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1966 April 20: Chidlaw Building, Colorado 1951 January 8: Ent AFB, Colorado 1946 March 21: Mitchel Field, New York

Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
was a major command of the United States
United States
Air Forces, responsible for continental air defence. It was activated in 1968 and disbanded in 1980. Its predecessor, Air Defense Command, was established in 1946, briefly inactivated in 1950, reactivated in 1951, and then redesignated Aerospace rather than Air in 1968. Its mission was to provide air defense of the Continental United States
United States
(CONUS). It directly controlled all active measures, and was tasked to coordinate all passive means of air defense.

Contents

1 Air defense during World War II

1.1 Continental Air Forces

2 Air Defense Command 1946

2.1 Reformation 1951

3 Air and Aerospace Defense Command 4 Tactical Air Command
Tactical Air Command
and ADTAC

4.1 Chronology of major events 4.2 Interceptor Aircraft

4.2.1 Interceptor gunnery training

4.3 Defense Systems Evaluation 4.4 Continental defense

4.4.1 Missile warning and space surveillance 4.4.2 Consolidated C3

5 Inactivation 6 Lineage 7 Components

7.1 Air Defense Forces 7.2 Air Forces 7.3 Regions 7.4 Air Divisions 7.5 Air Defense Sectors 7.6 Other

8 References

Air defense during World War II[edit] Continental United States
United States
air defense forces during World War II
World War II
were initially under the command of the four air districts - Northeast Air District, Northwest Air District, Southeast Air District, and Southwest Air District. The air districts were established on 16 January 1941 before the Pearl Harbor attack.[1] The four air districts also handled USAAF combat training with the Army Ground Forces
Army Ground Forces
and "organization and training of bomber, fighter and other units and crews for assignments overseas".[1] The air districts were redesignated on 26 March 1941 as the 1st Air Force, 2nd Air Force, 3rd Air Force, & 4th Air Force,[1] First and Fourth Air Forces, through their interceptor commands, managed the civilian Aircraft Warning Service on the West and East Coasts. The USAAF's Aircraft Warning Corps
Aircraft Warning Corps
provided air defense warning with information centers that networked an area's "Army Radar Stations" which communicated radar tracks by telephone. The AWC information centers also integrated visual reports processed by Ground Observer Corps filter centers. AWC information centers notified air defense command posts of the "4 continental air forces" for deploying interceptor aircraft which used command guidance for ground-controlled interception. The USAAF inactivated the aircraft warning network in April 1944.[2]:38 Continental Air Forces[edit] Continental Air Forces (CAF) was activated on 12 December 1944 with the four "Air Forces" as components to consolidate the CONUS air defense mission under one command.[3][4] (AAF Regulation 20-1 later specified the post-war CAF mission.)[5] For aircraft warning, in 1945 CAF had recommended "research and development be undertaken on radar and allied equipment for an air defense system [for] the future threat", e.g., a "radar [with] range of 1,000 miles, [to detect] at an altitude of 200 miles, and at a speed of 1,000 miles per hour";[6] but the Hq AAF responded that "until the kind of defense needed to counter future attacks could be determined, AC&W planning would have to be restricted to the use of available radar sets".[7] CAF's January 1946 Radar Defense Report for Continental United States
United States
recommended military characteristics for a post-war Air Defense System "based upon such advanced equipment,"[8] and the HQ AAF Plans reminded "the command that radar defense planning had to be based on the available equipment."[9] Planning to reorganize for a separate USAF had begun by the fall 1945 Simpson Board to plan "the reorganization of the Army and the Air Force".[10] The Continental Air Forces reorganization began in 1945, when ground radar and interceptor plans were prepared for the transfer at CAF HQ "in expectation that it would become" Air Defense Command.[11][4] CAF military installations that became ADC bases included Mitchel Field
Mitchel Field
(21 March 1946), Hamilton Army Airfield
Hamilton Army Airfield
(21 March 1946), Myrtle Beach Army Air Field (27 March 1946), Shaw Field (1 April 1946), McChord Field
McChord Field
(1 August 1946), Grandview Army Air Field (1 January 1952), Seymour Johnson Field (1 April 1956), and Tyndall Field (1 July 1957). Air Defense Command 1946[edit]

Shield of Air Defense Command

Air Defense Command was activated on 21 March 1946 with the former CAF Fourth Air Force, the tbd's Tenth Air Force, and the tbd's Fourteenth Air Force ( Second Air Force
Second Air Force
was reactivated and added on 6 June.) In December 1946 "Development of Radar Equipment for Detecting and Countering Missiles of the German A-4 type" was planned[12] (part of Signal Corps' Project 414A contracted to Bell Laboratories
Bell Laboratories
in 1945).[2]:207 The Distant Early Warning Line
Distant Early Warning Line
was "first conceived—and rejected—in 1946".[2]:2 A 1947 proposal for 411 radar stations and 18 control centers costing $600 million[13] was the Project Supremacy plan for a postwar Radar Fence that was rejected by Air Defense Command since "no provision was made in it for the Alaska to Greenland net with flanks guarded by aircraft and picket ships [required] for 3 to 6 hours of warning time",[2]:129 and "Congress failed to act on legislation[specify] required to support the proposed system".[2] (In the spring and summer of 1947, 3 ADC AC&W plans had gone unfunded.[14]:53) By 1948 there were only 5 AC&W stations, including the Twin Lights station in NJ that opened in June and Montauk NY "Air Warning Station #3 (July 5)[15]--cf. SAC radar stations, e.g., at Dallas & Denver Bomb Plots.[16] ADC became a subordinate operational command of Continental Air Command on 1 December 1948[citation needed] and on 27 June 1950, United States
United States
air defense systems began 24-hour operations two days after the start of the Korean War.[17] By the time ADC was inactivated on 1 July 1950, ADC had deployed the Lashup Radar Network with existing radars at 43 sites. In addition, 36 Air National Guard fighter units were called to active duty for the[specify] mission.[13] Reformation 1951[edit] ADC was reinstated as a major command on 1 January 1951 at Mitchel Air Force Base, New York. The headquarters was moved to Ent Air Force Base in Colorado
Colorado
Springs on 8 January 1951. It received 21 former ConAC active-duty fighter squadrons (37 additional Air National Guard fighter squadrons if called to active duty). ADC was also assigned the 25th, 26th 27th and 28th Air Divisions (Defense)[17] ADC completed the Priority Permanent System network for Aircraft Warning and Control (ground-controlled interception) in 1952. Gaps were filled by additional Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) radar stations and the Ground Observation Corps
Ground Observation Corps
(disbanded 1959).[13] In May 1954, ADC moved their 1951 command center from a former hallway/latrine area of the Ent AFB
Ent AFB
headquarters building into a "much improved 15,000-square-foot concrete block" building[18]:261 with "main battle control center".[19] During the mid-1950s, planners devised the idea of extending the wall of powerful land-based radar seaward with Airborne early warning and control units. This was done by equipping two wings of Lockheed RC-121 Warning Star aircraft, the 551st Airborne Early Warning and Control Wing, based at Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts, and the 552nd AEWCW, based at McClellan Air Force Base, California, one wing stationed on each coast. The RC-121s, EC-121s and Texas Towers, it was believed, would contribute to extending contiguous east-coast radar coverage some 300 to 500 miles seaward. In terms of the air threat of the 1950s, this meant a gain of at least 30 extra minutes warning time of an oncoming bomber attack.[20] ADC's Operation Tail Wind on 11–12 July tested its augmentation plan that required Air Training Command interceptors participate in an air defense emergency. A total of seven ATC bases actively participated in the exercise, deploying aircraft and aircrews and supporting the ADC radar net.[21] As the USAF prepared to deploy the Tactical Air Command
Tactical Air Command
E-3 Sentry
E-3 Sentry
in the later 1970s, active-duty units were phased out EC-121
EC-121
operations by the end of 1975. All remaining EC-121s were transferred to the Air Force Reserve, which formed the 79th AEWCS at Homestead Air Force Base, Florida in early 1976. The active duty force continued to provide personnel to operate the EC-121s on a 24-hour basis, assigning Detachment 1, 20th Air Defense Squadron to Homestead AFB as associate active duty crews to fly the Reserve-owned aircraft. Besides monitoring Cuban waters, these last Warning Stars also operated from NAS Keflavik, Iceland. Final EC-121
EC-121
operations ended in September 1978. Air and Aerospace Defense Command[edit]

Convair F-106A Delta Dart
Convair F-106A Delta Dart
of ADC's 5th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron near Mount Rushmore
Mount Rushmore
(lower right background)

The United States
United States
Army Air Forces activated Air Defense Command (ADC) in 1946, with a Numbered Air Force
Numbered Air Force
of the former Continental Air Forces, from which it took its mission of air warning and air defense. In September 1947, it became part of the newly established United States Air Force. The command become a subordinate organization of Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
(ConAC) on 1 December 1948. ConAC gradually assumed direct charge of ADC air defense components, and ADC inactivated on 1 July 1950. But five months later, on 10 November 1950, Generals Vandenberg and Twining notified General Whitehead that "the Air Force had approved activation of a separate Air Defense Command [from CONAC] with headquarters on Ent"[18]:140 with the mission to stop a handful of conventionally armed piston engine-powered bombers on a one-way mission. The command was formally reactivated on 1 January 1951. With advances in Soviet bombers, ADC completed improved radar networks and manned interceptors in the 1950s. At the end of the decade it computerized Air Defense Direction Centers to allow air defense controllers to more quickly review integrated military air defense warning (MADW) data and dispatch defenses (e.g., surface-to-air missiles in 1959). ADC began missile warning and space surveillance missions in 1960 and 1961, and established a temporary missile warning network for the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1968 it was redesignated Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
(ADCOM). In 1975, ADCOM became a specified command and the United States' executive agent in the North American Air Defense Command—the single CINCNORAD/CINCAD commanded both. ADCOM's last surface-to-air missiles were taken off alert in 1972, and the Federal Aviation Administration took over many of ADCOM's SAGE radar stations. Tactical Air Command
Tactical Air Command
and ADTAC[edit] On 1 October 1979 ADCOM interceptors/bases and remaining air warning radar stations transferred to Tactical Air Command
Tactical Air Command
(TAC), with these "atmospheric" units assigned to Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC). ADCOM's missile warning and space surveillance installations transferred in 1979 to the Strategic Air Command's Directorate of Space and Missile Warning Systems (SAC/SX),[22]) and the North American Aerospace Defense Command's Air Force Element, NORAD/ADCOM (AFENA)[22], which was redesignated the Aerospace Defense Center.[23] The command was inactivated on 31 March 1980. With the disestablishment of TAC and SAC in 1992, the Aerospace Defense Center, the ADCOM specified command organizations, along with SAC's missile warning and space surveillance installations. became part of Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
(AFSPC). Air Force Space Command activated its headquarters in the same Chidlaw Building
Chidlaw Building
where ADCOM had been inactivated. Chronology of major events[edit]

27 March 1946 : The United States
United States
Army Air Force activates the Air Defense Command at Mitchel Field, New York 1 December 1948 : Air Defense Command became a component of Continental Air Command 1 July 1950 : Air Defense Command inactivated because the Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
gradually assumed full charge of United States air defense 1 January 1951 : Air Defense Command reestablished at Mitchel AFB 8 January 1951 : Air Defense Command headquarters moved to Ent Air Force Base, Colorado 1 October 1953 : The 4701st Airborne Early Warning and Control Squadron, the first AEW&C system,[dubious – discuss] was activated at McClellan AFB, California. 15 April 1957 : Air Defense Command assigned operational control of the DEW Line
DEW Line
and all atmospheric defense units of the inactivated Northeast Air Command. 12 September 1957 : NORAD
NORAD
is established at Ent AFB
Ent AFB
with Canadian Air Defense Command air defense units and United States
United States
Continental Air Defense Command air defense units

1 December 1958 :SAGE Combat Center No 1 at Hancock Field, New York became operational 1 January 1959: The first BOMARC squadron, the 46th Air Defense Missile Squadron was activated at McGuire AFB, New Jersey. 30 September 1960: ADC's BMEWS
BMEWS
Central Computer and Display Facility at Ent AFB
Ent AFB
achieved initial operational capability, providing missile warning to SAC and The Pentagon 1 July 1961: ADC took over the Laredo and Trinidad missile and space vehicle tracking stations[24] 15 January 1968 : Air Defense Command is redesignated as Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
(ADCOM) 1 July 1975 : Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
designated a "Specified Command" taking over Continental Air Defense Command roles and responsibilities 1 October 1975 : Alaskan ADCOM Region established, Aerospace Defense Command assumes control of missile warning and space surveillance forces of Alaskan Air Command 31 March 1980: Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
inactivated at the Chidlaw Building in Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado.

Interceptor Aircraft[edit] See also: List of USAF Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
Interceptor Squadrons ADC had four day-type fighter squadrons (FDS) in 1946. The ADC interceptor force grew to ninety-three (93) active Air Force fighter interceptor squadrons, seventy-six (76) Air National Guard
Air National Guard
fighter interceptor squadrons, several U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
fighter squadrons, USAF and USN airborne early warning squadrons, radar squadrons, training squadrons, and numerous support units that have played important roles in our nation's defense.[17] The first ADC interceptor, the P-61 Black Widow, did not have the capabilities to engage the Soviet Tu-4
Tu-4
bomber. Its successor, the F-82 Twin Mustang, was even more disappointing. It took a long time to get into production and did not perform well in inclement weather.[25][26] The early jet fighters, such as the F-80 Shooting Star
F-80 Shooting Star
and F-84 Thunderjet, lacked all-weather capability and were deemed useless for air defense purposes. Much hope was placed on two jet-powered interceptors, the XP-87 Blackhawk and the XP-89 Scorpion. (Designations changed to XF-87 and XF-89.) They, in turn, also proved to be inadequate: the XF-87 was cancelled and the Scorpion underwent extensive redesign.[27][28] The first-generation jets gave way to all-weather dedicated interceptor jets. The F-94 Starfire
F-94 Starfire
was pressed into service as an "interim" interceptor, and North American in 1949 pushed an interceptor version of the Sabre, the F-86D. Despite the demands its complexity made upon a single pilot, the F-86D
F-86D
was backed by senior Air Force officials. Some 2,504 would be built and it would in time be the most numerous interceptor in the Air Defense Command fleet, with more than 1,000 in service by the end of 1955[29] The F-86D
F-86D
was not ideal, however; its afterburner consumed a great deal of fuel in getting it to altitude, and the pilot was overburdened by cockpit tasks. The F-89D was modified to accept AIM-4 Falcon
AIM-4 Falcon
guided missiles (F-89H) and AIR-2 Genie
AIR-2 Genie
atomic warhead rockets (F-89J) as armament. The F-86D
F-86D
was modified (F-86L) to include an FDDL SAGE data link that permitted automatic ground control. The F-86L and F-89H became available in 1956, and the F-89J in 1957.[29] The first of the Century Series supersonic interceptors was the F-102A Delta Dagger in 1956, followed by the F-104A Starfighter
F-104A Starfighter
in 1958. The F-101B Voodoo
F-101B Voodoo
and F-106 Delta Dart
F-106 Delta Dart
were first received by ADC during the first half of 1959. By 1960, the ADC interceptor force was composed of the F-101, F-104, F-106, and the F-102.[30]

Artist's impression of the North American XF-108 Rapier

The North American F-108 Rapier
F-108 Rapier
was the first proposed successor to the F-106. It was to be capable of Mach 3 performance and was intended to serve as a long-range interceptor that could destroy attacking Soviet bombers over the poles before they could get near US territory. It was also to serve as the escort fighter for the XB-70 Valkyrie Mach-3 strategic bomber, also to be built by North American. The Air Force expected that the first F-108A would be ready for service by early 1963. An order for no less than 480 F-108s was anticipated. However, by mid-1959, the Air Force was already beginning to experience some doubts about the high cost of the Rapier program. The primary strategic threat from the Soviet Union was now perceived to be its battery of intercontinental ballistic missiles instead of its force of long-range bombers. Against intercontinental ballistic missiles, the F-108A interceptor would be completely useless. In addition, the Air Force was increasingly of the opinion that unmanned intercontinental ballistic missiles could accomplish the mission of the B-70 Valkyrie/ F-108 Rapier
F-108 Rapier
combination much more effectively and at far lower cost. Consequently, the F-108A project was cancelled in its entirety on 23 September 1959, before any prototypes could be built.

One of the three Lockheed YF-12A prototypes had Air Defense Command markings (vertical stabilizer nearest center) during 1963 Edwards testing by AFSC's 4786th TS. Using the AN/ASG-18 from the F-108 Rapier program and Falcon missile developed for the F-108A, the Mach 3 interceptor was funded by Congress with $90 million for a 14 May 1965 USAF order of 93 F-12B aircraft (cancelled by SECDEF).

In 1968, ADCOM began the phaseout of the F-101 and F-102 interceptors from active duty units, with both types mostly being transferred to the Air National Guard. The F-101 would remain in a limited role on active duty until 1982, serving in such roles as towed target carrier aircraft and simulated enemy radar contacts for Airborne Weapons Controller students training for duties aboard the E-3 Sentry
E-3 Sentry
AWACS. The F-102 would see service until the mid-1980s as the PQM-102 aerial target drone. The F-106 Delta Dart, considered by many the finest all-weather interceptor ever built, was the primary air defense interceptor aircraft for the US Air Force during the 1970s and early 1980s. It was also the last dedicated interceptor in U.S. Air Force service to date. It was gradually retired during the 1980s, though the QF-106 drone conversions of the aircraft were used until 1998 as aerial targets under the FSAT program.[31] Interceptor gunnery training[edit]

B-57E, AF Ser. No. 55-4277, a target towing aircraft of the 8th Bomb Squadron at Yokota AB, Japan in 1958. Note the bright orange paint on the upper fuselage and wings

B-57E Canberra dedicated Air Defense Command target towing aircraft were used for training of F-86D
F-86D
Sabre, F-94C Starfire, and F-89D Scorpion interceptors firing 2.75-inch Mk 4/Mk 40 Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets. Due to the nature of air-to-air weapon training requiring a large amount of air space, only a few locations were available for practice ranges. ADC assigned these aircraft to bases close to these large, restricted areas, and fighter-interceptor squadrons deployed to these bases for this type of "hot fire" training which took place in these ranges. The gunnery schools were located at Yuma AFB, Arizona (17th TTS), and later moved to MacDill AFB, Florida where the training continued over the Gulf of Mexico. With the move to Florida, the 3d TTS was formed at George AFB, California
California
which performed training over the Mojave Desert in Southern California. Additional units were located at Biggs AFB, near El Paso, Texas (1st TTS) and the 4756th TTS was located at Tyndall AFB, Florida to support the Fighter Weapons Center located there. ADC also supported overseas training at Johnson AB, Japan (6th TTS). From Johnson AB, B-57Es deployed to Clark AB, Philippines; Andersen AFB, Guam, Naha AB, Okinawa and Itazuke AB, Misawa AB
Misawa AB
and Yokota AB, all in Japan for training of the interceptor squadrons assigned to those bases. The 6th TTS was inactivated by late 1957 and the Canberra trainers were designated a flight of the 8th Bombardment Squadron at Johnson AB. In Europe, USAFE supported a squadron of B-57E gunnery trainers at Wheelus AB, Libya where European-based interceptors deployed for "live firing" over the vast desert range there.[32] To provide challenges for interceptors, The B-57Es towed styroforam, bomb-shaped radar reflectant targets. These could be towed at higher altitudes than the high-drag 45' banners but hits could still be scored on them. By 1960, the rocket firing interceptors were giving way to F-102 Delta Dagger
F-102 Delta Dagger
interceptors firing heat-seeking AIM-4 Falcon air-to-air missiles. This made the target towing mission of the B-57E obsolete, and the B-57Es were adapted to electronic countermeasures and faker target aircraft (EB-57E) (see below).[32] In order to cover combat losses in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
caused by two major ground explosions, twelve B-57Es were reconfigured as combat-capable B-57Bs at the Martin factory in late 1965 and were deployed to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
for combat bombardment operations. Six other B-57Es were converted to RB-57E "Patricia Lynn" tactical reconnaissance aircraft in 1966 during the Vietnam War, operating from Tan Son Nhut Air Base until 1971.[32]

October 1960 SAMs near the BOMARC Missile Accident Site
BOMARC Missile Accident Site
after the 7 June 1960 BOMARC nuclear accident. BOMARC alert status ended in 1972, e.g., ADC first closed a BOMARC B complex on 31 December 1969.

Interceptor Missiles (IMs) The Bomarc Missile Program
Bomarc Missile Program
delivered the first CIM-10 Bomarc supersonic surface-to-air missile to ADC during September 1959 at Fort Dix's BOMARC Base No. 1 near the missile launch control center on McGuire AFB
McGuire AFB
(groundbreaking for McGuire's Air Defense Direction Center to house the IBM AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central
IBM AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central
for Bomarc ground-controlled interception had been in 1957.) To ensure probability of kill before bombers could drop their weapons, the AN/FSQ-7 used the Automatic Target and Battery Evaluation (ATABE) to determine which bombers/formations to assign to which manned interceptor base (e.g., using nuclear air-to-air missiles), which to assign to Bomarcs (e.g., with W-40 nuclear warheads) and if available, which to assign to the region's Nike Army Air Defense Command Post (that also had ATABE software for efficiently coordinating fire from multiple Hercules missile batteries.) Bomarc missiles bases were along the east and west coasts of North America
North America
and the central areas of the continent (e.g., Suffolk County Missile Annex was on Long Island, New York.) The supersonic Bomarc missiles were the first long-range anti-aircraft missiles in the world, and the longer range BOMARC B models required less time after erected until they could be launched.[33]

Defense Systems Evaluation[edit] See also: List of United States
United States
Air Force defense systems evaluation squadrons

Martin EB-57E, AF Ser. No. 55-4241, of the 4577th DSES flying over the Great Salt Lake, Utah about 1970. Retired 30 July 1979

"Faker", or simulated target aircraft flew mock penetrations into air defense sectors to exercise GDI stations, Air Defense Direction Centers, and interceptor squadrons. Initially using modified B-25 Mitchell and B-29 Superfortress
B-29 Superfortress
bombers, the aircraft would fly attack profile missions at unexpected, random times and attempt to evade coverage by flying at low altitudes and randomly flying in different directions to confuse interceptors. The aircraft were modified to carry electronic countermeasures (ECM) gear to attempt to confuse radar operators. In 1957, the propeller-driven aircraft were phased out and replaced by Martin B-57 medium bombers which were being phased out of Tactical Air Command. Initially RB-57As from reconnaissance units were modified to have their former camera bays refitted to carry out the latest ECM systems to confuse the defenders. Wing racks, originally designed for bombs, now carried chaff dispensers and the navigator position was replaced with an Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO). The modified B-57s were designated as EB-57 (E for special electronic installation).[32] Considerable realism would be generated into these simulated aggressor attack missions being flown by the B-57 crews. Often several EB-57s were used to form separate tracks and provide a coordinated jamming attack to complicate the testing. When inside the range of the GCI radar, and in anticipation of interception, chaff was dispensed to confuse the defense force and electronic pulses to jam radar signals were turned on. It was up to the defending interceptors and GCI stations to sort out the correct interception.[32] Units operating these specially equipped aircraft were designated Defense Systems Evaluation Squadrons (DSES). The 4713th Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron was stationed for training in the Northeast. The 4713th also deployed frequently to USAFE in West Germany for training of NATO forces. The other was the 4677th Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron, which concentrated on Fighter Interceptor Squadron training for units in the Western United States. In 1974, the 4713th DSES was inactivated and its EB-57s were divided between two Air National Guard
Air National Guard
units and the 4677th DSES was redesignated as the 17th Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron. This unit was inactivated in July 1979 and was the last to fly B-57s in the active duty USAF. It shared the Defense Systems Evaluation mission with the Kansas and Vermont Air National Guard. Defense Systems Evaluation operations were also carried out by the 6091st Reconnaissance Squadron, Yokota AB, Japan; later the 556th Reconnaissance Squadron
556th Reconnaissance Squadron
and moved to Kadena AB, Okinawa. EB-57s were also deployed to Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, frequently.[32] The 134th Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron, Vermont Air National Guard, retired its last EB-57 in 1983, and the operational use of the B-57 Canberra ended.[32]

to/from adjacent sectors' DCs and to 10 Nike Missile Master AADCPs.[34]]] -->

ADC squadrons at Thule Site J
Thule Site J
and Clear AFS
Clear AFS
used each AN/FPS-50 to sweep 2 radar beams each ~1° in azimuth x 3.5° elevation (illustrated much less thick). Azimuth sweeping created a "Lower Fan" centered at 3.5° elevation and "Upper Fan" at 7° (both illustrated much higher) with "revisit time of 2 sec" for ICBM detection.

The "war room" of the Chidlaw Building's Combined Operations Center took over command center operations in 1963 from the nearby Ent AFB "main battle control center" (screens show missile impact ellipses for an exercise.)

Continental defense[edit] From 1 September 1954 until 1975, ADC was a component of the unified Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) along with the Army's ARAACOM (1957 ARADCOM) and until 1965, the Navy's NAVFORCONAD. The USAF as the executive CONAD
CONAD
agent initially used ADC's:

commander as CINCONAD, headquarters staff in ADC's HQ building for the unified command staff, and new blockhouse for the unified command center

ADC'a Permanent System radar stations
Permanent System radar stations
were used for CONAD
CONAD
target data, along with Navy picket ships (Atlantic and Pacific Barrier until 1965) and Army Project Nike
Project Nike
"target acquisition radars". A CONAD reorganization that started in 1956 created a separate multi-service CONAD
CONAD
headquarters staff (with Air Force Element), separated command of ADC from CIN CONAD
CONAD
(Lt Gen Joseph Atkinson became ADC commander on 22 September), and in 1957 added Alaskan Air Command
Alaskan Air Command
and Northeast Air Command components to ADC[19]—former NEAC installations in a smaller "Canadian Northeast Area" were transferred under control of Royal Canadian Air Force ADC[35] (e.g., the Hall Beach
Hall Beach
"FOX.MAIN" DEW Line station constructed 1955-1957[36]--cf. Canada's Hopedale stations of the 1954 Pinetree Line
Pinetree Line
and 1957 Mid-Canada Line.) ADC's 64th AD military personnel were assigned to main stations of the 1957 DEW Line
DEW Line
and annually inspected auxiliary/intermediate DEW stations maintained by the "DEW M&O Contractor[35]" (the White Alice Communications System linked ADC aircraft with DEW Line radars.)[dubious – discuss] On 1 March 1957 CONAD
CONAD
reduced the number of ADC interceptor squadrons on alert for the Air Defense Identification Zone.[37] "At the end of 1957, ADC operated 182 radar stations…32 had been added during the last half of the year as low-altitude, unmanned gap-filler radars. The total consisted of 47 gap-filler stations, 75 Permanent System radars, 39 semimobile radars, 19 Pinetree stations,…1 Lashup[-era] radar and a single Texas Tower".[18]:223 ADC subsequently became a CONAD
CONAD
component of NORAD, for which the international agreement was signed on 12 May 1958 (RCAF officers agreed NORAD's "primary purpose would be…early warning and defense for SAC's retaliatory forces.")[18]:252

SAGE The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment
Semi-Automatic Ground Environment
(SAGE) for radar operators was installed at ADC's general surveillance stations by deploying CDTS electronics. Implementation of the SAGE Geographic Reorganization Plan of 25 July 1958 activated new ADC military installations, e.g., GATR stations for vectoring manned interceptors as well as BOMARC missile launch complexes with nearby GAT Facilities. On 20 December 1958 NORAD approved the "USAF ADC Plan" which included 10 Super Combat Centers (SCCs) in underground bunkers to replace 5 above-ground Combat Centers remaining to be built.[38] Modification of FAA radars to the ARSR-1A configuration (Amplitron, "antenna gear box modification", etc.) were to be complete by November 1960 (e.g., at the Fort Heath
Fort Heath
radar station)[39] and all 3 Texas Towers
Texas Towers
were in-service by April 1959 with ADC detachments/radars on offshore platforms near the New England coast, and the Continental Air Defense Integration North schedule for gap-filler radars included those for "P-20F, London, Ontario; C-4-C, Brampton, Ontario; C-5-C, Mt Carleton, New Brunswick; and C-6-D, Les Etroits. Quebec"—in the spring of 1959, ADC requested the Air Defense Systems Integration Division to study accelerating the scheduled 1962 deployment of those 4 sites.[38] After the planned SCCs were cancelled in 1960, the SAGE System was augmented by the "pre-SAGE semiautomatic intercept system" for Backup Interceptor Control
Backup Interceptor Control
as at North Bend AFS
North Bend AFS
in February 1962 (BUIC II first at North Truro AFS
North Truro AFS
in 1966.)

By 30 June 1958, the Zone of the Interior
Zone of the Interior
(ZI) facility for anti-ICBM processing that was planned for ADC to coordinate at Ent AFB
Ent AFB
the ABM missile fire was considered "the heart of the entire [planned] ballistic missile defense system[39] (conceived to have Nike Zeus[40] and Wizard missiles.) On 19 October 1959, HQ USAF assigned ADC the "planning responsibility" for eventual operations of the Missile Defense Alarm System to detect ICBM launches with infrared sensors on space vehicles.[41] Missile warning and space surveillance[edit] ADC's BMEWS Central Computer and Display Facility
BMEWS Central Computer and Display Facility
was built as an austere network center (instead of for coordinating anti-ICBM fire) which "at midnight on 30 September I960…achieved initial operational capability" (IOC). On 1 July 1961 for space surveillance, ADC took over the Laredo Test Site and the Trinidad Air Station from Rome Air Development Center.[24] The "1st Aero" cadre at the Hanscom AFB
Hanscom AFB
NSSCC moved 496L System operations in July 1961 to Ent's "SPADATS Center"[10] in the annex of building P4. Operational BMEWS
BMEWS
control of the Thule Site J
Thule Site J
RCA
RCA
AN/FPS-50 Radar Sets transferred from RCA
RCA
to ADC on January 5, 1962 (the 12MWS activated in 1967.) By 30 June 1962, integration of ADC's BMEWS
BMEWS
CC&DF and the SPADATS Center was completed at Ent AFB,[42] and the Air Forces Iceland
Air Forces Iceland
transferred from Military Air Transport Service
Military Air Transport Service
to ADC on 1 July 1962. The 9th ADD established the temporary 1962 "Cuban Missile Early Warning System" for the missile crisis. Responsibility for a USAFSS squadron's AN/FPS-17
AN/FPS-17
radar station in Turkey for missile test monitoring transferred to ADC on 1 July 1963, the same date the site's AN/FPS-79
AN/FPS-79
achieved IOC.[43] By January 1963, ADC's Detachment 3 of the 9th Aerospace Defense Division
9th Aerospace Defense Division
(9th ADD) was providing space surveillance data from the Moorestown BMEWS
BMEWS
station "to a Spacetrack Analysis Center at Colorado
Colorado
Springs."[44] On 31 December 1965, Forward Scatter Over-the-Horizon network data from the 440L Data Reduction Center was being received by ADC for missile warning, and a NORAD
NORAD
plan for 1 April 1966 was for ADC to "reorganize its remaining 26th, 28th, 29th, and 73d Air Divisions into four air forces."[45] The 1966 20th Surveillance Squadron
20th Surveillance Squadron
began ADC's phased array operations with the Eglin AFB Site C-6
Eglin AFB Site C-6
Project Space Track
Project Space Track
radar (the Eglin phased array's IOC was in 1969, and the North Dakota CMEWS "began passing" PARCS phased array data to NORAD
NORAD
in 1977 after being "modified for the ADCOM mission".[22] After claiming in March 1958 that "the Army's ZEUS did not have the growth potential to handle possible enemy evasion decoy and countermeasure tactics", the USAF similarly identified by early 1959 that its planned Wizard missile was "not cost effective" against ICBM warheads.[46]—the Army Zeus deployed successors against ICBMs (SAFEGUARD System, 1975-6) and space vehicles (Johnston Atoll, 1962-75). After tests of the 1959 High Virgo
High Virgo
(at Explorer 5), 1959 Bold Orion
Bold Orion
(Explorer 6), and 1963 Project 505 (Nike Zeus) anti-satellite tests (the latter's nuclear burst destroyed a satellite), the Air Force Systems Command
Air Force Systems Command
ASM-135 ASAT
ASM-135 ASAT
collided with a satellite in 1984. Consolidated C3[edit] ADC's Consolidated Command. Control and Communications Program, FY 1965-1972[45] was an outgrowth of a 196x "ADC- NORAD
NORAD
PAGE Study" for replacing SAGE/BUIC with a Primary Automated Ground Environment (PAGE) .[47] The program with a Joint DOD/FAA National Airspace System (NAS)[48] resulted with DOD/FAA agreements for a common aircraft surveillance system,[49] with the FAA "to automate its new National Airspace System (NAS) centers".[45] ADC estimated its portion "would cost about $6 million, with annual operating, maintenance, and communication costs about $3.5 million"[49] ("the first BUIC III was set to begin in April 1967 at Z-50, Saratoga Springs".)[47] As the space mission grew the command changed its name, effective 15 January 1968, to Aerospace Defense Command, or ADCOM. Under ADCOM, emphasis went to systems for ballistic missile detection and warning and space surveillance, and the atmospheric detection and warning system, which had been in an almost continuous state of expansion and improvement since the 1950s, went into decline.[17] BOMARC, for example, was dropped from the weapons inventory, and the F-101 and F-102 passed from the regular Air Force inventory into the National Guard. To save funds and manpower, drastic reductions were made in the number of long range radar stations, the number of interceptor squadrons, and in the organizational structure. By 1968 the DOD was making plans to phase down the current air defense system and transition to a new system which included an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS), Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) radar, and an improved F-106 interceptor aircraft.[17] The changing emphasis in the threat away from the manned bomber and to the ballistic missile brought reorganization and reduction in aeropace defense resources and personnel and almost continuous turmoil in the management structure. The headquarters of the Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) and ADC were combined on 1 July 1973. Six months later in February 1973, ADC was reduced to 20 fighter squadrons and a complete phaseout of air defense missile batteries.[17] Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
was disestablished on 1 July 1975 and Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
became a specified command by direction of the JCS. Reductions and reorganizations continued into the last half of the 1970s, but while some consideration was given to closing down the major command headquarters altogether and redistributing field resources to other commands, such a move lacked support in the Air Staff.[17] Inactivation[edit]

Emblem of Air Defense, Tactical Air Command
Tactical Air Command
(ADTAC)

In early 1977 strong Congressional pressure to reduce management "overhead", and the personal conviction of the USAF Chief of Staff that substantial savings could be realized without a reduction in operational capability, moved the final "reorganization" of ADCOM to center stage. Two years of planning followed, but by late 1979 the Air Force was ready to carry it through. It was conducted in two phases:[17] On 1 October 1979 ADCOM atmospheric defense resources (interceptors, warning radars, and associated bases and personnel) were transferred to Tactical Air Command. They were placed under Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC), compatible to a Numbered Air Force
Numbered Air Force
under TAC. With this move many Air National Guard
Air National Guard
units that had an air defense mission also came under the control of TAC. ADTAC was headquartered at Ent Air Force Base, Colorado, with North American Aerospace Defense Command. In essence, Tactical Air Command
Tactical Air Command
became the old Continental Air Command. On the same date, electronic assets went to the Air Force Communications Service (AFCS).[17] On 1 December 1979 missile warning and space surveillance assets were transferred to Strategic Air Command. On the same date the Aerospace Defense Center, a Direct Reporting Unit, was established from the remnants of ADCOM headquarters.[17] ADCOM, as a specified command, continued as the United States component of NORAD, but the major air command was inactivated on 31 March 1980. The unit designation of the MAJCOM reverted to the control of the Department of the Air Force.[17] Lineage[edit]

Established as Air Defense Command on 21 March 1946

Activated as a major command on 27 March 1946 Became a subordinate operational command of Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
on 1 December 1948 Discontinued on 1 July 1950

Reestablished as a major command, and organized, on 1 January 1951

Became a specified command in 1975 Redesignated Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
on 15 January 1968 Major Command inactivated on 31 March 1980

Components[edit] Air Defense Forces[edit]

Central Air Defense Force
Central Air Defense Force
(CADF)

Activated on 1 March 1951 at Kansas City, Missouri Moved to Grandview AFB, 10 March 1954 Station redesignated Richards-Gebaur AFB, 27 April 1952 Inactivated, 1 January 1960

Eastern Air Defense Force
Eastern Air Defense Force
(EADF)

Activated by Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
on 1 September 1949 at Mitchel AFB, New York Moved to Stewart AFB
Stewart AFB
and assigned to Air Defense Command on 1 January 1951 Inactivated, 1 January 1960

Western Air Defense Force
Western Air Defense Force
(WADF)

Activated by Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
on 1 September 1949 at Hamilton AFB, California Reassigned to Air Defense Command, 1 January 1951 Inactivated, 1 July 1960

Air Forces[edit]

First Air Force

Assigned to Air Defense Command, 27 March 1946 at Mitchel Field, New York Moved to Fort Slocum, New York, 3 June 1946 Reassigned to Continental Air Command, 1 December 1948 Reassigned to Air Defense Command, 1 April 1966 Inactivated, 31 December 1969

Second Air Force

Reactivated on 6 June 1946 at Fort Crook, Nebraska Assigned to Air Defense Command Inactivated, 1 July 1948

Fourth Air Force

Assigned to Air Defense Command, 21 March 1946 at March Field, California Moved to Hamilton Field, California
California
on 19 June 1946 Reassigned to Continental Air Command, 1 December 1948 Discontinued, 1 September 1960 Reactivated 1 April 1966 and assigned to Air Defense Command Inactivated, 30 September 1969

Tenth Air Force, 21 March 1946 – 1 December 1948; 20 January 1966 – 8 October 1976

Reactivated 27 May 1946 at Brooks Field, Texas Assigned to Air Defense Command Reassigned to Continental Air Command, 1 December 1948 Inactivated, 1 September 1960 Reactivated 1 April 1966 and assigned to Air Defense Command Assigned to Richards-Gebaur AFB Inactivated, 30 September 1969

Eleventh Air Force*

Activated 13 June 1946 at Olmsted Field, Middletown, Pennsylvania Assigned to Air Defense Command Inactivated, 1 July 1948

Fourteenth Air Force, 21 March 1946 – 1 December 1948; 20 January 1966 – 8 October 1976

Reactivated 24 May 1945 at Orlando Air Base, Florida Assigned to Air Defense Command Reassigned to Continental Air Command, 1 December 1948 Inactivated, 1 September 1960 Reactivated 1 April 1966 and assigned to Air Defense Command Assigned to Gunter AFB, Alabama Redesignated Fourteenth Aerospace Force, 1 July 1968 Moved to Ent AFB, Colorado Inactivated, 1 October 1976

Air Forces Iceland

Assigned to Air Defense Command from Military Air Transport Service, 1 July 1962 Stationed at Keflavik Airport, Iceland Assigned to 64th Air Division Transferred to: 26th Air Division, 1 July 1963 Transferred to: Goose Air Defense Sector, 4 September 1963 Transferred to: 37th Air Division, 1 April 1966 Transferred to: 21st Air Division, 31 December 1969 Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

.Note: Assigned to Olmsted AFB, Pennsylvania, but never equipped or manned. Not to be confused with Eleventh Air Force, which was assigned to Alaskan Air Command Regions[edit]

Alaskan ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, 1 October 1975 Missile warning and space surveillance forces reassigned to Strategic Air Command, 1 December 1979 Redesignated as Alaska NORAD
NORAD
Region (ANR), 14 June 1983

Operational atmospheric defense units under operational control of Eleventh Air Force

20th ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at Fort Lee AFS, Virginia, 8 December 1978 Supplementary ADCOM designation of 20th Air Division

21st ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at Hancock AFS, New York, 8 December 1978 Supplementary ADCOM designation of 21st Air Division

23d ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at Duluth AFS, Minnesota, 8 December 1978 Supplementary ADCOM designation of 23d Air Division

24th ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at Malmstrom AFB, Montana, 8 December 1978 Supplementary ADCOM designation of 24th Air Division

25th ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at McChord AFB, Washington, 8 December 1978 Supplementary ADCOM designation of 25th Air Division

26th ADCOM Region

Designated and activated at Luke AFB, Arizona, 8 December 1978 Supplementary ADCOM designation of 26th Air Division

Air Divisions[edit]

8th Air Division
8th Air Division
(Aircraft Early Warning & Control)

Activated 1 May 1954 at McClellan AFB, California Assigned to Western Air Defense Force Transferred to Air Defense Command, 1 May 1955 Inactivated, 1 July 1957

9th Air Division (Defense)

Activated 8 October 1954 at Geiger Field, Washington Assigned to Western Air Defense Force Inactivated, 15 August 1958 Reactivated on 15 July 1961 as 9th Aerospace Air Division at Ent AFB, Colorado Assigned to Air Defense Command Designated 9th Aerospace Defense Division
9th Aerospace Defense Division
by 31 May 1963 Discontinued, 1 July 1968

20th Air Division

Activated on 8 October 1955 at Grandview AFB, Missouri Assigned to Central Air Defense Force Station renamed Richards-Gebaur AFB, 27 April 1957 Inactivated 1 January 1960 Reactivated on 1 April 1966 at Truax Field, Wisconsin Assigned to Tenth Air Force Discontinued 31 December 1967 Reactivated on 19 November 1969 at Fort Lee AFS, Virginia Assigned to Air Defense Command Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

21st Air Division

Activated 20 January 1966 Organized at McGuire AFB, New Jersey 1 April 1966 Assigned to First Air Force Discontinued and inactivated 31 December 1967 Reactivated on 19 November 1969 at Hancock AFS, New York Assigned to Air Defense Command Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

23d Air Division

Activated 19 November 1969 at Duluth AFS, Minnesota Assigned to First Air Force Reassigned to Air Defense Command on 1 December 1969 Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

24th Air Division

Activated 19 November 1969 at Malmstrom AFB, Montana Assigned to Tenth Air Force Reassigned to Air Defense Command on 1 December 1969 Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

25th Air Division

Activated 25 October 1948 as 25th Air Division
25th Air Division
(Defense) at Silver Lake, Washington Assigned to Fourth Air Force Reassigned to Western Air Defense Force, 1 February 1950 Moved to McChord AFB, 15 September 1951 Redesignated 25th Air Division
25th Air Division
(SAGE), 1 March 1959 Reassigned to Air Defense Command on 1 July 1960 Reassigned to Fourth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Reassigned to Tenth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Reassigned to Aerospace Defense Command, 1 December 1969 Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

26th Air Division

Activated 16 November 1948 at Mitchel AFB, New York Assigned to First Air Force Moved to Roslyn AFS, New York 18 April 1949 Redesignated 26th Air Division
26th Air Division
(Defense), 20 June 1949 Reassigned to Eastern Air Defense Force, 1 September 1950 Redesignated 26th Air Division
26th Air Division
(SAGE), 8 August 1958 and moved to Syracuse AFS, New York Transferred to Air Defense Command on 1 August 1959 Moved to Stewart AFB, New York, 15 June 1964 Redesignated 26th Air Division, 20 January 1966 and moved to Adair AFS, Oregon Inactivated, 30 September 1969 Reactivated 19 November 1969 at Luke AFB, Arizona Reassigned to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

27th Air Division

Activated as 27th Air Division
27th Air Division
(Defense) on 20 November 1950 at Norton AFB, California Assigned to Western Air Defense Force Inactivated, 1 October 1959 Organized as 27th Air Division
27th Air Division
on 1 April 1966 at Luke AFB, Arizona Assigned to Fourth Air Force Reassigned to Tenth Air Force
Tenth Air Force
on 15 September 1969 Inactivated 19 November 1969

28th Air Division

Assigned to Western Air Defense Force
Western Air Defense Force
on 1 January 1951 as 28th Air Division (Defense) Assigned to Hamilton AFB, California Redesignated as 28th Air Division
28th Air Division
(SAGE) and transferred to Air Defense Command, 1 July 1960 Redesignated 28th Air Division,, 1 April 1966 Moved to Malmstrom AFB, Montana and assigned to Tenth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Inactivated 19 November 1969

29th Air Division

Activated 1 March 1951 at Great Falls AFB, Montana Assigned to Western Air Defense Force Transferred to Central Air Defense Force, 16 February 1953 Great Falls AFB
Great Falls AFB
renamed Malmstrom AFB, Montana, 1 October 1955 Redesignated as 29th Air Division
29th Air Division
(SAGE) and transferred to Air Defense Command, 1 July 1960 Moved to Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri, 1 July 1961 Redesignated 29th Air Division, 1 April 1966 Moved to Duluth AFS, Minnesota, and assigned to Tenth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Reassigned to First Air Force
First Air Force
on 15 September 1969 Inactivated 19 November 1969

30th Air Division,

Activated on 16 December 1949 as 30th Air Division
30th Air Division
(Defense) at Selfridge AFB, Michigan Assigned to Air Defense Command Moved to Willow Run AFS, Michigan on 1 April 1952 Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force, 1 April 1952 Redesignated 30th Air Division
30th Air Division
(SAGE), 1 April 1959 and moved to Truax Field, Wisconsin Reassigned to Air Defense Command on 1 July 1959 Redesignated 30th Air Division
30th Air Division
and moved to Sioux City AFS, Iowa (w/o p/e), 1 April 1966 Reassigned to Tenth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Discontinued 18 September 1968

31st Air Division

Activated on 8 October 1950 as 31st Air Division
31st Air Division
(Defense) at Selfridge AFB, Michigan Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force Reassigned to Air Defense Command on 1 January 1951 Moved to Snelling AFS, Minnesota on 18 December 1950 Reassigned to Central Air Defense Force, 20 May 1950 Inactivated 1 January 1960 Organized at Oklahoma City AFS, Oklahoma on 1 April 1966 Assigned to Fourteenth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Reassigned to Tenth Air Force
Tenth Air Force
on 1 July 1968 Inactivated on 31 December 1969

32d Air Division

Assigned on 1 January 1951 to Eastern Air Defense Force
Eastern Air Defense Force
at Stewart AFB, New York Moved to Syracuse AFS, New York, 15 February 1952 Inactivated on 15 August 1958 Reactivated on 15 November 1958 as 32d Air Division
32d Air Division
(SAGE) at Dobbins AFB, Georgia Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force Reassigned to Air Defense Command, 1 August 1959 Moved to Oklahoma City AFS, Oklahoma, 1 August 1961 Discontinued 4 September 1963 Organized at Gunter AFB, Alabama, 1 April 1966 Assigned to Fourteenth Air Force Reassigned to Tenth Air Force, 1 July 1968 Inactivated 31 December 1969

33d Air Division

Activated on 19 March 1951 as 33d Air Division
33d Air Division
(Defense) at Tinker AFB, Oklahoma Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force Reassigned to Central Air Defense Force, 20 May 1951 Moved to Oklahoma City AFS, Oklahoma, 1 July 1956 Redesignated 33d Air Division
33d Air Division
(SAGE) and moved to Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri, 1 January 1960 Reassigned to Air Defense Command Discontinued 1 July 1961 Organized on 1 April 1966 as 33d Air Division
33d Air Division
at Fort Lee AFS, Virginia Assigned to First Air Force Inactivated 19 November 1969

34th Air Division

Activated on 5 January 1951 at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico Assigned to Western Air Defense Force Reassigned to Central Air Defense Force
Central Air Defense Force
15 February 1953 Inactivated 1 January 1960 Organized at Custer AFS, Michigan, 1 April 1966 Assigned to First Air Force Inactivated 31 December 1969

35th Air Division

Activated on 1 July 1951 at Kansas City, Missouri Assigned to Central Air Defense Force Moved to Dobbins AFB, Georgia, 1 September 1951 Reassigned to Eastern Air Defense Force, 10 April 1955 Inactivated 15 November 1958 Organized on 1 April 1966 at Syracuse AFS, New York Inactivated 19 November 1968

36th Air Division

Activated 1 April 1966 at Topsham AFS, Maine Assigned to First Air Force Inactivated 30 September 1969

37th Air Division

Activated on 10 October 1951 at Lockborne AFB, Ohio under Strategic Air Command Moved to Truax Field, Wisconsin 8 September 1955 and transferred to Air Defense Command Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force Inactivated 1 April 1959 Organized on 1 April 1966 at Goose AFB, Labrador, Canada Assigned to First Air Force Reassigned to Aerospace Defense Command, 1 December 1969 Inactivated 10 June 1970

5 8th Air Division
8th Air Division
(Defense)

Activated 8 September 1955 at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force Inactivated 1 February 1959

64th Air Division

Transferred on 1 April 1957 to Air Defense Command from Northeast Air Command Assigned to Pepperrell AFB, Newfoundland Moved to Stewart AFB, New York, 26 May 1960 Discontinued, 1 July 1963

73d Air Division

Activated 1 July 1957 as 73d Air Division
73d Air Division
(Weapons) at Tyndall AFB, Florida Assigned to Air Defense Command Redesignated 73d Air Division, 1 March 1963 Discontinued 1 April 1966

85th Air Division

Activated 8 September 1955 at Andrews AFB, Maryland Assigned to Eastern Air Defense Force Inactivated 1 September 1958

Air Defense Sectors[edit]

Albuquerque Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 January 1960 at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico Assigned to 33d Air Division Discontinued 1 November 1960

Bangor Air Defense Sector

Activated on 8 January 1957 at Topsham AFS, Maine Assigned to 32d Air Division Reassigned to 26th Air Division, 15 August 1958 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Boston Air Defense Sector

4622d Air Defense Wing
4622d Air Defense Wing
(SAGE) redesignated 8 January 1957 Activated at Stewart AFB, New York Assigned to 26th Air Division Moved to Syracuse AFS, New York 1 April 1966 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Chicago Air Defense Sector

4628th Air Defense Wing
4628th Air Defense Wing
redesignated 8 March 1957 Activated at Truax Field, Wisconsin Assigned to 37th Air Division Reassigned to 30th Air Division, 1 April 1959 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Detroit Air Defense Sector

4627th Air Defense Wing
4627th Air Defense Wing
redesignated, 8 January 1957 Activated at Custer AFS, Michigan Assigned to 30th Air Division Reassigned to 26th Air Division, 4 September 1963 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Duluth Air Defense Sector

Activated 8 October 1957 at Duluth AFS, Minnesota Assigned to 37th Air Division
37th Air Division
(EADF) Reassigned to 31st Air Division
31st Air Division
(CADF), 20 December 1957 Reassigned to 37th Air Division, 1 January 1959 Reassigned to 30th Air Division, 1 April 1959 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Goose Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 April 1960 at Goose AFB, Labrador, Canada Assigned to 64th Air Division Reassigned to 26th Air Division
26th Air Division
(SAGE), 1 July 1963 Discontinued on 1 April 1966

Grand Forks Air Defense Sector

Activated on 8 December 1957 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota Assigned to 31st Air Division Reassigned to 29th Air Division, 1 January 1959 Discontinued on 1 December 1963

Great Falls Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 March 1959 at Malmstrom AFB, Montana Assigned to 29th Air Division Discontinued on 1 April 1966

Kansas City Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 January 1960 at Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri Assigned to 33d Air Division Reassigned to 29th Air Division, 1 July 1961 Discontinued 1 January 1962

Los Angeles Air Defense Sector

Activated on 15 February 1959 at Norton AFB, California Assigned to 27th Air Division Reassigned to Western Air Defense Force, 1 October 1959 Reassigned to 28th Air Division, 1 July 1960 Reassigned to Fourth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Discontinued 25 June 1966

Minot Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 April 1959 at Minot AFB, North Dakota Assigned to 29th Air Division Discontinued 15 August 1963

Montgomery Air Defense Sector

Activated on 8 September 1957 at Gunter AFB, Alabama Assigned to 35th Air Division Reassigned to 32d Air Division, 15 November 1958 Reassigned to 26th Air Division
26th Air Division
(SAGE), 1 July 1963 Assigned to Air Defense Command, 1 October 1964 Discontinued 1 April 1966

New York Air Defense Sector

4621st Air Defense Wing
4621st Air Defense Wing
(SAGE) redesignated, 8 January 1957 Assigned to McGuire AFB, New Jersey Assigned to 26th Air Division Discontinued 1 April 1966

Oklahoma City Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 January 1960 at Oklahoma City AFS, Oklahoma Assigned to 33d Air Division Reassigned to 32d Air Division, 1 July 1961 Discontinued 1 September 1961 Reactivated 25 June 1963 at Oklahoma City AFS Assigned to 29th Air Division
29th Air Division
(SAGE) Discontinued 1 April 1966

Phoenix Air Defense Sector

Activated on 15 June 1959 at Luke AFB, Arizona Assigned to Western Air Defense Force Reassigned to 28th Air Division, 1 July 1960 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Portland Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 September 1958 at Adair AFS, Oregon

25th Air Division

Discontinued 1 April 1966

Reno Air Defense Sector

Activated on 15 February 1959 at Stead AFB, Nevada Assigned to 25th Air Division Reassigned to 28th Air Division, 1 July 1960 Reassigned to Fourth Air Force, 1 April 1966 Discontinued 25 June 1966

San Francisco Air Defense Sector

Activated on 15 February 1959 at Beale AFB, California Assigned to 28th Air Division Discontinued 1 August 1963

Sault Sainte Marie Air Defense Sector

Activated on 8 November 1958 at K. I. Sawyer AFB, Michigan Assigned to 37th Air Division Reassigned to 30th Air Division, 1 April 1959 Discontinued 15 December 1963

Seattle Air Defense Sector

Activated on 8 January 1958 at McChord AFB, Washington Assigned to 25th Air Division Discontinued 1 April 1966

Sioux City Air Defense Sector

Activated on 1 October 1959 at Sioux City AFS, Iowa Assigned to 20th Air Division Reassigned to 33d Air Division, 1 January 1960 Reassigned to 29th Air Division, 1 July 1961 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Spokane Air Defense Sector

Activated on 8 September 1958 at Larson AFB, Washington Assigned to 25th Air Division Discontinued 1 September 1963

Syracuse Air Defense Sector

4624th Air Defense Wing
4624th Air Defense Wing
(SAGE), redesignated 8 January 1957 Activated at Syracuse AFS, New York Assigned to 32d Air Division Reassigned to 25th Air Division, 15 August 1958 Discontinued 4 September 1963

Washington Air Defense Sector

4625th Air Defense Wing
4625th Air Defense Wing
(SAGE) redesignated 8 January 1957 Activated at Fort Lee AFS, Virginia Assigned to 85th Air Division Reassigned to 26th Air Division, 1 September 1958 Discontinued 1 April 1966

Other[edit]

Air Force Element, NORAD/ADCOM (AFENA)

Activated tbd Redesignated a Direct Reporting Unit of USAF as Aerospace Defense Center, 1 December 1979[22]

Air Defense Weapons Center

Organized at Tyndall AFB, Florida, 31 October 1967 Assigned to Air DefenseCommand Transferred to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979

Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
Combat Operations Center (COC)[dubious – discuss]

Designated and activated as NORAD
NORAD
Combat Operations Center, 21 April 1976 Assigned to Cheyenne Mountain Complex City, Colorado Assigned to Aerospace Defense Command, 21 April 1976[citation needed] Redesignated ADCOM CONIC, 30 June 1976 Transferred to Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979[dubious – discuss]

United States
United States
Air Force portal

References[edit]

^ a b c Arnold, Henry H.—Foreword (June 1944) [May 1944]. AAF: The Official Guide to the Army Air Forces ( Special
Special
Edition for AAF Organizations). New York: Pocket Books. pp. 13–15.  ^ a b c d e History of Strategic and Ballistic Missile Defense, 1945-1955: Volume I (PDF). Stations were undermanned, personnel lacked training, and repair and maintenance were difficult. This stop-gap system later would be replaced by a 75-station, permanent net authorized by Congress and approved by the President in 1949 … To be closer to ConAC, ARAACOM
ARAACOM
moved to Mitchel AFB, New York on 1 November 1950.  ^ quotation from Grant p. 1, which cites "ltr, Hq AAF to CG CAF, subj: Directive, 14 Dec 44, in Hist CAF, 15 Dec 44-21 Mar 46, doc 47" ^ a b Grant, Dr C. L. The Development of Continental Air Defense to 1 September 1954 (Report). Research Studies Institute (USAF Historical Division). Continental Air Forces, activated 12 December 1944, had been assigned the mission of continental air defense upon activation … 26 July - United States
United States
Air Force created as co-equal of the Army and Navy.  ^ AAF Regulation 20-1, dated 15 September 1945 (cited by Grant) ^ quotation from Grant, which cites: "Ltr, Hq CAF to CG AAF, subj: Defensive Communications and Electronics in the Postwar Period, 21 Jul 45, in Case Hist AC&W System, doc 4." ^ quotation from Grant Ch. V--citation 31 cites "1st Ind (ltr, Hq CAF to CG AAF, subj: Defensive Communications and Electronics in the Postwar Period, 21 Jul 45), Hq AAF to CG CAF, 30 Aug 45, in Case Hist AC&W System, doc 4." ^ quotation from Grant Ch. V-citation 32 cites a letter to "Guided Missile Br [in the] AC/AS-4 R&E Div" and a Hq CAF letter: "R&R AC/AS-3, Guided Missiles Div to AC/AS-4 R&E Div, attn: Guided Missiles Br, subj: Military Characteristics of an Air Defense System, 23 Jan 46, in DRB War Plans Miscellaneous National Defense 1946-47, v2; ltr, Hq CAF to CG AAF, subj: Radar Defense Report for Continental United States, 28 Jan 46 in Case Hist AC&W System, doc 9." NOTE: Grant's text & citation indicate the Guided Missile Branch was in the HQ AAF Plans organization ( Air Materiel Command
Air Materiel Command
had not yet been activated from its predecessors.) ^ Grant Ch. V citation 33 ^ a b Leonard, Barry (15 July 2008) [c. 1974[specify]]. History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense (Army.mil PDF – also available at Google Books). Vol II, 1955-1972. Fort McNair: Center for Military History. ISBN 978-1-4379-2131-1. Retrieved 2012-09-01. In November 1945, General Dwight D. Eisenhower became Army Chief of Staff… One of General Eisenhower’s first actions was to appoint a board of officers, headed by Lieutenant General W. H. Simpson, to prepare a definitive plan for the reorganization of the Army and the Air Force that could be effected without enabling legislation and would provide for the separation of the Air Force from the Army. … In July of 1961, the National Space Surveillance and Control Center (NSSCC) was discontinued as the new SPADATS Center became operational at Ent AFB, Colorado. Officially, this marked the beginning of aerospace operations by CINCNORAD.  ^ Grant p. 76 cites "ADS HS-9, Organization and Responsibility for Air Defense, March 1946-September 1955" ^ subj: Development of Radar Equipment for Detecting and Countering Missiles of the German A-4 type, USAFHRC microfilm: publisher tbd, Dec 27, 1946  (cited by Schaffel, p. 314) ^ a b c Winkler, David F; Webster, Julie L (June 1997). Searching the Skies: The Legacy of the United States
United States
Cold War Defense Radar Program (Report). Champaign, IL: U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories. LCCN 97020912. Retrieved 2013-04-23. "BUIC II radar sites would be capable of incorporating data feeds from other radar sectors directly onto their radar screens.   ^ "Chapter II: American Strategy for Air and Ballistic Missile Defense". History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense, 1945–1955: Volume I. pp. 37–68.  ^ "Montauk AFS History". Radomes.org. Retrieved 2014-06-28.  ^ author tbd (9 November 1983). Historical Summary: Radar Bomb Scoring, 1945–1983 (MobileRadar.org transcription) (Report). Office of History, 1st Combat Evaluation Group. Retrieved 2013-08-31. On 24 July 1945, the 206th was redesignated the 63rd AAFBU (RBS) and three weeks later was moved to Mitchell Field, New York, and placed under the command of the Continental Air Force.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Johnson, Mildred W (31 December 1980) [February 1973 original by Cornett, Lloyd H. Jr]. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980 (PDF). Peterson Air Force Base: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. Retrieved 2012-03-26.  ^ a b c d Schaffel, Kenneth (1991). Emerging Shield: The Air Force and the Evolution of Continental Air Defense 1945-1960. General Histories (Report). Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-60-9. Archived from the original (45MB pdf) on 13 November 2005. Retrieved 2011-09-26. When ADC had moved to Ent Air Force Base
Ent Air Force Base
in January 1951, COC facilities were located in an office building and comprised of a latrine with the plumbing removed and part of a hallway.  ^ a b Wainstein, L. (June 1975). The Evolution of U.S. Strategic Command and Control and Warning: Part One (1945-1953) (Report). Institute for Defense Analyses. pp. 1–138. In September 1956…the JCS transferred responsibility for the air defense systems in Alaska and the Canadian Northeast from the unified commands in those areas to CONAD.  ^ Lockheed EC-121
EC-121
Warning Star ^ A Brief History of Keesler AFB and the 81st Training Wing
81st Training Wing
(PDF) (Report). A-090203-089. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-08. HQ USAF decided effective 20 October to assign ATC responsibility for supporting Air Defense Command (ADC). All three of ATC's interceptor training bases had air defense commitments. Moody maintained two combat-ready aircraft and crews on five-minute active air alert as ADC augmentation forces. Tyndall had a requirement to deploy 16 combat-ready F-86D
F-86D
aircraft and to maintain 16 others in a 4-hour readiness state in the event of an emergency. Peirin maintained an ADC defense squadron manned with ATC aircraft and instructor pilots as part of the active air alert force.  ^ a b c d "Chapter I: Mission, Command, Organization, and Resources". Analysis of the Costs of the Administrations Strategic Defense Initiative 1985-1989 (archive.org transcription of Staff Working Paper) (Report). Congressional Budget Office. May 1984. OCLC 13763981. Retrieved 2014-06-24.  ^ Ulsamer, Edgar (August 1982). "Space Command: Setting the Course for the Future". Air Force Magazine. Retrieved 2012-07-31. The new Space Command will be formed on September 1, 1982. [and] will be built around the existing Aerospace Defense Center staff.  ^ a b Smith, John Q.; Byrd, David A (c. 1991). Forty Years of Research and Development at Griffis Air Force Base: June 1951 – June 1991 (Report). Borky, Col. John M (Foreword). Rome Laboratory. Retrieved 2014-03-10.  ^ Baugher - Northrop P-61 Black Widow ^ Baugher - North American P/F-82 Twin Mustang ^ Curtiss XP-87/XF-87 Blackhawk Baugher - Curtiss XP-87/XF-87 Blackhawk ^ Baugher - Northrop F-89 Scorpion ^ a b Baugher - North American F-86D
F-86D
Sabre ^ USAF Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
publication, The Interceptor, January 1979 (Volume 21, Number 1). ^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II
World War II
(PDF) (reprint ed.). Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6.  ^ a b c d e f g Mikesh, Robert C. Martin B-57 Canberra: The Complete Record.Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1995. ISBN 0-88740-661-0. ^ Gibson, James (2000), Nuclear Weapons of the United States: An Illustrated History, Schiffer Publishing, Ltd ISBN 978-0-7643-0063-9. ^ FM 44-1: U. S. Army Air Defense Employment (PDF). available at Army History and Heritage Center, Carlisle PA: Headquarters, Department of the Army. 11 October 1965. Archived from the original (field manual) on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 2011-09-06.  ^ a b Continental Air Defense Command Historical Summary: July 1956 – June 1957 (PDF) (Report). On 1 July 1957, the civilian contractors said the [DEW] line was in an "operational state," which they defined as meaning: "The Line would function as an operational system from 1 July exactly as it would when it ffiec~an Air Force responsibility. During the 1 July-31 July period, it would remain the responsibility of WEC [but] operational limitations of the sectors were numerous: landline tie-ins to CONAD's combat operations center were not installed; the rearward UHF and VHF scatter communications systems still required considerable testing … communications circuits to the AMIS facilities had not been connected to their AR'm centers, nor were the AMIS facilities in the AR'm centers ready; the supply depot being constructed at Frobisher had not been completed … In June 1957, it was reported that all military personnel were in-place. On 12 June, some 675 people were on the line with 705·expected to be in-place by 1 July 1957. '!he personnel were receiving OJT with the assistance or WEC. …the efficiency or the "radicians" was expected to be poor until they had gained surficient experience and training. … CONAD was also opposed to the identification procedures outlined in the USAF-RCAF Operations Plan on 1 June 1956. … DEWPO (Distant Early Warning Project Office) … ADC also succeeded NEAC in the responsibilities it held tor supporting and running the DEW line stations in eastern Canada and Greenland.5  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 2014-07-07.  ^ CONAD
CONAD
regulation 55-8 on 1 March 1957 (cited by CONAD
CONAD
Historical Summary July 1956-June 1957) ^ a b Preface by Buss, L. H. (Director) (1 November 1959). North American Air Defense Command and Continental Air Defense Command Historical Summary: January–June 1959 (Report). Directorate of Command History: Office of Information Services. "Project MADRE (Magnetic Drum Radar Equipment). " ^ a b Preface by Buss, L. H. (Director) (1 October 1958). North American Air Defense Command Historical Summary: January–June 1958 (Report). Directorate of Command History: Office of Information Services. NORAD
NORAD
looked at the Zl portion of the BMEWS
BMEWS
not only as an integral portion of the [Wizard missile] system, but as the heart of the entire ballistic missile defense system.  ^ NORAD
NORAD
BMEWS
BMEWS
and AICBM System Display (Report). June 30, 1958. (cited by 1958 NORAD/ CONAD
CONAD
Historical Summary, Jan-Jun) ^ [full citation needed] http://enu.kz/repository/2010/AIAA-2010-8812.pdf ^ Del Papa, Dr. E. Michael; Warner, Mary P (October 1987). A Historical Chronology of the Electronic Systems Division 1947-1986 (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 2012-07-19.  ^ NORAD
NORAD
Historical Summary, January–July 1963. ^ Model Radar Cross Section Data (PDF) (Report) (revised ed.). BLDG 116-20, RCA, Moorestown NJ: Detachment 3, 9th Aerospace Defense Division. 31 May 1963 [10 January 1963]. Retrieved 2014-07-04.  ^ a b c NORAD
NORAD
Historical Summary, July–December 1965. ^ Adams, Benson D. (1971). Ballistic Missile Defense. New York: American Elsevier Publishing. pp. 29, 33.  (cited by Leonard p. 113) ^ a b NORAD
NORAD
Historical Summary, July–December 1964. ^ NORAD
NORAD
Historical Summary, January–June 1966. ^ a b NORAD
NORAD
Historical Summary, January–June 1965.

v t e

Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
(ADC)

Bases

CONUS

Amarillo Beale Charleston Davis-Monthan Dobbins Dover Dow Duluth Eglin Edwards Ellington Ellsworth England Ent Ethan Allen Fairfax Fallon Fort Heath Fort Lee Geiger George Glasgow Grand Forks Grenier Griffiss Gunter Hamilton Hancock Homestead Hurlburt Hunter Imeson Key West Kincheloe Kingsley Kirtland Lackland Laredo Larson Luke MacDill March Malmstrom McCoy McChord McClellan McGhee Tyson McGuire Minneapolis-St. Paul Minot Mitchel New Castle Niagara Falls Norton O'Hare Otis Oxnard Paine Perrin Peterson Pittsburgh Portland Presque Isle R.I. Bong Richards-Gebaur Robins K.I. Sawyer Selfridge Seymour Johnson Sioux City Stead Stewart Suffolk County Tinker Travis Truax Tyndall Vandenburg Vincent Walker Webb Westover Wright-Patterson Wurtsmith Youngstown

Overseas

Ernest Harmon Frobisher Bay Goose Bay Keflavik McAndrew Pepperrell Thule

Stations

CONUS

Adair Aiken Almaden Alpena Antigo Arlington Heights Baker Bedford Bellefontaine Belleville Benton Blaine Brookfield Brunswick Bucks Harbor Burns Calumet Cambria Cape Charles Cape Cod Carmi Caswell Chandler Charleston Cheyenne Mountain Claysburg Clear Colville Condon Continental Divide Cottonwood Cross City Crystal Springs Curlew Custer Cut Bank Dallas Center Dauphin Island Dickinson Duncanville Eldorado Empire Finland Finley Flintstone Fordland Fort Fisher Fort Lee Fortuna Gettysburg Grand Marais Grand Rapids Guthrie Hanna City Havre Highlands Houma Hutchinson Joelton Keno Killeen Kingman Kirksville Klamath Lake Charles Lake City Las Cruces Las Vegas Lewistown Lockport Lufkin Lyndonville Madera Makah Mica Peak Miles City Mill Valley Minot Montauk Moriarty Mount Hebo Mount Laguna Mount Lemmon Naselle North Bend North Charleston North Truro Oklahoma City Olathe Omaha Opheim Osceola Othello Owingsville Ozona Palermo Point Arena Port Austin Port Isabel Pyote Red Bluff Rochester Rockport Rockville (Indiana) Roslyn Rye Saint Albans San Clemente Island Santa Rosa Island Saratoga Springs Sault Ste Marie Shemya Snelling Snow Mountain Sweetwater Texarkana Tierra Amarilla Thomasville Tonopah Topsham Two Creeks Wadena Walnut Ridge Watertown Waverly West Mesa Willow Run Winnemucca Winslow Winston-Salem Woomera Yaak Zapata

Overseas

Armstrong Baldy Hughes Beausejour Cape Makkovik Cartwright Cut Throat Island Elliston Ridge Fox Harbour Hofn Hopedale Kamloops La Scie Langanes Latrar Melville Puntzi Mountain Ramore Red Cliff Rockville Saglek St. Anthony Saskatoon Mountain Sioux Lookout Spotted Island Stephenville

Air Defense units

Forces

Central Air Defense Eastern Air Defense Iceland Western Air Defense First Fourth Tenth Fourteenth

Air Divisions

8th 9th 20th 21st 23d 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32d 33d 34th 35th 36th 37th 58th 64th 73d 85th

Sectors

Albuquerque Bangor Boston Chicago Detroit Duluth Goose Grand Forks Great Falls Kansas City Los Angeles Minot Montgomery New York Oklahoma City Phoenix Portland Reno Sault Sainte Marie San Francisco Seattle Sioux City Spokane Stewart Syracuse Washington

Wings

Fighter 1st 4th 23d 32d 33d 50th 52d 56th 78th 81st 325th 328th 507th

Detection and Control 71st 73d 551st 552d

Air Defense 46th 4620th 4621st 4622d 4624th 4625th 4627th 4628th 4683d 4700th 4702d 4703d 4704th 4705th 4706th 4707th 4708th 4709th 4710th 4711th 4750th 4751st 4752d 4756th 4780th

Groups

Fighter 1st 4th 14th 15th 23d 32d 33d 50th 52d 53d 54th 56th 57th 78th 79th 81st 82d 84th 325th 326th 327th 328th 329th 337th 343d 355th 408th 412th 414th 473d 475th 476th 478th 507th

Air Defense 10th 500th 501st 502d 503d 514th 515th 516th 517th 518th 519th 520th 521st 525th 527th 528th 529th 530th 533d 534th 564th 566th 567th 568th 575th 637th 665th 678th 692d 701st 751st 762d 765th 778th 780th 827th 858th 4606th 4620th 4676th 4700th 4721st 4722d 4727th 4728th 4729th 4730th 4731st 4732d 4733d 4734th 4735th 4750th 4756th

Aircraft Control & Warning 503d 505th 540th 541st 542d 543d 544th 545th 546th 563d 564th 565th 566th

Squadrons

Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
Fighter Squadrons Aircraft Control and Warning Squadrons

Major weapon systems

Electronic

TB-29 EB-57 EC-121

Fighters

Propellor: F-47 F-51 P-61 F-82

Subsonic Jet: P-80 F-84 F-86 F-89 F-94

Supersonic Jet: F-101 F-102 F-104 F-106

Missiles

AIM-4 AIM-26 AIR-2 CIM-10

Ships

Guardian Interceptor Interdictor Interpreter Investigator Locator Lookout Outpost Pickett Protector Scanner Searcher Skywatcher Tracer Watchman Vigil

Texas Towers

Texas Tower
Texas Tower
2 Texas Tower
Texas Tower
3 Texas Tower
Texas Tower
4

Miscellaneous

Air Defense Command Emblem Gallery (on Wikimedia Commons) General Surveillance Ra

.