The Info List - Avignon

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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

(French pronunciation: ​[avi'ɲɔ̃]; Latin: Avenio; Occitan: Avignoun, Occitan: Avinhon pronounced [aviˈɲun]) is a commune in south-eastern France
in the department of Vaucluse
on the left bank of the Rhône
river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city (as of 2011[update]), about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts. Between 1309 and 1377, during the Avignon
Papacy, seven successive popes resided in Avignon
and in 1348 Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI
bought the town from Joanna I of Naples. Papal control persisted until 1791 when, during the French Revolution, it became part of France. The town is now the capital of the Vaucluse
department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its ramparts. The historic centre, which includes the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, and the Pont d'Avignon, became a UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1995. The medieval monuments and the annual Festival d'Avignon
Festival d'Avignon
have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism. The commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[1]


1 Toponymy 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Geology and terrain 3.2 Hydrography

3.2.1 Artificial diversions

3.3 Seismicity 3.4 Climate

3.4.1 The mistral

4 Demographics 5 Administration

5.1 List of Mayors 5.2 Twinning 5.3 Evolution of the borders of the commune 5.4 Area and population

6 Economy

6.1 Areas of economic activity 6.2 Tourism 6.3 Agriculture 6.4 Industry 6.5 Public sector (excluding government) 6.6 Employment

7 Transport

7.1 Roads 7.2 Railways 7.3 Airports 7.4 Water transport 7.5 Public transport 7.6 Bicycles

8 Cultural heritage

8.1 Religious historical objects 8.2 Picture gallery

9 Culture

9.1 Avignon
Festival 9.2 The International Congress Centre 9.3 "Sur le Pont d'Avignon"

10 Sport 11 Nuclear pollution 12 Education

12.1 University of Avignon

12.1.1 University before the Revolution 12.1.2 Modern university

13 People who were born or died in Avignon 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Sources 18 External links

Toponymy[edit] The earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks:[2]

Аὐενιὼν = Auenion (Stephen of Byzantium, Strabo, IV, 1, 11) Άουεννίων = Aouennion (Ptolemy II, x).

The Roman name Avennĭo Cavarum (Mela, II, 575, Pliny III, 36), i.e. " Avignon
of Cavares" accurately shows that Avignon
was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of Cavares, along with Cavaillon
and Orange. The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European[2] or pre-Latin[3] theme ab-ên with the suffix -i-ōn(e)[2][3] This theme would be a hydronym – i.e. a name linked to the river (Rhône), but perhaps also an oronym of terrain (the Rocher des Doms). The Auenion of the 1st century BC was Latinized to Avennĭo (or Avēnĭo), -ōnis in the 1st century and was written Avinhon in classic Occitan
spelling[4] or Avignoun [aviɲũ] in Mistralian spelling[5] The inhabitants of the commune are called avinhonencs or avignounen in both Occitan
and Provençal dialect. History[edit] Main articles: History of Avignon
History of Avignon
and Timeline of Avignon Geography[edit] Avignon
is on the left bank of the Rhône
river, a few kilometres above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km (360 mi) south-east of Paris, 229 km (142 mi) south of Lyon
and 85 km (53 mi) north-north-west of Marseille. On the west it shares a border with the department of Gard
and the communes of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
and Les Angles and to the south it borders the department of Bouches-du- Rhône
and the communes of Barbentane, Rognonas, Châteaurenard, and Noves. The city is in the vicinity of Orange (north), Nîmes, Montpellier (south-west), Arles
(to the south), Salon-de-Provence, and Marseille (south-east). Directly contiguous to the east and north are the communes of Caumont-sur-Durance, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, and Sorgues. Geology and terrain[edit]

Aerial view of Avignon

The region around Avignon
is very rich in limestone which is used for building material. For example, the current ramparts, measuring 4,330 metres long, were built with the soft limestone abundant in the region called mollasse burdigalienne.[6] Enclosed by the ramparts, the Rocher des Doms is a limestone elevation of urgonian type, 35 metres high[7] (and therefore safe from flooding of the Rhone which it overlooks) and is the original core of the city. Several limestone massifs are present around the commune (the Massif des Angles, Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, Alpilles...) and they are partly the result of the oceanisation of the Ligurian-Provençal basin following the migration of the Sardo-Corsican block.[6] The other significant elevation in the commune is the Montfavet
Hill – a wooded hill in the east of the commune.[6] The Rhone Valley is an old alluvial zone: loose deposits cover much of the ground. It consists of sandy alluvium more or less coloured with pebbles consisting mainly of siliceous rocks. The islands in the Rhone, such as the Île de la Barthelasse, were created by the accumulation of alluvial deposits and also by the work of man. The relief is quite low despite the creation of mounds allowing local protection from flooding.[6] In the land around the city there are clay, silt, sand, and limestone present.[6] Hydrography[edit]

Bridges on the Grand Rhône.

The Pont d'Avignon
Pont d'Avignon
on the Petit Rhône. In the background is Mont Ventoux.

The Rhone passes the western edge of the city but is divided into two branches: the Petit Rhône, or "dead arm", for the part that passes next to Avignon
and the Grand Rhône, or "live arm", for the western channel which passes Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
in the Gard
department. The two branches are separated by an island, the Île de la Barthelasse. The southernmost tip of the Île de la Barthelasse once formed of a separated island, the L'Île de Piot.[8] The banks of the Rhone and the Île de la Barthelasse are often subject to flooding during autumn and March. The publication Floods in France
since the 6th century until today – research and documentation[9] by Maurice Champion tells about a number of them (until 1862, the flood of 1856 was one of the largest, which destroyed part of the walls). They have never really stopped as shown by the floods in 1943–1944[10] and again on 23 January 1955[11] and remain important today – such as the floods of 2 December 2003.[12] As a result, a new risk mapping has been developed. The Durance
flows along the southern boundary of the commune into the Rhone and marks the departmental boundary with Bouches-du-Rhône.[13] It is a river that is considered "capricious" and once feared for its floods (it was once called the "3rd scourge of Provence"[a] as well as for its low water: the Durance
has both Alpine and Mediterranean morphology which is unusual. There are many natural and artificial water lakes in the commune such as the Lake of Saint-Chamand east of the city. Artificial diversions[edit]

A mill on the Vaucluse
Canal in the Pont des 2 eaux district

There have been many diversions[14] throughout the course of history, such as feeding the moat surrounding Avignon
or irrigating crops. In the 10th century part of the waters from the Sorgue
d'Entraigues were diverted and today pass under the ramparts to enter the city. (See Sorgue). This watercourse is called the Vaucluse
Canal but Avignon
people still call it the Sorgue
or Sorguette. It is visible in the city in the famous Rue des teinturiers (street of dyers). It fed the moat around the first ramparts then fed the moat on the newer eastern city walls (14th century).[citation needed] In the 13th century (under an Act signed in 1229) part of the waters of the Durance
were diverted to increase the water available for the moats starting from Bonpas. This river was later called the Durançole.[citation needed] The Durançole fed the western moats of the city and was also used to irrigate crops at Montfavet. In the city these streams are often hidden beneath the streets and houses and are currently used to collect sewerage.[citation needed] The Hospital Canal (joining the Durançole) and the Crillon Canal (1775) were dug to irrigate the territories of Montfavet, Pontet, and Vedène.[citation needed] They were divided into numerous "fioles" or "filioles" (in Provençal filhòlas or fiolo). Similarly, to irrigate the gardens of the wealthy south of Avignon, the Puy Canal was dug (1808). All of these canals took their water from the Durance. These canals were initially used to flood the land, which was very stony, to fertilize them by deposition of silt.[citation needed] All of these canals have been used to operate many mills. Seismicity[edit]

The leaning bell tower of the Church of the Augustinians.

Under the new seismic zoning of France
defined in Decree No. 2010-1255 of 22 October 2010 concerning the delimitation of the seismicity of the French territory and which entered into force on 1 May 2011, Avignon
is located in an area of moderate seismicity. The previous zoning is shown below for reference. "The cantons of Bonnieux, Apt, Cadenet, Cavaillon, and Pertuis
are classified in zone Ib (low risk). All other cantons the Vaucluse department, including Avignon, are classified Ia (very low risk). This zoning is for exceptional seismicity resulting in the destruction of buildings.".[15] The presence of faults in the limestone substrate shows that significant tectonic shift has caused earthquakes in different geological ages. The last major earthquake of significant magnitude was on 11 June 1909.[b] It left a visible trace in the centre of the city since the bell tower of the Augustinians, which is surmounted by an ancient campanile of wrought iron, located in Rue Carreterie, remained slightly leaning as a result of this earthquake. Main article: 1909 Provence
earthquake Climate[edit] Avignon
has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification), with mild-cool winters and hot summers, with moderate rainfall year-round. July and August are the hottest months with average daily maximum temperatures of around 28 °C, and January and February the coldest with average daily maximum temperatures of around 9 °C. The wettest month is September, with a rain average of 102 millimetres, and the driest month is July, when the monthly average rainfall is 37 millimetres. The city is often subject to windy weather; the strongest wind is the mistral. A medieval Latin proverb said of the city: Avenie ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento fastidiosa (Windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, wind-pestered when there is).[16]

Climate data for Avignon
(1981–2010 averages, extremes 1958–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.9 (69.6) 22.3 (72.1) 26.5 (79.7) 31.1 (88) 34.1 (93.4) 37.7 (99.9) 39.7 (103.5) 40.5 (104.9) 35.3 (95.5) 30.8 (87.4) 24.3 (75.7) 21.0 (69.8) 40.5 (104.9)

Average high °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 11.8 (53.2) 15.6 (60.1) 18.6 (65.5) 23.1 (73.6) 27.3 (81.1) 30.7 (87.3) 30.0 (86) 25.3 (77.5) 20.2 (68.4) 14.0 (57.2) 10.5 (50.9) 19.8 (67.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9 (42.6) 7.1 (44.8) 10.3 (50.5) 13.1 (55.6) 17.3 (63.1) 21.2 (70.2) 24.2 (75.6) 23.7 (74.7) 19.6 (67.3) 15.4 (59.7) 9.9 (49.8) 6.6 (43.9) 14.6 (58.3)

Average low °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 2.3 (36.1) 5.1 (41.2) 7.5 (45.5) 11.4 (52.5) 15.2 (59.4) 17.8 (64) 17.3 (63.1) 14.0 (57.2) 10.5 (50.9) 5.8 (42.4) 2.7 (36.9) 9.3 (48.7)

Record low °C (°F) −13 (9) −14 (7) −9.5 (14.9) −2.2 (28) 1.3 (34.3) 4.4 (39.9) 8.6 (47.5) 8.0 (46.4) 3.9 (39) −2.2 (28) −7.4 (18.7) −14 (7) −14 (7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.7 (1.917) 37.6 (1.48) 38.6 (1.52) 66.1 (2.602) 62.5 (2.461) 41.0 (1.614) 26.6 (1.047) 45.8 (1.803) 97.6 (3.843) 91.4 (3.598) 71.1 (2.799) 49.0 (1.929) 676.0 (26.614)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.4 4.8 4.4 7.1 6.5 4.3 2.4 3.3 5.3 7.2 6.7 5.6 62.9

Source: Météo France[17]

According to Météo- France
the number of days per year with rain above 2.5 litres per square metre is 45 and the amount of water, rain and snow combined is 660 litres per square metre. Average temperatures vary between 0 and 30 °C depending on the season. The record temperature record since the existence of the weather station at Orange is 40.7 °C on 26 July 1983 and the record lowest was −14.5 °C on 2 February 1956.[18] The mistral[edit] The prevailing wind is the mistral for which the windspeed can be beyond 110 km/h. It blows between 120 and 160 days per year with an average speed of 90 km/h in gusts.[19] The following table shows the different speeds of the mistral recorded by Orange and Carpentras
Serres stations in the southern Rhone valley and its frequency in 2006. Normal corresponds to the average of the last 53 years from Orange weather reports and that of the last 42 at Carpentras.[20] Legend: "=" same as normal; "+" Higher than normal; "-" Lower than normal.

Speed of Mistral winds

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Maximum recorded speed by month 106 km/h 127 km/h 119 km/h 97 km/h 94 km/h 144 km/h 90 km/h 90 km/h 90 km/h 87 km/h 91 km/h 118 km/h

Tendency: Days with speed > 16 m/s (58 km/h) -- +++ --- ++++ ++++ = = ++++ + --- = ++

Demographics[edit] In 2010, the commune had 89,683 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change (See database)

1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851

24,000 21,412 23,789 29,407 29,889 31,786 33,844 35,169 35,890

1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896

37,077 36,081 36,427 38,196 38,008 37,657 41,007 43,453 45,107

1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954

46,896 48,312 49,304 48,177 51,685 57,228 59,472 60,053 62,768

1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -

72,717 86,096 90,786 89,132 86,939 85,935 90,800 89,683 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Administration[edit] Avignon
is the prefecture (capital) of Vaucluse
department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur
region. It forms the core of the Grand Avignon
metropolitan area (communauté d'agglomération), which comprises 15 communes on both sides of the river:[21]

Les Angles, Pujaut, Rochefort-du-Gard, Sauveterre, Saze
and Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
in the Gard
département; Avignon, Caumont-sur-Durance, Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue, Jonquerettes, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon, Vedène
and Velleron
in the Vaucluse

List of Mayors[edit] List of Successive Mayors[22]

Mayors from the French Revolution
French Revolution
to 1940

From To Name

1790 1790 Jean-Baptiste d'Armand

1790 1791 Antoine Agricol Richard

1791 1792 Levieux-Laverne

1792 1793 Jean-Ettienne Duprat

1793 1793 Jean-André Cartoux

1793 1793 Jean-François ROCHETIN

1795 1795 Guillaume François Ignace Puy

1795 1796 Alexis Bruny

1796 1796 Père Minvielle

1796 1797 Faulcon

1797 1798 Père Minvielle

1798 1799 Cadet Garrigan

1799 1800 Père Niel

1800 1806 Guillaume François Ignace PUY

1806 1811 Agricol Joseph Xavier Bertrand

1811 1815 Guillaume François Ignace Puy

1815 1815 Hippolyte Roque de Saint-Pregnan

1815 1819 Charles de Camis-Lezan

1819 1820 Louis Duplessis de Pouzilhac

1820 1826 Charles Soullier

1826 1830 Louis Pertuis
de Montfaucon

1830 1832 François Jillian

1832 1833 Balthazar Delorme

1834 1837 Hippolyte Roque de Saint-Pregnan

1837 1841 Dominique Geoffroy

1841 1843 Albert d'Olivier de Pezet

1843 1847 Eugène Poncet

1847 1848 Hyacinthe Chauffard

1848 1848 Alphonse Gent

1848 1848 Frédéric Granier

1848 1850 Gabriel Vinay

1850 1852 Martial BOSSE

1852 1853 Eugène Poncet

1853 1865 Paul Pamard

1865 1870 Paul Poncet

1870 1871 Paul Bourges

1871 1874 Paul Poncet

1874 1878 Roger du Demaine

1878 1881 Paul Poncet

1881 1881 Eugène Millo

1881 1884 Charles Deville

1884 1888 Paul Poncet

1888 1903 Gaston Pourquery de Boisserin

1903 1904 Alexandre Dibon

1904 1910 Henri Guigou

1910 1919 Louis Valayer

1919 1925 Ferdinand Bec

1925 1928 Louis Gros

1929 1940 Louis Nouveau

Mayors from 1940

From To Name Party Position

1940 1942 Jean Gauger

1942 1944 Edmond Pailheret

1944 1945 Louis Gros

1945 1947 Georges Pons

1947 1948 Paul Rouvier

1948 1950 Henri Mazo

1950 1953 Noël Hermitte

1953 1958 Edouard Daladier

1958 1983 Henri Duffaut PS

1983 1989 Jean-Pierre Roux RPR

1989 1995 Guy Ravier PS

1995 2014 Marie-José ROIG UMP

2014 2020 Cécile HELLE PS

(Not all data is known) Twinning[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Avignon
has twinning associations with:[23]

(United Kingdom) since 1972.[24] Guanajuato
(Mexico) since 1990. Ioanina
(Greece) since 1984. New Haven
New Haven
(Connecticut, USA) since 1993. Siena
(Italy) since 1981. Tarragona
(Spain) since 1968. Wetzlar
(Germany) since 1960.

Evolution of the borders of the commune[edit] Avignon
absorbed Montfavet
between 1790 and 1794 then ceded Morières-lès-Avignon
in 1870 and Le Pontet in 1925.[25] On 16 May 2007 the commune of Les Angles in Gard
ceded 13 hectares to Avignon.[26] Area and population[edit] The city of Avignon
has an area of 64.78 km2 and a population of 92,078 inhabitants in 2010 and is ranked as follows:[26]

Rank Land Area Population Density

France 524th 46th 632nd

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur 105th 5th 23rd

Vaucluse 6th 1st 2nd

Economy[edit] Avignon
is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vaucluse
which manages the Avignon
– Caumont Airport and the Avignon-Le Pontet Docks. Avignon
has 7,000 businesses, 1,550 associations, 1,764 shops, and 1,305 service providers.[27] The urban area has one of the largest catchment areas in Europe with more than 300,000 square metres of retail space and 469 m2 per thousand population against 270 on average in France.[28] The commercial area of Avignon
Nord is one of the largest in Europe.[29] The tertiary sector is the most dynamic in the department by far on the basis of the significant production of early fruit and vegetables in Vaucluse, The MIN (Market of National Importance) has become the pivotal hub of commercial activity in the department, taking precedence over other local markets (including that of Carpentras). A Sensitive urban zone was created for companies wanting to relocate with exemptions from tax and social issues.[30] It is located south of Avignon
between the city walls and the Durance
located in the districts of Croix Rouge, Monclar, Saint-Chamand, and La Rocade.[31] Areas of economic activity[edit] There are nine main areas of economic activity in Avignon.[32] The Courtine area is the largest with nearly 300 businesses (of which roughly half are service establishments, one third are shops, and the rest related to industry) and more than 3,600 jobs.[32] The site covers an area of 300 hectares and is located south-west of the city at the TGV railway station. Then comes the Fontcouverte area with a hundred establishments representing a thousand jobs. It is, however, more oriented towards shops than the Courtine area.[32] The MIN area of Avignon
is the Agroparc area[c] (or "Technopole Agroparc"). The Cristole area is contiguous and both have a little less than a hundred establishments.[32] Finally, the areas of Castelette, Croix de Noves, Realpanier, and the airport each have fewer than 25 establishments spread between service activities and shops. The area of the Castelette alone represents more than 600 jobs – i.e. 100 more than Cristole.[32] Tourism[edit] Four million visitors come annually to visit the city and the region and also for its festival.[27] In 2011 the most popular tourist attraction was the Palais des Papes
Palais des Papes
with 572,972 paying visitors.[33] The annual Festival d'Avignon
Festival d'Avignon
is the most important cultural event in the city. The official festival attracted 135,800 people in 2012.[33]

A cruise boat at the quay at Avignon.

River tourism began in 1994 with three river boat-hotels.[citation needed] In 2011 there is a fleet of 21 river boat-hotelsbuildings, including six sight-seeing boats which are anchored on the quay along the Oulle walkways. In addition a free shuttle boat connects Avignon to the Île de la Barthelasse and, since 1987, a harbor master has managed all river traffic. Agriculture[edit]

Fruit and Vegetables at the Markets of Avignon

The city is the headquarters of the International Association of the Mediterranean tomato, the World Council of the tomato industry, and the Inter- Rhône
organisation. Industry[edit] Only EDF (Grand Delta) with about 850 employees and Onet Propreté[d] with just over 300 exceed 100 employees.[34] Public sector (excluding government)[edit] The Henri Duffaut hospital, the City of Avignon, and the CHS of Montfavet
are the largest employers in the town with about 2,000 employees each. Then comes the General Council of Vaucluse
with about 1,300 employees.[34] Employment[edit] In 2011 the unemployment rate was 15.6% while it was 13.7% in 2006.[35] There are 39,100 people in the Avignon
workforce: 78 (0.2%) agricultural workers, 2,191 (5.6%) tradesmen, shopkeepers, and business managers, 4,945 (12.6%) managers and intellectuals, 8,875 (22.6%) middle managers, 12,257 (31.3%) employees, and 9,603 (24.6%) workers.[35] Transport[edit] Roads[edit] Avignon
is close to two highways:

the A7 autoroute
A7 autoroute
(E714) is a north-south axis on which there are two exits:  23  Avignon-Nord (Northern districts of Avignon, Le Pontet, Carpentras) and  24  Avignon-Sud (Southern districts of Avignon, Avignon-Caumont Airport); the A9 autoroute
A9 autoroute
(E15) which branches from the A7 near Orange along a north-east south-west axis towards Spain.

The main roads are:

Route nationale
Route nationale
N100 which goes west to Remoulins The D225 which goes north towards Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue The D62 which goes north-east to Vedène The D28 which goes east to Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon The D901 which goes south-east to Morières-lès-Avignon Route nationale
Route nationale
N570 which goes south to Rognonas

The city has nine paid parking buildings with a total of 7,100 parking spaces, parking buildings under surveillance with a capacity for 2,050 cars with a free shuttle to the city centre, as well as five other free parking areas with a capacity of 900 cars.[36] Railways[edit] Avignon
is served by two railway stations: the historic train station built in 1860, the Gare d'Avignon-Centre, located just outside the city walls, which can accommodate any type of train and, since 2001, the Gare d'Avignon TGV
Gare d'Avignon TGV
in the "Courtine" district south of the city, on the LGV Méditerranée
LGV Méditerranée
line. Since December 2013 the two stations have been connected by a link line – the Virgule. The Montfavet district, which was formerly a separate commune, also has a station.[37] Airports[edit] The Avignon - Caumont Airport
Avignon - Caumont Airport
on the south-eastern commune border has several international routes to England. The major airport in the region with domestic and international scheduled passenger service is the Marseille
Airport. Water transport[edit]

A Water taxi departing from its berth

The Rhône
has for many centuries been an important means of transportation for the city. River traffic in Avignon
has two commercial ports, docking stations for boat cruises, and various riverfront developments. A free shuttle boat has been established between the quay near the ramparts and the opposite bank (the île de la Barthelasse).

A vélopop cycle station next to the city walls

Public transport[edit] The Transports en Commun de la Région d'Avignon, also known by the acronym TCRA, is the public transport network for the commune of Avignon.[38] Two tram lines are projected to open in 2016 with works expected to begin in late 2013.[39] Bicycles[edit] Avignon
has 110 km (68 mi) of bicycle paths.[27] In 2009 the TCRA introduced a bicycle sharing system called the Vélopop'.[40] Cultural heritage[edit] Avignon
has a very large number of sites and buildings (173) that are registered as historical monuments.[41]

Rue de la République, the city's central boulevard

In the part of the city within the walls the buildings are old but in most areas they have been restored or reconstructed (such as the post office and the Lycée Frédéric Mistral).[42] The buildings along the main street, Rue de la République, date from the Second Empire (1852–70) with Haussmann façades and amenities around Place de l'Horloge (the central square), the neoclassical city hall, and the theatre district.

Statues gaze over the Place de l'Horloge in the town centre

Paintings on the façades of buildings in the town centre

Clock Tower landscape photo

Listed below are the major sites of interest with those sites registered as historical monuments indicated:

Notre Dame des Doms
Notre Dame des Doms
(12th century),[43] the cathedral, is a Romanesque building, mainly built during the 12th century; the most prominent feature of the cathedral is the 19th century gilded statue of the Virgin which surmounts the western tower. The mausoleum of Pope John XXII (1334)[44] is one of the most beautiful works within the cathedral, and is a noteworthy example of 14th-century Gothic carving. Palais des Papes
Palais des Papes
("Papal Palace") (14th century)[45] almost dwarfs the cathedral. The palace is an impressive monument and sits within a square of the same name. The palace was begun in 1316 by John XXII
and continued by succeeding popes through the 14th century, until 1370 when it was finished. Minor churches of the town include, among others, three churches which were built in the Gothic architectural style:

Church of Saint-Pierre (1840)[46] which has a graceful façade and richly carved doors; Church of Saint-Didier (14th century);[47] and Church of Saint-Agricol (14th century).[48]

Civic buildings are represented most notably by:

the Hôtel de Ville (city hall) (1846),[49] a relatively modern building with a bell tower from the 14th century, the old Hôtel des Monnaies,[50] the papal mint which was built in 1610 and became a music-school.

The Ramparts,[51] built by the popes in the 14th century and still encircle Avignon. They are one of the finest examples of medieval fortification in existence. The walls are of great strength and are surmounted by machicolated battlements flanked at intervals by 39 massive towers and pierced by several gateways, three of which date from the 14th century. The walls were restored under the direction of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc Bridges include:

a little bridge which leads over the river to Villeneuve-les-Avignon Pont d'Avignon
Pont d'Avignon
(the Pont Saint-Bénézet). Only four of the twenty one piers are left; on one of them stands the small Romanesque chapel of Saint-Bénézet.[52] But the bridge is best known for the famous French song Sur le pont d'Avignon.

Calvet Museum, so named after Esprit Calvet, a physician who in 1810 left his collections to the town. It has a large collection of paintings, metalwork and other objects. The library has over 140,000 volumes.[53] The town has a Statue of Jean Althen, who migrated from Persia
and in 1765 introduced the culture of the madder plant, which long formed the staple—and is still an important tool—of the local cloth trade in the area. Musée du Petit Palais (opened 1976) at the end of the square overlooked by the Palais des Papes, has an exceptional collection of Renaissance paintings of the Avignon
school as well as from Italy, which reunites many "primitives" from the collection of Giampietro Campana. The Hotel d'Europe, one of the oldest hotels in France, in business since 1799. The Collection Lambert, houses contemporary art exhibitions The Musée Angladon exhibits the paintings of a private collector who created the museum Musée Lapidaire, with collections of archaeological and medieval sculptures from the Fondation Calvet
Fondation Calvet
in the old chapel of the Jesuit College. Musée Louis-Vouland Musée Requien Palais du Roure[54] Les Halles is a large indoor market that offers fresh produce, meats, and fish along with a variety of other goods. The Place Pie is a small square near Place de l'Horloge where you can partake in an afternoon coffee on the outdoor terraces or enjoy a night on the town later in the evening as the square fills with young people.

Religious historical objects[edit] The commune houses an extremely large number of religious items which are listed as historical objects. To see a comprehensive list of objects in each location click on the numbers in the table below: Locations of Historical Objects

Location No. of Objects

Cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms 268 objects

Chapel of the Oratory 1 object

Chapel of the White penitents 5 objects

Chapel of the Grey penitents 3 objects

Chapel of the Black penitents 9 objects

Chapel of the Grand Seminary 1 object

College of Saint-Joseph 3 objects

Hospice of Saint-Louis 1 object

Hospital Sainte-Marthe 26 objects

Hotel of Saint-Priest d'Urgel (Hotel de Monery) 27 objects

House of King René 1 object

Calvet Museum 3 objects

Arch-episcopal Palace 1 object

Palais des Papes 3 objects

Synagogue 4 objects

Church of Saint-Agricol 43 objects

Church of Saint-Didier 21 objects

Church of Saint-Pierre 23 objects

Church of Saint-Symphorien 12 objects

Church of Montfavet 4 objects

Total Objects 459

Picture gallery[edit]

View of the Palais des papes from the square on the western side.

The Abbey of Saint-Ruf.

The Pont d'Avignon
Pont d'Avignon
famous from the song Sur le Pont d'Avignon.

The Pont Saint-Bénézet, illuminated at night.

The Ramparts of Avignon.

The Hôtel des Monnaies.

Culture[edit] Avignon
Festival[edit] A famous theatre festival is held annually in Avignon. Founded in 1947, the Avignon Festival
Avignon Festival
comprises traditional theatrical events as well as other art forms such as dance, music, and cinema, making good use of the town's historical monuments. Every summer approximately 100,000 people attend the festival.[55] There are really two festivals that take place: the more formal "Festival In", which presents plays inside the Palace of the Popes and the more bohemian "Festival Off", which is known for its presentation of largely undiscovered plays and street performances. The International Congress Centre[edit] The Centre was created in 1976 within the premises of the Palace of the Popes and hosts many events throughout the entire year. The Congress Centre, designed for conventions, seminars, and meetings for 10 to 550 persons, now occupies two wings of the Popes' Palace.[56] "Sur le Pont d'Avignon"[edit]

View over the Rhône
looking northeast, with the Pont Saint-Bénézet or "Pont d'Avignon" at left

is commemorated by the French song, "Sur le Pont d'Avignon" ("On the bridge of Avignon"), which describes folk dancing. The song dates from the mid-19th century when Adolphe Adam
Adolphe Adam
included it in the Opéra comique
Opéra comique
Le Sourd ou l'Auberge Pleine which was first performed in Paris
in 1853. The opera was an adaptation of the 1790 comedy by Desforges.[57] The bridge of the song is the Saint-Bénézet bridge over the Rhône of which only four arches (out of the initial 22) now remain. A bridge across the Rhone was built between 1171 and 1185, with a length of some 900 m (2950 ft), but was destroyed during the siege of Avignon
by Louis VIII of France
in 1226. It was rebuilt but suffered frequent collapses during floods and had to be continually repaired. Several arches were already missing (and spanned by wooden sections) before the remainder was abandoned in 1669.[58] Sport[edit] Sporting Olympique Avignon
Sporting Olympique Avignon
is the local rugby league football team. During the 20th century it produced a number of French international representative players. AC Arles-Avignon
AC Arles-Avignon
is a professional association football team. They compete in Ligue 2, having gained promotion from Ligue 3 in June 2009. After a season 2010–2011 competing in Ligue 1, the Arles-Avignon team came back in Ligue 2. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000. Nuclear pollution[edit] On 8 July 2008 waste containing unenriched uranium leaked into two rivers from a nuclear plant in southern France. Some 30,000 litres (7,925 gallons) of solution containing 12g of uranium per litre spilled from an overflowing reservoir at the facility – which handles liquids contaminated by uranium – into the ground and into the Gaffiere and Lauzon rivers. The authorities kept this a secret from the public for 12 hours then issued a statement prohibiting swimming and fishing in the Gaffiere and Lauzon rivers.[59] Education[edit] The schools within the commune of Avignon
are administered by the Académie d'Aix-Marseille. There are 26 state nursery schools (Écoles maternelles) for children up to 6, and 32 state primary schools (Écoles élémentaires) up to 11. There are also 4 private schools.[60] University of Avignon[edit] See also: Medieval university
Medieval university
and List of medieval universities

Entrance to the main university building. This 18th century portico was once the entrance to the Hôpital Sainte-Marthe.

University before the Revolution[edit] The medieval University of Avignon, formed from the existing schools of the city, was formally constituted in 1303 by Boniface VIII
Boniface VIII
in a Papal Bull. Boniface VIII
Boniface VIII
and King Charles II of Naples
Charles II of Naples
were the first great protectors and benefactors to the university. The Law department was the most important department covering both civil and ecclesiastical law. The law department existed nearly exclusively for some time after the university's formation and remained its most important department throughout its existence.[61] In 1413 Antipope John XXIII
Antipope John XXIII
founded the University's department of theology, which for quite some time had only a few students. It was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that the school developed a department of medicine. The Bishop of Avignon
Bishop of Avignon
was chancellor of the university from 1303 to 1475. After 1475 the bishop became an Archbishop but remained chancellor of the university. The papal vice-legate, generally a bishop, represented the civil power (in this case the pope) and was chiefly a judicial officer who ranked higher than the Primicerius (Rector).[61] The Primicerius was elected by the Doctors of Law. In 1503 the Doctors of Law had 4 Theologians and in 1784 two Doctors of Medicine added to their ranks. Since the Pope was the spiritual head and, after 1348, the temporal ruler of Avignon, he was able to have a great deal of influence in all university affairs. In 1413 John XXIII granted the university extensive special privileges, such as university jurisdiction and tax exempt status. Political, geographical, and educational circumstances in the latter part of the university's existence caused it to seek favour from Paris
rather than Rome for protection. During the chaos of the French Revolution
French Revolution
the university started to gradually disappear and, in 1792, the university was abandoned and closed.[61] Modern university[edit] A university annex of the Faculté des Sciences d'Aix- Marseille
was opened in Avignon
in 1963. Over the next 20 years various changes were made to the provision of tertiary education in the town until finally in 1984 the Université d' Avignon
et des Pays de Vaucluse
was created. This was nearly 200 years after the demise of the original Avignon university.[62] The main campus lies to the east of the city centre within the city ramparts. The university occupies the 18th century buildings of the Hôpital Sainte-Marthe. The main building has an elegant façade with a central portico. The right hand side was designed by Jean-Baptiste Franque and built between 1743 and 1745. Franque was assisted by his son François in the design of the portico. The hospital moved out in the 1980s and, after major works, the building opened for students in 1997.[63][64] In 2009–2010 there were 7,125 students registered at the university.[65] People who were born or died in Avignon[edit]

Trophime Bigot, French painter, died in Avignon, 1650.[66] Jean Alesi, racing car driver, born in Avignon, 1964 Henri Bosco, writer, born in Avignon, 1888.[67] Pierre Boulle, author of The Bridge over the River Kwai
The Bridge over the River Kwai
and Planet of the Apes, born in Avignon, 1912 Alexandre de Rhodes
Alexandre de Rhodes
(1591–1664), Jesuit
missionary, born in Avignon.[68] Pierre-Esprit Radisson, fur trader and explorer, born in Avignon, 1636 or 1640 Bernard Kouchner, politician, born in Avignon, 1936 Mireille Mathieu, singer, born in Avignon, 1946 Olivier Messiaen, composer, born in Avignon, 1908 Joseph Vernet, painter, born in Avignon, 1714.[69] John Stuart Mill, liberal philosopher, died at Avignon
in 1873 and is buried in the cemetery.[70] Dorothea von Rodde-Schlözer, artist and scholar, died in Avignon
in 1825 Michel Trinquier, painter, born in Avignon, 1930 René Girard, historian, literary critic, philosopher, and author, born in Avignon, 1923 Daniel Arsand, writer and publisher, born in Avignon, 1950 Vincent Almendros, writer, winner of the 2015 prix Françoise Sagan, born in Avignon, 1978 Cédric Carrasso, footballer, born in Avignon, 1981

See also[edit]

Avenir Club Avignonnais, a French association football team Battle of Avignon (737) Councils of Avignon, councils of the Roman Catholic Church Pont Saint-Bénézet
Pont Saint-Bénézet
(bridge at Avignon)


^ Provençal tradition says that the first two were the mistral and the Parliament of Aix ^ The épicentre was at Lambesc – a village in Bouches-du-Rhône. ^ This area has had the INRA Centre which carries out scientific research in engineering environmental management for cultivated land and forests since 1953. ^ Cleaning company.


^ Avignon
in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom Archived 10 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (in French) ^ a b c Rostaing 1994, p. 30. ^ a b Dauzat & Rostaing 1963, p. 1689. ^ Robert Bourret, French- Occitan
Dictionary, Éd. Lacour, Nîmes, 1999, p. 59. (in French) ^ Xavier de Fourvière & Rupert 1902, p. 62. ^ a b c d e Relief and Geology of the Avignon
sector, Agence Rosier website (archived) (in French) ^ Avignon
Encyclopedia Universalis website (in French) ^ "Cassini map circa 1750: Avignon". David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. Retrieved 31 July 2014.  ^ Champion 1862. ^ Floods in Avignon, Institut national de l'audiovisuel video document, consulted on 19 July 2014 (in French) ^ Floods in Paris
and Avignon, 23 January 1955, Institut national de l'audiovisuel video document JT 20h, ORTF, consulted on 19 July 2014 (in French) ^ Floods on 2 December 2003, Institut national de l'audiovisuel video document (in French) ^ Watercourses: The Èze River (X31-0400), Sandre database (in French) ^ The Street of Dyers – Avignon, avignon-et-provence.com website, consulted on 19 July 2014 ^ Regulatory Seismic Zoning of France, classed by cantons (as at the end of 1989) in the PACA rehion, p. 48. (in French) ^ Mistral 1979, p. 196. ^ "Avignon–INRA (84)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.  ^ Infoclimat weather station at Orange (in French) ^ Jean Vialar, Regional and local winds, 1948; reprinted by Météo- France
in 2003. (in French) ^ Source: Inter Rhône
technical services at Avignon
Metereological data from 2006 Archived 13 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (in French) ^ "Les communes". Communauté d'Agglomération du Grand Avignon. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ List of Mayors of France
(in French) ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (in French) ^ Francis, Valerie. "Twin Town News – Colchester, Avignon, Imola and Wetzlar" (PDF). The Colchester
Twinning Society. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Avignon". École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS). Retrieved 26 July 2014. . ^ a b Avignon, Town Hall Annual, consulted on 10 September 2010 (in French) ^ a b c "Contexte économique: Carte d'identité d'Avignon" (in French). Le Marie, Avignon.  ^ A wall of commercial areas, journal le Ravi, November 2008 (in French) ^ It is the zone, article in the Provençal magazine le Ravi, September 2011 ^ The exemptions in the Sensitive urban zone of Avignon
(in French) ^ Maps and plans of the Sensitive urban zone of Avignon, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vaucluse, consulted on 19 October 2011 (in French) ^ a b c d e Principal areas of activity in the department, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vaucluse, consulted on 19 October 2011 (in French) ^ a b Joly, Sylvie. " Avignon
2013: Dossier de Presse" (PDF) (in French). Office de Tourisme, Avignon. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.  ^ a b South INSEE the highest 10, October 1998, INSEE, consulted on 18 October 2011 (in French) ^ a b Key Employment data, INSEE ^ "Transport: Parking" (in French). La Marie d'Avignon. Retrieved 26 July 2014.  ^ "Transport: Le train". La Marie d'Avignon. Retrieved 26 July 2014.  ^ "TCRA Transports en Commun Région d'Avignon: Page d'accueil". Transports en Commun de la Région d'Avignon. Retrieved 26 July 2014.  ^ "Le tramway: Un projet optimisé pour 2016". Communauté d'Agglomération du Grand Avignon. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Vélopop" (in French). Transports en Commun de la Région d'Avignon. Retrieved 26 July 2014.  ^ "Search for "Avignon" in Mérimée database" (in French). Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Retrieved 26 July 2014.  ^ "L'extension du XXe siècle" (in French). Archives Municipales Avignon. Retrieved 26 July 2014.  ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081814 Notre Dame des Doms
Notre Dame des Doms
(in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM84000105 Tomb of Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
(in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081941 Palais des Papes
Palais des Papes
(in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081834 Church of Saint-Pierre (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081832 Church of Saint-Didier (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081831 Church of Saint-Agricol (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081880 Hôtel de Ville (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081864 Hôtel des Monnaies (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081943 Ramparts (in French) ^ Vella et al. 2013. ^ Vingtain & Aujard-Catot 2001, pp. 84–87. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081942 Palais du Roure (in French) ^ "Festival 2014". Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ "Popes' Palace". Palais-des-papes.com. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.  ^ Anonymous (6 February 1853), "Théatre Impérial de l'Opéra-Comique, Le Sourd ou l'Auberge pleine: Comédie en trois actes de Desforges, mélée de musique par Ad. Adam", Revue et gazette musicale de Paris: journal des artistes, des amateurs et des théâtres (in French), Paris, 20 (6): 42 . ^ Rouquette 1974, pp. 219–229. ^ "Europe, Warning over French uranium leak". BBC News. 9 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ "Liste des écoles maternelles et primaires". Le Marie d'Avignon. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ a b c Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "University of Avignon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Présentation: Histoire". Université d' Avignon
et des Pays de Vaucluse. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ Vingtain & Aujard-Catot 2001, pp. 123–124. ^ Girard 1958, pp. 306–307. ^ "Présentation: Chiffres clés". Université d' Avignon
et des Pays de Vaucluse. Retrieved 5 April 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ Boyer 1988, p. 356. ^ Vitaglione 2000, p. 63. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Alexandre De Rhodes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Claude-Joseph Vernet". National Gallery, London. Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ Girard 1958, p. 356.


Boyer, Jean (1988). "The one and only Trophime Bigot". The Burlington Magazine. 130 (1022): 355–357. JSTOR 883417.  Champion, Maurice (1862). Les inondations en France
depuis le VIe siècle jusqu'a nos jours (Volume 4) (in French). Paris: V. Dalmont.  Dauzat, Albert; Rostaing, Charles (1963). Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieux en France
(in French). Paris: Larousse.  Girard, Joseph (1958). Évocation du Vieil Avignon
(in French). Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit. OCLC 5391399.  Mistral, Frédéric (1979) [1879]. Lou Trésor dou Félibrige ou Dictionnaire provençal-français (Volume 1: A-F ) (in French and Provencal). Raphèle-lès-Arles: M. Petit. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Rouquette, Jean-Maurice (1974). Provence
Romane: La Provence Rhodanienne (in French, English, and German). Paris: Zodiaque. OCLC 1036957.  Rostaing, Charles (1994) [1950]. Essai sur la toponymie de la Provence : depuis les origines jusqu'aux invasions barbares (in French). Marseille: Jeanne Laffitte. ISBN 978-273480676-9.  Vella, Marc-Antoine; et al. (2013). "Géoarchéologie du Rhône
dans le secteur du pont Saint-Bénézet (Avignon, Provence, France) au cours de la seconde moitié du deuxième millénaire apr. J.-C. : étude croisée de géographie historique et des paléoenvironnements" (PDF). Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement (in French and English). 3: 287–310. doi:10.4000/geomorphologie.10300.  Vingtain, Dominique; Aujard-Catot, Roland, eds. (2001). Avignon: Musées, Monuments, Promenades (in French). Paris: Éditions du patrimoine. ISBN 2-85822-555-9.  Vitaglione, Daniel (2000). The Literature of Provence: An Introduction. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 9780786408436.  Xavier de Fourvière, R.P.; Rupert, R.P. (1902). Lou pichot tresor, dictionnaire provençal-français et français-provençal. Avignon: Aubanel.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Avignon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Councils of Avignon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "University of Avignon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Avignon". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Avignon.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Avignon.

Tourist office website City council website Avignon
greater metropolitan area website (in French)

Places adjacent to Avignon

Villeneuve-les-Avignon Sauveterre Le Pontet

Les Angles



Barbentane Rognonas Caumont-sur-Durance

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World Heritage Sites in France


Palace and Park of Versailles Fontainebleau Palace and Park Paris: Banks of the Seine Provins

Parisian basin

Cathedral Belfries of Belgium and France1 Bourges
Cathedral Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars Chartres
Cathedral Climats and terroirs of Burgundy Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey of Saint-Remi, Palace of Tau Abbey of Fontenay Le Havre Vézelay Church and hill


Belfries of Belgium and France1 Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin


Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains
and Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3


Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay

South West

Episcopal city, Albi Port of the Moon, Bordeaux Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2 Saint-Émilion

Centre East

Chauvet Cave Lyon


Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles Carcassonne
citadel Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble, Avignon
Bridge Pont du Gard Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch

Multiple regions

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Canal du Midi Fortifications of Vauban Loire Valley
Loire Valley
between Sully-sur-Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire Routes of Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
in France

Overseas departments and territories

Lagoons of New Caledonia Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion Taputapuātea

1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium 2Shared with Spain 3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland

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Prefectures of departments of France

(Ain) Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
(Lot) Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
(Orne) Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
(Paris) Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
(Somme) Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
(Var) Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise

Overseas departments

(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
(Martinique) Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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Communes of the Vaucluse

Althen-des-Paluds Ansouis Apt Aubignan Aurel Auribeau Avignon Le Barroux La Bastide-des-Jourdans La Bastidonne Le Beaucet Beaumes-de-Venise Beaumettes Beaumont-de-Pertuis Beaumont-du-Ventoux Bédarrides Bédoin Blauvac Bollène Bonnieux Brantes Buisson Buoux Cabrières-d'Aigues Cabrières-d'Avignon Cadenet Caderousse Cairanne Camaret-sur-Aigues Caromb Carpentras Caseneuve Castellet Caumont-sur-Durance Cavaillon Châteauneuf-de-Gadagne Châteauneuf-du-Pape Cheval-Blanc Courthézon Crestet Crillon-le-Brave Cucuron Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue Entrechaux Faucon Flassan Fontaine-de-Vaucluse Gargas Gignac Gigondas Gordes Goult Grambois Grillon L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue Jonquerettes Jonquières Joucas Lacoste Lafare Lagarde-d'Apt Lagarde-Paréol Lagnes Lamotte-du-Rhône Lapalud Lauris Lioux Loriol-du-Comtat Lourmarin Malaucène Malemort-du-Comtat Maubec Mazan Ménerbes Mérindol Méthamis Mirabeau Modène Mondragon Monieux Monteux Morières-lès-Avignon Mormoiron Mornas La Motte-d'Aigues Murs Oppède Orange Pernes-les-Fontaines Pertuis Peypin-d'Aigues Piolenc Le Pontet Puget Puyméras Puyvert Rasteau Richerenches Roaix Robion La Roque-Alric La Roque-sur-Pernes Roussillon Rustrel Sablet Saignon Saint-Christol Saint-Didier Sainte-Cécile-les-Vignes Saint-Hippolyte-le-Graveyron Saint-Léger-du-Ventoux Saint-Marcellin-lès-Vaison Saint-Martin-de-Castillon Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque Saint-Pantaléon Saint-Pierre-de-Vassols Saint-Romain-en-Viennois Saint-Roman-de-Malegarde Saint-Saturnin-lès-Apt Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon Saint-Trinit Sannes Sarrians Sault Saumane-de-Vaucluse Savoillan Séguret Sérignan-du-Comtat Sivergues Sorgues Suzette Taillades Le Thor La Tour-d'Aigues Travaillan Uchaux Vacqueyras Vaison-la-Romaine Valréas Vaugines Vedène Velleron Venasque Viens Villars Villedieu Villelaure Villes-sur-Auzon Violès Visan Vitrolles-en-Lubéron

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Historical provinces of France

Alsace Angoumois Anjou Artois Aunis Auvergne Basse-Navarre Béarn Beaujolais Berry Bourbonnais Brittany Burgundy Champagne Corsica Dauphiné Flanders and Hainaut Foix Forez Franche-Comté Gascony Guyenne Île-de-France Languedoc Limousin Lorraine Lyonnais Maine Marche Montbéliard Mulhouse Nice Nivernais Normandy Orléanais Perche Picardy Poitou Provence Roussillon Saintonge Savoy Touraine Trois-Évêchés Venaissin

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159446858 LCCN: n80097464 GND: 4004019-7 SUDOC: 026359979 BNF: cb11862325