus pusillus Dill Echinophora sibthorpiana Erigenia
Erigenia
bulbosa Eryngium foetidum Fennel Heracleum persicum Ligusticum scoticum Lomatium Lomatium
Lomatium
parryi Lovage Oenanthe javanica Osmorhiza Parsley Parsnip Perideridia Peucedanum ostruthium Ridolfia segetum Sium sisarum Trachyspermum roxburghianum

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TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q28298 APDB: 26885 ARKive: apium-graveolens EoL: 579558 EPPO: APUGV FloraBase: 8595 FoC: 200015400 GBIF: 5371879 GRIN: 300034 iNaturalist: 58788 IPNI: 838067-1 ITIS: 29592 IUCN: 164203 NCBI: 4045 Plantarium: 3334 Plant
Plant
List: kew-2644053 PLANTS: APGR2 Tropicos: 1700014 VASCAN: 2545 WoRMS: 426131

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