1 History and usage 2 Gallery 3 Notes and references
History and usage
At the outbreak of
World War I
Collection of Adrian helmets from various regiments and nations
Consequently, the French staff ordered development of a metal helmet that could protect soldiers from the shrapnel of exploding artillery shells. Since soldiers in trenches were also vulnerable to shrapnel exploding above their heads, a deflector crest was added along the helmet's axis. Branch insignia in the form of a grenade for line infantry and cavalry, a bugle horn for chasseurs, crossed cannon for artillery, an anchor for colonial troops and a crescent for North African units was attached to the front. Contrary to common misconception, the M15 helmet was not designed to protect the wearer from direct impact by rifle or machine gun bullets. The resulting headgear was credited to Intendant-General August-Louis Adrian.
Greek soldiers wear Adrian helmets at Afyonkarahisar, 1922, Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)
The helmet adopted by the army was made of mild steel and weighed
only 0.765 kg (1 lb 11.0 oz)), which made it lighter
and less protective than the contemporary British
However, because the new steel helmets offered little protection
against actual bullets, they were reportedly often among the first
pieces of equipment to be abandoned by soldiers on the battlefield.
It was also discovered that the badge placed on the front of helmets
impaired the strength of the helmet because of the two slots required.
This perceived weakness made several armies remove their national
insignia altogether. Early helmets were painted "horizon-blue" (light
blue-grey) for French troops and khaki for colonial forces. Those made
after 1935 are usually painted khaki, reflecting the French army
movement to a more camouflaged uniform in the 1930s.
In 1926 the
A smaller version of the
French sentry's helmet designed to protect the face, invented by Dr. Polack, medical officer; the Verdun Memorial, Fleury-devant-Douaumont, France
Wz.15 (Polish version of the Adrian helmet) as part of a soldier's
Statue of Albert I of
A 1926 model of the Adrian helmet
Notes and references
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adrian helmets.
^ Military Trader ^ Military headgears Archived May 27, 2012, at Archive.is ^ Bertin, Pierre. Le Fantassin de France. p. 205. ISBN 2-905393-11-4. ^ Andre Jouineau, page 8 "Officers and Soldiers of the French Army 1918", ISBN 978-2-35250-105-3 ^ Militaria: The French Adrian Helmet ^ Later, French and license-built Italian versions were made in even lighter-weight aluminium, probably for parade use. ^ Notably the American Expeditionary Force's 1st and 3rd Divisions ^ a b Adrian au Spectra (2005). "Heaumes Page" (in French). Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-01. ^ a b Bolesław Rosiński (2005). "Hełm wz.15". bolas.prv.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2006-11-02. ^ Page 42 Militaria Magazine April 2014, ^ Rankin, Nicholas Churchill's Wizards: The British Genius for Deception 1914-1945, page 83.
Jacek Kijak; Bartłomiej Błaszkowski (2004). Hełmy Wojska Polskiego 1917-2000 (in Polish). Warsaw: Bellona. p. 128. ISBN 83-11-09636-8.
v t e
Individual historical helmets
Agighiol Agris Benty Grange Canterbury Ciumeşti Coppergate Coțofenești Coventry Sallet Crosby Garrett Emesa Gjermundbu Guisborough Hallaton Iron Gates Meyrick Newstead Nijmegen Peretu Pioneer Ribchester Shorwell Staffordshire Sutton Hoo Waterloo Witcham Gravel
Attic Boar's tusk Boeotian Chalcidian Coolus Corinthian Galea Illyrian Imperial Kegelhelm Konos Late Roman ridge Montefortino Negau Phrygian Shmarjet
Medieval and Early Modern
Armet Aventail Barbute Bascinet Burgonet Cervelliere Close Enclosed Falling buffe Frog-mouth Great Hounskull Kabuto Kettle Kulah khud Lamellenhelm Lobster-tailed pot Mempo Morion Nasal Pickelhaube Sallet Secrete Spangenhelm Turban
Adrian Brodie Bulgarian M36 Danish M1923 German Stahlhelm Greek M1934/39 HSAT Italian M33 M42 Duperite M1 M1C Mk III Portuguese M1940 Polish wz. 31 RAC Soviet of WWII SSK 90 Swiss L'Eplattenier
CABAL II CCB CG634 GK80 Head Gear System JK 96 Mº 44 E.T.A. M59/85 M63 M76 Para Mk IV Mk 6 Mk 7 Modèle 1951 Modèle 1978 MPC-1 OR-201 Paratrooper SSh-60 SSh-68 Type 66
Advanced Combat Enhanced Combat (Aust) Enhanced Combat (US) GOLFO Iraqi M80 M59/85 Iraqi M90 Lightweight Modular Integrated Communications M87 Sfera SPECTRA PASGT
Cricket Diving Equestrian Gridiron football
Hockey Lacrosse Motorcycle Racing Ski
Custodian Firefighter's Hard hat Riot protection Welding
Heraldic use Horned Mahiole Tarnhelm Pith