Linear Span
In mathematics, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set of vectors (from a vector space), denoted , pp. 2930, §§ 2.5, 2.8 is defined as the set of all linear combinations of the vectors in . It can be characterized either as the intersection of all linear subspaces that contain , or as the smallest subspace containing . The linear span of a set of vectors is therefore a vector space itself. Spans can be generalized to matroids and modules. To express that a vector space is a linear span of a subset , one commonly uses the following phrases—either: spans , is a spanning set of , is spanned/generated by , or is a generator or generator set of . Definition Given a vector space over a field , the span of a set of vectors (not necessarily infinite) is defined to be the intersection of all subspaces of that contain . is referred to as the subspace ''spanned by'' , or by the vectors in . Conversely, is called a ''spanning set'' of , and we ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Independence
In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if there is a nontrivial linear combination of the vectors that equals the zero vector. If no such linear combination exists, then the vectors are said to be . These concepts are central to the definition of dimension. A vector space can be of finite dimension or infinite dimension depending on the maximum number of linearly independent vectors. The definition of linear dependence and the ability to determine whether a subset of vectors in a vector space is linearly dependent are central to determining the dimension of a vector space. Definition A sequence of vectors \mathbf_1, \mathbf_2, \dots, \mathbf_k from a vector space is said to be ''linearly dependent'', if there exist scalars a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k, not all zero, such that :a_1\mathbf_1 + a_2\mathbf_2 + \cdots + a_k\mathbf_k = \mathbf, where \mathbf denotes the zero vector. This implies that at least one of the scalars is nonzero, say a_1\ne 0, an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Affine Hull
In mathematics, the affine hull or affine span of a set ''S'' in Euclidean space R''n'' is the smallest affine set containing ''S'', or equivalently, the intersection of all affine sets containing ''S''. Here, an ''affine set'' may be defined as the translation of a vector subspace. The affine hull aff(''S'') of ''S'' is the set of all affine combinations of elements of ''S'', that is, :\operatorname (S)=\left\. Examples *The affine hull of the empty set is the empty set. *The affine hull of a singleton (a set made of one single element) is the singleton itself. *The affine hull of a set of two different points is the line through them. *The affine hull of a set of three points not on one line is the plane going through them. *The affine hull of a set of four points not in a plane in R''3'' is the entire space R''3''. Properties For any subsets S, T \subseteq X * \operatorname(\operatorname S) = \operatorname S * \operatorname S is a closed set if X is finite dimensional. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riesz's Lemma
Riesz's lemma (after Frigyes Riesz) is a lemma in functional analysis. It specifies (often easy to check) conditions that guarantee that a subspace in a normed vector space is dense. The lemma may also be called the Riesz lemma or Riesz inequality. It can be seen as a substitute for orthogonality when one is not in an inner product space. The result Riesz's Lemma. Let ''X'' be a normed space, ''Y'' be a closed proper subspace of ''X'' and α be a real number with Then there exists an ''x'' in ''X'' with , ''x'', = 1 such that , ''x'' − ''y'', ≥ α for all ''y'' in ''Y''. ''Remark 1.'' For the finitedimensional case, equality can be achieved. In other words, there exists ''x'' of unit norm such that ''d''(''x'', ''Y'') = 1. When dimension of ''X'' is finite, the unit ball ''B'' ⊂ ''X'' is compact. Also, the distance function ''d''(· , ''Y'') is continuous. Therefore its image on the unit ball ''B'' must be a compac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Closure (mathematics)
In mathematics, a subset of a given set is closed under an operation of the larger set if performing that operation on members of the subset always produces a member of that subset. For example, the natural numbers are closed under addition, but not under subtraction: is not a natural number, although both 1 and 2 are. Similarly, a subset is said to be closed under a ''collection'' of operations if it is closed under each of the operations individually. The closure of a subset is the result of a closure operator applied to the subset. The ''closure'' of a subset under some operations is the smallest subset that is closed under these operations. It is often called the ''span'' (for example linear span) or the ''generated set''. Definitions Let be a set equipped with one or several methods for producing elements of from other elements of . Operations and (partial) multivariate function are examples of such methods. If is a topological space, the limit of a sequence of element ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality Of The Continuum
In set theory, the cardinality of the continuum is the cardinality or "size" of the set of real numbers \mathbb R, sometimes called the continuum. It is an infinite cardinal number and is denoted by \mathfrak c (lowercase fraktur "c") or , \mathbb R, . The real numbers \mathbb R are more numerous than the natural numbers \mathbb N. Moreover, \mathbb R has the same number of elements as the power set of \mathbb N. Symbolically, if the cardinality of \mathbb N is denoted as \aleph_0, the cardinality of the continuum is This was proven by Georg Cantor in his uncountability proof of 1874, part of his groundbreaking study of different infinities. The inequality was later stated more simply in his diagonal argument in 1891. Cantor defined cardinality in terms of bijective functions: two sets have the same cardinality if, and only if, there exists a bijective function between them. Between any two real numbers ''a'' \mathfrak c . Alternative explanation for 𝔠 = 2ℵ0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the number of elements of the set. For example, the set A = \ contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. Beginning in the late 19th century, this concept was generalized to infinite sets, which allows one to distinguish between different types of infinity, and to perform arithmetic on them. There are two approaches to cardinality: one which compares sets directly using bijections and injections, and another which uses cardinal numbers. The cardinality of a set is also called its size, when no confusion with other notions of size is possible. The cardinality of a set A is usually denoted , A, , with a vertical bar on each side; this is the same notation as absolute value, and the meaning depends on context. The cardinality of a set A may alternatively be denoted by n(A), , \operatorname(A), or \#A. History A crude sense of cardinality, an awareness that groups of things or events compare with other grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maximum Norm
In mathematical analysis, the uniform norm (or ) assigns to real or complexvalued bounded functions defined on a set the nonnegative number :\, f\, _\infty = \, f\, _ = \sup\left\. This norm is also called the , the , the , or, when the supremum is in fact the maximum, the . The name "uniform norm" derives from the fact that a sequence of functions converges to under the metric derived from the uniform norm if and only if converges to uniformly. If is a continuous function on a closed and bounded interval, or more generally a compact set, then it is bounded and the supremum in the above definition is attained by the Weierstrass extreme value theorem, so we can replace the supremum by the maximum. In this case, the norm is also called the . In particular, if is some vector such that x = \left(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n\right) in finite dimensional coordinate space, it takes the form: :\, x\, _\infty := \max \left(\left, x_1\ , \ldots , \left, x_n\\right). Metric and to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Squareintegrable Function
In mathematics, a squareintegrable function, also called a quadratically integrable function or L^2 function or squaresummable function, is a real or complexvalued measurable function for which the integral of the square of the absolute value is finite. Thus, squareintegrability on the real line (\infty,+\infty) is defined as follows. One may also speak of quadratic integrability over bounded intervals such as ,b/math> for a \leq b. An equivalent definition is to say that the square of the function itself (rather than of its absolute value) is Lebesgue integrable. For this to be true, the integrals of the positive and negative portions of the real part must both be finite, as well as those for the imaginary part. The vector space of square integrable functions (with respect to Lebesgue measure) forms the ''Lp'' space with p=2. Among the ''Lp'' spaces, the class of square integrable functions is unique in being compatible with an inner product, which allows notions lik ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert Space
In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow generalizing the methods of linear algebra and calculus from (finitedimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinitedimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that defines a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term ''Hilbert space'' for the abstract concept that under ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lp Space
In mathematics, the spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the Norm (mathematics)#pnorm, norm for finitedimensional vector spaces. They are sometimes called Lebesgue spaces, named after Henri Lebesgue , although according to the Nicolas Bourbaki, Bourbaki group they were first introduced by Frigyes Riesz . spaces form an important class of Banach spaces in functional analysis, and of topological vector spaces. Because of their key role in the mathematical analysis of measure and probability spaces, Lebesgue spaces are used also in the theoretical discussion of problems in physics, statistics, economics, finance, engineering, and other disciplines. Applications Statistics In statistics, measures of central tendency and statistical dispersion, such as the mean, median, and standard deviation, are defined in terms of metrics, and measures of central tendency can be characterized as Central tendency#Solutions to variational problems, solutions to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Functional Analysis
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limitrelated structure (e.g. Inner product space#Definition, inner product, Norm (mathematics)#Definition, norm, Topological space#Definition, topology, etc.) and the linear transformation, linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of function space, spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous function, continuous, unitary operator, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential equations, differential and integral equations. The usage of the word ''functional (mathematics), functional'' as a noun goes back to the calculus of variati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 