The Info List - Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (/ˈmɜːrkəl, ˈmɛərkəl/, German: [aŋˈɡeːla ˈmɛɐ̯kl̩];[a] née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany
since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018.[10] Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union,[11] the most powerful woman in the world,[12] and, following the election of Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as US President, by many commentators as the new leader of the Free World.[13][14][15][16][17] Merkel was born in Hamburg
in then- West Germany
West Germany
and moved to East Germany
as an infant when her father, a Lutheran
clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg. She obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière
Lothar de Maizière
in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag
for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and has been reelected ever since. As the protégée of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Merkel was appointed as the Federal Minister for Women and Youth in Kohl's government in 1991, and became the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994. After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble. Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first female chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany
(SPD). In the 2009 federal election the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote, and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party (FDP).[18] At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag.[19] After the 2017 federal election the CDU was again the largest party, and she was reelected to her fourth term on 14 March 2018.[20] In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council
President of the European Council
and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
and the Berlin Declaration. One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and she has been referred to as "the decider". In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more recently her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship.[21] In 2009 she succeeded George W. Bush
George W. Bush
as the senior G7 leader and in 2014 she became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of the CDU at the party convention in December 2018 and as Chancellor in 2021.[22]


1 Background and early life 2 Education and scientific career 3 Early political career

3.1 Leader of the opposition

3.1.1 2005 national election

4 Chancellor of Germany

4.1 Domestic policy

4.1.1 Immigration 4.1.2 Refugee and migration policy

4.2 Foreign policy 4.3 Eurozone crisis 4.4 Social expenditure 4.5 Cabinets 4.6 Approval ratings 4.7 International status 4.8 Resignation plans

5 Personal life

5.1 Religion

6 Honours and awards

6.1 Honours

6.1.1 National honours 6.1.2 Foreign honours

6.2 Honorary degrees 6.3 Awards

7 Comparisons 8 Controversies 9 In the arts and media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Background and early life Merkel's paternal grandfather, Ludwik Marian Kaźmierczak, in Polish Blue Army uniform, and his then-fiancée Margarethe, Merkel's grandmother.

This article is part of a series aboutAngela Merkel

MdB for Vorpommern-Rügen – Vorpommern-Greifswald I Christian Democratic Union of Germany Controversies Merkel-Raute

Revolution of 1989

Early life Democratic Awakening 1990 East German election German reunification

Kohl Administration

Minister for Women and Youth Minister for the Environment

Leader of the Christian Democratic Union

Tenure CDU donations scandal 2002 election Leader of the Opposition

Chancellor of GermanyIncumbent

First Ministry and Term

2005 election First Merkel Cabinet EU Council presidency 33rd G8 summit Treaty of Lisbon Berlin Declaration Financial crisis Stimulus plan 2009 presidential election Second Ministry and Term

2009 election Second Merkel cabinet 2010 presidential election Health care reform Energiewende European debt crisis Single Supervisory Mechanism Bundeswehr
reform 2012 presidential election NSA surveillance Third Ministry and Term

2013 election Third Merkel cabinet Crimean conflict Normandy format 41st G7 summit European migrant crisis Willkommenskultur 2017 presidential election 2017 G20
summit Fourth Ministry and Term

2017 election Fourth Merkel cabinet

Personal life Family Foreign policy Honours and awards Comparisons

vte Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner (1926–2011; né Kaźmierczak),[23][24] a Lutheran
pastor and a native of Berlin, and his wife Herlind (1928–2019; née Jentzsch), born in Danzig
(now Gdańsk, Poland), a teacher of English and Latin. She has two younger siblings, Marcus Kasner, a physicist, and Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist. In her childhood and youth, Merkel was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi", derived from her last name Kasner.[25] Merkel is of German and Polish descent. Her paternal grandfather, Ludwik Kasner, was a German policeman of Polish ethnicity, who had taken part in Poland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century.[26] He married Merkel's grandmother Margarethe, a German from Berlin, and relocated to her hometown where he worked in the police. In 1930, they Germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner.[27][28][29][30] Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Danzig
politician Willi Jentzsch, and Gertrud Alma née Drange, a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing
(now Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Since the mid 1990s, Merkel has publicly mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions and described herself as a quarter Polish, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography.[31] Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration from West Germany
to East Germany.[32] Merkel's paternal grandfather was originally Catholic but the entire family converted to Lutheranism during the childhood of her father,[28] who later studied Lutheran
theology in Heidelberg and Hamburg. In 1954, when Angela was just three months old, her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow [de] (a quarter of Perleberg
in Brandenburg), which was then in East Germany. The family moved to Templin
and Merkel grew up in the countryside 90 km (56 mi) north of East Berlin.[33]

Merkel and Lothar de Maizière, 1990 In 1968, Merkel joined the Free German Youth
Free German Youth
(FDJ), the official communist youth movement sponsored by the ruling Marxist–Leninist Socialist Unity Party of Germany.[34][35][36] Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education.[37] She did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, however, which was common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed.[38] During this time, she participated in several compulsory courses on Marxism-Leninism
with her grades only being regarded as "sufficient".[39]

Education and scientific career Merkel was educated at Karl Marx University, Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978.[33] While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei, a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University; however, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed.[40] At school, she learned to speak Russian fluently, and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and Mathematics.[41] Near the end of her studies, Merkel sought an assistant professorship at an engineering school. As a condition for getting the job, Merkel was told she would need to agree to report on her colleagues to officers of the Ministry for State Security (Stasi). Merkel declined, using the excuse that she could not keep secrets well enough to be an effective spy.[42] Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin- Adlershof
from 1978 to 1990. At first she and her husband squatted in Mitte.[43] At the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of its FDJ secretariat. According to her former colleagues, she openly propagated Marxism
as the secretary for "Agitation and Propaganda".[44] However, Merkel has denied this claim and stated that she was secretary for culture, which involved activities like obtaining theatre tickets and organising talks by visiting Soviet authors.[45] She stated: "I can only rely on my memory, if something turns out to be different, I can live with that."[44] After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986,[46] she worked as a researcher and published several papers.[47] In 1986, she was able to travel freely to West Germany
West Germany
to attend a congress; she also participated in a multi-week language course in Donetsk, in the then-Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (now part of the disputed Donetsk
People's Republic).[48]

Early political career The fall of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
in November 1989 served as the catalyst for Merkel's political career. Although she did not participate in the crowd celebrations the night the wall came down, one month later Merkel became involved in the growing democracy movement, joining the new party Democratic Awakening.[49] Following the first (and only) multi-party election in East Germany, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière.[50] Merkel had impressed de Maiziere with her adept dealing with journalists questioning the role of a party leader, Wolfgang Schnur, as an "informal co-worker" with the homeland security services.[42][49] In April 1990, Democratic Awakening merged with the East German Christian Democratic Union, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification. In the German federal election of 1990, the first to be held following reunification, Merkel successfully stood for election to the Bundestag in the parliamentary constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen in north Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.[51] She has won re-election from this constituency (renamed, with slightly adjusted borders, Vorpommern-Rügen – Vorpommern-Greifswald I in 2003) at the seven federal elections held since then. Almost immediately following her entry into parliament, Merkel was appointed by Chancellor Helmut Kohl to serve as Minister for Women and Youth in the federal cabinet.[52][11] In 1994, she was promoted to the position of Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform on which to build her personal political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister, she was frequently referred to by Kohl as "mein Mädchen" ("my girl").[53]

Leader of the opposition After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU,[52] a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government.[citation needed] Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999, breaking the long-standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. Following a party funding scandal that compromised many leading figures of the CDU – including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader, Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
– Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him.[52] She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000.[54] Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead; Merkel is a centrist Protestant
originating from predominantly Protestant
northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany, and its Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.

Merkel with Vladimir Putin, 2002 Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader, the CDU was not able to win in subsequent state elections. As early as February 2001 her rival Friedrich Merz
Friedrich Merz
had made clear he intended to become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. Merkel's own ambition to become Chancellor was well-known, but she lacked the support of most Minister-presidents and other grandees within her own party. She was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder.[55] He went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin in an election campaign that was dominated by the Iraq War. While Chancellor Schröder made clear he would not join the war in Iraq,[56] Merkel and the CDU-CSU supported the invasion of Iraq. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.[57] Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda for Germany's economic and social system, and was considered more pro-market than her own party (the CDU). She advocated German labour law changes, specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week. She argued that existing laws made the country less competitive, because companies could not easily control labour costs when business is slow.[58] Merkel argued that Germany
should phase out nuclear power less quickly than the Schröder administration had planned.[59][60] Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey
to the European Union
European Union
and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union.[61]

2005 national election On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU
nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with a 21-point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU
campaign suffered[62] when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate.[63] She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance.[62] Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation[citation needed] was designed to benefit only the rich.[64] This was compounded by Merkel's proposal to increase VAT[65] to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT.[citation needed] Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder,[citation needed] and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.[66] On the eve of the election, Merkel was still favored to win a decisive victory based on opinion polls.[67] On 18 September 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU
and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU
winning 35.2% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%)[citation needed] of the second votes to the SPD's 34.2%.[67] The result was so close, both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory.[52][67] Neither the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU
and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag.[67] A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU
and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship.[67][68] However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet.[68]

Chancellor of Germany Main article: Merkel Cabinet Merkel in 2007 On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany
following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005.[69] Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag
on 22 November 2005, but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.[70] Reports at the time indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differed from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.[71] When announcing the coalition agreement, Merkel stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it was this issue on which her government would be judged.[72] Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats, and could form a governing coalition with the FDP. This term was overshadowed by the European debt crisis. Conscription in Germany
was abolished and the Bundeswehr
became a Volunteer military. Unemployment sank below the mark of 3 million unemployed people.[73] In the election of September 2013 the CDU/CSU
parties emerged as winners, but formed another grand coalition with the SPD due to the FDP's failure to obtain the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament.[19][74] In the 2017 election, Merkel led her party to victory for the fourth time. Both CDU/CSU
and SPD received a significantly lower proportion of the vote than they did in the 2013 election, and attempted to form a coalition with the FDP and Greens.[75][76] The collapse of these talks led to stalemate.[77] The German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
subsequently appealed successfully to the SPD to change their hard stance and to agree a 3rd grand coalition with the CDU/CSU.[78] In 2019 media speculation persists that Merkel's successor as party leader, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
may take over Merkel's position as chancellor sooner than planned if the current governing coalition proves unsustainable.[79][80] The possibility is neither confirmed nor denied by the party.[81]

Domestic policy This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2019) Immigration In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam
that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany
had "utterly failed",[82] stating that: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it" does not work[83] and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind, that is what defines us. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here".[84] She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. This has added to a growing debate within Germany[85] on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany
and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.

Refugee and migration policy Spanish PM Sánchez and Chancellor Merkel in a meeting about migration in Andalusia, Spain
in 2018 Main article: European migrant crisis
European migrant crisis
§ Germany See also: Wir schaffen das Late August 2015, Chancellor Merkel announced that Germany
would also process asylum applications from Syrian refugees if they had come to Germany
through other EU countries.[86] That year, nearly 1.1 million asylum seekers entered Germany. On 1 July 2018, German Interior minister Horst Seehofer
Horst Seehofer
offered to resign after rejecting Chancellor Angela Merkel's EU migration deal.[87][88][89] He later walked back from this statement.

Foreign policy Main articles: Foreign policy of the Angela Merkel government
Foreign policy of the Angela Merkel government
and List of international trips made by Angela Merkel Merkel meets with Argentine President Mauricio Macri
Mauricio Macri
in the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, 2017. Merkel's foreign policy has focused on strengthening European cooperation and international trade agreements. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union
European Union
throughout her tenure as Chancellor. One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations. She signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House.[90] Merkel enjoyed good relations with U.S. Presidents George W. Bush, and Barack Obama.[91] Obama described her in 2016 as his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as President.[92] On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. China
afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.[93]

Merkel with Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in Sochi, Russia, May 2017 In 2006, Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin.[94] Merkel favors the Association Agreement between Ukraine
and the European Union; but stated in December 2012 that its implementation depends on reforms in Ukraine.[95]

Merkel with Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in Hannover, Germany, April 2016 In recognition of the importance of China
to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China
since assuming office in 2005. The same year, in March, China's President Xi Jinping visited Germany.[96] In 2015, with the absence of Stephen Harper, Merkel became the only leader to have attended every G20
meeting since the very first in 2008, having been present at a record thirteen summits as of 2018. She hosted the twelfth meeting at the 2017 G20
summit.[97] In June 2017, Merkel criticized the draft of new U.S. sanctions against Russia
that target EU– Russia
energy projects, including Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline.[98] In June 2018, Merkel said that there had been "no moral or political justification" for the post-war expulsion of ethnic Germans from Central and Eastern European countries.[99]

Eurozone crisis Merkel, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
and Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi, 2008 Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
at the 2012 congress of the European People's Party (EPP) During the financial crisis of 2007–2008, the German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate
Hypo Real Estate
with a bailout, which was agreed on 6 October, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.[100] On 4 October 2008, following the Irish Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticised,[101] Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government
German Government
to do the same. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all.[102] However, two days later, on 6 October 2008, it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation.[103] Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.[103]

Social expenditure At the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
in Davos, 2013, she said that Europe had only 7% of the global population and produced only 25% of the global GDP, but that it accounted for almost 50% of global social expenditure. She went on to say that Europe could only maintain its prosperity by being innovative and measuring itself against the best.[104] Since then, this comparison has become a central element in major speeches.[105] The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with The Economist
The Economist
saying that:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it. It can be boiled down to three statistics, a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. The three figures are 7%, 25% and 50%. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world's population, 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries, it cannot continue to be so generous.[106]

adding that:

She produces graphs of unit labour costs ... at EU meetings in much the same way that the late Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
used to pull passages from Friedrich Hayek's Road to Serfdom from her handbag.[106]

The Financial Times
Financial Times

Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness, she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population.[107][b]

Cabinets Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
at the signing of the coalition agreement for the 18th election period of the Bundestag, December 2013 The first cabinet of Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005. On 31 October 2005, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as party chairman, which he did in November. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU, and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005. The second Cabinet of Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was sworn in on 28 October 2009.[108] In 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU
since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag
since 1957.[109] However, with their preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, the CDU/CSU
turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership. The third Cabinet of Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was sworn in on 17 December 2013.[110] The fourth cabinet of Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
is the current government of Germany, and was sworn in on 14 March 2018 after.[111] The negotiations that led to a Grand Coalition agreement with the Social Democracts (SPD) were the longest in German post-war history, lasting almost six months.[112][113]

Approval ratings Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party.[114] An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%.[115] However, she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor), and her approval rating reached an all-time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014.[116] Merkel's approval rating dropped to 54% in October 2015, during the European migrant crisis, the lowest since 2011.[117] According to a poll conducted after terror attacks in Germany
Merkel's approval rating dropped to 47% (August 2016).[118] Half of Germans did not want her to serve a fourth term in office compared to 42% in favor.[119] However, according to a poll taken in October 2016, her approval rating had been found to have risen again, 54% of Germans were found to be satisfied with work of Merkel as Chancellor.[120] According to another poll taken in November 2016, 59% were to found to be in favour of a renewed Chancellor candidature of Merkel in 2017.[121] According to a poll carried out just days after the 2016 Berlin attack, in which it was asked which political leader(s) Germans trust to solve their country's problems; 56% named Merkel, 39% Seehofer (CSU), 35% Gabriel (SPD), 32% Schulz (SPD), 25% Özdemir (Greens), 20% Wagenknecht (Left party), 15% Lindner (FDP), and just 10% for Petry (AfD).[122] A YouGov survey published in late December 2017 found that just 36 percent of all respondents wanted Merkel to stay at the helm until 2021, while half of those surveyed voters called for a change at the top before the end of the legislature.[123] By 2019 this had again changed, with now 67% of Germans wanting Merkel to stay till the end of her term in 2021 and only 29% wanting her to step down earlier.[124]

International status Merkel with Petro Poroshenko
Petro Poroshenko
and Joe Biden, 7 February 2015 Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union
European Union
throughout her tenure as Chancellor. Merkel has twice been named the world's second most powerful person following Vladimir Putin by Forbes
magazine, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman.[125][126][127][128][129] On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. In December 2015, Merkel was named as Time magazine's Person of the Year, with the magazine's cover declaring her to be the "Chancellor of the Free World".[130] In 2018, Merkel was named the most powerful woman in the world for a record fourteenth time by Forbes.[131] Following the election of Donald Trump
Donald Trump
to the U.S. presidency in November 2016, Merkel was described by The New York Times
The New York Times
as "the Liberal West's Last Defender".[132] Since 2016 she has been described by many commentators as the "leader of the free world".[13][14][15][16] Former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
described Merkel in 2017 as "the most important leader in the free world".[133] She is currently the senior G7 leader. The Atlantic
The Atlantic
described her in 2019 as "the world's most successful living politician, on the basis of both achievement and longevity".[134] She was found in a 2018 survey to be the most respected world leader internationally.[135] She was named as Harvard University's commencement speaker in 2019; Harvard University
Harvard University
President Larry Bacow described her as "one of the most widely admired and broadly influential statespeople of our time".[136]

Resignation plans On 29 October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of CDU at their party conference in December 2018, but intends to remain as chancellor until 2021, when the next German federal election, at the latest, is to be held. She stated that she does not plan to seek any political office after this. The resignations followed October setbacks for the CSU in the Bavarian state election and for the CDU in the Hessian state election.[22][137] She decided not to suggest any person as her successor as leader of the CDU.[138] However, political observers have long considered Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
as Merkel's protégé groomed for succession. This view was confirmed when Kramp-Karrenbauer – widely seen as the chancellor's favourite for the post – was voted to succeed Merkel as leader of the CDU in December 2018.[139] Kramp-Karrenbauer's elevation to Defence Minister after Ursula von der Leyen's departure to become president of the European Commission
European Commission
has also boosted her standing as Merkel's most likely candidate for succession.[140]

Personal life Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Merkel, and her husband, Joachim Sauer, 2009 Main article: Family of Angela Merkel In 1977, at the age of 23, Merkel, then Angela Kasner, married physics student Ulrich Merkel (born 1953)[141] and took his surname. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982.[142] Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight. They first met in 1981,[143] became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998.[144] She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage.[145] Merkel is a fervent football fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag
and to attend games of the national team in her official capacity.[146][147] Merkel stated that her favorite movie is The Legend of Paul and Paula, an East German movie released in 1973.[148] Merkel has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995.[149] Vladimir Putin, in a move reminiscent of Germany's first chancellor, brought in his Labrador Retriever
Labrador Retriever
during a press conference in 2007. Putin claims he did not mean to scare her, though Merkel later observed, "I understand why he has to do this – to prove he's a man. ... He's afraid of his own weakness."[149] Since 2017 Merkel has been seen and filmed to shake visibly on several public occasions, recovering shortly afterwards.[150][151][152] After one such occasion she attributed the shaking to dehydration, saying that she felt better after a drink of water.[153] After three occasions where this happened in June 2019, she began to sit down during the performances of the national anthems during the State visits of Mette Frederiksen and Maia Sandu
Maia Sandu
the following month.

Religion Merkel speaking at the 2011 German Evangelical Church Assembly
German Evangelical Church Assembly
in Dresden. Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
is a Lutheran
member of the Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia (German: Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz – EKBO), a United Protestant
(i.e. both Reformed
and Lutheran) church body under the umbrella of the Evangelical Church in Germany
(EKD). The EKBO is a church of the Union of Evangelical Churches.[154] Before the 2004 merger of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg and the Evangelical Church in Silesian Upper Lusatia (both also being a part of the EKD), she belonged to the former. In 2012, Merkel said, regarding her faith: "I am a member of the evangelical church. I believe in God and religion is also my constant companion, and has been for the whole of my life. We as Christians should above all not be afraid of standing up for our beliefs."[155] She also publicly declared that Germany
suffers not from "too much Islam" but "too little Christianity".[156]

Honours and awards Honours National honours  Germany: Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany[157] Foreign honours  Austria: Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash of the Order of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria[158]  Bulgaria: Grand Cross of the Order of the Balkan Mountains[159][160][161]  Israel: Recipient of the President's Medal[162]  Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic[163]  Latvia: Grand Officer of the Order of the Three Stars[164]  Lithuania: Grand Cross of the Order of Vytautas the Great[165][166]  Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit[167]  Peru: Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru  Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Infante Henry  Saudi Arabia: Grand Officer of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud   United States
United States
of America: Presidential Medal of Freedom[c][168][169]  Slovakia: 1st Class of the Order of the White Double Cross [170] Honorary degrees In 2007, Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[171] In June 2008, she was awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig University.[172] University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008[173] and Babeș-Bolyai University
Babeș-Bolyai University
from Cluj-Napoca, Romania
on 12 October 2010 for her historical contribution to the European unification and for her global role in renewing international cooperation.[174][175][176] On 23 May 2013, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Radboud University Nijmegen. In November 2013, she was awarded the Honorary Doctorate (Honoris Causa) title by the University of Szeged. In November 2014, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Comenius University in Bratislava. In September 2015, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Bern. In January 2017, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa jointly by the Ghent University
Ghent University
and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.[177] In May 2017, Merkel was awarded the title of Doctrix Honoris Causa by the University of Helsinki.[178] In May 2019, Merkel was awarded the honorary doctorate from Harvard University.[179] Awards  India: Recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding[180] In 2006, Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration. She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.[181][182] In March 2008, she received the B'nai B'rith
B'nai B'rith
Europe Award of Merit.[183] Merkel topped Forbes
magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018.[184] New Statesman
New Statesman
named Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
in "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures" 2010.[185] On 16 June 2010, the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
in Washington D.C. awarded Chancellor Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.[186] On 21 September 2010, the Leo Baeck Institute, a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry, awarded Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
the Leo Baeck Medal. The medal was presented by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, W. Michael Blumenthal, who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany.[187] On 31 May 2011, she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. She received the award for International understanding.[188] Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012, the highest ranking achieved by a woman since the list began in 2009; she was ranked fifth in 2013 and 2014 On 28 November 2012, she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin, Germany. India: Indira Gandhi Peace Prize (2013) In December 2015, she was named Time magazine's Person of the Year.[189] In May 2016, Merkel received in Middelburg (The Netherlands) the International Four Freedoms Award from the Roosevelt Foundation Angela Merkel – Laureate International Four Freedoms Award 2016 – Laureates since 1982 – Four Freedoms Awards For the year 2017, she received the Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
Award, from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum[190] Comparisons Merkel, often depicted as the unofficial leader of Europe, at the 2019 G20
Osaka summit As a female politician from a centre right party who is also a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(Thatcher also had a science degree from Oxford University
Oxford University
in chemistry). Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl", and even "The Iron Frau", all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady". Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar.[191] Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother"). She has also been called the "Iron Chancellor", in reference to Otto von Bismarck.[192][193] In addition to being the first female German chancellor, the first to have grown up in the former East Germany
(though she was born in the West[194]), and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II, and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences. While she studied physics, her predecessors studied law, business or history, among other professions.

Controversies The decisions of Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
in 2015 on migration policies have led to much discussion and commotion, in the whole Western world Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover[195] to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany
over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank
Deutsche Bundesbank
executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin, which was critical of the Muslim immigration.[196] At the same time she condemned a planned burning of Korans by a fundamental pastor in Florida.[197] The Central Council of Muslims in Germany[198][199] and the Left Party[200] (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party[d][201] criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far."[202] Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech. Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany
has been critical throughout. According to her personal statements, Sarrazin's approach is "totally unacceptable" and counterproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.[203] The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised as undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable.[204] The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013.[205]

Protestors rally against NSA's mass surveillance, Berlin, June 2013 In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the National Security Agency, and described the United States
United States
as "our truest ally throughout the decades".[206][207] During a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in Berlin, Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is uncharted territory for us all" (German: Das Internet ist für uns alle Neuland). This statement led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.[208][209] Merkel compared the NSA to the Stasi
when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency. In response, Susan Rice pledged that the U.S. will desist from spying on her personally, but said there would not be a no-espionage agreement between the two countries.[210]

Germany's BND has covertly monitored European firms and officials at the request of the NSA.[211] In July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany
and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two, and she would seek to have talks. She reiterated the U.S. remained Germany's most important ally.[212] Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu
Ahmet Davutoğlu
in January 2015[213] induced criticism within her party. The parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder
Volker Kauder
said that Islam is not part of Germany
and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran.[214] In October 2015, Horst Seehofer, Bavarian State Premier and leader of CSU, the sister party of Merkel's CDU, criticised Merkel's policy of allowing in hundreds of thousands of migrants from the Middle East: "We're now in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision."[215] Seehofer attacked Merkel policies in sharp language, threatened to sue the government in the high court, and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voices dissatisfaction with Merkel.[216] Chancellor Merkel insisted that Germany
has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany
can take.[217] At the conclusion of the May 2017 Group of Seven's leaders in Sicily, Merkel criticised American efforts to renege on earlier commitments on climate change. According to Merkel, the discussions were difficult and marred by dissent. "Here we have the situation where six members, or even seven if you want to add the EU, stand against one."[218]

In the arts and media Since 1991, Merkel has sat annually for sitting and standing portraits by, and interview with, Herlinde Koelbl.[219][220] Merkel features as a main character in two of the three plays that make up the Europeans Trilogy (Bruges, Antwerp, Tervuren) by Paris-based UK playwright Nick Awde: Bruges (Edinburgh Festival, 2014) and Tervuren (2016). A character named Merkel, accompanied by a sidekick called Schäuble, also appears as the sinister female henchman in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence.[221] On the American sketch-comedy Saturday Night Live, she has been parodied by Kate McKinnon
Kate McKinnon
since 2013.[222][223][224] On the British sketch-comedy Tracey Ullman's Show, comedian Tracey Ullman has parodied Merkel to international acclaim with German media dubbing her impersonation as the best spoof of Merkel in the world.[225] In 2016, a documentary film Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
– The Unexpected, a story about her unexpected rise to power from an East German physicist to the most powerful woman in the world, was produced by Broadview TV
Broadview TV
and MDR in collaboration with Arte
and Das Erste.[226] Merkel was portrayed by Swiss actress Anna Katarina in the 2012 political satire film The Dictator.[227]

See also Willkommenskultur Notes

^ The English pronunciation of her first name could be /ˈæŋɡələ, ˈɑːŋ-/, and that of her last name /ˈmɜːrkəl, ˈmɛərkəl/.[2][3][4][5] In German, her last name is pronounced [ˈmɛɐ̯kl̩].[6][7] There are different ways to pronounce the name Angela in German. The Duden Pronunciation Dictionary[8] lists [ˈaŋɡela] and [aŋˈɡeːla]. According to her biographer, Merkel prefers the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable[9] ([aŋˈɡeːla] with a long /eː/).

^ The economist Arno Tausch from Corvinus University
Corvinus University
in Budapest, in a paper published by the Social Science Research Network in New York has contended that a re-analysis of the Merkel hypothesis about the distribution of global social expenditure based on 169 countries for which we have recent ILO
Social Protection data and World Bank
World Bank
GNI data in real purchasing power reveals that the 27 EU countries with complete data spend only 33% of global world social protection expenditures, while the 13 non-EU- OECD
members, among them the major other Western democracies, spend 40% of global social protection expenditures, the BRICS
18% and the Rest of the World 9% of global social protection expenditures. Most probably, the author claims, Merkel's 50% ratio is the product of a mere, simple projection of data for the OECD-member countries onto the world level <http://www.oecd.org/social/expenditure.htm>. Tausch also claims that the data reveal the successful social Keynesianism of the Anglo-Saxon overseas democracies, which are in stark contrast to the savings agenda in the framework of the European "fiscal pact", see Tausch, Arno, Wo Frau Kanzlerin Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Irrt: Der Sozialschutz in Der Welt, Der Anteil Europas Und Die Beurteilung Seiner Effizienz (Where Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Got it Wrong: Social Protection in the World, Europe's Share in it and the Assessment of its Efficiency) (4 September 2015). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2656113

^ The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors

^ Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it", said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons, she said. "But if a chancellor also makes a speech on top of that, it serves to heat up the debate."[201]


^ "Angela Merkel: Her bio in brief". Christian Science Monitor. 20 September 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Wells, J. C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Pearson Education Limited.

^ "Merkel". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 7 April 2019.

^ "Merkel, Angela" (US) and "Merkel, Angela". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. Retrieved 7 April 2019.

^ "Merkel". Merriam-Webster
Dictionary. Retrieved 7 April 2019.

^ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 548. ISBN 978-3411209163. Merkel ˈmɛrkl̩

^ Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian; et al., eds. (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (1st ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 739. ISBN 978-3110182026. Merkel mˈɛʶkl̩

^ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 156. ISBN 978-3411209163. Angela ˈaŋɡela auch: aŋˈɡeːla.

^ Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(in German). Munich: dtv. p. 50. ISBN 3423244852. Merkel wollte immer mit der Betonung auf dem 'e' Angela genannt werden. (Merkel always wanted her first name pronounced with the stress on the 'e'.)

^ Government continues as acting government, bundeskanzlerin.de, 24 October 2017

^ a b Vick, Karl (2015). " Time Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". Time. Retrieved 30 April 2017.

^ "The World's Most Powerful Women 2018". Forbes. Retrieved 30 December 2018.

^ a b AFP. "Merkel: From austerity queen to 'leader of free world'". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 30 December 2018.

^ a b "German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the newly christened 'leader of the free world,' is preparing to step back from politics — and experts say 'the coming storm is ... quite powerful'". nordic.businessinsider.com. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.

^ a b Clarke, Hilary (30 October 2018). "For years, Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
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^ a b Moulson, Geir; Rising, David (29 October 2018). "Merkel won't seek a 5th term as German chancellor". AP NEWS. Retrieved 30 December 2018.

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Angela Merkel
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^ "Germany's Merkel begins new term". BBC. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.

^ a b "German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
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^ Oltermann, Philip; Connolly, Kate (14 March 2018). "Angela Merkel faces multiple challenges in her fourth term". the Guardian.

^ " Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
faces outright rebellion within her own party over refugee crisis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 January 2016.

^ a b " Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
to step down in 2021". BBC
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^ Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel. DTV (in German). p. 10. ISBN 3423244852.

^ "Merkels Vater gestorben – Termine abgesagt" (in German). newsecho. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.

^ Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). "In the Shadow of the Berlin Wall". Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1468314083.

^ "Picturing the Family: Media, Narrative, Memory | Research".

^ Kornelius, Stefan (March 2013). Angela Merkel: Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt (in German). Hoffmann und Campe. p. 7. ISBN 978-3455502916.

^ a b Kornelius, Stefan (10 September 2013). "Six things you didn't know about Angela Merkel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.

^ "The German chancellor's Polish roots". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.

^ "Merkel hat polnische Wurzeln" [Merkel has Polish roots]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.

^ "Ahnenforschung: Kanzlerin Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
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^ Boyes, Roger (25 July 2005). "Angela Merkel: Forged in the Old Communist East, Germany's Chancellor-in-Waiting Is Not like the Others". New Statesman.

^ a b Werner, Reutter (1 December 2005). "Who's Afraid of Angela Merkel?: The Life, Political Career, and Future of the New German Chancellor". International Journal. 61.

^ Vasagar, Jeevan (1 September 2013). "Angela Merkel, the girl who never wanted to stand out, to win big again". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 April 2017.

^ Patterson, Tony (17 November 2015). "Angela Merkel's journey from Communist East Germany
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^ " Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
– Biography, Political Career & Facts". britannica.com.

^ Hugh C. Dyer, Leon Mangasarian, "German Democratic Republic", in The Study of International Relations: The State of the Art, p. 328, Springer, 1989, ISBN 978-1349202751

^ The learning machine: Angela Merkel, New Statesman, 8 July 2017

^ "5 Things to Know About Germany's Angela Merkel". Associated Press. 2017.

^ "Drogenwahn auf der Dauerbaustelle". Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
(in German). 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.

^ Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(in German). DTV. p. 50. ISBN 3423244852.

^ a b Crawford, Alan; Czuczka, Tony (20 September 2013). "Angela Merkel's Years in East Germany
Shaped Her Crisis Politics". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 29 April 2017.

^ "I Was a Squatter, Reveals German Chancellor Merkel". Deutsche Welle. 28 February 2008.

^ a b "How Close Was Merkel to the Communist System?". Der Spiegel. 2013.

^ Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(in German). Munich: dtv. pp. 106–107. ISBN 3423244852. Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
war allerdings kein 'einfaches Mitglied', sondern gehörte zum FDJ-Sekretariat des Instituts. Osten [Hans-Jörg Osten] kann sich nicht an die genaue Funktion seiner damaligen Kollegin erinnern. ... Er kann sich nicht definitiv daran erinnern, aber auch nicht ausschließen, dass Angela Merkel die Funktion eines Sekretärs für Agitation und Propaganda wahrnahm. [ Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was not just an 'ordinary member', but belonged to the FDJ secretariat of the institute. Osten cannot remember the exact function of his erstwhile colleague. ... He cannot remember definitely whether she performed the function of a secretary for agitation and propaganda, but he cannot exclude that possibility.]

^ Merkel, Angela (1986). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their rate constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods) (in German). Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (dissertation). cited in Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 109. ISBN 3423244852. and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry).

^ "Scopus preview – Scopus – Author details (Merkel, Angela)". scopus.com. Retrieved 19 July 2016.

^ Wie Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
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^ a b Huggler, Justin (9 October 2015). "10 moments that define German chancellor Angela Merkel". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 April 2017.

^ Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) [2005]. Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(in German). Munich: DTV. pp. 112–137. ISBN 3423244852.

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^ a b c d Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Astonishing Rise of Angela Merkel". The New Yorker. Retrieved 30 April 2017.

^ "Kohls unterschätztes Mädchen". Der Spiegel
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(in German). 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2011.

^ Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1468314083.

^ Barry Turner (ed.) The Statesman's Yearbook 2015: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World, Springer 2014 p. 516

^ Schroeder wins second term CNN, 23 September 2002.

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^ "Merkel fordert längere Arbeitszeit". Der Spiegel
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^ "Germany's nuclear phase-out explained". DW. Retrieved 27 July 2019.

^ Marlies Casier and Joost Jongerden, eds. Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey
(2010) p. 110

^ a b Saunders, Doug (14 September 2005). "Popular flat-tax movement hits brick wall in Germany". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 November 2015.

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has 'given up' on Donald Trump
Donald Trump
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Angela Merkel
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Angela Merkel
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University of Szeged
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^ "Bericht der Vorsitzenden der CDU Deutschlands Bundeskanzlerin Dr. Angela Merkel
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Angela Merkel
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^ "List of the Recipients of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award". Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2016.

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Angela Merkel
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Angela Merkel
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
was the recipient of a Gold Medal for outstanding services, the B'nai B'rith
B'nai B'rith
Europe Award of Merit, being the highest accolade of BBEurope

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^ "Angela Merkel – 50 People Who Matter 2010". Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.

^ "Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Receives Global Leadership Award". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.

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^ " Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Receives Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding". ABC News. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.

^ "TIME Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". Time. Retrieved 24 February 2016.

^ "German Chancellor Merkel to Receive Museum's 2017 Elie Wiesel Award". United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.

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Angela Merkel
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Angela Merkel
(in German). Munich: DTV. p. 10. ISBN 3423244852.

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Is Becoming Islamophobic". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.

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^ BBC: Germany's Central Muslim Council (Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland) criticised Mrs. Merkel for attending the award ceremony. 8 September 2010. A ZMD spokesman, Aiman Mazyek, told public broadcaster Deutschlandradio that the Chancellor was honouring someone "who in our eyes kicked our prophet, and therefore kicked all Muslims". He said giving Mr Westergaard the prize in a "highly charged and heated time" was "highly problematic".

^ "Merkel honours Danish Muhammad cartoonist Westergaard". BBC
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^ a b "Award for Danish Muhammad Cartoonist: Merkel Defends Press Freedom, Condemns Koran-Burning". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.

^ "Ehrung des Mohammed-Karikaturisten: Angela Merkels Risiko". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
(in German). 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.

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Angela Merkel
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Donald Trump
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Further reading Plickert, Philip (Editor) (2017) "Merkel: Eine kritische Bilanz", FinanzBuch Verlag, ISBN 978-3959720656. Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of Power – Half a Century of Female presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1447315780 Margaret Heckel: So regiert die Kanzlerin. Eine Reportage. Piper, München 2009, ISBN 978-3492053310. Volker Resing: Angela Merkel. Die Protestantin. Ein Porträt. St. Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3746226484. Gertrud Höhler: Die Patin. Wie Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Deutschland umbaut. Orell Füssli, Zürich 2012, ISBN 978-3280054802. Stefan Kornelius: Angela Merkel. Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg
2013, ISBN 978-3455502916. Nikolaus Blome: Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
– Die Zauderkünstlerin. Pantheon, München 2013, ISBN 978-3570552018. Stephan Hebel: Mutter Blamage – Warum die Nation Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
und ihre Politik nicht braucht. Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3864890215. Günther Lachmann, Ralf Georg Reuth: Das erste Leben der Angela M. Piper, München 2013, ISBN 978-3492055819. Judy Dempsey: Das Phänomen Merkel – Deutschlands Macht und Möglichkeiten. Edition Körber-Stiftung, Hamburg
2013, ISBN 978-3896840974. Dirk Kurbjuweit: Alternativlos – Merkel, die Deutschen und das Ende der Politik. Hanser, München, 2014, ISBN 978-3446246201. Julia Schramm: Fifty Shades of Merkel. Hoffmann & Campe, 2016, ISBN 978-3455504101 External links

Angela Merkelat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity

Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany Merkel's personal website (in German) Merkel on her party's website Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
at the Encyclopædia Britannica Appearances on C-SPAN Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
on IMDb Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English

Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
collected news and commentary at The Economist Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
collected news and commentary at Forbes " Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
collected news and commentary". The New York Times. Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
collected news and commentary at Time Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Quiet German". The New Yorker: 46–63. Offices and distinctions

Political offices

Preceded byUrsula Lehr

Minister for Women and Youth1991–1994

Succeeded byClaudia Nolte

Preceded byKlaus Töpfer

Minister for the Environment1994–1998

Succeeded byJürgen Trittin

Preceded byGerhard Schröder

Chancellor of Germany2005–present


Party political offices

Preceded byPeter Hintze

General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union1998–2000

Succeeded byRuprecht Polenz

Preceded byFriedrich Merz

Chair of the CDU/CSU
Parliamentary Group2002–2005

Succeeded byVolker Kauder

Preceded byWolfgang Schäuble

Leader of the Christian Democratic Union2000–2018

Succeeded byAnnegret Kramp-Karrenbauer

Diplomatic posts

Preceded byVladimir Putin

Chair of the Group of Eight2007

Succeeded byYasuo Fukuda

Preceded byHerman Van RompuyJosé Manuel Barroso

Chair of the Group of Eight2015

Succeeded byShinzō Abe

Preceded byXi Jinping

Chair of the Group of 202017

Succeeded byMauricio Macri

Academic offices

Preceded byJerzy Buzek

Invocation Speaker of the College of Europe2010

Succeeded byGiorgio Napolitano

Order of precedence

Preceded byWolfgang Schäubleas President of the Bundestag

Order of precedence of Germanyas Chancellor

Succeeded byStanislaw Tillichas President of the Bundesrat

Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
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North German Confederation
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German Empire
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Weimar Republic
Reichskanzler (1919–1933) Philipp Scheidemann
Philipp Scheidemann
(as Ministerpräsident) Gustav Bauer
Gustav Bauer
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First Merkel Cabinet
(2005–2009) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(CDU) Franz Müntefering/ Olaf Scholz
Olaf Scholz
(since 22 November 2007; SPD) Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
(SPD) Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
(CDU) Brigitte Zypries
Brigitte Zypries
(SPD) Peer Steinbrück
Peer Steinbrück
(SPD) Michael Glos/ Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
(since 10 February 2009; CSU) Horst Seehofer/ Ilse Aigner
Ilse Aigner
(since 31 October 2008; CSU) Franz Josef Jung
Franz Josef Jung
(CDU) Ursula von der Leyen
Ursula von der Leyen
(CDU) Ulla Schmidt
Ulla Schmidt
(SPD) Wolfgang Tiefensee
Wolfgang Tiefensee
(SPD) Sigmar Gabriel
Sigmar Gabriel
(SPD) Annette Schavan
Annette Schavan
(CDU) Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul
Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul
(SPD) Thomas de Maizière
Thomas de Maizière

vte Second Merkel Cabinet
Second Merkel Cabinet
(2009–2013) Guido WesterwelleV Philipp RöslerAV Angela Merkel Thomas de Maizière Hans-Peter FriedrichC Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger Wolfgang Schäuble Rainer Brüderle Franz Josef Jung Ursula von der LeyenB Ilse Aigner Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg Thomas de MaizièreC Ursula von der Leyen Kristina SchröderB Daniel BahrC Peter Ramsauer Norbert Röttgen Peter AltmaierD Annette SchavanE Dirk Niebel Ronald Pofalla Johanna Wanka Bold: Chancellor; A: Served as Minister of Health 2009–2011 and then served as Minister of Economics and Technology and Vice-Chancellor (2011–present); B: Served from 2009; C: Served from 2011; D: Served from 2012; E: Served until 2013 V: Vice-Chancellor. vte Third Merkel Cabinet
Third Merkel Cabinet
(2013–2018) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(CDU) Sigmar Gabriel
Sigmar Gabriel
(SPD) Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
(until 27 January 2017, SPD) Brigitte Zypries
Brigitte Zypries
(since 27 January 2017, SPD) Thomas de Maizière
Thomas de Maizière
(CDU) Heiko Maas
Heiko Maas
(SPD) Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
(CDU) Andrea Nahles
Andrea Nahles
(SPD) Christian Schmidt (since 17 February 2014, CSU) Hans-Peter Friedrich
Hans-Peter Friedrich
(until 17 February 2014, CSU) Ursula von der Leyen
Ursula von der Leyen
(CDU) Manuela Schwesig
Manuela Schwesig
(until 2 June 2017, SPD) Katarina Barley
Katarina Barley
(since 2 June 2017, SPD) Hermann Gröhe
Hermann Gröhe
(CDU) Alexander Dobrindt
Alexander Dobrindt
(CSU) Barbara Hendricks (SPD) Johanna Wanka
Johanna Wanka
(CDU) Gerd Müller (CSU) Peter Altmaier
Peter Altmaier

vteFourth Merkel Cabinet (2018–) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(CDU) Olaf Scholz
Olaf Scholz
(SPD) Heiko Maas
Heiko Maas
(SPD) Horst Seehofer
Horst Seehofer
(CSU) Katarina Barley
Katarina Barley
(until 27 June 2019, SPD) Christine Lambrecht
Christine Lambrecht
(since 27 June 2019, SPD) Peter Altmaier
Peter Altmaier
(CDU) Hubertus Heil
Hubertus Heil
(SPD) Julia Klöckner
Julia Klöckner
(CDU) Ursula von der Leyen
Ursula von der Leyen
(until 17 July 2019, CDU) Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
(since 17 July 2019, CDU) Franziska Giffey
Franziska Giffey
(SPD) Jens Spahn
Jens Spahn
(CDU) Andreas Scheuer
Andreas Scheuer
(CSU) Svenja Schulze
Svenja Schulze
(SPD) Anja Karliczek
Anja Karliczek
(CDU) Gerd Müller (CSU) Helge Braun
Helge Braun

vteChairmen of the CDU/CSU
Group Konrad Adenauer Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
di Tremezzo Heinrich Krone Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
di Tremezzo Rainer Barzel Karl Carstens Helmut Kohl Alfred Dregger Wolfgang Schäuble Friedrich Merz Angela Merkel Volker Kauder Ralph Brinkhaus

vteChairpeople of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany Konrad Adenauer Ludwig Erhard Kurt Georg Kiesinger Rainer Barzel Helmut Kohl Wolfgang Schäuble Angela Merkel Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer

vteGeneral Secretaries of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany Bruno Heck Konrad Kraske Kurt Biedenkopf Heiner Geißler Volker Rühe Peter Hintze Angela Merkel Ruprecht Polenz Laurenz Meyer Volker Kauder Ronald Pofalla Hermann Gröhe Peter Tauber Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer Paul Ziemiak

vteEuropean Council List of meetings '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 (Jan–Apr) '04 (May–Dec) '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 (Jan–Jun) '13 (Jul–Dec) '14 '15

Donald Tusk, President of the Council Bierlein Michel Borisov Plenković Anastasiades Babiš Frederiksen Ratas Rinne Macron Merkel Mitsotakis Orbán Varadkar Conte Kariņš Nausėda Bettel Muscat Rutte Morawiecki Costa Iohannis Pellegrini Šarec Sánchez Löfven Johnson Juncker (non-voting) European Union
European Union
Portal vteLeaders of NATOSecretary General Stoltenberg   Rama   Michel   Borisov   Trudeau   Plenković   Babiš   Frederiksen   Ratas   Macron   Merkel   Mitsotakis   Orbán   Katrín   Conte   Kariņš   Nausėda   Bettel   Marković   Rutte   Solberg   Morawiecki   Costa   Iohannis   Pellegrini   Šarec   Sánchez   Erdoğan   Johnson   Trump

vteLeaders of the G8 Trudeau Macron Merkel Conte Abe Putin (suspended) Johnson Trump Tusk / Juncker

vteLeaders of the G20  Macri  Morrison  Bolsonaro  Trudeau  Xi  Tusk / Juncker  Macron  Merkel  Modi  Jokowi  Conte  Abe

 López Obrador  Putin  Salman  Ramaphosa  Moon  Erdoğan  Johnson  Trump

vtePresidents of the European CouncilPresident-in-Office(1975–2009) Liam Cosgrave Aldo Moro Gaston Thorn Joop den Uyl James Callaghan Leo Tindemans Anker Jørgensen Helmut Schmidt Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Jack Lynch Francesco Cossiga Charles Haughey Pierre Werner Dries van Agt Margaret Thatcher Wilfried Martens Anker Jørgensen Poul Schlüter Helmut Kohl Andreas Papandreou François Mitterrand Garret FitzGerald Bettino Craxi Jacques Santer Ruud Lubbers Wilfried Martens Felipe González François Mitterrand Giulio Andreotti Ruud Lubbers Aníbal Cavaco Silva John Major Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Jean-Luc Dehaene Jacques Chirac Felipe González Lamberto Dini Romano Prodi John Bruton Wim Kok Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Viktor Klima Gerhard Schröder Paavo Lipponen António Guterres Jacques Chirac Göran Persson Guy Verhofstadt José María Aznar
José María Aznar
López Anders Fogh Rasmussen Costas Simitis Silvio Berlusconi Bertie Ahern Jan Peter Balkenende Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Wolfgang Schüssel Matti Vanhanen Angela Merkel José Sócrates Janez Janša Nicolas Sarkozy Mirek Topolánek Jan Fischer Fredrik Reinfeldt Permanent President(since 2009) Herman Van Rompuy Donald Tusk Charles Michel
Charles Michel

vteRecipients of the Charlemagne Prize1950–1975 1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975 1976–2000 1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton 2001–present 2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash 2018 Emmanuel Macron 2019 António Guterres 1 Received extraordinary prize. vteTime Persons of the Year1927–1950 Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950) 1951–1975 Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser
Donald A. Glaser
/ Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller
Edward Teller
/ Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
(1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso
Ella Grasso
/ Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975) 1976–2000 Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos
(1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000) 2001–present Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017) The Guardians: Jamal Khashoggi
Jamal Khashoggi
/ Maria Ressa
Maria Ressa
/ Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo / Staff of The Capital (2018) Book Politics portalChemistry portal Germany
portal Authority control BIBSYS: 5082074 BNF: cb15023978d (data) GND: 119545373 ISNI: 0000 0001 0871 1294 LCCN: n94109915 LNB: 000117546 MGP: 223396 NDL: 001183709 NKC: js20050725012 NTA: 268026734 SELIBR: 395102 SNAC: w6kh3p5x SUDOC: 05858112X VIAF: 12584821 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities