Neighborhood System
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the neighbourhood system, complete system of neighbourhoods, or neighbourhood filter \mathcal(x) for a point x in a topological space is the collection of all neighbourhoods of x. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point or set An of a point (or subset) x in a topological space X is any open subset U of X that contains x. A is any subset N \subseteq X that contains open neighbourhood of x; explicitly, N is a neighbourhood of x in X if and only if there exists some open subset U with x \in U \subseteq N. Equivalently, a neighborhood of x is any set that contains x in its topological interior. Importantly, a "neighbourhood" does have to be an open set; those neighbourhoods that also happen to be open sets are known as "open neighbourhoods." Similarly, a neighbourhood that is also a closed (respectively, compact, connected, etc.) set is called a (respectively, , , etc.). There are many other types of neighbourhoods that are used ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object that are preserved under Continuous function, continuous Deformation theory, deformations, such as Stretch factor, stretching, Twist (mathematics), twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set (mathematics), set endowed with a structure, called a ''Topology (structure), topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity (mathematics), continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopy, homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Singleton Set
In mathematics, a singleton, also known as a unit set or onepoint set, is a set with exactly one element. For example, the set \ is a singleton whose single element is 0. Properties Within the framework of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, the axiom of regularity guarantees that no set is an element of itself. This implies that a singleton is necessarily distinct from the element it contains, thus 1 and are not the same thing, and the empty set is distinct from the set containing only the empty set. A set such as \ is a singleton as it contains a single element (which itself is a set, however, not a singleton). A set is a singleton if and only if its cardinality is . In von Neumann's settheoretic construction of the natural numbers, the number 1 is ''defined'' as the singleton \. In axiomatic set theory, the existence of singletons is a consequence of the axiom of pairing: for any set ''A'', the axiom applied to ''A'' and ''A'' asserts the existence of \, which is the same ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indiscrete Topology
In topology, a topological space with the trivial topology is one where the only open sets are the empty set and the entire space. Such spaces are commonly called indiscrete, antidiscrete, concrete or codiscrete. Intuitively, this has the consequence that all points of the space are "lumped together" and cannot be distinguished by topological means. Every indiscrete space is a pseudometric space in which the distance between any two points is zero. Details The trivial topology is the topology with the least possible number of open sets, namely the empty set and the entire space, since the definition of a topology requires these two sets to be open. Despite its simplicity, a space ''X'' with more than one element and the trivial topology lacks a key desirable property: it is not a T0 space. Other properties of an indiscrete space ''X''—many of which are quite unusual—include: * The only closed sets are the empty set and ''X''. * The only possible basis of ''X'' is . ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Firstcountable
In topology, a branch of mathematics, a firstcountable space is a topological space satisfying the "first axiom of countability". Specifically, a space X is said to be firstcountable if each point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base). That is, for each point x in X there exists a sequence N_1, N_2, \ldots of neighbourhoods of x such that for any neighbourhood N of x there exists an integer i with N_i contained in N. Since every neighborhood of any point contains an open neighborhood of that point, the neighbourhood basis can be chosen without loss of generality to consist of open neighborhoods. Examples and counterexamples The majority of 'everyday' spaces in mathematics are firstcountable. In particular, every metric space is firstcountable. To see this, note that the set of open balls centered at x with radius 1/n for integers form a countable local base at x. An example of a space which is not firstcountable is the cofinite topology on an uncountable set ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countable
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite comm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Ball
In mathematics, a ball is the solid figure bounded by a ''sphere''; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defined not only in threedimensional Euclidean space but also for lower and higher dimensions, and for metric spaces in general. A ''ball'' in dimensions is called a hyperball or ball and is bounded by a ''hypersphere'' or ()sphere. Thus, for example, a ball in the Euclidean plane is the same thing as a disk, the area bounded by a circle. In Euclidean 3space, a ball is taken to be the volume bounded by a 2dimensional sphere. In a onedimensional space, a ball is a line segment. In other contexts, such as in Euclidean geometry and informal use, ''sphere'' is sometimes used to mean ''ball''. In the field of topology the closed ndimensional ball is often denoted as B^n or D^n while the open ndimensional ball is \operatorname B^n or \oper ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric Space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a nonzero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real number ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Topology
In mathematics, and especially general topology, the Euclidean topology is the natural topology induced on ndimensional Euclidean space \R^n by the Euclidean distance, Euclidean metric. Definition The Euclidean norm on \R^n is the nonnegative function \, \cdot\, : \R^n \to \R defined by \left\, \left(p_1, \ldots, p_n\right)\right\, ~:=~ \sqrt. Like all Norm (mathematics), norms, it induces a canonical Metric (mathematics), metric defined by d(p, q) = \, p  q\, . The metric d : \R^n \times \R^n \to \R induced by the Euclidean norm is called the Euclidean metric or the Euclidean distance and the distance between points p = \left(p_1, \ldots, p_n\right) and q = \left(q_1, \ldots, q_n\right) is d(p, q) ~=~ \, p  q\, ~=~ \sqrt. In any metric space, the Ball (mathematics), open balls form a Base (topology), base for a topology on that space.Metric space, Metric space#Open and closed sets.2C topology and convergence The Euclidean topology on \R^n is the topology by these balls ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intersection (set Theory)
In set theory, the intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set containing all elements of A that also belong to B or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A. Notation and terminology Intersection is written using the symbol "\cap" between the terms; that is, in infix notation. For example: \\cap\=\ \\cap\=\varnothing \Z\cap\N=\N \\cap\N=\ The intersection of more than two sets (generalized intersection) can be written as: \bigcap_^n A_i which is similar to capitalsigma notation. For an explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Definition The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set of all objects that are members of both the sets A and B. In symbols: A \cap B = \. That is, x is an element of the intersection A \cap B if and only if x is both an element of A and an element of B. For example: * The intersection of the sets and is . * The number 9 is in t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Superset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by intersection and union, and the subset relation itself is the Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and every element of ''A'' is also an element of ''B'', then: :*''A'' is a subset of ''B'', denoted by A \subseteq B, or equivalently, :* ''B'' is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 