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Air Force One
Air Force One
is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force
United States Air Force
aircraft carrying the President of the United States.[1] In common parlance the term describes those Air Force aircraft designed, built, and used to transport the president. The presidential aircraft is a prominent symbol of the American presidency and its power.[2] The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in 1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor to the U.S. Air Force, became concerned over the reliance on commercial airlines to transport the president. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as a presidential transport, but the Secret Service rejected it because of its safety record. A C-54 Skymaster
C-54 Skymaster
was then converted for presidential use; this aircraft, dubbed the Sacred Cow, carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
in February 1945 and was subsequently used for another two years by President Harry S. Truman. The "Air Force One" call sign was created after a 1953 incident during which a Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
named Columbine II, carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhower, entered the same airspace as a commercial airline flight using the same flight number.[3][4][5] A number of aircraft types have been used as Air Force One
Air Force One
since the creation of the presidential fleet, starting with two Lockheed Constellations in the late 1950s: Columbine II
Columbine II
and Columbine III. It also operated two Boeing 707s, introduced in the 1960s and 1970s; since 1990, the presidential fleet has been two Boeing VC-25As, which are specifically configured, highly customized Boeing 747-200B series aircraft. The Air Force plans to procure the Boeing 747-8
Boeing 747-8
for the next version of Air Force One.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 First presidential aircraft 1.3 Late 1940s and 1950s 1.4 Boeing 707s and entry to jet age

1.4.1 SAM 26000 1.4.2 SAM 27000

1.5 Boeing 747s

1.5.1 9/11 to present 1.5.2 Future replacement

2 Other presidential aircraft 3 Air Force One
Air Force One
aircraft on display 4 Notable appearances in media 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Notes 6.2 Bibliography

7 External links

History[edit] Background[edit]

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and pilot Arch Hoxsey
Arch Hoxsey
before their flight from St. Louis in October 1910

On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
became the first U.S. president to fly in an aircraft, an early Wright Flyer
Wright Flyer
from Kinloch Field near St. Louis, Missouri. He was no longer in office at the time, having been succeeded by William Howard Taft. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the crowd at a county fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel.[6] Prior to World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare. The lack of wireless telecommunication and available modes of transportation made long-distance travel impractical, as it took much time and isolated the president from events in Washington, D.C. Railroads were a safer and more reliable option if the president needed to travel to distant states. By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U.S. public saw passenger air travel as a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, and new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more convenient. Life insurance companies even began to offer airline pilots insurance policies, albeit at extravagant rates, and many commercial travelers and government officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel, especially for longer trips. First presidential aircraft[edit] Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office. The first aircraft obtained specifically for presidential travel was a Douglas Dolphin
Douglas Dolphin
amphibian delivered in 1933 which was designated RD-2 by the US Navy and based at the Naval base at Anacostia D.C. The Dolphin was modified with luxury upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment.[7] The aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939.[8] There are no reports, however, on whether the president actually flew in the aircraft. During World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing 314
Boeing 314
flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference in Morocco, a flight that covered 5,500 miles (8,890 km) in three legs.[9] The threat from the German submarines throughout the Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic transportation.[10]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Douglas C-54 Skymaster
Douglas C-54 Skymaster
aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow

Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special needs of the Commander-in-Chief.[11] The first dedicated aircraft proposed for presidential use was a C-87A VIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159, was modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II, intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
on international trips.[12] Had it been accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service, in effect the first Air Force One. However, after a review of the C-87's highly controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve the Guess Where II for presidential carriage.[12] As the C-87 was a derivative of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator
Consolidated B-24 Liberator
bomber, it presented strong offensive impressions to enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign destinations visited, an issue not present with airplanes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
on a goodwill tour of several Latin American countries. The C-87 was scrapped in 1945.[12] The Secret Service subsequently reconfigured a Douglas C-54 Skymaster for presidential transport duty. The VC-54C aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow, included a sleeping area, radio telephone, and retractable elevator to lift Roosevelt in his wheelchair. As modified, the VC-54C was used by President Roosevelt only once before his death, on his trip to the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
in February 1945.[11] Sacred Cow is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. Late 1940s and 1950s[edit]

The VC-118 Independence used primarily by President Truman

After Roosevelt's death in April 1945, Vice President Harry S. Truman became president. The legislation that created the U.S. Air Force, the National Security Act of 1947, was signed by Truman while on board the VC-54C.[11] He replaced the VC-54C in 1947 with a modified C-118 Liftmaster, calling it the Independence (name of Truman's Missouri hometown). This was the first aircraft acting as Air Force One
Air Force One
that had a distinctive exterior—a bald eagle head painted on its nose. The presidential call sign was established for security purposes during the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower. The change stemmed from a 1953 incident where an Eastern Airlines commercial flight (8610) had the same call sign as the flight the president was on (Air Force 8610). The airliner accidentally entered the same airspace, and after the incident, the unique presidential aircraft call sign "Air Force One" was introduced. The first official flight of Air Force One was in 1959, during the Eisenhower administration.

The VC-121 Columbine III used by President Eisenhower

Eisenhower introduced four propeller-driven aircraft to presidential service. This group included two Lockheed C-121 Constellations, the aircraft Columbine II
Columbine II
(VC-121A 48-610)[13][14][15]—the only primary presidential airplane ever sold—and Columbine III (VC-121E 53-7885).[16] They were named by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower
Mamie Eisenhower
after the columbine, the official state flower of her adopted home state of Colorado. Two Aero Commanders were added to the fleet and earned the distinction of being the smallest aircraft ever to serve as Air Force One. President Eisenhower also upgraded Air Force One's technology by adding an air-to-ground telephone and an air-to-ground teletype machine. Boeing 707s and entry to jet age[edit] Main articles: VC-137C SAM 26000
VC-137C SAM 26000
and VC-137C SAM 27000

Boeing 707
Boeing 707
SAM 26000
SAM 26000
served Presidents Kennedy to Clinton, and was the primary transport from Kennedy to Nixon.

Toward the end of Eisenhower's term in 1958, the Air Force added three Boeing 707
Boeing 707
jets (as VC-137s designated SAM 970, 971, and 972), into the fleet.[17] Eisenhower became the first president to use the VC-137 during his "Flight to Peace" Goodwill tour, from 3 December through 22 December 1959. He visited 11 Asian nations, flying 22,000 miles (35,000 km) in 19 days, about twice as fast as he could have covered that distance via one of the Columbines. SAM 26000[edit] Under John F. Kennedy, presidential air travel entered the jet age.[18] He had used the Eisenhower-era jets for trips to Canada, France, Austria, and the United Kingdom.[19] Then in October 1962, the U.S. Air Force purchased a Boeing C-137 Stratoliner, a modified long-range Boeing 707— Special
Special
Air Mission (SAM) 26000.[20] The Air Force had designed a special presidential livery in red and metallic gold, with the nation's name in block letters. Kennedy felt the aircraft appeared too regal, and, on advice from his wife, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, he contacted the French-born American industrial designer Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy
for help in designing a new livery and interiors for the VC-137 jet.[2] Loewy met with the president, and his earliest research on the project took him to the National Archives, where he looked at the first printed copy of the United States Declaration of Independence; he saw the country's name set widely spaced and in upper case in Caslon
Caslon
typeface. He chose to expose the polished aluminum fuselage on the bottom side and used two blues – slate-blue associated with the early republic and the presidency and a more contemporary cyan to represent the present and future. The presidential seal was added to both sides of the fuselage near the nose, a large American flag was painted on the tail, and the sides of the aircraft read "United States of America" in all capital letters. Loewy's work won immediate praise from the president and the press. The VC-137 markings were adapted for the larger VC-25 when it entered service in 1990.[21] SAM 26000
SAM 26000
was in service from 1962 to 1998, serving Presidents Kennedy to Clinton. On 22 November 1963, SAM 26000
SAM 26000
carried President Kennedy to Dallas, Texas, where it served as the backdrop as the Kennedys greeted well-wishers at Dallas's Love Field. Later that afternoon, Kennedy was assassinated, and Vice President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
assumed the office of President and took the oath of office aboard SAM 26000. At Johnson's request, the plane carried Kennedy's body back to Washington.[22] A decade later, SAM 26000
SAM 26000
took Johnson's body home to Texas after his state funeral in Washington.[23][24] Johnson used SAM 26000
SAM 26000
to travel extensively domestically and to visit troops in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. SAM 26000
SAM 26000
served President Nixon on several groundbreaking overseas voyages, including his famous visit to the People's Republic of China in February 1972 and trip to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
later that year, both firsts for an American president.[25] Nixon dubbed the plane the "Spirit of '76" in honor of the forthcoming bicentennial of the United States; that logo was painted on both sides of the plane's nose.[26] SAM 26000
SAM 26000
is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. SAM 27000[edit]

Boeing 707
Boeing 707
SAM 27000
SAM 27000
served Presidents Nixon to George W. Bush; it was the primary transport for Nixon through Reagan.

SAM 26000
SAM 26000
was replaced in December 1972 by another VC-137, Special
Special
Air Mission 27000, although SAM 26000
SAM 26000
was kept as a backup until it was finally retired in 1998.[27] Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
was the first president to use SAM 27000; the newer aircraft served every president until it was replaced by two VC-25 aircraft (SAM 28000 and 29000) in 1990. After announcing his intention to resign the presidency, Nixon boarded SAM 27000
SAM 27000
(with call sign "Air Force One") to travel to California. Colonel Ralph Albertazzie, then pilot of Air Force One, recounted that after Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
was sworn in as president, the plane had to be redesignated as SAM 27000, indicating no president was on board the aircraft. Over Jefferson City, Missouri, Albertazzie radioed: "'Kansas City, this was Air Force One. Will you change our call sign to Sierra Alpha Mike (SAM) 27000?' Back came the reply: 'Roger, Sierra Alpha Mike 27000. Good luck to the President.'"[28] SAM 27000's last flight as Air Force One
Air Force One
was on 29 August 2001 when it flew President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
from San Antonio to Waco, Texas. Following the flight, it was formally decommissioned, then flown to San Bernardino International Airport
San Bernardino International Airport
(former Norton AFB) in California. It was dismantled and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, where it was reassembled and is on permanent display. Boeing 747s[edit] Main article: Boeing VC-25

SAM 28000 sits on the ramp as Air Force One
Air Force One
(in the background) descends on final approach into Hickam Field
Hickam Field
in Honolulu, Hawaii with President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
aboard.

Though Ronald Reagan's two terms as president saw no major changes to Air Force One, the manufacture of the presidential aircraft version of the 747 began during his presidency. The USAF issued a Request For Proposal in 1985 for two wide-body aircraft with a minimum of three engines and an unrefueled range of 6,000 miles (9,700 km). Boeing with the 747 and McDonnell Douglas with the DC-10
DC-10
submitted proposals, and the Reagan Administration
Reagan Administration
ordered two identical 747s to replace the aging 707s he used.[29] The interior designs, drawn up by First Lady Nancy Reagan, were reminiscent of the American Southwest.[29] The first of two aircraft, designated VC-25A, was delivered in 1990, during the administration of George H. W. Bush. Delays were experienced to allow for additional work to protect the aircraft from electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects. The VC-25 is equipped with both secure and unsecure phone and computer communications systems, enabling the president to perform duties while airborne, in the event of an attack on the US. The presidential air fleet is operated by the 89th Airlift Wing
89th Airlift Wing
at Andrews Field, Maryland. In June 1974, while President Nixon was on his way to a scheduled stop in Syria, Syrian fighter jets intercepted Air Force One
Air Force One
to act as escorts. However, the Air Force One
Air Force One
crew was not informed in advance and, as a result, took evasive action including a dive.[30]

President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and First Lady Laura Bush
Laura Bush
walk on the parking ramp as Air Force One
Air Force One
sits at Bagram Air Base
Bagram Air Base
in Afghanistan, 1 March 2006.

The Air Force usually does not have fighter aircraft escort the presidential aircraft over the United States but it has occurred, for example during the attack on the World Trade Center.[30] 9/11 to present[edit] On 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
was interrupted as he attended an event at Emma E. Booker Elementary School
Emma E. Booker Elementary School
in Sarasota, Florida, after the attack on the World Trade Center South Tower in New York City. He took off on a VC-25 from Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport with Colonel Mark Tillman, the senior pilot of Air Force One
Air Force One
that day, in charge. Air traffic controllers gave Air Force One an ominous warning that a passenger jet was close to Air Force One and was unresponsive to calls. Tillman recalls: "As we got over Gainesville, Florida, we got the word from Jacksonville Center. They said, ' Air Force One
Air Force One
you have traffic behind you and basically above you that is descending into you, we are not in contact with them – they have shut their responder [sic] off.' And at that time it kind of led us to believe maybe someone was coming into us in Sarasota, they saw us take off, they just stayed high and are following us at this point. We had no idea what the capabilities of the terrorists were at that point."[31] In response to this reported threat, Col. Tillman said he flew Air Force One over the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to test whether the other aircraft would follow. The other jet continued on its route, and Tillman said that it was later explained to him that an airliner had lost its transponder and that the pilots on-board neglected to switch to another radio frequency. An aircraft transponder broadcasts an electronic identification signal.[31] A threat came again when Tillman received a message warning of an imminent attack on Air Force One. "We got word from the vice president and the staff that 'Angel was next.' Angel being the classified call sign for Air Force One. Once we got into the Gulf [of Mexico] and they passed to us that 'Angel was next,' at that point I asked for fighter support. If an airliner was part of the attack, it would be good to have fighters on the wing to go ahead and take care of us." At this point, Tillman said that the plan to fly the president back to Washington, DC was aborted and instead Tillman landed at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana
Louisiana
and Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, where the president made a speech. Tillman explained that this was due to his concern that because of the reported threat, Air Force One
Air Force One
would be attacked when he returned to Andrews Air Force Base.[31]

President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
meets with staff mid-flight aboard Air Force One, in the conference room, 3 April 2009.

After the preliminary stops, the president was returned to Washington. The next day, officials at the White House and the Justice Department explained that President Bush did this because there was "specific and credible information that the White House and Air Force One
Air Force One
were also intended targets."[32] The White House could not confirm evidence of a threat made against Air Force One, and investigation found the original claim to be a result of miscommunication.[33] Presidents have invited other world leaders to travel with them on Air Force One at times, including Nixon inviting Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev to travel with him to California from Washington, D.C. in June 1973.[34] In 1983, President Reagan and Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
toured the U.S. West Coast aboard Air Force One.[35] In March 2012, President Obama took British Prime Minister David Cameron
David Cameron
to a basketball game in Ohio aboard Air Force One.[36] On 27 April 2009, a low-flying VC-25 circled New York City for a photo-op and training exercise and caused a scare for many in New York.[37] Fallout from the photo op incident led to the resignation of the director of the White House Military Office. When President Bush came to the end of his second term in 2009, a VC-25 was used to transport him to Texas. For this purpose the aircraft call sign was Special
Special
Air Mission 28000, as the aircraft did not carry the current President of the United States. Similar arrangements were made for former Presidents Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama. In January 2018, media reports stated that the cost for an upgrade of Air Force One's two refrigerators was $23.7 million.[38]

President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
disembarking Air Force One
Air Force One
in Germany for the G20 Summit.

Future replacement[edit] The VC-25As are expected to be replaced, as they have become less cost-effective to operate.[39] On 28 January 2015, the Air Force announced that the Boeing 747-8
Boeing 747-8
will serve as the next presidential aircraft.[40][41] On 6 December 2016, then-President-elect Donald Trump tweeted his opposition to the Air Force One
Air Force One
replacement due to its high cost of "more than $4 billion". The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimated the total cost at $3.2 billion, and the U.S. Air Force's budget for the program is projected to be nearly $4 billion. In December 2016, Boeing was on contract for preliminary development worth $170 million.[42][43][44] On 1 August 2017, Defense One
Defense One
reported that in an effort to pay less for the replacement program, the U.S. Air Force has contracted to purchase two of the bankrupt Russian airline Transaero's undelivered 747-8 Intercontinentals from Boeing, which is storing them in the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
to prevent corrosion. These airplanes, which were flight-tested but never delivered, will be retrofitted with telecommunications and security equipment to bring them to the required security level for the presidential aircraft.[45][46] Other presidential aircraft[edit]

A Boeing C-32
Boeing C-32
(Boeing 757) serving as Air Force Two

During the Johnson Administration, the United States Air Force acquired a Beechcraft King Air B90 which was designated VC-6A.[47] The aircraft was used to transport President Johnson between Bergstrom Air Force Base and his family ranch near Johnson City, Texas,[48] and was used at least once to transport the President to Princeton, New Jersey.[49] It was referred to as Lady Bird's airplane and later in its service life featured a basic color scheme similar to civilian aircraft.[50] When the President was aboard, the aircraft used the call sign Air Force One.[49] United Airlines
United Airlines
is the only commercial airline to have operated Executive One, the call sign given to a civilian flight on which the U.S. President is aboard. On 26 December 1973, President Richard Nixon and his family flew as commercial passengers on a United DC-10
DC-10
from Washington Dulles to Los Angeles International Airport. His staff explained that this was done to conserve fuel by not having to fly the usual Boeing 707
Boeing 707
Air Force aircraft.[51] The President regularly flies in helicopters (call sign Marine One) operated by the U.S. Marine Corps.[52] In November 1999, President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
flew from Ankara, Turkey, to Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station
Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station
outside Izmit, Turkey, aboard a marked C-20C (Gulfstream III) using the call sign "Air Force One", escorted by three F-16s.[53] On 8 March 2000, President Clinton flew to Pakistan aboard an unmarked Gulfstream III
Gulfstream III
while another aircraft with the call sign "Air Force One" flew on the same route a few minutes later. This diversion was reported by several U.S. press outlets.[54][55][56] On 1 May 2003, President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
flew in the co-pilot seat of a Sea Control Squadron Thirty-Five (VS-35) S-3B Viking from Naval Air Station North Island, California to the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast, where Bush delivered his "Mission Accomplished" speech. During the flight, the aircraft used the call sign of "Navy One" for the first time. This aircraft is now on display at the National Naval Aviation Museum
National Naval Aviation Museum
at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.[57] When required by circumstances, the President makes domestic flights using a Boeing C-32, sometimes to allow access to smaller airports that cannot support the larger VC-25.[58] Air Force One
Air Force One
aircraft on display[edit]

Lockheed JetStar
Lockheed JetStar
used by President Johnson on display at the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park

Several presidential aircraft that have formerly served as Air Force One (Sacred Cow, Independence, Columbine III, SAM 26000, and other smaller presidential aircraft) are on display in the presidential hangar of the National Museum of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
(located at Wright-Patterson AFB
Wright-Patterson AFB
near Dayton, Ohio) and at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington (earlier VC-137B SAM 970). The Boeing VC-137C that served as Air Force One
Air Force One
from the Nixon years through the George H. W. Bush administration (SAM 27000) is on display in Simi Valley, California at the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library. The library's Air Force One
Air Force One
Pavilion was opened to the public on 24 October 2005.

In 2005, President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, and former First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
toured SAM 27000, the aircraft that served seven presidents from 1972 to 2001; it is now housed at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

A VC-118A Liftmaster used by John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
is on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB
Davis-Monthan AFB
in Tucson, Arizona. A Lockheed JetStar
Lockheed JetStar
which was used by Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
during his presidency is on display at the LBJ Ranch (now the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park) in Stonewall, Texas. The ranch had a runway, but was too small to accommodate a large plane such as a Boeing 707. President Johnson would take the larger Air Force One
Air Force One
to Bergstrom AFB
Bergstrom AFB
in Austin, where he would transfer to the smaller JetStar for the short flight to the ranch.[59] A McDonnell Douglas VC-9C used by Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
is on display at Castle Air Museum
Castle Air Museum
in Atwater, California
Atwater, California
adjacent to the former Castle Air Force Base.[60] Notable appearances in media[edit] Main article: Aircraft in fiction § Boeing 747 Air Force One
Air Force One
is shown as being equipped with a one-person escape pod and parachutes for emergency use by the President of the United States in at least five films: Escape from New York, Air Force One, White House Down, Bermuda Tentacles, and Big Game. However, the actual Air Force One does not have an escape pod or parachutes for emergency use.[61][62] See also[edit]

United States Air Force
United States Air Force
portal Aviation portal

Air transports of heads of state and government List of official vehicles of the President of the United States Boeing E-4
Boeing E-4
"Nightwatch"

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Order 7110.65R (Air Traffic Control)." Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Federal Aviation Administration, 14 March 2007. Retrieved: 27 August 2007. ^ a b Walsh 2003. ^ First Air Force
First Air Force
One plane decaying in Arizona field ^ America's lost Air Force One ^ Price, Mark J. "Local history: Cuyahoga Falls aviator Billy Draper named 'Air Force One' as Eisenhower’s pilot." Akron Beacon Journal, 23 November 2014. Retrieved:24 November 2014. ^ Hardesty 2003, pp. 31–32. ^ "Mayflower Of The Air Ready For President." Popular Mechanics, May 1933. ^ Donald 1997, p. 364. ^ Hardesty 2003, p. 38. ^ Hardesty 2003, p. 39. ^ a b c "Factsheet: Douglas VC-54C SACRED COW." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 19 October 2009. ^ a b c Dorr 2002, p. l34. ^ Dagenhart, Jenna (23 March 2016). " First Air Force
First Air Force
One Aircraft Lands in Bridgewater for Restorations". WVIR. Retrieved 24 March 2016.  ^ Villarreal, Phil. "1st Air Force One
Air Force One
fades in Marana." Arizona Daily Star, 11 July 2013. Retrieved: 16 July 2013. ^ Petersen, Ralph M. "N9463 c/n 2602." Lockheed Constellation Survivors, Retrieved: 16 July 2013. ^ Petersen, Ralph M. "53-7885 c/n 4151." Lockheed Constellation Survivors. Retrieved: 16 July 2013. ^ "First of 3 Jets for President and Top Aides Is Unveiled." The New York Times, 28 April 1959, p. 3. ^ Walsh 2003, p. 60. ^ terHorst & Albertazzie, pp. 198–201. ^ Walsh 2003, p. 63. ^ Hardesty 2003, p. 70. ^ Johnson 1971, pp. 11–17. ^ "LBJ buried near his Texas birthplace." The Boston Globe, 26 January 1973, p. 1. ^ "Body of LBJ Lies in State in Washington: Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
returned in death ... to a capital ... aboard the presidential jet ...(that) bore ... serial number 26000." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 25 January 1973, p. 1. ^ "Boeing VC-137C SAM 26000." National Museum of the United States Air Force, 8 March 2010. Retrieved: 16 February 2012. ^ Dorr 2002, p. 80. ^ Thomma, Steve. "Presidential Plane Heads for History; This Air Force One Served Every President Since Kennedy. A Museum is Next." The Philadelphia Inquirer, 20 May 1998, p. A14. ^ Hevesi, Dennis. "Ralph Albertazzie, Nixon’s Pilot, Dies at 88." The New York Times, 16 August 2011, p. B16. Retrieved: 17 August 2011. ^ a b Williams, Rudi. "Reagan Makes First, Last Flight in Jet He Ordered." United States Department of Defense, 10 June 2004. Retrieved: 23 June 2009. ^ a b "Washington Post Online conversation with Kenneth Walsh on his Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes." Washington Post, 22 May 2002. Retrieved: 18 October 2009. ^ a b c "'Angel is next': The terrifying message pilot of Air Force One got as he flew President Bush on 9/11." The Daily Mail, 7 September 2011. ^ "Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer." White House News releases, September 2001. Retrieved: 18 October 2009. ^ Allen, Mike. "White House Drops Claim of Threat to Bush." The Washington Post, 27 September 2001, p. A08. Retrieved: 28 February 2007. ^ " Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
en route to California with Leonid Brezhnev." CVCE, 22 June 1973. Retrieved: 14 March 2012. ^ Dorr, Robert. "Air Force One." Zenith Imprint, 2002. Retrieved: 22 June 2013. ^ Robinson, Nick. "David Cameron, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and the Special Relationship." BBC, 13 March 2012. Retrieved: 13 March 2012. ^ Rao, Mythili and Ed Henry. " 'Furious' Obama orders review of NY plane flyover." cnn.com, 28 April 2009. Retrieved: 18 October 2009. ^ Karen Mizoguchi, "'Furious' Melania Trump's Escape to Mar-a-Lago Spa Cost Taxpayers $64,000: Report". People, January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2018. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "US considers Airbus A380 as Air Force One
Air Force One
and potentially a C-5 replacement." Flight Global, 17 October 2007. Retrieved: 6 December 2016. ^ "AF Identifies Boeing 747-8
Boeing 747-8
platform for next Air Force One." United States Air Force, 28 January 2015. Retrieved: 28 January 2015. ^ Capaccio. Anthony. "Boeing to build Air Force One
Air Force One
replacement with bids for systems." Bloomberg News, 28 January 2015. Retrieved: 25 April 2015. ^ "Trump says Air Force One
Air Force One
Boeing order should be cancelled". BBC News. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.  ^ Mark Odell (7 December 2016). "Trump speaks to Boeing chief on Air Force One replacement costs". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 December 2016.  ^ Mehta, Aaron (6 December 2016). "Trump Tweets US Should Cancel Air Force One Replacement". Defense News. Retrieved 11 December 2016.  ^ "Trump Wanted a Cheaper Air Force One. So the USAF Is Buying a Bankrupt Russian Firm's Undelivered 747s". Defense One. August 1, 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-02.  ^ Ostrower, Jon; Browne, Ryan (August 5, 2017). "US finalizes deal for new Air Force One
Air Force One
jets once destined for Russian airliner". CNN. Retrieved 2018-01-27.  ^ "Factsheets: Beech V-6A." National Museum of the United States Air Force, 19 June 2006. Retrieved: 28 February 2012. ^ Hardesty 2005, p. 84. ^ a b Collins, Richard L. "C90 King Airs." Flying Magazine, Volume 127, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 67–70. ^ Dorr 2002, p. 74. ^ Mudd, Roger and Richard Wagner. Vanderbilt Television News Archive "President / Commercial Airline Flight." CBS News, 27 December 1973. Retrieved: 23 June 2009. ^ "On Board Marine One, Presidential Fleet". National Geographic, 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2013. ^ Martin, Swayne (2014-10-16). "6 Gulfstream Missions That Have Nothing To Do With Luxury". Bold Method. Retrieved 2015-11-18.  ^ Sammon, Bill. "Clinton uses decoy flight for security." Washington Times, 26 March 2000, p. C.1. ^ Haniffa, Aziz. "Playing hide-and-seek on trip to Islamabad." India Abroad. New York: 31 March 2000, Vol. XXX, Issue 27, p. 22. ^ "Clinton's trip to Asia cost at least $50 million." Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 9 April 2000, p. 175 A. ^ Donald, David: Warplanes of the Fleet, pages 168, 171. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1 ^ Dwyer, Devin. "President Obama wraps blitz with Air Force One
Air Force One
rally in Ohio." ABC News, 25 October 2012. Retrieved: 25 October 2012. ^ " Lyndon B. Johnson
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Bibliography[edit]

Abbott, James A. and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7. Albertazzie, Ralph and Jerald TerHorst Flying White House: The Story of Air Force One. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1979. ISBN 0-698-10930-9. Braun, David "Q&A: U.S. Presidential Jet Air Force One." National Geographic News, 29 May 2003. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6. Dorr, Robert F. Air Force One. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1055-6. Hardesty, Von. Air Force One: The Aircraft that Shaped the Modern Presidency. Chanhassen, Minnesota: Northword Press, 2003. ISBN 1-55971-894-3. Harris, Tom. "How Air Force One
Air Force One
Works." HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved: 10 October 2006. Johnson, Lyndon Baines. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971. ISBN 978-0-03084-492-8. Walsh, Kenneth T. Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes. New York: Hyperion, 2003. ISBN 1-4013-0004-9

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air Force One.

VC-25 – Air Force One
Air Force One
Fact Sheet on US Air Force site SAM 26000
SAM 26000
fact sheet on the National Museum of the United States Air Force site Presidential Gallery, featuring Boeing VC-137C known as SAM (Special Air Mission) 26000 Air Force One
Air Force One
page on WhiteHouse.gov Facts and History of 707 as Air Force One
Air Force One
and "Where they are Now?" on 707sim.com Air Force One
Air Force One
page on WhiteHouseMuseum.org Air Force One
Air Force One
Pavilion on ReaganFoundation.org Truman Library & Museum US Air Force image gallery Boeing History of Air Force One Technical Order 00-105E-9, Segment 9, Chapter 7 Air Force One
Air Force One
page on air-force-one.fr

v t e

Callsigns of aircraft carrying the President and Vice President of the United States

Army One Air Force One Navy One Marine One Coast Guard One Executive One

Army Two Air Force Two Navy Two Marine Two Coast Guard Two Executive Two

89th Airlift Wing

VC-25 C-32 C-40

HMX-1

VH-3D VH-60N

Transportation of the President of the United States White House Transportation Agency

v t e

White House Military Office

White House Communications Agency Presidential Airlift Group White House Medical Unit Camp David Marine Helicopter Squadron One (HMX-1) Presidential Food Service White House Transportation Agency

v t e

United States Air Force

Leadership

Secretary of the Air Force Under Secretary of the Air Force Chief of Staff Vice Chief of Staff Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Four-star generals House Armed Services Committee

House Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces House Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

Senate Committee on Armed Services

Senate Subcommittee on Airland Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

Structure

Commands

Reserve Air National Guard Field Operating Agencies Installations

Direct Reporting Units

District of Washington Operational Test and Evaluation Center USAF Academy

Major Commands

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Numbered Air Forces

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Civilian auxiliary: Civil Air Patrol

Personnel and training

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officers enlisted

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Category   United States Air Force
United States Air Force
portal

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GN

.