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In telecommunication and electronics, baud (/ˈbɔːd/; symbol: Bd) is a common measure of the speed of communication over a data channel. Technically speaking, it is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second or pulses per second. It is the number of distinct symbol changes (signaling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal or a line code. Baud
Baud
was the prevalent measure for data transmission speed until replaced by the term bps (bits per second), to which it closely approximates. If there are only two symbols in the alphabet (typically 0 and 1), then baud and bits per second (bps) are equivalent. Baud
Baud
is related to gross bit rate or symbol rate expressed as bits per second. [1]

Contents

1 Naming 2 Definitions 3 Relationship to gross bit rate 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Naming[edit] The baud unit is named after Émile Baudot, the inventor of the Baudot code for telegraphy, and is represented in accordance with the rules for SI units. That is, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bd), but when the unit is spelled out, it should be written in lowercase (baud) except when it begins a sentence. It was defined by the CCITT (Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique) in November 1926. The earlier standard had been the number of words per minute. One baud was equal to one pulse per second, a more robust measure as word length can vary.[2] Definitions[edit] The symbol duration time, also known as unit interval, can be directly measured as the time between transitions by looking into an eye diagram of an oscilloscope. The symbol duration time Ts can be calculated as:

T

s

=

1

f

s

,

displaystyle T_ s = 1 over f_ s ,

where fs is the symbol rate. There is also a chance of miscommunication which leads to ambiguity.

Example: a baud of 1 kBd = 1,000 Bd is synonymous to a symbol rate of 1,000 symbols per second. In case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second, and in case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond.

In digital systems (i.e., using discrete/discontinuous values) with binary code, 1 Bd = 1 bit/s. By contrast, non-digital (or analog) systems use a continuous range of values to represent information and in these systems the exact informational size of 1 Bd varies. The baud is scaled using standard metric prefixes, so that for example

1 kBd (kilobaud) = 1000 Bd 1 MBd (megabaud) = 1000 kBd 1 GBd (gigabaud) = 1000 MBd.

Relationship to gross bit rate[edit] The symbol rate is related to gross bit rate expressed in bit/s. The term baud has sometimes incorrectly been used to mean bit rate,[3] since these rates are the same in old modems as well as in the simplest digital communication links using only one bit per symbol, such that binary digit "0" is represented by one symbol, and binary digit "1" by another symbol. In more advanced modems and data transmission techniques, a symbol may have more than two states, so it may represent more than one bit. A bit (binary digit) always represents one of two states. If N bits are conveyed per symbol, and the gross bit rate is R, inclusive of channel coding overhead, the symbol rate fs can be calculated as

f

s

=

R N

.

displaystyle f_ mathrm s = R over N .

By taking information per pulse N in bit/pulse to be the base-2-logarithm of the number of distinct messages M that could be sent, Hartley[4] constructed a measure of the gross bitrate R as

R =

f

s

N

displaystyle R=f_ mathrm s Nquad

where

N =

log

2

⁡ ( M ) .

displaystyle quad N=log _ 2 (M).

In that case M = 2N, different symbols are used. In a modem, these may be time-limited sinewave tones with unique combinations of amplitude, phase and/or frequency. For example, in a 64QAM
64QAM
modem, M = 64, and so the bit rate is N = log2(64) = 6 times the baud rate. In a line code, these may be M different voltage levels. The ratio is not necessarily even an integer; in 4B3T
4B3T
coding, the bit rate is 4/3 of the baud rate. (A typical basic rate interface with a 160 kbit/s raw data rate operates at 120 kBd.) Codes with many symbols, and thus a bit rate higher than the symbol rate, are most useful on channels such as telephone lines with a limited bandwidth but a high signal-to-noise ratio within that bandwidth. In other applications, the bit rate is less than the symbol rate. Eight-to-fourteen modulation
Eight-to-fourteen modulation
as used on audio CDs has bit rate 8/14 of the baud rate. See also[edit]

Bandwidth Baudot code Bitrate Constellation diagram, which shows (on a graph or 2D oscilloscope image) how a given signal state (a symbol) can represent three or more bits at once List of device bandwidths Modem Modulation Nyquist rate PCM Symbol rate 8-N-1

References[edit]

^ "What's The Difference Between Bit
Bit
Rate And Baud
Baud
Rate?". Electronic Design. 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ " Baud
Baud
definition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO)". www.linfo.org. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ Banks, Michael A. (1990). "BITS, BAUD RATE, AND BPS Taking the Mystery Out of Modem
Modem
Speeds". Brady Books/Simon & Schuster. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ D. A. Bell (1962). Information Theory and its Engineering Applications (3rd ed.). New York: Pitman. OCLC 1626214. 

External links[edit]

Martin, Nicolas (January 2000). "On the origins of serial communications and data encoding". dBulletin, the dBASE Developers Bulletin (7). Retrieved January 4, 2007.  Frenzel, Lou (April 27, 2012). "What's The Difference Between Bit
Bit
Rate And baud?". Electronic Desi

.