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Apple Maps
Apple Maps
is a web mapping service developed by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
It is the default map system of iOS, macOS, and watchOS. It provides directions and estimated times of arrival for automobile, pedestrian, and public transportation navigation. Apple Maps
Apple Maps
also features the Flyovers mode, a feature that enables a user to explore certain densely populated urban centers and other places of interest in a 3D landscape composed of models of buildings and structures. On September 19, 2012, Apple released its mapping service in iOS, replacing Google Maps
Google Maps
as the default mapping service for Apple operating systems. In the initial launch, it received large amounts of criticism from users and newspapers for incorrect directions, a lack of support for public transportation users and various other bugs and errors. Since its introduction, further software development has addressed many of those criticisms.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Initial release 1.2 2012–2015 1.3 2015–present 1.4 Vehicles

2 Features

2.1 Flyover and 3D maps 2.2 Nearby 2.3 Transit 2.4 Traffic information 2.5 Apple Maps
Apple Maps
Connect

3 Market share 4 Early inaccuracy

4.1 Apple's response 4.2 TomTom's response

5 Modern reception 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

Apple Maps
Apple Maps
was announced along with iOS 6, OS X Mountain Lion, and iCloud during the 2012 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
(WWDC) on June 11.

Initial release[edit] On June 11, 2012, during the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC), Apple announced the initial release of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
and revealed that the application would replace Google Maps
Google Maps
as the default web mapping service in iOS 6 and beyond. Apple also announced that the application would include turn-by-turn navigation, 3D maps, Flyovers, and the virtual assistant Siri. Furthermore, Apple stated that iPhone users would be able to navigate Apple Maps
Apple Maps
while in the locked screen.[1][2] The mapping service was released on September 19, 2012.[3] Following the launch, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
was heavily criticized, which resulted in a public apology by Apple CEO Tim Cook
Tim Cook
in late September and the departure of two key employees of Apple. (See also §Early inaccuracy)[3][4] Before Apple Maps
Apple Maps
launched as the default mapping application in iOS, Google Maps
Google Maps
held this position since the first generation iPhone release in 2007.[5] In late 2009, tensions between Google
Google
and Apple started to grow when the Android version of Google Maps
Google Maps
featured turn-by-turn navigation, a feature which the iOS version lacked. At the time, Apple argued that Google
Google
collected too much user data.[6] When Apple made iOS 6 available, Google Maps
Google Maps
could only be accessed by iOS 6 users via the web.[7] Although Google
Google
did not immediately launch a mapping application of its own, shortly after the announcement of Apple Maps, Google
Google
did add an equivalent of Apple Maps' Flyover feature to its virtual globe application Google
Google
Earth.[8] Three months later, in December 2012, Google Maps
Google Maps
was released in the App Store. This version of Google
Google
Maps, unlike the previous version, featured turn-by-turn navigation. Shortly after it was launched, Google
Google
Maps was the most popular free application in the App Store.[9] Speculation around Apple creating a mapping service of its own arose in 2009 after computer magazine Computerworld
Computerworld
reported that Apple had acquired the company Placebase, an online mapping service, in July of that year.[10] Since then, the CEO of Placebase became a part of Apple's "Geo Team".[11][12] In the following two years, Apple acquired two more mapping related companies who specialized in 3D maps: Poly9 in 2010 and C3 Technologies in 2011.[13][14] C3 Technologies' imagery was later used for the Flyovers feature in Apple Maps.[15] Earlier in 2011, Apple indicated its plan for a mapping service when it stated on its website that it was collecting location data to create "an improved traffic service in the next couple of years" for iPhone users.[16] In September 2012, when Apple Maps
Apple Maps
was released, a source connected to both Google
Google
and Apple Maps
Apple Maps
claimed to technology website TechCrunch
TechCrunch
that Apple was recruiting Google
Google
employees that worked on Google
Google
Maps.[17] 2012–2015[edit] In the first year after its release, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
received a number of improvements which solved various errors in the application.[18] Other changes included adding more satellite imagery and making the navigation available in more cities. In 2013, Apple also acquired a few companies to improve Apple Maps, namely HopStop, Embark, WifiSlam, and Locationary, as well as the team and the technology of the company BroadMap. HopStop and Embark
Embark
both specialized in mapping public transportation, WifiSlam specialized in interior maps, Locationary provided accurate company data for mapping services, and BroadMap managed, sorted, and analyzed map data.[19][20][21] During WWDC
WWDC
in June 2013, Apple announced the new version of Apple Maps in iOS 7. This new version had a new look and icon.[22] A number of new functions were also implemented, including full-screen mode, night mode, real-time traffic information, navigation for pedestrians, and the Frequent Locations feature. The latter feature, which can be switched on and off, was introduced to record the most frequently visited destinations by users in order to improve Apple Maps. In addition, new satellite imagery was added once again.[19][22] On September 18, 2013, Apple released iOS 7.[23] At that time, the new iPhone 5S included a new motion coprocessor, the M7, which can identify whether a user is walking or driving in order to adjust the navigation mode.[19] During that same conference, Apple announced that a desktop version of the application would be made available for OS X Mavericks.[24] On October 22, 2013, Apple released OS X Mavericks
OS X Mavericks
and the desktop version of Apple Maps. The desktop version was similar to that in iOS 7, but it connected with the Contacts and Calendar applications. Additionally, the desktop version enabled users to send locations and directions to other devices with iOS.[25] In June of the following year, Apple acquired the company Spotsetter, a social search engine that gave personalized recommendations for places to visit. Since the acquisition, most of its employees now work at Apple.[26] On September 17, 2014, the successor of iOS 7, iOS 8, became available. Later that year, on October, 16, Apple released OS X Yosemite.[27] Neither update brought any major modifications to Apple Maps. However, the feature "City Tours" was introduced to both iOS and OS X. This function made it possible for the user to be guided through locations with Flyovers.[28] Also, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
results were shown in the search feature Spotlight in OS X Yosemite.[29] Later in 2014, Apple news website 9to5Mac reported that in the previous months a number of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
employees, including a key employee, had left the company to work for Uber.[30] In the next year, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
was added to the operating system of the new Apple Watch, which was released on April 24, 2015.[31] The smartwatch version of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
features turn-by-turn navigation. The app indicates navigation instructions by taps on the user's wrist.[32] 2015–present[edit] During WWDC
WWDC
on June 8, 2015, Craig Federighi, Apple's senior vice president of Software
Software
Engineering, announced that the new version of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
in iOS 9 would have information about public transportation in a number of global cities.[33] The function also became available for OS X El Capitan
OS X El Capitan
and watchOS 2.[34][35] In addition, Apple added the function "Nearby", which shows nearby points of interest in several categories. With the update, the application chooses a detour in case of a traffic delay. The three new versions of the operating systems became available in September 2015. In addition to these new releases, Apple acquired a few companies in 2015 in order to improve the mapping application even further. In the spring, Apple also acquired Coherent Navigation, that provides precise location data through High Integrity GPS, and the startup company Mapsense later that year.[36][37] The latter had developed software to organize large amounts of location data.[38] In 2016, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
opened a new development center and it was updated for watchOS and iOS. The application was improved when watchOS 2.2 came out in March 2016. Apple Maps
Apple Maps
was renewed in the new version of the operating system and received a number of new features, including "Nearby" which had previously been exclusive to iOS.[39] Four months later, Apple CEO Tim Cook
Tim Cook
inaugurated a new office in partnership with IT company RMSI, Noida, at the WaveRock campus in the Indian city Hyderabad. The development center focusses on the development of Apple Maps and employs 4,000 people.[40][41] According to ZDNet, the 250,000 square feet (23,000 square metres) office costed US$25 million.[42] In September, iOS 10 was released. The update of the Apple's mobile operating system was accompanied by a new design of Apple Maps. Moreover, the application was opened up to developers and gained a few features: it makes suggestions for places to go based on earlier usage of the app, it can remember the location where the user parked his vehicle, it allows a user to filter search suggestions, and the turn-by-turn navigation was improved.[43][44] The navigation automatically zooms in and out, shows traffic ahead, and allows users to search for points of interests along the route. These features are available for CarPlay
CarPlay
as well.[43] Vehicles[edit]

An Apple Maps
Apple Maps
vehicle driving through St. Charles, Missouri
St. Charles, Missouri
in June 2015.

In early 2015, vehicles equipped with twelve cameras and lidar sensors were seen in a variety of places throughout the United States. These vehicles were owned by Apple. Speculation arose that Apple was working on a counterpart of Google
Google
Street View.[45][46] Since April 2013, there had been speculation about such a counterpart since Apple applied for a patent, in which a concept similar to Street View was described. The patent that was published at that time had been filed in September 2011.[47] In June 2015, Apple stated on its website that the vehicles were collecting data to improve Apple Maps. Also, Apple claimed to secure privacy by making faces and license plates unrecognizable. According to the company, Apple's vehicles have driven through the following countries:[48]

Continent Countries according to Apple's website (since December 2017)

North America

 United States

Europe

  Croatia
Croatia
(Split-Dalmatia County, Sibenik-Knin County
Sibenik-Knin County
only)   France
France
(Île-de- France
France
only)   Ireland
Ireland
(Leinster, County Galway
County Galway
only)   Italy
Italy
( Rome
Rome
only)   Portugal
Portugal
( Alentejo
Alentejo
only)   Slovenia
Slovenia
( Ljubljana
Ljubljana
only)   Spain
Spain
(Madrid, Barcelona
Barcelona
only)   Sweden
Sweden
(Skåne County, Stockholm, and Uppsala County
Uppsala County
only)   England
England
(East London, Greater London, South East England, and West Midlands only)   Scotland
Scotland
(Highland only)   Wales
Wales
( Bridgend County Borough
Bridgend County Borough
only)

Features[edit]

Apple Maps
Apple Maps
giving directions from San Francisco
San Francisco
to Los Angeles, as shown on an iPad running iOS 9.

Apple Maps
Apple Maps
uses vector graphics, which allows the application to use less data than competitor Google
Google
Maps.[49] The map has four available layers: regular map, satellite view, hybrid view (a combination of regular and satellite view), and public transit view.[22] The main provider of map data is TomTom, but data is also supplied by Automotive Navigation Data, Hexagon AB, Intermap Technologies, OpenStreetMap, and Waze.[50] Apple renewed their agreement with TomTom in 2015.[51] TomTom is the parent company of Tele Atlas, which is also used by Apple Maps' competitor, Google
Google
Maps.[19] The satellite imagery comes from DigitalGlobe.[50] iPhones located in China
China
use data from AutoNavi
AutoNavi
instead. Apple Maps
Apple Maps
can be used to plan routes. The navigation service features turn-by-turn navigation with spoken instructions for vehicles, pedestrians, and public transportation.[52] According to Apple, the navigation function is available in 56 countries worldwide.[53] Apple Maps can also be used to see real-time traffic information. In addition, Apple's virtual assistant, Siri, is integrated into Apple Maps. The map displays points of interest provided by approximately twenty companies, including Booking.com, Foursquare, TripAdvisor, and Yelp. The data from Foursquare
Foursquare
was added in late 2015.[50][54] Users can drop pins on the map to save places for later retrieval. The satellite view features Flyovers, three-dimensional satellite views, in designated locations.[55] Flyover and 3D maps[edit] With Flyover, certain locations — mainly the big cities and landmarks — can be seen from a bird's-eye perspective.[22] The three-dimensional views are photo-realistic and users can change the perspective.[52] Flyover has been available since the first release of Apple Maps. A number of cities with Flyovers also have "City Tours". With this feature, the user is guided in the Flyover view along landmarks in that location. "City Tours" was added to Apple Maps
Apple Maps
in iOS 8 (released on September 17, 2014) and in OS X Yosemite
OS X Yosemite
(released on October 16, 2014).[27][28][29] In addition to Flyovers, around fifty cities also feature 3D maps. This feature enables the user to see three-dimensional models of structures in the map view. These models, which are not photo-realistic, can also be seen when using the turn-by-turn navigation.[22][52] Flyovers are available at the following locations:[53]

Locations with Flyovers

Country Locations

 Australia Adelaide, Canberra, Gold Coast, Melbourne, Newcastle, Perth, Sydney

 Austria Graz, Linz, Salzburg

 Bahamas Grand Bahama, Nassau

 Belgium Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, Mechelen

 Canada Calgary, Montreal, Niagara Falls, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver

 Czech Republic Brno, Prague

 Denmark Aarhus, Copenhagen, Helsingør, Odense, Roskilde

 Finland Helsinki

 France Ajaccio, Amiens, Angers, Annecy, Arcachon, Avignon, Bastia, Besançon, Béziers, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Calvi, Carcassonne, Chambord, Châteauneuf-du-Pape, Chenonceaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Corte, Dijon, Gorges de l'Ardèche, La Rochelle, Le Mans, Lens, Lille, Limoges, Lyon, Marseille, Millau, Mont Saint-Michel, Montpellier, Nantes, Nice, Nîmes, Omaha
Omaha
Beach, Paris, Perpignan, Pont du Gard, Porto-Vecchio, Propriano, Reims, Rennes, Saint-Étienne, Saint-Tropez, Strasbourg, Toulouse, Verdon Gorge

 Germany Augsburg, Berlin, Bielefeld, Braunschweig, Bremen, Cologne, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Hanover, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Leipzig, Mannheim, Munich, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Nuremberg, Stuttgart

 Hungary Budapest

 Ireland Cliffs of Moher, Cork, Dublin

 Italy Ancona, Bari, Bobbio, Catania, Cittadella, Florence, Genoa, Messina, Milan, Naples, Padua, Paestum, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Reggio Calabria, Rome, Sanremo, Syracuse, Taormina, Treviso, Turin, Venice

 Japan Akita, Aomori, Hagi, Hakodate, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Niigata, Okayama, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Tokyo, Toyama, Tsunoshima

 Mexico Acapulco, Cabo San Lucas, Chichen Itza, Cuernavaca, Culiacán, Ensenada, Guadalajara, Guaymas, Hermosillo, La Paz, Loreto, Mazatlán, Mexicali, Oaxaca, Puebla, Puerto Vallarta, Teotihuacan, Tijuana, Tulum

 Monaco Monaco

 Netherlands Eindhoven, Rotterdam, Utrecht

 New Zealand Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Nelson, Wellington

 Portugal Braga, Coimbra, Porto

 South Africa Durban, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria

 Spain A Coruña, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Badajoz, Barcelona, Cáceres, Cádiz, Córdoba, Gijón, Huelva, Jerez de la Frontera, León, Lugo, Madrid, Málaga, Murcia, Pamplona, Salamanca, San Sebastian, Seville, Valladolid, Valencia, Vigo, Zaragoza

 Sweden Gothenburg, Helsingborg, Linköping, Malmö, Stockholm, Visby

  Switzerland Basel, Bern

 Taiwan Taichung

 United Kingdom Belfast, Birmingham, Blackpool, British Virgin Islands, Edinburgh, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Middlesbrough, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham, Preston, Stoke-on-Trent, Stonehenge, Sunderland, Wolverhampton

 United States See the bottom of the table

  Vatican City Vatican City

Locations in the   United States
United States
with Flyovers

State/territory Locations

Alabama Mobile

Arizona Grand Canyon, Hoover Dam, Lake Powell, Meteor Crater, Monument Valley, Phoenix, Tucson

California Bakersfield, Catalina Island, Fresno, Lassen Volcanic National Park, Los Angeles, Modesto, Oakland, Pinnacles National Park, Porterville, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton, Visalia, Yosemite National Park

Colorado Denver, Royal Gorge

Florida Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Pensacola, Tallahassee

Georgia Atlanta

Hawaii Big Island (far western part), Oahu

Idaho Boise

Illinois Chicago

Indiana Indianapolis, South Bend

Kansas Wichita

Kentucky Louisville

Louisiana Baton Rouge, New Orleans

Maine Portland

Maryland Baltimore

Massachusetts Boston, Martha's Vineyard, Salem, Springfield

Michigan Detroit

Minnesota Minneapolis, Saint Paul

Missouri Springfield, St. Louis

Nebraska Omaha

Nevada Hoover Dam, Las Vegas

New York Albany, Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
City, Newburgh, Niagara Falls, Poughkeepsie, Rochester, Schenectady

North Carolina Greensboro, Raleigh

Ohio Akron, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Toledo

Oklahoma Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, Tulsa

Oregon Portland, Salem

Pennsylvania Allentown, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh

Puerto Rico Aguadilla, Arecibo, Mayagüez, Ponce, San Juan

Rhode Island Providence

South Carolina Charleston, Columbia

South Dakota Mount Rushmore, Rapid City

Tennessee Memphis, Nashville

Texas Arlington (partially), Amarillo, Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio

US Virgin Islands Fully covered

Utah Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Lake Powell, Monument Valley, Zion National Park

Washington Seattle, Tacoma

Wisconsin Green Bay, Milwaukee

Wyoming Cheyenne, Devils Tower

Nearby[edit] The feature "Nearby" is exclusive to iOS 9 and watchOS 2.2. It shows icons of different categories like "food" and "transportation" in the search menu.[56] After clicking each icon, nearby points of interest in that category are shown with their names, distances, and reviews on Yelp. Additionally, pins appear at the locations of these places on the map. The turn-by-turn navigation can be activated with Nearby as well.[57][58] When iOS 9 was launched on September 16, 2015, the function was only available in the United States
United States
and China, but had expanded to include Australia, Canada, Germany, and France
France
by the end of October 2015.[59][60] In 2016, Nearby was added to Austria, Denmark, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland
Switzerland
and the United Kingdom.[53] Transit[edit] The function "Transit" shows the public transport networks on the map in a number of cities and their surroundings. The functionality was added to iOS 9 (released on September 16, 2015), OS X El Capitan (released on September 30), and watchOS 2 (released on September 21).[34][35][59] Apple Maps
Apple Maps
displays the networks of buses, subways, trains, and ferries in these cities.[33] Additionally, the mapping service includes public transit schedules and shows the locations of the entries and exits of the subway and train stations.[61] "Transit" is available in the following locations and metropolitan areas:

Locations with public transit information[62]

Country Locations

 Australia Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

 Brazil Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo

 Canada Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, Victoria, Windsor Full coverage for the province of Quebec

 China Full coverage (only available inside China)

 Czech Republic Prague

 France Paris

 Germany Berlin Full coverage for the state of Brandenburg

 Hungary Budapest

 Ireland Full coverage

 Japan Full coverage

 Mexico Mexico
Mexico
City

 Netherlands Full coverage

 Singapore Full coverage

 Spain Madrid

 Taiwan Full coverage

 United Kingdom Full coverage

 United States Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Fort Worth, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas
Kansas
City, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland, Orlando, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle, St. Louis, Tampa, Washington, D.C. Full coverage for the states of Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin Countrywide coverage for Amtrak

Additionally, support for all the routes of Amtrak
Amtrak
in the United States has been added as of October 2, 2016. The routes of NSW TrainLink in New South Wales
Wales
were added in April 2016. The routes of V/Line
V/Line
(Regional Rail) in Victoria (Australia)
Victoria (Australia)
were added on October 9, 2016. Transit directions were expanded across the United Kingdom, excluding Northern Ireland, on December 19, 2016. Ireland
Ireland
(Republic of Ireland
Ireland
and Northern Ireland) was added on 16 October 2017.[63][64][65] Traffic information[edit] Apple Maps
Apple Maps
shows real-time traffic information on the map. In addition, the turn-by-turn navigation takes delays into account when calculating the estimated time of arrival and will occasionally choose a detour in case of traffic.[52] Apple introduced this function in iOS 7 (released on September 18, 2013) and it is available in 49 countries as of June 2017.[22][23][53] In the beginning of 2015, Consumentenbond, a Dutch organization promoting consumer rights, researched the traffic information of various navigation applications and concluded that Apple Maps
Apple Maps
gave the most false responses of all seven applications that were tested.[66] Traffic information is available at the following locations:[53]

Live traffic locations

 Andorra  Denmark  Italy  New Zealand  Spain

 Argentina  Egypt  Kuwait  Norway  Sweden

 Australia  Estonia  Latvia  Oman   Switzerland

 Austria  Finland  Lesotho  Poland  Taiwan

 Bahrain  France  Liechtenstein  Portugal  Thailand

 Belgium  Germany  Lithuania  Qatar  Turkey

 Brazil  Gibraltar  Luxembourg  Romania  UAE

 Bulgaria  Greece  Macao  Russia  United Kingdom

 Canada  Hong Kong  Malaysia  San Marino  Ukraine

 Chile  Hungary  Malta  Saudi Arabia  USA

 China  Iceland  Mexico  Singapore   Vatican City

 Colombia  India  Monaco  Slovakia

 Croatia  Ireland  Morocco  Slovenia

 Czech Republic  Israel  Netherlands  South Africa

Apple Maps
Apple Maps
Connect[edit] In October 2014, Apple introduced a service dubbed Apple Maps Connect.[67] It allows small business owners to claim their business listing and edit business information, such as location and open hours. After the user logs in with their Apple ID, they are given a prompt to claim and link a Apple maps listing to their account. The user can search through Apple's database to either locate their listing or add a missing listing to Apple's database.[68] Market share[edit]

A graph showing the percentage of American smartphone users who used Apple Maps
Apple Maps
(blue) and Google Maps
Google Maps
(orange) between July 2013 and February 2016 (Data: comScore).

ComScore
ComScore
investigated the market shares of different web mapping services in the United States
United States
using polls. Prior to the launch of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
in September 2012, there were 103.6 million Americans
Americans
with iOS or Android, 81 million of which used Google
Google
Maps. According to comScore, the latter figure had dropped to 58.7 million in September 2013, a year after the release of Apple Maps. At the same time, there were 35 million American Apple Maps
Apple Maps
users and a total of 136.7 million people with iOS or Android in the United States. Out of the 60.1 million iPhone users, 8.3 million used Google
Google
Maps. However, some of those iPhone users were not able to use Apple Maps, since their devices were not updated to iOS 6.[6] In addition, research by comScore conducted between July 2013 and February 2016 revealed that between 20% and 30% of all American smartphone users used Apple Maps — this includes users with operating systems for which Apple Maps was not compatible. During the same period, it was concluded that between 40% and 51% of American smartphone owners used the application Google
Google
Maps.[69] Furthermore, comScore studied the market share of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
on iPhones in the United Kingdom. In September 2013, one year after its launch, more than 6.2 million of the total 10.35 million British iPhone owners used Apple Maps. Google Maps
Google Maps
had the second largest market share on British iPhones with over 1.8 million British iPhone users.[70] In the second half of 2013, British Internet service provider EE Limited concluded that Apple Maps
Apple Maps
had a market share in the UK of 64% of 4G network users and 57% of 3G network users.[71] The research involved comparing the data of the internet provider and the results of an investigation by Taylor Nelson Sofres
Taylor Nelson Sofres
among 1,000 users of the 4G network. However, EE Limited did not indicate how many of its users had an iPhone.[72] According to subsequent research by EE Limited, in the first half of 2014, the market share of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
increased among iPhone users: 70% of the 4G network and 76% of the 3G network.[73] At the turn of the year, the same values amounted to 73% and 82% respectively.[74] Early inaccuracy[edit] Apple Maps
Apple Maps
received considerable criticism after its launch on September 19, 2012, due to wrong and inaccurate information about places and points of interests. Many of these errors are now fixed.[3][19][75] Some places were misspelled, were displayed with the wrong name, or were missing entirely.[3][7] Examples of those mistakes included the Ukrainian capital Kiev, which was incorrectly spelled as "Kylv", the Welsh place Pontypridd, whose label was shown 6 miles (10 kilometres) northeast of its actual location, and the English town Stratford-upon-Avon, which was missing altogether in Apple Maps. Also, when users looked up "London" they were directed to the Canadian city London
London
instead of its namesake, the capital of the United Kingdom.[7] Many complained about outdated or inaccurate data about companies and interesting places. For example, in the United Kingdom, chains that no longer exist were still on the maps and large stores were accidentally mapped in backyards.[19] Furthermore, in the United States, the label of the Willis Tower
Willis Tower
was displayed in the wrong location.[7] Apple Maps was sometimes inadequate to find companies or other points of interest at all.[19] For instance, the London
London
train and subway station Paddington and Tokyo
Tokyo
Station were missing, and the Helsinki
Helsinki
Central railway station was shown as a park.[6][7] Also, parks were occasionally displayed as airports.[3] On several occasions, government authorities and politicians warned citizens of errors with Apple Maps. In early December 2012, the police department of the Australian city Mildura
Mildura
alerted people who planned to reach the city using Apple Maps, because Mildura
Mildura
was shown in the middle of Murray-Sunset National Park, 40 miles (64 kilometres) from its actual location. The police department stated that the error was potentially life-threatening, as national park temperatures could rise to 114 °F (46 °C) and those traveling would be without water supplies. The police rescued, at least, four people, one of which was stranded for 24 hours. After that, the police department tried to contact Apple to solve the problem. Apple fixed the error in December 2012.[76][77][78] Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality and Minister of Defense of Ireland
Ireland
at the time, issued a warning because of a mistake in Apple Maps: a non-existent airport was shown near the Irish capital Dublin. This location was in reality a public farm called "Airfield". Shatter wrote in his statement that the mistake was dangerous, because a pilot could try to make an emergency landing there.[79] Apple's response[edit] As a result of the criticism, Tim Cook, CEO of Apple Inc., published a letter of apology on Apple's website on September 28, 2012, in which he apologized for the "frustrations" experienced by users. He said that Apple fell short and that the company was making every effort to improve the mapping service. Cook also suggested that dissatisfied users could use rival mapping applications like Bing Maps, MapQuest, Waze, Google
Google
Maps, and Nokia Maps.[80] Steve Jobs, former CEO of Apple Inc., had used this way of apologizing in the past.[3] A week before the release of the letter of apology, just after the launch of Apple Maps, spokesperson Trudy Miller had stated to technology news website All Things Digital that Apple Maps
Apple Maps
was a major initiative and that they "were just getting started with it." Miller also said the application would improve as more people used it.[81][82] In the aftermath of the criticism, two key employees left the company due to the problems associated with Apple Maps. The departure of Scott Forstall, senior vice president of iOS, was announced in October 2012.[4] Sources told technology news website The Verge
The Verge
that he had been fired for refusing to sign Tim Cook's letter of apology.[83] According to business magazine Bloomberg Businessweek, Richard Williamson, the person responsible for the mapping team at Apple, left the following month. He was succeeded by Eddy Cue.[4] In June 2016, Eddy Cue said in an interview with Fast Company that Apple "had completely underestimated the product, the complexity of it." He also said the problems with Apple Maps
Apple Maps
led to "significant changes to all of our development processes." After the launch of Maps, Apple started offering public betas of new versions of iOS and OS X. Furthermore, Cue commented that before Maps was launched Apple's executive team long discussed if Apple should have its own mapping service.[84] One month later, Tim Cook
Tim Cook
looked back to the launch of Apple Maps
Apple Maps
in an interview with The Washington Post
The Washington Post
and said "Maps was a mistake." He added that the company admitted its mistake and that Maps is something the company is now proud of because of the improvements.[85] TomTom's response[edit] As the primary provider of map data, TomTom has received criticism as well. Cees van Dok, TomTom's head of user experience design, in April 2013 told technology news website TechRadar
TechRadar
that Apple was the problem. According to him, Apple was trying to combine too many sources of data to create Apple Maps.[86] Modern reception[edit] Still, despite fixing preliminary issues, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
has received mixed reviews, with some critics complimenting its "Flyover" feature and appearance of the street map,[87] while others are criticizing its lack of features similar to those in Google
Google
Maps. ZDNet said "[Apple Maps] had its share of problems, but Apple Maps
Apple Maps
is back with a vengeance. Powered by some jaw-dropping 3D graphics and enjoying an aggressive multi-platform strategy, Apple is finally set to redefine our geospatial expectations – and take Google
Google
down a few notches."[87] An editor of The Street wrote "But, today, and presumably after the iOS 7 update, Apple Maps
Apple Maps
has come into its own. Despite the lingering absence of transit directions (at last check, Apple still suggests Google Maps
Google Maps
and other "routing" apps), I now prefer to Apple over Google."[88] Macworld
Macworld
wrote " Apple Maps
Apple Maps
has vastly improved since it was first launched and now we conclude the turn-by-turn navigation is a lot better than Google's offering. While there are areas that both Google
Google
and Apple can improve on, we’re certain that using Apple Maps
Apple Maps
won’t direct you to drive into the Thames and that most of the initial issues have been fixed."[89] Thrillist
Thrillist
wrote an article about "Things Apple Maps
Apple Maps
Does Better Than Google
Google
Maps," praising its ability to let the user "send directions instantly from your computer to your phone," "see turn-by-turn directions from the lock screen," "get more specific recommendations for nearby attractions," "know which subway car to get on and which exit to use," "see true-to-life details," and "get seamless directions from Siri."[90] See also[edit]

Atlas portal Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
portal

Comparison of web map services MapQuest HERE Maps Google
Google
Maps

References[edit]

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Apple Maps
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Google
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Foursquare
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Siri
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Apple Maps
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Amtrak
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Apple Maps
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External links[edit]

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