Abandonment (legal)
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In law, abandonment is the relinquishment, giving up or renunciation of an
interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money availa ...
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civil proceedings Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United States, United States, the term refers to non-cr ...
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appeal In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is describ ...
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privilege Privilege may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Privilege'' (film), a 1967 film directed by Peter Watkins * ''Privilege'' (Ivor Cutler album), 1983 * ''Privilege'' (Television Personalities album), 1990 * ''Privilege (Abridged) ''Privile ...
, possession, or
right Rights are legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is desc ...
, especially with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting it. Such intentional action may take the form of a discontinuance or a
waiver A waiver is the voluntary wikt:relinquishment, relinquishment or Surrender (law), surrender of some known Rights, right or privilege. Regulatory agencies of state departments or the federal government may issue waivers to exempt companies from ...
. This broad meaning has a number of applications in different branches of law. In
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
jurisdictions, both ''common law abandonment'' and ''statutory abandonment'' of
property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, r ...
may be recognized. Common law abandonment is "the relinquishment of a right n propertyby the owner thereof without any regard to future possession by himself or any other person, and with the intention to or desert the right...." or "the voluntary relinquishment of a thing by its owner with the intention of terminating his ownership, and without he intention ofvesting ownership in any other person; the giving up of a thing absolutely, without reference to any particular person or purpose...." By contrast, an example of statutory abandonment (albeit in a common law jurisdiction) is the abandonment by a Bankruptcy in the United States, bankruptcy trustee under . In Scots law, failure to assert a legal right in a way that implies abandonment of that property is called "taciturnity", while the term "abandonment" in Scots law refers specifically to a procedure by which a party gives up Scottish civil proceedings, civil proceedings or an appeal.


Giving up an interest


Abandonment of property

Intentional abandonment is also referred to as ''dereliction'', and something voluntarily abandoned by its owner with the intention of not retaking it is a ''derelict''. Someone that holds the property or to whom property rights have been relinquished is an abandonee. An item that has been abandoned is termed an abandum. A res nullius abandoned by its owner, leaving it occupancy, vacant, belongs to no one. ;Examples * Ghost town * Abandoned amusement park * Abandoned mine * Abandoned railway station * Abandoned ship * Abandoned village


Abandonment of easement

The relinquishment by a nonuser, for a specified period, of some accommodation or right in another's land, such as right of way (public throughway), right-of-way or free access of light and air.


Abandonment of domicile

Occurs when one ceases to reside permanently in a former Domicile (law), domicile, coupled with the intention of choosing a new domicile. The presumptions which will guide the court in deciding whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be inferred from the facts of each case. In the United States, a tenant is generally understood to have abandoned a property if he or she has fallen behind in renting, rent and shown a lack of interest in continuing to live there. The landlord must then send notice of the intent to seize the property and wait a certain number of days to take action on it. How long the landlord has to wait depends on the value of the property. The landlord can keep the money up to the costs incurred as a result of the abandonment; the rest must be set aside for the former tenant, should she or he eventually return.


Abandonment of insurance

Abandonment occurs when the insurance, insured surrenders to the insurer all rights to damaged or lost property and claims payment for a total loss. Sometimes, this is permitted only when damage constitutes Marine insurance#Actual total loss and constructive total loss, constructive total loss. In marine insurance parlance, abandonment involves the surrender of a ship or goods to the insurer, who becomes the abandonee. Abandonment can also mean refusal to accept from a delivering carrier a shipment so damaged in transit as to be worthless.


Abandonment of copyright

Abandonment is recognized as the intentional release of material by a copyright holder into the public domain. However, statutory abandonment is legally a tricky issue which has little relevant case precedent to establish how an artist can abandon their copyright during their lifetime. Owners who wish for the public to make free use of their work often seek to do so by using a Creative Commons license and retaining copyright rather than relinquishing ownership entirely. Copyright protection attaches to a work as soon as it is fixed in a tangible medium, whether the copyright holder desires this protection or not. Before the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 an artist could abandon or forfeit their copyright by neglecting to comply with the relevant copyright formalities, formalities. Difficulty arises when one tries to apply the doctrine of abandonment to present-day concerns regarding the abandonment or gifting of a digitized work to the public domain. The abandonment of a work is difficult to prove in court, though Learned Hand proposed a test which parallels other forms of abandonment law wherein an author or copyright holder could abandon their work if they intend to abandon it and commit an overt act to make public that intention.


Abandonment of trademark

Depending on the territory, the abandonment of a trade mark is understood to happen when the mark is not used for three or more years, or when it is deliberately discontinued; trademark law protects only trademarks being actively used and defended.


Abandonment of patent

Abandonment is relinquishment by an inventor of the right to secure a patent, in such a way as to constitute a dedication of the invention to public use. Under United States patent law, abandonment of a patent application occurs when either the required reply is not filed within the required time period or an express abandonment is filed.MPEP § 711 Abandonment of Patent Application
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Abandonment of public transportation systems

Abandonment is permission sought by or granted to a carrier by a state or federal agency to cease operation of all or part of a public transportation system, route or service. This has a legal signification in England recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it. Likewise, in the United States, the Surface Transportation Board grants permission to abandon railway lines.


Failure to fulfill a responsibility


Abandonment rules in the military

The abandonment of a military unit by a soldier, a Marine, or an airman; or of a ship or a naval base by a sailor; can be called desertion; and being away from one's assigned location for a significant length of time can be called ''"Desertion#AWOL: Away WithOut Leave, Away Without Leave"'', ''"Desertion#AWOL: Away WithOut Leave, Absent Without Leave"'', or ''"Dereliction of duty"''. However, the term "Dereliction of Duty" also includes the offenses of being present but not carrying out one's assigned duties and responsibilities with the expected amount of effort, alertness, carefulness, ingenuity, and sense of duty.


Abandonment of contract

Abandonment of contract means failure to fulfil a contractual obligation, which will affect the abandoner's entitlement to the contractually agreed Consideration (law), consideration, for example in the case of Sumpter v Hedges, ''Sumpter v Hedges'' (1898).


Abandonment of family

Desertion refers to intentional and substantial abandonment, permanently or for a period of time stated by law, without legal excuse and without consent, of one's duties arising out of a status such as that of husband and wife or parent and child. It can involve desertion of a spouse with the intention of creating a permanent separation. Desertion of one spouse by the other without just cause is called malicious abandonment. Child abandonment is often recognized as a crime, in which case the child is usually not physically harmed directly as part of the abandonment. Child abandonment is also called ''exposure'' or ''exposition'', especially when an infant is left in the open.


Abandonment of a patient

In medicine, abandonment occurs when a health care professional (usually a physician, nurse, dentist, or paramedic) has already begun emergency treatment of a patient, and then suddenly walks away while the patient is still in need, without securing the services of an adequate substitute or giving the patient adequate opportunity to find one. It is a crime in many countries and can result in the loss of one's license to practice. Also, because of the public policy (law), public policy in favor of keeping people alive, the professional cannot defend himself or herself by pointing to the patient's inability to pay for services; this opens the medical professional to the possibility of exposure to malpractice liability beyond one's insurance coverage.


See also

* Attempt#Abandonment, abandonment of criminal intent * Urban exploration, abandoned buildings, structures, and vehicles (most commonly seafaring ones) are often favored targets for urban explorers * Public domain#Disclaimer of interest


References


Further reading

* * * * * {{Wikisource1911Enc, Abandonment Legal terminology